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ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS GUIDE (2014-2015)

M.S.O.E.-3
keZ dk lekt'kkL=k
(Sociology of Religion)
Disclaimer/Special Note: These are just the sample of the Answers/Solutions to some of the Questions given in the
Assignments. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Private Teacher/Tutors/Auhtors for the help and Guidance
of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the Questions of the Assignments. We do not claim 100% Accuracy
of these sample Answers as these are based on the knowledge and cabability of Private Teacher/Tutor. Sample answers
may be seen as the Guide/Help Book for the reference to prepare the answers of the Question given in the assignment. As
these solutions and answers are prepared by the private teacher/tutor so the chances of error or mistake cannot be denied.
Any Omission or Error is highly regretted though every care has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/
Solutions. Please consult your own Teacher/Tutor before you prepare a Particular Answer & for uptodate and exact
information, data and solution. Student should must read and refer the official study material provided by the university.

iz'u 1- keZ dh izdk;kZRed foospuk dk o.kZu dhft,A


mkj/eZ vius vkjafHkd Lo:i esa Lej.k ,oa ea=kksPpkj.k rd lhfer Fkk] foaQrq le; osQ lkFk bldh fofo/ iz.kkfy;ka fodflr
gks xbZA izfr dk ekuohdj.k@nSohdj.k djosQ bZ'oj dh iwtk rFkk vkMEcj dk ,slk vkd"kZ.k p<+k fd vkt vk/qfud oSKkfud ;qx
esa Hkh gekjs fy, /ked fo"k; furkar laosnu'khy gSA
/eZ dks iwjh rjg lekt ls lac djus osQ fy, dkykarj esa blesa i'kq&i{kh] isM+&ikS/s] unh&ioZr vkfn dks nsoRo :i iznku
djosQ] buls tqM+h vusd dgkfu;ksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA czk] fo".kq] egs'k] bU] o#.k] e#r vkfn osQ fy, vyx&vyx LFkku
,oa okgu dk izLrqrhdj.k gqvkA oqQy feykdj nsork dh izfr"Bk dh xbZ] ftldh i`"BHkwfe osQ fy, muls tqM+h nso&vlqj laxzke vkSj
vU;kU; jkspd dgkfu;ksa dk Jhx.ks'k fd;k x;k_ ;Fkkjkek;.k] egkHkkjr] jkepfjrekul vkfn /ked xzaFkksa esa bZ'oj }kjk nq"Vksa osQ
nyu dk] /eZ dk v/eZ ij fot; dk vkSj HkDrtuksa osQ mkj dk o.kZu feyrk gSA
pawfd fdlh Hkh ekSf[kd ijaijk dh ifjiqf"V mldks xzaFk dk :i nsus ij gh gks ldrk gSA vr% iqLrdksa ls bZ'oj dh efgek osQ
lkFk&lkFk Hkkjrh; lekt dh fof'k"Vrk dk c[kwch v;;u fd;k tk ldrk gSA ekuo izo`fk osQ vuq:i gh /eZ Hkh ih<+h&nj&ih<+h
gLrkafjr gksrk jgk vkSj gekjh lkaLfrd laifk cu x;kA
vkjaHk esa tks Hkh xzaFk miyC/ jgs gSa] ftuls gesa lekt osQ Lo:i dh tkudkjh feyrh gS] os vf/dka'k /ked iz;kstuksa ls gh
fy[ks x, gSaA vr% ;fn lekt osQ laca/ esa foLr`r tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gS rks og /eZ ls ghA n[khZe us dgk Hkh gS fd /eZ loZO;kid
gS] lekt dh vkRek gSA blus lkewfgd :i ls lekt esa lacrk vkSj lgHkkfxrk osQ lkFk ,drk LFkkfir dhA vr% /eZ dk {ks=k
ekuo lekt esa foLr`r vkSj O;kid gS tks laLfr osQ d.k&d.k esa O;kIr gSA
/eZ vius vkjafHkd Lo:i esa Lej.k ,oa ea=kksPpkj.k rd lhfer Fkk] foaQrq le; osQ lkFk bldh fofo/ iz.kkfy;ka fodflr gks
xbA izfr dk ekuohdj.k@nSohdj.k djosQ bZ'oj dh iwtk rFkk vkMEcj dk ,slk vkd"kZ.k p<+k fd vkt vk/qfud oSKkfud ;qx
esa Hkh gekjs fy, /ked fo"k; furkar laosnu'khy gSA
/eZ dks iwjh rjg lekt ls lac djus osQ fy, dkykarj esa blesa i'kq&i{kh] isM+&ikS/s] unh&ioZr vkfn dks nsoRo :i iznku
djosQ] buls tqM+h vusd dgkfu;ksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA czk] fo".kq] egs'k] bU] o#.k] e#r vkfn osQ fy, vyx&vyx LFkku
,oa okgu dk izLrqrhdj.k gqvkA oqQy feykdj nsork dh izfr"Bk dh xbZ] ftldh i`"BHkwfe osQ fy, muls tqM+h nso&vlqj laxzke vkSj
vU;kU; jkspd dgkfu;ksa dk Jhx.ks'k fd;k x;k_ ;Fkkjkek;.k] egkHkkjr] jkepfjrekul vkfn /ked xzaFkksa esa bZ'oj }kjk nq"Vksa osQ
nyu dk] /eZ dk v/eZ ij fot; dk vkSj HkDrtuksa osQ mkj dk o.kZu feyrk gSA
pawfd fdlh Hkh ekSf[kd ijaijk dh ifjiqf"V mldks xzaFk dk :i nsus ij gh gks ldrk gSA vr% iqLrdksa ls bZ'oj dh efgek osQ
lkFk&lkFk Hkkjrh; lekt dh fof'k"Vrk dk c[kwch v;;u fd;k tk ldrk gSA ekuo izo`fk osQ vuq:i gh /eZ Hkh ih<+h&nj&ih<+h

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gLrkafjr gksrk jgk vkSj gekjh lkaLfrd laifk cu x;kA


vkjaHk esa tks Hkh xzaFk miyC/ jgs gSa] ftuls gesa lekt osQ Lo:i dh tkudkjh feyrh gS] os vf/dka'k /ked iz;kstuksa ls gh
fy[ks x, gSaA vr% ;fn lekt osQ laca/ esa foLr`r tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gS rks og /eZ ls ghA nq[khZe us dgk Hkh gS fd /eZ loZO;kid
gS] lekt dh vkRek gSA blus lkewfgd :i ls lekt esa lacrk vkSj lgHkkfxrk osQ lkFk ,drk LFkkfir dhA vr% /eZ dk {ks=k
ekuo lekt esa foLr`r vkSj O;kid gS tks laLfr osQ d.k&d.k esa O;kIr gSA
/eZ dh izdk;kZRed O;k[;kjSMfDyiQ czkmu us VScw (fu"ks/) dk flkar fn;k gSA ;g /eZ osQ lkFk ifo=krk osQ lkFk izLrqr
fd;k x;k gS] tks vfuok;Z :i ls iz;qDr gksrk gSA bldk iz;ksx /ked :i ls [krjukd ;k fuf"k ekuh tkus okyh pht ls gSA okLro
esa /eZ esa ifjorZu fdlh cM+s /ked ewY; osQ laioZQ osQ dkj.k gksrk gS] vr% fuf"k ;k VScw dh izo`fk Hkh blh dk dkj.k gks ldrh
gSA tSlse`r 'kjhj /ked LFky ftruk gh ifo=k vkSj VScw gSA
VScw Hkh lkaxBfud iz.kkyh dks cy iznku djrk gSA ;g Hkh ,d lkewfgd vkjksi.k gS] tks /ked R;ksa dh Hkkafr gSA
mnkgj.kLo:i] VScw vFkok fu"ks/ fdlh O;fDr] ifjokj] fj'rsnkjksa vFkok leqnk; ij Hkh yxk;k tk ldrk gSA tSlsxHkZorh efgyk
osQ fy, oqQN fuf"k deZ gSa] ftuesa ml efgyk osQ vykok mlosQ ifr vkfn ukrsnkj fu"ks/ksa dk ikyu djrs gSaA vr% ;g fu"ks/ fj'rksa
dks tksM+rk gS] tks lekthdj.k dh izf;k gSA
czkmu dk /ked fo'ys"k.k nq[khZe osQ leku gh gSA /ked R;ksa ;k vuq"Bkuksa }kjk lkewfgd ,drk ,oa fo'ks"k lkeqnkf;d ,drk
dk vkHkkl gksrk gSA vuq"Bku osQ ok"kd vFkok ckj&ckj gksus ls muosQ vanj ,drk dh 'kfDr o vkilh fj'rksa dh 'kfDr tkxzr gks
tkrh gSA vr% tUe] ej.k] fookg] vaR;sf"V vkfn ij vuq"Bku lkekftd fLFkfr dks n'kkZrk gSA vr% nq[khZe vkSj czkmu nksuksa osQ vuqlkj
/eZ lekt dk izfrfcEc gSA eSfyuksOldh osQ vuqlkj /eZ osQoy lkewfgd f;k gh ugha gS] cfYd O;fDrxr Hkh gSA vFkkZr lkewfgd
gksrs gq, Hkh og fdlh O;fDr osQ fgr esa funsZf'kr gks ldrk gSA bUgksaus tknw vkSj /eZ dk varj djrs gq, /eZ dks y{; ,oa ms';
crk;k] tks fd ifo=k gksrk gS] tcfd tknw vifo=kA lkFk gh mUgksaus tknw dks vkfne foKku ekuus ls badkj fd;k gSA
vr% eSfyuksOldh us /eZ osQ izdk;kZRed fo'ys"k.k esa tknw vkSj /eZ dks rFkk ^lkewfgdrk* osQ vfrfjDr O;fDr vkSj lewg nksuksa
ij i;kZIr cy fn;k gSA ljy lekt osQ /eZ osQ izdk;ks dk fo'ys"k.k djrs le; fo}kuksa us jSMfDyiQ czkmu vkSj eSfyuksOldh osQ
fopkjksa ls lkexzh yh gSA buesa izeq[k gSafizpkMZ] ,e-,u- Jhfuokl vkfnA
iz'u 2- VksVeokn keZ osQ izkjafHkd lo:i osQ vkkkj ij tkp dhft,A
mkjnq[khZe us /eZ ij v;;u djrs le; lHkh lektksa osQ /eZ osQ ekSfyd Lo:i dh [kkst dhA budh [kkst ^nh
,yhesUVh iQkWElZ vkWiQ fjyhft;l ykbiQ* uked iqLrd esa foLrkj ls foosfpr gSA bekby nq[khZe us viuh [kkst osQ fy,
vkWLVsfy;k dh v:.Vk tutkfr dks pquk] ftlosQ ihNs mu tutkfr;ksa esa kked ekSfydrk dk lqjf{kr gksuk Fkk] ftls
nq[khZe vkt rd dk Kkr lcls ljy rFkk lcls izkphu /eZ dgrs gSaA bl v;;u osQ varxZr v:.Vk tkfr osQ xks=k]
VksVe vkfn dk lekos'k gSA
nq[khZe us orZeku esa mifLFkr /eZ dh vR;f/d laosnu'khyrk vkSj lekt ij blosQ vuq"kaxh izHkko osQ dkj.k /eZ osQ izkjafHkd
Lo:i dh [kkst 'kq: dj nh] ftlosQ }kjk orZeku /eZ dks le>k tk losQxkA
nq[khZe dh fo'ks"krk gS fd mUgksaus iwoZ ijaijk ls vk jgh v;;u ifr osQ foijhr izR;{k foKku osQ ifjizs{; esa /eZ dk ijh{k.k
fd;k] ftlosQ ihNs /eZ dk ms'; /eZ osQ vk/kjHkwr roksa rd igqapuk FkkA bl [kkst ls lHkh /eZ osQ tM+ksa rd igaqpk tk ldrk
gSA
/eZ dks lkewfgd ?kVuk osQ :i esa ns[krs gq, nq[khZe us /ked ?kVukvksa dks lkewfgd ekuk gS] O;fDrxr ughaA mudk ekuuk gS
fd /eZ osQ vHkko esa O;fDr vkSj euq"; yEcs le; rd vfLrRo esa ugha jg losaQxsA /eZ laca/h deZdkaM lkekftd vo/kj.kk dh
vfHkO;fDr gksrs gSaA nq[khZe us /eZ dks okLrfod rFkk lekt dh vfHkO;fDr ekuk gS rFkk ,slk dksbZ lekt ugha gS] tgka /eZ ugha
gSA /eZ ,d lkewfgd psruk dk izdVhdj.k gS] tks oS;fDrd psruk dk la;kstu gSA
VksVeokn % /eZ dk izkjafHkd Lo:ibekby nq[khZe us /eZ dh mRifk osQ lanHkZ esa VksVeokn dh ladYiuk dks i;kZIr ego
fn;kA vkWLVsfy;k dh v:.Vk tkfr ij [kkst osQ nkSjku nq[khZe us vius flkar izLrqr fd, gSaA VksVeokn dks /eZ dk vkjafHkd Lo:i
vkSj /eZ dk osaQh; fcanq ekurs gq, nq[khZe us VksVe laca/h fo'oklksa rFkk VksVeokn dh lajpuk dh lekt'kkL=kh; [kkst dh gSA
nq[khZe osQ vuqlkj VksVeokn dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,a fuEufyf[kr gSa
(i) VksVeokn dk xgjk laca/ lkaxBfud xks=k O;oLFkk ls gSA

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VksVe esa lfEefyr tu ,d gh xks=k osQ gksrs gSa tks vkilh fj'rksa dks etcwr cukus esa ,oa laxBu dh ladYiuk dks etcwr
djus esa egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSaA
(iii) VksVe osQ ek;e ls fuf"k dk;Z dk izk;f'pr fd;k tkrk gS] ftlosQ izfr lewg ftEesokj gksrk gSA
(iv) VksVe ifo=k rFkk vifo=k osQ varj dh izkFkfed bdkbZ gSA
(v) VksVe ,d fo'okl gS] ftlesa jhfr&fjoktksa osQ lkFk&lkFk izrhd fpksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks lewg dks n'kkZrk gSA
(vi) isM+&ikS/s] i'kq&if{k;ksa osQ lkFk vkRek osQ rknkRE; dks VksVe }kjk iQyhHkwr djrs gSaA
vr% VksVeokn ,d /eZ gS tks oLrqvksa osQ rhu oxks ij la/ku djrk gS
(i) izrhd]
(ii) VksVe (i'kq&i{kh)]
(iii) xks=kA ;s ifo=k ekus tkrs gSaA
xks=k] VksVe rFkk l`f"V'kkL=knq[khZe lekt dks O;ofLFkr rFkk ,dhr djus esa fo'okl j[krs FksA /eZ fopkjksa dh ,d
O;ofLFkr bdkbZ gSA ;s flkar vkWLVsfy;k dh tutkfr;ksa ij fd, x, 'kks/ osQ ifj.kke gSaA /eZ esa VksVe dks fu/kZjd ekurs gq, nq[khZe
us VksVe dks oxhZdj.k dh izkjafHkd ifr ekuk gS tks izfr osQ foHkktu dk Hkh eq[; vk/kj gSA xks=k blh VksVe dh ,d lkewfgd
O;oLFkk gS] ftlosQ varxZr ,d VksVe gksrk gSA VksVeokn dks izfr dks Hkh oxks esa foHkkftr djus dk Js; tkrk gS] ;Fkklw;Z] paek]
rkjs] i`Foh vkfn dks xks=k esa ckaVrk gSA ,d xks=k esa leku VksVe ,oa xq.k gksrs gSa tks ,d gh ekal ls cus ekus tkrs gSaA ;g lkgp;Z
oxZHksn osQ lkFk ,dhr :i esa T;knk egoiw.kZ gSA
nq[khZe dk /ked laxBu flkar ,d lkewfgd laxBu dk vkn'kZ izLrqr djrk gS tks l`f"V dks oxhZr djus dk Hkjld
izFke iz;kl gSA pwafd izkfrd rFkk lkekftd tkudkfj;ka gesa /ked fopkjksa esa <wa<+us ls fey tkrh gSa] ftuesa oqQN izf{kIr va'k
Hkh gSa] fdarq blls irk pyrk gS fd laxBu dh lajpuk vkSj /eZ osQ chp xgjk fj'rk gSA
VksVe rFkk lektVksVe xks=k dk fp gS] izrhd gS ml laxBu dk tks ,d ekal ls cus gSaA vr% VksVe gh lkekftd laxBu
dk vk/kj curk gSA blesa HkkSfrd oLrqvksa dks izrhd osQ :i esa bLrseky fd;k tkrk gSA VksVe ifo=k 'kfDr rFkk xks=k dh igpku gS]
vr% VksVe ,d gh le; esa xks=k vFkok leqnk; vFkok lekt dk izfrfuf/Ro djrk gS rFkk ifo=k 'kfDr vFkok bZ'oj dk HkhA bl izdkj
bZ'oj vkSj lekt ,d gh gaS ftudh iwtk vkjaHk ls gh gksrh vk jgh gSA
iz'u 6- tSuokn osQ kked er vkSj jhfr;ksa dh ppkZ dhft,A
mkjegkohj dk tUe 599 bZ-iw- osQ yxHkx oS'kkyh osQ fudV oqqQaMxzke esa gqvk FkkA mudh ekrk dk uke f=k'kyk rFkk firk
dk uke flkFkZ FkkA vius ekrk&firk dh e`R;q osQ mijkar egkohj ?kj NksM+dj laU;klh gks x, vkSj riL;k osQ mijkar mUgsa Kku dh
kfIr gqbZA 527 bZ-iw- esa ikokiqjh uked LFkku ij fuokZ.k kIr gqvkA
egkohj dh e`R;q osQ ckn yxHkx nks 'krkfCn;ksa rd buosQ vuq;k;h rFkk mikld ,d lank; osQ :i esa laxfBr cus jgs] ysfdu
ekS;Z dky esa budh nks 'kk[kk,a gks xbfnxEcj] ftlosQ usrk Hknzckgq Fks vkSj 'osrkEcj] ftlosQ usrk LFkwyHknz FksA Hknzckgq us uXu jgus
dk fu;e cuk, j[kk] ysfdu LFkwyckgq us oL=k iguus dh vkKk ns nhA egkohj osQ mins'kksa dks ys[kc ugha fd;k x;k FkkA os ekSf[kd
:i ls gh pyrs jgsA LFkwyHknz us ikVfyiq=k esa ,d egkifj"kn cqykbZ] ftlesa tSu /eZ osQ flkar fuf'pr fd, x, vkSj [kaMksa esa lax`ghr
dj fy, x,] fdarq fnxEcjksa us bls Lohdkj ugha fd;k] gkykfd nksuksa lank;ksa osQ flkarksa esa Hksn ugha gS vkSj u gh mudh ewy f'k{kkvksa
esa fHkUurk gSA buosQ flkar rFkk f'k{kk, fuEufyf[kr gSa
1- L;knoknegkohj us osnksa dh kekf.kdrk dks Lohdkj ugha fd;kA mUgksaus vfjgarksa osQ Kku vkSj opuksa dks gh ek.k ekukA
blosQ lkFk&lkFk mudk dguk Fkk fd fdlh Hkh fo"k; esa fujis{k vkSj vafre :i ls oqQN ugha dgk tk ldrkA lR; osQ vusd i{k
gSa vkSj ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ vuqlkj R;sd O;fDr dks mldk vkaf'kd Kku gksrk gSA dksbZ ;g nkok ugha dj ldrk fd esjk gh er lR;
gS vkSj nwljksa dk xyr] fdarq bldk eryc ;g ugha gS fd egkohj lansgoknh Fks vFkok ;g le>rs Fks fd lR; dk Kku gks gh ugha
ldrkA mudk ;g er osnksa dh kekf.kdrk dk [kaMu djus osQ fy, FkkA
2- vuh'ojoknhegkohj us mifu"kn rFkk Hkxon~xhrk osQ czokn dks Lohdkj ugha fd;kA mudk er gS fd bl l`f"V vFkok
fo'o dk lapkyudkkZ bZ'oj tSlh dksbZ 'kfDr ugha gSA txr fdlh dh fr ugha gS ;g rks vukfn vkSj vuar gSA tSu bZ'oj osQ LFkku
ij rhFkdjksa dh mikluk esa fo'okl djrs FksA
(ii)

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3- vkReoknvuh'ojoknh gksrs gq, Hkh egkohj vukReoknh ugha FksA mudk dguk Fkk fo'o esa nks ewy inkFkZ gSatho vkSj
vtho] nksuksa gSa] mUgsa fdlh us jpk ugha gS vkSj nksuksa gh Lora=k gSA tho dk vFkZ vkRek gh gSA
4- deZoknvkRek LoHkkor% fueZy] loZnz"Vk] Kku 'kq laiUu rFkk vkuane; gSA fdarq deks osQ dkj.k og viuk 'kq Lo:i
Hkwydj lalkj osQ pDdj esa iM+rh gS rFkk thou&ej.k osQ d"V mBkrh gSA egkohj dk dguk gS fd tho tks Hkh dke djrk gS] mlosQ
iQyLo:i iqn~xy (inkFkZ) lw{e :i esa tho ls fpid tkrk gSA blls tho /qa/yk gks tkrk gS vkSj viuk fueZy Lo:i [kks cSBrk
gSA
5- fuokZ.kvkokxeu osQ ca/u ls eqDr gksuk vkSj fuokZ.k kIr djuk gh tho dk ms'; gSA fuokZ.k ,slh fLFkfr gS] ftlesa
igqpdj vkRek fuf"; gksdj vuardky rd ijekuan dk miHkksx djrh jgrh gSA
egkohj us deZ ls eqfDr rFkk fuokZ.k osQ fuEufyf[kr lk/u crk,a gSa
(d) f=kjRuf=kjRu euq"; dks fuokZ.k dh voLFkk rd igqpkus esa enn ns ldrs gSa
(i) lE;o~Q KkulE;d Kku ls rkRi;Z lPpk vkSj iw.kZ Kku kIr djuk gSA ;g rhFkdjksa osQ mins'kksa osQ v;;u ls kIr gksrk
gSA lE;o~Q Kku ls lR; vkSj vlR; dk Hksn Li"V gks tkrk gSA
(ii) lE;o~Q n'kZulE;o~Q n'kZu ls rkRi;Z gS tSu rhFkdjksa esa fo'okl djuk vkSj lR; osQ fr Jk j[kukA tks Kku ;FkkFkZ
gksrk gS ogh lR; gksrk gS vkSj ;FkkFkZ Kku rhFkdjksa osQ mins'k ls gh kIr gksrk gS] blfy, muosQ mins'kksa dk v{kj'k%
ikyu djuk pkfg,A
(iii) lE;o~Q pfj=klE;o~Q pfj=k dk vFkZ gSbfUnz;ksa vkSj deks ij iw.kZ fu;a=k.kA lc dkj osQ bfUnz; fo"k;ksa esa vuklDr
gksuk] mnklhu gksuk] thou esa lq[k&nq%[k esa leHkko j[kuk lE;o~Q vkpj.k gSA
([k) oL=k R;kxegkohj osQ vuqlkj iw.kZ fuokZ.k dh kfIr osQ fy, lalkj osQ lHkh ca/uksa osQ lkFk&lkFk oL=kksa dk R;kx Hkh
vko';d gSA iw.kZ fuokZ.k osQ fy, oL=k R;kx vifjgk;Z gSA blh dkj.k egkohj dk dguk Fkk fd x`gLFkksa dks fuokZ.k kIr ugha gks
ldrkA
(x) iap egkozruSfrd thou fcrkus osQ fy, egkohj us ikp egkozrksa ij cy fn;k gS
(i) vfgalkdeZ ls NqVdkjk kIr djus osQ fy, vfgalk vfr vko';d gSA
(ii) lR;lR; cksyuk vkSj vlR; dk R;kx djuk tSfu;ksa dk nwljk egkozr gSA
(iii) vLrs;fdlh nwljs dh fdlh Hkh oLrq dks fcuk vuqefr osQ xzg.k ugha djukA
(iv) czp;ZlHkh bfUnz; fo"k;&oklukvksa dks R;kxdj la;e osQ lkFk thou O;rhr djukA
(v) vifjxzgfdlh Hkh oLrq vkSj O;fDr osQ lkFk vklfDr ugha j[kukA
(?k) ozr] miokl rFkk riL;kegkohj us dfBu riL;k ij tksj fn;k gSA mUgsa Lo;a dfBu ri osQ ckn Kku kIr gqvk FkkA
fHk{kqvksa osQ fy, ozr] 'kjhj dks d"V nsuk rFkk xaHkhj ;ku vkSj euu vko';d gSA
6- tSu /eZ esa fuo`fk dh /kurktSu /eZ esa fuo`fk dh /kurk gS] ;g ,d fHk{kqd /eZ gSA tSu /eZ osQ vuqlkj lalkj
esa euq"; vusd nq%[kksa ls ihfM+r gSA vr% blls cpus osQ fy, lalkj dk R;kx dj vFkkZr eksgek;k ls nwj gks riL;k djuk pkfg,A
7- rhFkdjksa esa Jk&HkfDr vkSj fo'okltSu /eZ osQ vuq;k;h ijekRek vkSj mldh iwtk] mikluk esa fo'okl ugha djrs
gSaA os vius rhFkdjksa esa v[kaM Jk&HkfDr vkSj fo'okl j[krs gSaA
iz'u 7- bZlkbZ keZ esa bZ'oj dh ladYiuk dk o.kZu dhft,A
mkj,d /eZ osQ :i esa bZlkbZ er dh mRifk,d /eZ osQ :i esa bZlkbZ /eZ dh mRifk vR;Ur mfpr ekgkSy esa gqbZA
ekuoh;rk dh Hkkouk bl /eZ dh i`"BHkwfe esa fufgr gSA
ftl bZ'oj dh dYiuk bZlkbZ /eZ osQ yksxksa us dh og ewyr% ;gwnh /eZ dk izHkko FkkA ;gwnh /eZ esa bZ'oj nqfu;k dk fuekZ.kdkkZ
o nqfu;k osQ leLr fu;eksa dks lapkfyr djus okyk gSA bZ'oj us viuh rjg euq"; dks blfy, cuk;k gS] D;ksafd og pkgrk gS fd
i`Foh ij euq"; ekuo dY;k.k osQ fy, dk;Z djs vkSj yksxksa osQ vanj ls xyr Hkkoukvksa dk fouk'k gksA lHkh O;fDr vkil esa
feytqydj jgas] muosQ thou esa [kq'kgkyh vk, vkSj fo'o fodkl dh vksj vxzlj gks] ;gh bZlkbZ /eZ dk ewy lans'k gSA
ekuo dh lhek,a vFkok viw.kZrk ls ijs oqQN vFkks esa bZ'oj dh egkk ;gwnh /eZ esa Hkh gS tks fd iki osQ ckjs esa bZlkbZ er
dk vk/kj gSA ,slh viw.kZrk tks fd ekuo dh vPNkbZ dk nSoh fuekZ.k gS] bZ'oj osQ izfr:i osQ :i esa cuk;k x;k gSA ;g bZlkbZ;r
dh fopkj/kjk dk mPpre lksiku gSA

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;g bl nqfu;k dh oLrq vFkok 'kjhj ugha gS] vfirq eq[; :i ls euq"; osQ gB nSoh vkns'kksa dks ekuus esa mldh #fp vkSj bl
fopkj dks fd euq"; nSoh ekxZn'kZu osQ fcuk oqQN ugha dj ldrk] va/fo'okl dks n'kkZrk gSA
bZlkbZ /eZ dh mRifk ;gwnh /eZ ls ekuh tkrh gS] pwfd thll dk tUe ;gwnh ifjokj esa gqvk FkkA bZlkbZ /eZ esa izHkq ;h'kw
dks bZ'oj osQ iq=k osQ :i esa ekurs gSa tks nqfu;k esa yksxksa osQ ikik dks {kek djrk gS rFkk izse osQ fu;e dh f'k{kk nsrk gSA thll
us viuh f'k{kk esa bZ'oj dks firk osQ :i esa ekuk gSA vksYM VsLVkesaV esa bZ'oj dks ,d O;fDr osQ :i esa ekuk x;k gSA
vr% bZlkbZ /eZ esa bZ'oj dh /kj.kk osQ laca/ esa fuEufyf[kr ekU;rk, gSa
(i) firk osQ :i esa bZ'ojA
(ii) bZ'oj] ,d O;fDr osQ :i esa ^eSa gw tksfd eSa gwA*
(iii) ikiksa dks {kek djus okys osQ :i esaA
(iv) nSoh loZ'kfDreku lkk osQ :i easA
(v) U;k;dkkZ osQ :i esaA
(vi) jpukdkkZ osQ :i esaA
firk osQ :i esa bZ'oj dh ladYiuk bZlkbZ /eZ dh fof'k"Vrk gSA izHkq ;h'kq us Lo;a dks bZ'oj dk iq=k dgk Fkk vkSj ijekRek dks
firkA vr% firk dh vo/kj.kk bZlkb;ksa esa iz/ku :i ls fn[kkbZ iM+rh gSA
bZlk elhg osQ bZ'oj osQ lkFk fo'ks"k laca/ dks bZ'oj dks firk dh inoh nsdj vfHkO;Dr fd;k gSA viuh izkFkZukvksa esa bZlk elhg
us bZ'oj osQ fy, vkjekbd (firk) 'kCn dk bLrseky fd;k gS tks ;gwnh /eZ esa ns[kus dks ugha feyrkA
firk&iq=k dk ;g laca/ bZlkbZ /eZ dk ewyea=k cu x;kA bZlk elhg dh cifrLek osQ fooj.k osQ vuqlkj bZlk elhg us vius
vki dks bZ'oj osQ iq=k osQ :i esa rc le>k] tc LoxZ ls vkokt vkbZ fd ;g esjk fiz; iq=k gS ftlls eSa vR;ar izlUu gwA
;g iq=k&firk osQ lkFk ,dkReHkko ls ekuo vkSj bZ'oj osQ chp ,d xgjk laca/ LFkkfir gks x;kA izHkq dh izkFkZuk osQ lanHkZ esa
bZlk elhg us vius f'k";ksa dks ;g f'k{kk nh fd bZ'oj dks viuk ^firk* dgsaA firk bZlk elhg dk bZ'oj mldh e`R;q vkSj iquthZou
osQ ckn vius f'k";ksa osQ fy, bZ'oj vkSj izHkq bZlk elhg firk cu tkrs gSaA
gkykfd ckbfcy dk bZ'oj bZ'ojh; Kku dk bZ'oj gSA igy ij og bZ'ojh; Kku dk lkfUu; izkIr djrk gSA ckbfcy esa bZ'oj
dks laj{k.kdkkZ] jpf;rk vkSj U;k;dkkZ osQ :i esa ekuk x;k gSA
iz'u 8- keZ ifjorZu ij vkkkfjr ledkyhu ifjppkZ dh ppkZ dhft,A
mkj/eZ ifjorZu ij ledkyhu okn&fooknorZeku le; esa /eZ ifjorZu lkekftd o jktuhfrd Lrj ij laosnu'khy
eqn~nk cuk gqvk gSA ns[kk ;g tkrk gS fd tks /eZ T;knk etcwr gS] og vU; /eks dks vius vUnj lekfgr dj ysuk pkgrk gSA ;g
,d izo`fk gS tks eukso`fk cu xbZ gSA tSls izkphudky vkSj e;dky esa 'kkld vius lkezkT; dk foLrkj rc rd djrs jgrs Fks tc
rd mudk vUr ugha gks tkrk FkkA vr% /eZ Hkh vktdy oqQN ,slk gh cuk gqvk gSA rqylhnkl dk dFku ;gk mYys[k djus ;ksX;
gSA os dgrs gSa ^tc&tc gksg /je osQ gkfu* vFkkZr tc&tc /eZ osQ mij foifk;ksa dk [krjk eMjk,xk rc rc bldh lqj{kk osQ
fy, Hkxoku dk i`Foh ij vorkj gksxkA gkykafd vkt osQ le; esa ;g feFkd cu x;k gS] ysfdu /eZ osQ BsosQnkjksa us bldk :i
oqQN cnydj lkk osQ lehdj.kksa dks vius vuq:i cuk fy;k gSSA
ifj.kkeLo:i ;g lkeus vk jgk gS fd oqQN ns'kksa dh ljdkjksa us vius ns'k esa /eZ osQ ifjorZu ij ikcanh yxkus ij foo'k gks
x, gSaA dkj.k ;g gS fd tgk ij oaQxkyh] Hkw[k vkSj xjhch vR;f/d gS] ogk ij bZlkbZ /eZ osQ yksx tkdj vius /eZ osQ fo"k; eas
eux<+ar ckrsa x<+dj mu leLr Hkw[kh&uaxh turk dk vius /eZ esa varj.k djok jgs gSaA mM+hlk esa 2009 esa da/eky esa bldk O;kid
:i fn[kkbZ fn;k FkkA
rqylhnkl dk dFku fiQj ;gk ij egoiw.kZ gks tkrk gSA rqylh dgrs gSa ^ufga nfj le nq[k tx ekfg* vFkkZr nfjrk ls cM+k
vfHk'kki nqfu;k esa dksbZ nwljk ugha gSA blh nfjrk dk ykHk mBkdj nqfu;k osQ 'kfDr'kkyh /ekZoyEch leLr lalkj dks ,d /eZ
esa ifjofrZr dj nsuk pkgrs gSaA
ekuork dh Hkkouk ;gk vkdj fou"V gks tkrh gSA ns[kk ;g x;k gS fd fiNys oqQN o"kks esa tSls&tSls nqfu;k esa le`f vkbZ gS
nqfu;k cn ls cnrj gksrh xbZ gSA HkkSfrd le`f euq"; dks foyklh cukrh gSA ,slk ugha gS fd ;g le`f lkjs oxks rd igqp ikbZ
gS] oqQN fo'ks"k oxks rd gh fodkl dk ykHk igqp ik;k gSA tgka fodkl ugha gks ik;k gS ogk xjhch o vf'k{kk pjeksRd"kZ ij gSA

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oqQN bZlkbZ fe'kufj;ka ,dVd fuxkgksa ls ,sls jkLrs dh ryk'k esa jgrs gSa] fd oSQls mu leLr txgksa dks fu;U=k.k esa fd;k tk,A
gkykafd lkjs fe'kufj;ksa ij ;g vkjksi yxkuk Bhd ugha gksxk ysfdu oqQN osQ dkj.k lkjs cnuke gks jgs gSaA
vf'k{kk] tkfgyiu osQ lkFk&lkFk Hkw[k vkSj xjhch dks nwj djuk rks csgn vPNh ckr gS] ysfdu bldk ykHk Hkwyuk xyr gSA
oqQN uo;qodksa dks ljdkjh ukSdjh fnyokus dk izyksHku nsuk rFkk blh izdkj thou ls tqM+h vU; izdkj osQ lq[k o lk/u dk fnyklk
fdlh Hkh O;fDr osQ eu dks HkVdk nsrh gSA
ns[kk ;g tkrk gS fd tks Hkh izyksHku fn, tkrs gSa] og ,d Nykok gksrk gS] iwfrZ osQ uke ij oqQN Hkh ugha fd;k tkrk gSA bldk
ewy edln rks /eZ dk :ikarj.k djuk gksrk gSA
tSls i;kZoj.k dh lqj{kk djuk fo'o osQ lkeus ,d ladV cuk gqvk gS] oSls gh /eZ dh leL;k Hkh fo'o osQ lkeus ,d
laosnu'khy leL;k gSA fo'o osQ izeq[k /eZxq#vksa vkSj jktusrkvksa dks ,d lkFk cSBdj bl ij fopkj djus dh vko';drk gS] rkfd
/ekZUrj.k nqfu;k osQ fy, fookn o dyg dk fo"k; u cu tk,A
1990 osQ n'kd osQ ckn ls tSls rhljh nqfu;k esa HkweaMyhdj.k us izos'k fd;k gS] oSls if'pe dk izHkko /eZ osQ :i esa fn[kus
yxk gSA vko';drk gS bls ,d uohu 'kDy nsdj ekuo osQ fy, ykHknk;d cukus dhA

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