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DWDM Basics

This document provides a Tutorial/Course on DWDM fundamental and their


applications.
By RSO Tx
23-09-2014
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Brief Description

In this course, participants will acquire an overview of the technology


used in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing including Optical
Technology principles. Participants will learn the advantages of DWDM
over traditional optical transport technologies such as SDH. An overview
of the building blocks used in a DWDM network followed of the basic
functions performed by the various building blocks.

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Contents
Optical Basics : Sources of Attenuation, Dispersion Effects,
Chromatic & Polarization Mode Dispersion, Effects of Nonlinear Optics
Concepts of WDM, an Introduction, Why do we need WDM?
CWDM and DWDM Links
Types of Optical Network Elements
ITU-T Channel Grid
Building Blocks of Optical Network Elements :
Optical Multiplexers and Demultiplexers ,
Optical Amplifiers
Light Sources and Photo Detectors
DWDM Use Cases
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Optical Fiber

1.Single-Mode Fiber (SMF)


2.Properties of Fiber
3.Classifications of Single Mode Fiber
4.Nonlinear Effects of Single Mode Fiber

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Structure of Single-Mode Fiber and Refractive Index Profile


coating

Structure of a fiber
d2

n2

core

n1

cladding

n2

d1

coating

Refractive index profile

d
5

cladding

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n1

n1

n2

n2
d

The Optical Spectrum

Visible
Light

Cosmic
Radiation Radiation

UV Radiation

IR Radiation

X-ray
Radiation

1020

0.6

1012

1010

(1 THz)

108

106

(1 GHz)

(1 m)

(1 mm)

(1 m)

(100 m)

10-9

10-6

10-3

100

102

= Wavelength
f = Frequency

c = 300 000 km/s


c=xf

0.5

1014

TV VHF SW

(1 nm)

10-12
Wavelength (m)

0.4

1016
(250 THz)

(1 pm)

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Microwave,
Radar

1018

Frequency (Hz)

Communications Radiation

Visible
Light

0.7
670

0.8
780 850

Fiber Transmission
Wavelength Range

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3 1.4
1300

1.5

1.6 m

1550 1625 nm

Fiber Attenuation

Attenuation in optical fiber is mainly determined by three types of

loss: absorption loss, scattering loss and bend loss.


Attenuation (dB)

Attenuation coefficient unit:dB/km


OH- ion Absorption

1310

C_band
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(nm)

1550
L_band

Dispersion

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Dispersion in Single Mode Fiber (SMF)

Dispersion in fiber refers to a physical phenomenon of signal distortion caused


when various modes carrying signal energy or different frequencies of the signal
have different group velocity and disperse from each other during propagation.

Dispersion in SMF is classified into chromatic dispersion and polarization mode


dispersion (PMD)

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Chromatic Dispersion

DATA IN

DATA OUT

Input
laser

Optical
receiver

L
The chromatic dispersion in the
fiber causes different wavelengths
to travel at different speeds, and
propagation delay.
Input laser is not monochromatic,
it is composed of many
wavelength or colour.
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The different wavelengths arrive


at different times to BROAD,
separated, or DISPERSED output
pulse.

Chromatic Dispersion
Generally, two kinds of dispersion exist in single mode optical fiber, they are

material dispersion and waveguide dispersion.

Dispersion (ps/nmkm)

Dispersion coefficientunitps/nmkm

G.652 fiber
17

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G.655

G.653
G.655

1310

1550

(nm)

Polarization Mode DispersionPMD

Slow in propagation

Ellipse fiber core


Fiber
profile

Fast in propagation
Delay time

Detector
power
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Signal response

Inter-symbol Interference

Broaden pulse caused by dispersion will bring the adjacent consecutive pulses to overlap.
T
T+T

3 1
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3 1

31

Mode Field Diameter and Effective Area

Mode field diameterMFDdescribes the concentrate level of


optical energy in the single mode fiber.

MFD

Fiber core
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OH- ion Absorption

G.654fiber

G.652 fiber

G.653

17

1310

(nm)

1550
C_band

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G.655

L_band

Dispersion (ps/nmkm)

Attenuation (dB/km)

Types of Optical Fiber

Nonlinear Effects in Single Mode Fiber

Stimulated Nonelasticity Scattering


- Stimulated Brillouin Scattering(SBS)
- Stimulated Raman Scattering(SRS)

Kerr effect
- Self-phase Modulation(SPM)
- Cross-phase Modulation(XPM)

Four-wave Mixing(FWM)
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Stimulated Nonelasticity Scattering

Stimulated Raman Scattering(SRS)


- Limiting the injection power, threshold
power is100mW.

Stimulated Brillouin Scattering(SBS)


- Limiting the optical power of single
wavelengththreshold power is smaller for
spectrum line lasers.
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Kerr Effect

Self-phase Modulation (SPM)


- Broaden the signal's spectrum,

- the influence of dispersion becoming bigger.


Cross-phase Modulation
- Limiting the input optical power and the
wavelength spacing.

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Four-Wave Mixing

Four-wave mixing (FWM) occurs in the case that two or three light waves with
different wavelength interact and cause new light waves at other wavelengths.

f 113

123,213

132,312

F231,F321
F332 F331

F221

F112 F223

F1

F2

F3

Uneven and relatively large channel spacing can reduce FWM.


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How to increase network capacity

Add the Mux

TDM

STM-16 STM-

WDM

Economical,

64

Add fiber &

equipment

Benefit - Mature and Quick

Implication-Time & cost

Implication-Cost & Complication

Solution of capacity expansion


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Wavelength Division Multiplexing


The ability to use different wavelengths, in a single fiber, to combine and to split them.
1
SDH signal
IP package

ATM cells

1 2

Single fiber unidirectional transmission with various payloads


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Why WDM ?

a) Overcome fiber exhaust / lack of fiber availability


problems (better utilization of available fiber)
b) Space and Power savings at intermediate stations
c) Easier capacity expansion
d) Cost effective transmission
e) No O-E-O conversion delays

f) Wave length leasing instead of Bandwidth leasing


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Why WDM ?
Traditional Network with Repeaters, no WDM
LTE
LTE
LTE
LTE

WDM Network
with Repeaters

LTE
LTE
LTE
LTE

75% fewer fibers

LTE
LTE
LTE
LTE

WDM Network with


Optical Amplifiers
LTE
LTE
LTE
LTE
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LTE
LTE
LTE
LTE

75% less equipment


LTE
LTE
LTE
LTE

WDM .. a Business Case.


Conventional TDM Transmission 10 Gbps
40km

40km

40km

40km

40km

40km

40km

40km

40km

1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
RPTR
1310
TERM
TERM
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR
RPTR

4 Fibers Pairs
32 Regenerators
STM-16
STM-16
STM-16
STM-16

120 km

120 km

OA

1 Fiber Pair
4 Optical Amplifiers

OA

120 km

OA

DWDM Transmission 10 Gbps


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STM-16
STM-16
STM-16
STM-16

OA

WDM Link
System Structure
The overall structure of the WDM system of N-path wavelength:
- Optical Transponder Unit (OTU)
- Optical Multiplexer Unit / Optical De-multiplexer Unit (OMU/ODU)
- Optical Amplifier (OA)

- Supervisory Channel (OSC/ESC)

OTU
OTU
OTU
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O
M
U/
O
A

O
A/
O
D
U

OLA

OSC

OSC

OSC

OTU
OTU
OTU

Transmission Modes
Single fiber bidirectional transmission

O
T
U

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M
4
0

DMUX/MUX

M
4
0

MUX/DMUX

O
T
U

DWDM Basics - multiplexing of optical wavelengths

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CWDM Vs DWDM

CWDM:

Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplex

DWDM:

ITU-T G.694.1

196.05THz
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Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex

Extended C band 192chs, 25GHz spacing


C band 160chs
192.125THz

Extended
32chs
192.05THz

191.275THz

CWDM Vs DWDM
Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing:

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

1.

Short-range communications

1.

Long-haul transmissions (with BA/OLA/PA)

2.

Coarse wavelength (2 to16 )

2.

Dense Wavelengths ( 32, 40,80, 160, 192)

3.

Uses wide-range frequencies

3.

Narrow frequencies

4.

Wavelengths spread far apart (20 nm)

4.

Tightly packed wavelengths (25Ghz Spacing)

5.

Wavelength drift is possible

5.

Precision lasers required to keep on target

6.

Breaks the spectrum into big chunks

6.

Dices the spectrum into small pieces

7.

Light signal isn't amplified (No OA/OLA)

7.

Signal amplification maybe used (with


BA/OLA/PA)

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Infrared Spectrum
S Band
1460-1530 nm

CWDM

CWDM

Future
DWDM

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C Band

L Band

1530-1565 nm

E Band

1260-1360 nm

O Band

CWDM/
DWDM

CWDM/
DWDM

ITU-T Channel Grid

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Wavelength Allocation for DWDM


(ITU-T G.692)

C Band (1530 1562nm)


L Band (1574 1608 nm)
The channel central frequencies are allocated in equal
frequency spacing of 100 GHz or 0.8 nm

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1546.92
1547.72
1548.52
1549.32
1550.12
1550.92
1551.72
1552.52
1553.33
1554.13
1554.94
1555.75
1556.56
1557.36
1558.17
1558.98
1559.79
1560.61
1561.42
1562.23
193.8
193.7
193.6
193.5
193.4
193.3
193.2
193.1
193.0
192.9
192.8
192.7
192.6
192.5
192.4
192.3
192.2
192.1
192.0
191.9
(THz)

C20
C19
C18
C17
C16
C15
C14
C13
C12
C11
C10
C09
C08
C07
C06
C05
C04
C03
C02
C01

Channel
number
1530.33
1531.12
1531.90
1532.68
1533.47
1534.25
1535.04
1535.82
1536.61
1537.40
1538.19
1538.98
1539.77
1540.56
1541.35
1542.14
1542.94
1543.73
1544.53
1545.32

Carrier
frequency
(nm)

196.0
195.9
195.8
195.7
195.6
195.5
195.4
195.3
195.2
195.1
195.0
194.9
194.8
194.7
194.6
194.5
194.3
194.2
194.1
194.0

Carrier
wavelength

C40
C39
C38
C37
C36
C35
C34
C33
C32
C31
C30
C29
C28
C27
C26
C25
C24
C23
C22
C21

Wavelength Allocation in C Band

Note 1: Optical carriers are allocated on ITU-T 100 GHz (0.1 THz) grid in G.692

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1592.10
1592.95
1593.79
1594.64
1595.49
1596.34
1597.19
1598.04
1598.89
1599.75
1600.60
1601.46
1602.31
1603.17
1604.03
1604.88
1605.74
1606.60
1607.47
1608.33
188.3
188.2
188.1
188.0
187.9
187.8
187.7
187.6
187.5
187.4
187.3
187.2
187.1
187.0
186.9
186.8
186.7
186.6
186.5
186.4
(THz)

L21
L22
L23
L24
L25
L26
L27
L28
L29
L30
L31
L32
L33
L34
L35
L36
L37
L38
L39
L40

Channel
number
1574.54
1575.37
1576.20
1577.03
1577.86
1578.69
1579.52
1580.35
1581.18
1582.02
1582.85
1583.69
1584.53
1585.36
1586.20
1587.04
1587.88
1588.73
1589.57
1590.41

Carrier
frequency
(nm)

190.4
190.3
190.2
190.1
190.0
189.9
189.8
189.7
189.6
189.5
189.4
189.3
189.2
189.1
189.0
188.9
188.8
188.7
188.6
188.5

Carrier
wavelength

L01
L02
L03
L04
L05
L06
L07
L08
L09
L10
L11
L12
L13
L14
L15
L16
L17
L18
L19
L20

Wavelength Allocation in L Band

Note 1: Optical carriers are allocated on ITU-T 100 GHz (0.1 THz) grid in G.692

WDM Link
System Structure
The overall structure of the WDM system of N-path wavelength:
- Optical Transponder Unit (OTU)
- Optical Multiplexer Unit / Optical De-multiplexer Unit (OMU/ODU)
- Optical Amplifier (OA)

- Supervisory Channel (OSC/ESC)

OTU
OTU
OTU
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O
M
U/
O
A

O
A/
O
D
U

OLA

OSC

OSC

OSC

OTU
OTU
OTU

Main functional blocks for building DWDM networks

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Main functional Blocks for building DWDM networks

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DWDM Basics - building pure optical, transparent, fully-meshed DWDM networks

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Board Category /Type


Unit Category

Board Name
LWF(S), LRF(S), LBE(S), ETMX(S),TMX(S), TMR(S), LWC1,

Optical Transponder Unit

TRC1, LWM, LWMR, LWX, LWXR, LQS, LDG, FDG,LOM(S),


LOG(S), LQG, L4G, EGS8, LAM, LBF, AS8, AP8, FCE, EC8,

LAM,TBE,LW40(LSX,LWXS,LQM,NS2/3,ND2,NQ2-OSN6800)

Multiplexer and Demultiplexer


Add and Drop Multiplexing Unit

M40, V40, D40, FIU, EFIU,DWC(D40V,ITL IN OSN6800)


MR4, MR2, SBM2, SBM1, MB2,MB4,DWC,WSD9, RMU9,
WSM9, WSMD4

Optical Amplifier Unit

OAU, OBU, OPU,RPC

Optical Supervisory Unit & SCC

SC1, SC2, ST1,ST2,SCC

Optical Protection Unit

OLP, SCS, DCP,OWSP

Auxiliary Unit

VOA, VA4, MCA, PMU

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Components of DWDM Systems


Transponder interface

TX
RX

OA

OADM

OA

Client

TX

RX

To Client Devices

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MUX/DEMUX

OEO

MUX/DEMUX

TX
RX

OEO

TX
RX
TX
RX
Client

Transponders

A transponder is a wavelength converter.


They are optical-electrical-optical (OEO) in nature.

In optical fibers the data is carried at 850nm, 1310nm or 1550nm.


WDM systems need to multiplex different ITU-compliant wavelengths
together.
Therefore, these signals must all be converted to a particular wavelength that
is suitable for either a CWDM or DWDM system.

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Transponder Block Diagram

850/1310

15xx

Transponder
Non-ITU-T
Complaint Wavelength

O-E-O
Wavelength
Conversion

ITU-T
Complaint Wavelength
TX

850, 1310, 1550


TRANSPONDER
RX
OPTICAL FIBER
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15xx.xx nm

Optical Transponder Unit in OSN8800

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Optical Multiplexers and Demultiplexers

Optical multiplexers combine multiple wavelengths from several sources


for transmission across a single optical fiber.
Multiplexed optical signals are collectively referred to as the composite
signals.
Optical Demultiplexers separate different wavelengths from a composite
signal received from a single optical fiber.

Demultiplexed optical signals are then passed to optical receivers.

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Optical Multiplexer / De-multiplexers.

1...n

2
3

Optical Multiplexer
1
2

1...n

Optical De-multiplexer
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Optical Multiplexer (OMUX)


Wavelength
n
(n-1)
(n-2)

Channel
#n
#(n-1)
#(n-2)

Client

100 GHz
Aggregate Signal over nchannels with wavelengths
ranging from 1 to n
3
2
1

#3
#2
#1
OMUX

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(n-1)

Transmit
Amplifier
(TXA)

Optical Demultiplexer (ODMUX)


Wavelength
n
(n-1)
(n-2)

Channel
#n
#(n-1)
#(n-2)

Client

100 GHz
Aggregate Signal over nchannels with wavelengths
ranging from 1 to n.
3
2
1

#3
#2
#1
ODMUX

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(n-1)

Receive
Amplifier
(RXA)

Demultiplexing

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Reflection Grating Filters

Reflect a single wavelength


and transmit the rest

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Diffraction Gratings

Each wavelength is diffracted at a different angle, using a lens these


wavelengths can be focused onto individual fibers.

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Arrayed Waveguide Grating

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M40

M40/M40V

- 40-channel multiplexing unit without/with VOA

M13
M14

M27 M28

M15

M29

M16

M30

M17

M31

M18

M32

M19

M33

M20

M34

M21 M22

M35 M36

M23

M37

M10

M24

M38

M11 M12

M25 M26

M39 M40

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M09

M01

M07 M08

AWG

M06

MON

M05

M40V

M04

OUT splitter

M03

- Online Performance Monitoring(10dB)

M31 193.00
M32 192.90
M33 192.80
M34 192.70
M35 192.60
M36 192.50
M37 192.40
M38 192.30
M39 192.20
M40 192.10

M02

- C-Even and C-Odd Band

M21 194.00
M22 193.90
M23 193.80
M24 193.70
M25 193.60
M26 193.50
M27 193.40
M28 193.30
M29 193.20
M30 193.10

M01

demultiplexing (M40V).

CLASS 1
LASER
PRODUCT

M01 196.00 M11 195.00


M02 195.90 M12 194.90
M03 195.80 M13 194.80
M04 195.70 M14 194.70
M05 195.60 M15 194.60
M06 195.50 M16 194.50
M07 195.40 M17 194.40
M08 195.30 M18 194.30
M09 195.20 M19 194.20
M10 195.10 M20 194.10

MON OUT

- Adjusts the optical power of each signal after

STAT
ACT
PROG
SRV

M40
M40

D40

D40/D40V

- 40-channel demultiplexing unit without/with VOA

D13

D27

D14

D28

D15

D29

D16

D30

D17

D31

D18

D32

D19

D33

D20

D34

D21

D35

D22

D36

D23

D37

D10

D24

D38

D11

D25

D39

D12

D26

D40

D09

D01

D08

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D07

AWG

D06

MON

D05

D40V

D04

splitter

D03

IN

D31 193.00
D32 192.90
D33 192.80
D34 192.70
D35 192.60
D36 192.50
D37 192.40
D38 192.30
D39 192.20
D40 192.10

D02

- Online Performance Monitoring(10dB)

D21 194.00
D22 193.90
D23 193.80
D24 193.70
D25 193.60
D26 193.50
D27 193.40
D28 193.30
D29 193.20
D30 193.10

D01

- C-Even and C-Odd Band

D11 195.00
D12 194.90
D13 194.80
D14 194.70
D15 194.60
D16 194.50
D17 194.40
D18 194.30
D19 194.20
D20 194.10

IN

demultiplexing (D40V).

CLASS 1
LASER
PRODUCT

D01 196.00
D02 195.90
D03 195.80
D04 195.70
D05 195.60
D06 195.50
D07 195.40
D08 195.30
D09 195.20
D10 195.10

MON

- Adjusts the optical power of each signal after

STAT
ACT
PROG
SRV

D40
D40

Optical MUX & DEMUX Unit

ITL
- Multiplexes and demultiplexes C_ODD and C_EVEN signals
- Online performance monitoring (10dB)

C- odd
C-even

TO
IN

Interleaver
TE

C- odd
C-even

RO
RE

Coupler /
Interleaver

Splitter

OUT

MON
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OADM Signals

The drop signal is filtered out of the composite signal


The add signal is coupled to the composite signal
Pass through signals are neither dropped from nor
added to the OADM
Each signal path has an insertion loss in dB

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OADM Block Diagram

Original
Composite
Signal

Pass Through Path

New
Composite
Signal

DWDM Fiber
Add Path

Drop Path

Channel-1
Drop
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Channel-1
Add

Optical Add Drop Multiplexers (OADM)

Wavelength Selection devices.

Used to drop and add one or more optical


channels from a composite signal
into a DWDM fiber.
Three signal paths

Drop

Add

Pass through

1
2

Optical Add Drop Multiplexer


(OADM)
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Isolator and Circulator

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Circulator

Fiber grating

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Page 61

OADM Unit
Board

Board

category

name

Fix OADM Unit

Reconfigurable
OADM Unit

Board description

MR8V

8-channel optical add/drop multiplexing unit with VOA

WSM9

9-port wavelength selective switching multiplexing board

WSD9

9-port wavelength selective switching demultiplexing board

RDU9

9-port ROADM demultiplexing board

RMU9

9-Port ROADM multiplexing board

WSMD4

4-Port Wavelength Selective Switching Multiplexer and Demultiplexer


Board

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For Internal use only

OADM Unit

MR8V
- 8-channel optical add/drop multiplexing unit with VOA
- Realizes the adding/dropping and multiplexing of eight signals and
adjusts the input optical power of each channel.
D1

IN

.....

D8

OADM optical
module

OUT

MI

A1
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MO

.....

A8

WSD9

ROADM Unit
WSD9

STAT
ACT
PROG
SRV
LASER
RADIATION
DO NOT VIEW DIRECTLY
WITH OPTICAL
INSTRUMENTS

CLASS 1M LASER
PRODUCT

- Configured any wavelengths (80s) to any interfaces (9D)


MONO MONI

- Adjust the optical power of each channel


- Online optical performance monitoring

EXPO
IN

- Supports C_Even and C_Odd Band

DM1
DM2
DM4
DM5

IN

DM8

DM6
DM7

MONI

DM3

DM1

DM8

EXPO
MONO
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WSD9

RMU9

OADM Unit

STAT
ACT
PROG
SRV

RMU9

CLASS 1
LASER
PRODUCT

- Adds 8 single-channel signal or multi-channel signals to the main path,


realizes the dynamic input of eight channel signals using tunable OTUs.
MONO MONI

OUT

OUT EXPI

Coupler

EXP
I
MONO

TOA ROA

ROA
TOA

AM1 AM2
AM3 AM4

MONI

Coupler

AM5 AM6

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AM
1

AM
8

AM7 AM8

VO
A

RMU9

WSMD4

OADM Unit

STAT
ACT
PROG
SRV

WSMD4

LASER
RADIATION
DO NOT VIEW DIRECTLY
WITH OPTICAL
INSTRUMENTS

CLASS 1M LASER
PRODUCT

- 4-Port Wavelength Selective Switching MUX & DEMUX


MONO MONI

- Adjust the optical power of any add wavelengths


- Online optical performance monitoring

OUT
IN

- C-even & C-odd

DM1

AM2

DM3

DM1
DM2
DM3
DM4

DM4
AM4

RDU

AM3

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AM2

MONI

AM4

MONO

IN

DM2

OUT

AM1

AM1

WSMD4

Optical Amplifier

The optical power is increased by optical


amplifier.
Input optical signal

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For Internal use only

OA

Amplified optical signal

Gain(dB)

Common Parameters of Optical Amplifier


Gain

Noise Figure
Saturated output power

20

Gain
3dB

PS

Pout (dBm)

30

Gain(dB)

Gain bandwidth

Pout
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Nokia 2014
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PT

Pin

3dB

10
0

Types of Optical Amplifier

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA)


Raman Fiber Amplifier (RFA)
Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA)

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For Internal use only

EDFA Energy Level Diagram


The stimulated radiation and ASE of Er3+ ions in the EDF
ASE accumulation is resource of noise

E3 excited state
Decay
Pump
light
1550nm
signal light

E2 metastable state
1550nm
signal light
E1 ground state

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Nokia 2014

Advantages and Disadvantages of EDFA

Major advantages of EDFA:


Its operating wavelength is consistent with the minimum loss window of
the SMF.
High coupling efficiency, Active Medium is in fiber.
High energy conversion efficiency.
High gain, low noise figure, large output power and low cross-talk.
Stable gain characteristics.

Major disadvantages of EDFA:


The gain wavelength range is fixed.
Gain bandwidth unflatness.
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For Internal use only

Optical surge problem.

The Operating principle of Raman Fiber Amplifier

Stimulated Raman Scattering(SRS)


Gain
Pump

30nm
70~100nm

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Characteristics of Raman Fiber Amplifier

Its gain wavelength is determined by the pump wavelength.


The gain medium is the transmission fiber itself.
Low noise.

GAIN

PUMP1 PUMP2 PUMP3

30nm
70~100nm
Span 1

Span k

EDFA

EDFA

Receiving

transmitting
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Raman Pump

Raman Pump

Classifications of Raman Fiber Amplifier


Discrete Raman Fiber Amplifier

Distributed Raman Fiber Amplifier

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RFAs and EDFAs

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Nokia 2014

Advantages of RFA
Advantages:
Gain wavelength is determined by the pumping light wavelength ;

Simple structure of amplifier;


Nonlinear effects can be reduced;
Low noise;

GAIN

PUMP1 PUMP2 PUMP3

30nm
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70~100nm

Disadvantages of RFA

Disadvantages:
High pump power, low efficiency and high cost;
Instantaneous gain, adopting backward pump fashion;
Optical components and optical fiber undertake high optical power;
Characteristics of gain online are not consistent.

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Advantages and Drawbacks of SOAs

Advantages:
Operating at the 1300nm and 1550nm wavelengths-even simultaneously.
Wide bandwidth(up to 100nm has been achieved)
Easy to integrate, along with other semiconductor and photonic devices,
into one monolithic chip called opto-electronic integrated circuit (OEIC)

Drawbacks:
Relatively high crosstalk, polarization

sensitivity
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High temperature sensitivity;

Comparison of Three Types of Amplifiers

79

Type

EDFA

SOA

Raman

Maturity

maturity

Not maturity

maturity

Gain

high

normal

normal

Bandwidth

wider

wide

Very wide

Coupling
efficiency

high

low

high

Cost

moderate

high

high

Nokia 2014

Optical Amplifying Unit


OAU1
STAT
ACT
PROG
SRV

OAU1

LASER
RADIATION
DO NOT VIEW DIRECTLY
WITH OPTICAL
INSTRUMENTS

CLASS 1M LASER
PRODUCT

- Amplifies 80 channels of C-band optical signals


MON

- Continuously adjusts the gain

OUT

- Online performance monitoring

IN
TDC PDC

- Gain locking function


- Transient control function

Type

Range

Type

Range

OAU101

20~31dB

OAU103

24~36dB

OAU102

20~31dB

OAU105

23~34dB

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OAU1

Optical Amplifying Unit

OAU1
- Functional modules and signal flow
OAU
1
IN

PA

5
VOA
TDC

RDC
DCM

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Nokia 2014
For Internal use only

BA

Splitter
OUT
MON

Optical Amplifying Unit


OBU1
STAT
ACT
PROG
SRV

OBU1

LASER
RADIATION
DO NOT VIEW DIRECTLY
WITH OPTICAL
INSTRUMENTS

CLASS 1M LASER
PRODUCT

- Amplifies 80 channels of C-band optical signals


- Online performance monitoring
- Gain locking function
MON

- Transient control function

OUT IN

OBU1
BA

Splitter

OUT
MON

IN
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For Internal use only

OBU1

Light Sources and Photo Detectors

Light sources
Laser modulation modes
Types and characteristics of photo
detectors

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Nokia 2014

Types and Characteristics of Light Source


Low output power,

LED

Poor beam focus,


Wide spectrum, low bit rate,
Inexpensive,
Suit for short distance communications

FP-LD (MLM)
DFB-LD (SLM)

High output power


Good beam focus
Narrow spectrum, high bit rate
expensive

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For Internal use only

Suit for long distance

Modulation Techniques
Direct modulation (internal modulation)

Indirect modulation (external modulation)


- Electro-Absorption modulation
- Mach-Zehnder modulation

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For Internal use only

Direct Modulation

Direct modulation is: Output laser is controlled by input


current
LD

Current

86

Laser

Advantages: simple structure,low loss and low cost


Disadvantages: modulation chirp
transmission distance 100km
transmission rate 2.5Gbit/s
Nokia 2014

What is chirp?

Chirp(as in bird chirping) is the deviation of laser frequency


from its radiation-center frequency.
no chirp
back edge

fore edge

positive chirp
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Nokia 2014

negative chirp

Electro-Absorption Modulator
E-A modulation modulates the laser indirectly and adding an external
modulator in its output path to modulate the light intensity.
Support long haul transmission (2.5Gb/s >600km)
Less chirp

High reliability
Complex technology

LD

88

EA

Nokia 2014
For Internal use only

Mach-Zehnder Modulator

LD
Advantages:
chirp can be almost zero
suit for long transmission distance
Disadvantages:

Expensive
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Nokia 2014

Comparision of Modulations

For STM-16 Signal


Types

Direct Modulator

EA Modulator

M-Z Modulator

Max.dispersion
tollerance

1200~4000

7200~12800

>12800

Cost

moderate

expensive

Very expensive

Wavelength Stability

good

better

best

(ps/nm)

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Nokia 2014

Photo Detector
The function of photoelectric detector is to convert the received optical signal to corresponding
electric signal.
- Positive Intrinsic NegativePIN
- Avalanche Photo DiodeAPD

Dynamic ranges
-

The difference of overload power and receiving sensitivity is called dynamic ranges,
generally about 20dB.
Types

Spectrum response

Overload Power

Optical Sensitivity

PIN

11001600nm

0dBm

-20dBm

APD

10001600nm

-9dBm

-28dBm

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Nokia 2014
For Internal use only

Optical Supervisory Channel Unit

SC2
- Realizes the processing of two supervisory
channels in opposite directions
- Operating Wavelength: 1510nm
- Supports a maximum of 48 dB transmission
- Supports order-wire function
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Nokia 2014
For Internal use only

Other Units
Board category

Board

Board description

name

Occupied
slots

DCP

2-channel optical path Protection unit

OLP

Optical line protection unit

SCS

Sync optical channel separator unit

MCA4

4-channel spectrum analyzer unit

MCA8

8-channel spectrum analyzer unit

WMU

wavelength monitored unit

Variable optical

VA1

1-channel variable optical attenuator unit

attenuator unit

VA4

4-channel variable optical attenuator unit

DCU

dispersion compensation unit

TDC

single-channel tunable-dispersion compensation board

GFU

gain flatness unit

Optical protection unit

Spectrum analyzer unit

Optical Power and


Dispersion
Equalizing Unit
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Nokia 2014
For Internal use only

Other Units
OLP

OLP (Optical Line Protection Unit)

STAT
ACT
PROG
SRV
LASER
RADIATION
DO NOT VIEW DIRECTLY
WITH OPTICAL
INSTRUMENTS

CLASS 1M LASER
PRODUCT

TO1 RI1

- Supports optical line protection


- Supports intra-OTU 1+1 protection
- Supports client-side 1+1 protection

TO2 RI2
RO TI

RO1

Optical Switch

TI1

Optical splitter

RI11
RI12
TO11
TO12
OLP

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Other Units
SCS

SCS (Sync optical Channel Separator)

CLASS 1
LASER
PRODUCT

RO2

Optical coupler

TI2

Optical splitter

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Nokia 2014
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RI21
RI22
TO21
TO22

RO2 TI2

Optical splitter

RO1 TI1

TI1

RI11
RI12
TO11
TO12

TO22 RI22

Optical coupler

TO12 RI12 TO21 RI21

RO1

TO11 RI11

- Supports client-side 1+1 protection


- Supports BPS protection

SCS

Other Units

MCA4

MCA4
STAT
ACT
PROG
SRV

- Functions and Features

IN2

Optical power of the channel


Central wavelength
Optical signal-to-noise ratio
Number of wavelengths in the main optical path

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For Internal use only

IN4

Used in APE function with other boards

IN3

IN1

Supports the following detection functions


and reporting

MCA4

Other Units
WMU
STAT
ACT
PROG
SRV

WMU
- Realizes the wavelength monitoring in the system with
wavelengths at 50 GHz channel spacing.

IN1
IN2

OTU
OTU

M
M40V
M
M40V
4
0

C_EVEN

I
C_ODD

OBU1

T
L

I
WMU

U
WMU

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Nokia 2014
For Internal use only

DWDM Use Cases - High-Capacity Long-Distance Optical Backbone


B
B
C
1
< 40
A
A
10G

F
E

congested

traditional backbone
SDH over optical fiber
up to 10Gb/s transmission speed
single wavelength per fiber
congested links
capacity and distance limitations
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Nokia 2014
For Internal use only

< 40G/
TDM/packet/any serv.

SDH

D
E

< 3.2 Tb/s


free capacity

DWDM backbone
SDH over DWDM over optical fiber
up to 80 x up to 40G per optical fiber
no congestions anymore, free capacity for any new
traffic, even for re-selling
full optical mesh for scalability and
flexibility (any new service from any to any location)

DWDM Use Cases - IP/MPLS Core Router Interconnection


A

SDH 2.5G

transponderless
interworking w/
Juniper possible

SDH 2.5G

D
SDH
2.5G

SDH
10G

SDH
10G

SDH
2.5G

10GE
on

C
B
40G not possible

without DWDM
expensive SDH router interfaces (2.5G still ok, 10G - prohibitive)
long distances between core routers
cannot be bridged easily
40G interfaces impossible to transport
over distances by standard methods
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Nokia 2014
For Internal use only

10GE
on

B
40G on

with DWDM
use of low-cost, short-range Ethernet router I/f
ability to transport upcoming 40G traffic over
long distance
cost savings with transponder-less 40G IP-overDWDM solution
DWDM links can be additionally used for other
traffic and services

DWDM Use Cases - Metro Multi-Service Aggregation


Access

Metro

Edge

Access

Metro

Edge

X
data
traditional Metro
mobile/fixed broadband multi-service environment,
business services
multi-service aggregation by NG-SDH and Carrier Ethernet
booming traffic, optical fiber shortage
no possibility to offer data services
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Nokia 2014
0 Internal use only
For

data

WDM-empowered Metro
Case A : multi-service aggregation by NG-SDH/Carrier
Ethernet plus Metro WDM for boosting fiber capacity
Case B : multi-service transport by native Metro WDM
(1 service per , transparent, point-to-point)
data services possible

Extra Pictures

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Nokia 2014
4 Internal use only
For

Extra Pictures

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Nokia 2014
5 Internal use only
For

Extra Pictures

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Nokia 2014
6 Internal use only
For

Extra Pictures

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Nokia 2014
7 Internal use only
For

Colors and fonts


Use sentence case for slide titles
Core and background colors

RGB
18 65 145
0 201 255
104 113 122
168 187 192
216 217 218
We use blue and white predominantly, and selectively call
out key points in light blue. If necessary, we use our
palette of grays to help highlight supporting information.

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Nokia 2014
8 Internal use only
For

Document fonts
Nokia Pure is our business font and should be used as
a priority.

If you do not have this font installed, Arial is the


acceptable alternative.

the presentation title should be in


lower case using Nokia Pure Headline
Light.
Slide titles should be in sentence case using
Nokia Pure Headline Light.
Body copy text should be sentence case using Nokia Pure Text
Light.