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Project report

on
STATIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SPUR GEAR
A major project work in the partial fulfillment of the degree
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BY
B.HARISH REDDY
(07241A0387)
G.SHIVA KUMAR
(07241A0359)
Under the guidance of
RATNA KIRAN
Assistant Professor
Mechanical Department

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


GOKARAJU RANGARAJU ISNTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
BACHUPALLY, KUKATPALLY, HYDERABAD-90
(AFFILIATED TO J.N.T.U, HYDERABAD)
APRIL 2011

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


GOKARAJU RANGARAJU ISNTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
BACHUPALLY, KUKATPALLY, HYDERABAD-90
(AFFILIATED TO J.N.T.U, HYDERABAD)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the thesis entitled
STATIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SPUR GEAR
Submitted by MR B.HARISH REDDY, MR G.SHIVA KUMAR in the partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the award of Bachelor of technology Degree in Mechanical Engineering
Jawaharlal Nehru Technology University, Hyderabad is an authentic work carried out by him
under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the
thesis has not been submitted to any other University / Institute for the award of any Degree.

Internal Guide
RATNA KIRAN
Assistant Professor
Mechanical Department
GRIET

Head of the Department


Dr. KGK. MURTI
Sr. Professor and HOD
Mechanical Department
GRIET

The accomplishment of this project has been lot easier owing to cooperation of Concurrent
Analysis Pt. Ltd management of Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology.
We would like to thank the management of Concurrent Analysis Pt. Ltd for allowing us to take up
this project under them.
We would like to express our sincere thanks to our guide Mr. H.PRADEEP for helpful guidance.
We would like to express our deepest gratitude towards our guide Mr.RATNA KIRAN
(Associate Professor, Mechanical Department) for his constant help and encouragement during this
project.
We would like to thank Mr. Jandyala N Murthy (Principal, GRIET) and Mr. KGK Murthi
(HOD, Mechanical Department) for permitting us to take up this project work.
Lastly we would like to thank each and every person who helped directly or indirectly in the
successful completion of this project.
APRIL 2011
B.HARISH REDDY
G.SHIVA KUMAR

This thesis investigates the characteristics of a gear system including contact


stresses, bending stresses, and the transmission errors of gears in mesh. Gearing is
one of the most critical components in mechanical power transmission systems.
The contact stresses were examined using 2-D FEM models. The bending stresses
in the tooth root were examined using a 3-D FEM model.
Current methods of calculating gear contact stresses use Hertzs equations, which
were originally derived for contact between two cylinders. To enable the
investigation of contact problems with FEM, the stiffness relationship between the
two contact areas is usually established through a spring placed between the two
contacting areas. This can be achieved by inserting a contact element placed in
between the two areas where contact occurs. The results of the two dimensional
FEM analyses from ANSYS are presented. These stresses were compared with the
theoretical values. Both results agree very well. This indicates that the FEM model
is accurate.
This thesis also considers the variations of the whole gear body stiffness arising
from the gear body rotation due to bending deflection, shearing displacement and
contact deformation. Many different positions within the meshing cycle were
investigated. Investigation of contact and bending stress characteristic of spur gears
continues to be of immense attention to both engineers and researchers in spite of
many studies in the past. This is because of the advances in the engineering
technology that demands for gears with ever increasing load capacities and speeds
with high reliability, the designers need to be able to accurately predict the stresses
experienced the stresses experienced by the loaded gears.

Table of figures
List of Symbols
Literature review
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Introduction to Gears
1.2 Definitions
1.2.1 Advantages
1.2.2 Disadvantages
1.3 Applications
1.4 Materials for Spur Gear
2.0 Theory
2.1 Internal Spur Gear
2.2 External spur Gear
2.3 Spur Gear Nomenclature
3.0 Mathematical equations
4.0 Finite Element Analysis
4.1 Introduction to FEA

4.2 Basic steps involved in FEA


4.3 Types of finite elements
5.0 Introduction To Catia V5
5.1 Overview of Solid Modeling
5.2 General Operation
5.3 Creating a Solid Model
5.4 Introduction to Drafting
6.0 Spur Gear Analysis & Results
6.1 Gear Analysis
6.2 Dynamic Analysis
6.3 Harmonic Analysis
7.0 Conclusion
8.0 Bibliography

Schematic Layout of Spur Gear


Plastic Spur Gear in Film Winding
Spur Gear in Automatic Packing Machine
Spur Gear in Film Cutting
Internal Spur Gear
External Spur Gear
Nomenclature of spur gear
Properties Of Material
Gear 3-D model
Gear Meshed Model
Boundary Conditions
Vonmises stresses
Linearised stress along high stress region
Principal stress along X-axis
Principal stress along Y-axis
Principal stress along Z-axis.
Deflection in Usum.
Deflection along X-axis
Deflection along Y-axis

Deflection along Z-axis


Model Analysis (Modes from 1-12)
Graph 1 Frequency v/s Amplitude in X- Direction Gear location.
Graph 2 Frequency v/s Amplitude in Y- Direction Gear location.
Graph 3 Frequency v/s Amplitude in Z- Direction Gear location.
Graph 4 Frequency v/s Amplitude in X,Y,Z- Direction Gear location.
Graph 5 Frequency v/s Amplitude in X- Direction Gear Teeth location.
Graph 6 Frequency v/s Amplitude in Y- Direction Gear Teeth location.
Graph 7 Frequency v/s Amplitude in Z- Direction Gear Teeth location.
Graph 1 Frequency v/s Amplitude in X,Y,Z- Direction Gear Teeth
location.

K Structural stiffness
u Displacement vector
F Applied load vector
Pmax Maximum contact stress
d1 Pinion pitch diameter
d2 Gear pitch diameter
Fi Load per unit width
Ri Radius of cylinder i
Pressure angle
i Poissons ratio for cylinder i
Ei Youngs modulus for cylinder i
H Maximum Hertz stress.
a Contact width
r Any radius to involute curve
rb Radius of base circle
Vectorial angle at the pitch circle
Vectorial angle at the top of tooth
Pressure angle at the pitch circle

Bp Tooth displacement vectors caused by bending and shearing of the pinion


Bg Tooth displacement vectors caused by bending and shearing of the gear
Hp Contact deformation vectors of tooth pair B for the pinion
Hg Contact deformation vectors of tooth pair B for the gear
p Transverse plane angular rotation of the pinion body
g Transverse plane angular rotation of the gear body
pd Diametric pitch
Y Lewis form factor
Ka Application factor
Ks Size factor
Km Load distribution factor
Kv Dynamic factor
Ft Normal tangential load
Yj Geometry factor
g Angular rotation of the output gear
p Angular rotation of the input gear

There has been a great deal of research on gear analysis, and a large body of literature on gear
modeling has been published. The gear stress analysis, the transmission errors, and the
prediction of gear dynamic loads, gear noise, and the optimal design for gear sets are always
major concerns in gear design. Errichello and Ozguven and Houser survey a great deal of
literature on the development of a variety of simulation models for both static and dynamic
analysis of different types of gears. The first study of transmission error was done by Harris.
He showed that the behavior of spur gears at low speeds can be summarized in a set of static
transmission error curves. In later years, Mark and analyzed the vibratory excitation of gear
systems theoretically. He derived an expression for static transmission error and used it to
predict the various components of the static transmission error spectrum from a set of
measurements made on mating pair of spur gears. Kohler and Regan discussed the derivation
of gear transmission error from pitch error transformed to the frequency domain. Kubo et al
estimated the transmission error of cylindrical gears using a tooth contact pattern. The current
literature reviews also attempt to classify gear model into groupings with particular relevance
to the research. The following classification seems appropriate:

Models with Tooth Compliance


Models of Gear system Dynamics
Models of A Whole Gearbox
Models for Optimal Design of Gear Sets

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Spur Gears are the most common means of transmitting power in the
modern mechanical engineering world. They vary from tiny size used in
the watches to the large gears used in marine speed reducers; bridge lifting
mechanism and railroad turn table drivers. They form vital elements of
main and ancillary mechanism in many machines such as automobiles,
tractors, metal cutting machine tools, rolling mills, hoisting and
transmitting machinery and marine engines etc.
The four major failure modes in gear systems are tooth bending fatigue,
contact fatigue, surface wear and scoring. Two kinds of teeth damage can
occur on gears under repeated loading due to fatigue; namely the pitting of
gear teeth flanks and tooth breakage in the tooth root. Tooth breakage is
clearly the worst damage case, since the gear could have seriously
hampered operating condition or even be destroyed. Because of this, the
stress in the tooth should always be carefully studied in all practical gear
application. The fatigue process leading to tooth breakage is divided into
crack initiation and crack propagation period. However, the crack initiation
period generally account for the most of service life, especially in high
cycle fatigue.

The initial crack can be formed due to various reasons. The most
common reasons are short-term overload, material defects, defects
due to mechanical or thermal treatment and material fatigue. The
initial crack then propagates under impulsive loading until some
critical length is reached, when a complete tooth breakage occurs.
The service life of a gear with a crack in the tooth root can be
determined experimentally or numerically (e.g. with finite element
method). The fatigue life of components subjected to sinusoidal
loading can be estimated by using cumulative damage theories.
Their extension to random load fatigue, through straightforward,
may not be very accurate owing to inherent scatter exhibition by the
fatigue phenomena. Due to the complexity in geometry and loading
on the structure, the finite element method is preferably adopted.

1) MODULE:
Module of a gear is defined as ratio of diameter to number of teeth.m= d/N
2) FACE WIDTH
The width along the contact surface between the gears is called the face width.
3) TOOTH THICKNESS
The thickness of the tooth along the pitch circle is called the tooth thickness.
4) ADDENDUM
The radial distance between the pitch circle and the top land of the gear is called the
addendum.3
5) DEDENDUM
The radial distance between the pitch circle and the bottom land of the gear is called the
dedendum.
6) PRESSURE ANGLE
The angle between the line joining the centers of the two gears and the common tangent to the
base circles.

1.2.1 ADVANTAGES
` Gear is one kind of mechanical parts. It can be widely used in industries. A
gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with
another toothed part in order to transmit torque.
` Spur gear is the simplest type of gear which consists of a cylinder or disk. Its
form is not straight-sided, thus, the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned
parallel to the axis of rotation. Only gears fit to parallel axles can they rotate
together correctly.
` As the most common type, spur gears are often used because they are the
simplest to design and manufacture. Besides, they are the most efficient. When
compared to helical gears, they are more efficient. The efficiency of a gear is
the power output of its shaft divided by the input power of its shaft multiplied
by 100. Because helical gears have sliding contact between their teeth, they
produce axial thrust, which in turn produces more heat. This causes a loss of
power, which means efficiency is lost.
` In addition to these, they also have many other advantages. Spur gears have a
much simpler construction than helical gears because their teeth are straight
rather than angular. Therefore, it is much easier to design and produce them.
And they will not fail or break easily. And this makes them cheaper to
purchase and to maintain which then leads to less cost.

Simplicity
Because their teeth are straight rather than angular, spur gears have a much
simpler construction than helical gears. As such, they are easier to produce, and
they tend not to break or fail as easily. This also makes them easier to find.
Efficiency
Spur gears are more efficient than helical gears. The efficiency of a gear is
the power output of its shaft divided by the input power of its shaft multiplied by
100. Because helical gears have sliding contact between their teeth, they produce
axial thrust, which in turn produces more heat. This causes a loss of power, which
means efficiency is lost.
Cost
Because spur gears are simpler, they are easier to design and manufacture, and
they are less likely to break. This makes them cheaper to purchase and to maintain.

1.2.3DISADVANTAGES
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Although they are common and efficient, spur gears have disadvantages as
well. Firstly, they are very noisy when used at some speeds because the
entire face engages at once. Therefore, they're also known as slow-speed
gears. Secondly, they can only be used to transfer power between parallel
shafts. They cannot transfer power between non-parallel shafts. Thirdly,
when compared with other types of gears, they are not as strong as them.
They cannot handle as much of a load because the teeth are small and
situated parallel to the gear axis, rather than being large and situated
diagonally as the teeth on a helical gear are.

According to the above, we can conclude that spur gears have many
advantages as well as some disadvantages. Although sometimes, its
disadvantages may affect them a lot, their advantages still outweigh their
disadvantages. That is to say, spur gears are still popular among many
industries. And they can have good performances to meet people's
requirements

The image shows a Spur Gear and Plastic Spur Gears used in a
film winding component.

Image of Spur Gears used in automatic packing machine.

Spur Gears are used in the film-cutting component.

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While coming to manufacturing materials for Spur gears, a


wide variety is available. These includes
Steel
Nylon
Aluminium
Bronze
Cast iron
Phenolic
Bakelite
Plastics

2.1 INTERNAL SPUR GEARS


This is actually a type of Spur Gear. Internal Spur Gears are not much
different from a regular spur gear. These gear by appearance shows pitch
surface that is cylindrical. Here the tooth is parallel to the axis. In case of
Internal Spur Gears, the gears are positioned to make internal contact. It is
also referred to popularly as Ring Gears. The output rotation produced by
the Ring gears is direction wise same as that of input rotation.

As is clear from the figure the gear tooth are cut from inside. A
typical Internal Spur Gear or Ring Gear consists of typically three or
four larger spur gears referred to as planets. That surrounds a
smaller central pinion referred to as sun. Normally, the ring gear
remains stationary. This is quite like our own Planetary system,
where the planets orbit round the sun in the same rotational
direction. It is quite obvious that this class of gear is known as a
planetary system. It is through a planet carrier that transmits the
orbiting motion of the planets to the output shaft.

In a different planetary arrangement, the ring may be left to move


freely. This is done by restricting the planets from orbiting round
the sun. This action results in the ring gear rotating in an opposite
direction to that of the sun. Thus a differential gear drive is effected
as a result of rotation of both the ring gear and the planet carrier.
The output speed of the shafts are interdependent.

External Spur Gears are the most popular and common type of spur gear. They has
their teeth cut on the outside surface of mating cylindrical wheels. While the larger
wheel is referred to as the gear and the smaller wheel is known as the pinion. Single
reduction stage is the most basic type of arrangement of single pair of spur gears.
Here the output rotation is in opposite direction to that of the input. In other
arrangements of multiple stages higher net reduction can be achieved where the
driven gear is connected rigidly to a third gear. This third gear in turn drives a

mating fourth gear. This serves as the ideal output for the second stage. In
this way, many output speeds on different shafts are produced starting from
a just single input rotation. The image given below shows the inside of
External Spur Gears.

Working of External Spur Gears

Actually the working of External Spur Gear is best explained with the help
of Gear meshes. In the external mesh, the gears are made to rotate in
directions that are opposite. The Figure below shows a simple spur gear
mesh where the gears are meshing externally.

Checking the calculations:


a): based on the compressive stress, c=0.7(i+1)/a*{(i+1/ib)*E[mt]}
b): based on the bending stress, b=0.7(i+1) (Mt) / {a x b x mn xYv}
The theoretical design calculations are performed using the input
parameters such as power for marine high speed engine, pinion speed, gear
ratio, pressure angle etc. i.e
Power P = 9000 KW,
Speed of Pinion N = 3500 rpm,
Gear Ratio i = 7,
Minimum centre distance based on surface compression strength is given by
a (7+1){.7/ c}2x{E[Mt]/i}

Table 3.1 properties of Material

Based on the Compressive Stresses


c = 0.7x ((i+1)/a) x((i+1)/ib) x E[Mt] (c)
Based on the Bending Stresses
b = 0.7x ((i+1)/abMnYv) x E[Mt] (c)
Based on the compressive stress

c = (0.7x8x325661.14) /(143x43x1. 8x0 .4205)


= 150.303N/ mm2

Based on bending stress b = 220.35 N/mm 2


From the calculations, c and b are > [c] & [b] values of given material,
i.e., Aluminum alloy [98%Al2O3, 0.40.7% Mn, 0.40.7& Mg].
Therefore our design is safe.
Addendum, mn = 18 mm, Dedendum = 1.25 x mn = 22.5 mm,
Tip circle diameter of the pinion
Tip circle diameter of gear
Root circle diameter of pinion
Root circle diameter of gear

= d1+ (2 x addendum) =357.4 + 36 = 393.4mm


= d2 + (2 x addendum) = 2502.4+ 36 = 2538.46 mm
= d1 (2 x addendum) = 357.4 36 = 321.4 mm
= d2 (2 x addendum) = 2502.4 36 = 2466.4 mm

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When the gear transmits the power P, the tangential force produced due to
the power is given by
Ft = (PxKs/v)
V = (xDpxNp) / (60x1000)
= (x357.4x3500)/(60000)
= 65.51 m/s
Ft = (9000x103x2)/65.51
=274749.26

4.1Introduction
The Basic concept in FEA is that the body or structure may be
divided into a smaller elements of finite dimensions called Finite
Elements. The original body or the structure is then considered as
an assemblage of these elements connected at a finite number of
joints called Nodes or Nodal Points. Simple functions are
chosen to approximate the displacements over each finite element.
Such assumed functions are called shape functions. This will
represent the displacement with in the element in terms of the
displacement at the nodes of the element.
The Finite Element Method is a mathematical tool for solving
ordinary and partial differential equations. Because it is a numerical
tool, it has the ability to solve the complex problems that can be
represented in differential equations form. The applications of FEM
are limitless as regards the solution of practical design problems.

Due to high cost of computing power of years gone by, FEA has a history
of being used to solve complex and cost critical problems. Classical
methods alone usually cannot provide adequate information to determine
the safe working limits of a major civil engineering construction or an
automobile or an aircraft.
In the recent years, FEA has been universally used to solve structural
engineering problems. The departments, which are heavily relied on this
technology, are the automotive and aerospace industry. Due to the need to
meet the extreme demands for faster, stronger, efficient and lightweight
automobiles and aircraft, manufacturers have to rely on this technique to
stay competitive.
FEA has been used routinely in high volume production and manufacturing
industries for many years, as to get a product design wrong would be
detrimental. For example, if a large manufacturer had to recall one model
alone due to a hand brake design fault, they would end up having to replace
up to few millions of hand brakes. This will cause a heavier loss to the
company.
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The finite element method is a very important tool for those involved in
engineering design, it is now used routinely to solve problems in the
following areas.
Structural analysis
Thermal analysis
Vibrations and Dynamics
Buckling analysis
Acoustics
Fluid flow simulations
Crash simulations
Mold flow simulations

Mathematically, the structure to be analyzed is subdivided into a


mesh of finite sized elements of simple shape. Within each element,
the variation of displacement is assumed to be determined by simple
polynomial shape functions and nodal displacements. Equations for
the strains and stresses are developed in terms of the unknown nodal
displacements. From this, the equations of equilibrium are
assembled in a matrix form which can be easily be programmed and
solved on a computer. After applying the appropriate boundary
conditions, the nodal displacements are found by solving the matrix
stiffness equation. Once the nodal displacements are known,
element stresses and strains can be calculated.

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Discretization of the domain


Application of Boundary conditions
Assembling the system equations
Solution for system equations
Post processing the results.
Descritization of the domain: The task is to divide the continuum under study into
a number of subdivisions called element. Based on the continuum it can be divided
into line or area or volume elements.
Application of Boundary conditions: From the physics of the problem we have to
apply the field conditions i.e. loads and constraints, which will help us in solving
for the unknowns.
Assembling the system equations: This involves the formulation of respective
characteristic (Stiffness in case of structural) equation of matrices and assembly.
Solution for system equations: Solving for the equations to know the unknowns.
This is basically the system of matrices which are nothing but a set of simultaneous
equations are solved.
Viewing the results: After the completion of the solution we have to review the
required results.

The first two steps of the above said process is known as pre-processing
stage, third and fourth is the processing stage and final step is known as
post-processing stage.

What is an Element?
Element is an entity, into which a system under study can be divided into.
An element definition can be specified by nodes. The shape(area, length,
and volume) of the element depends upon the nodes with which it is made
up of.

What are Nodes?


Nodes are the corner points of the element. Nodes are independent entities
in the space. These are similar to points in geometry. By moving a node in
space an element shape can be changed.

0-D Element :
This has the shape of the point, it requires only one node to define it

1-D Element :
This has the shape of the line/curve and hence requires minimum of two
nodes to define it.

2-DElement:
This is an n area element, which has the shape of the quadrilateral/triangle
and hence requires minimum four/three nodes to define it.

3-DElements:
This is a volume element, can take the shape of a Hexahedron or a Wedge
or a Tetrahedron. Hexahedron element requires 8 nodes to define its shape.
A Penta element requires 6 nodes to define its shape. Similarly 4 nodes are

required to define a Tetra element. The element is said to be linear or 1st


order when it doesnt have any mid side nodes. If the mid side nodes are
present then those elements are called Quadratic or 2nd order elements.
For linear elements the edge is defined by a linear function called shape
function whose degree is one. For the elements having mid side nodes on
the edge quadratic function called shape function whose degree is two is
used.
The higher order elements when over lapped on geometry can represent
complex shapes very well within few elements. Also the solution accuracy
more with the higher order elements. But higher order elements will
require more computational effort and time

Modal Analysis: This is used to determine the vibration characteristics,


i.e., natural frequencies and mode shapes of a linear structure. It is also
used as a starting point for other dynamic analysis
Harmonic Response Analysis: This is used to determine the steady state
response of a structure to loads that vary harmonically with time.
Transient Dynamic Analysis: This is used to determine the response of
the structure under the action of any general time dependent loads
Spectrum Analysis: This is used to determine the response of the structure
to random loading
Brief Over View of Thermal Analysis:
In thermal analysis we can simulate the system for the effects conduction,
convection, and radiation. We can study the steady state response as well
as transient response of the system subjected to temperature loading. In
case of thermal analysis, the respective heat balance equations are solved.

5.1 Overview of Solid Modeling


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CATIA V5 R14 is the worlds leading 3Dproduct development solution.


This software enables designers and engineers to bring better products to
the market faster. It takes care of the entire product definition to
serviceability. CATIA delivers measurable value to manufacturing
companies of all sizes and in all industries.
CATIA is used in a vast range of industries from manufacturing of rockets
to computer peripherals. With more than 1 lakh seats installed in
worldwide many cad users are exposed to CATIA and enjoy using CATIA
for its power and capability.
CATIA MODULE
CATIA design.
CATIA production.
CATIA shipbuilding.
CATIA routed systems.
CATIA foundation.

Start with a Sketch


Use the Sketcher to freehand a sketch, and dimension an "outline" of
Curves. You can then sweep the sketch using Extruded Body or Revolved
Body to create a solid or sheet body. You can later refine the sketch to
precisely represent the object of interest by editing the dimensions and by
creating relationships between geometric objects. Editing a dimension of
the sketch not only modifies the geometry of the sketch, but also the body
created from the sketch.
Creating and Editing Features
Feature modeling lets you create features such as holes, extrudes and
revolves on a model. You can then directly edit the dimensions of the
feature and locate the feature by dimensions. For example, a Hole is
defined by its diameter and length. You can directly edit all of these
parameters by entering new values. You can create solid bodies of any
desired design that can later be defined as a form feature using User
Defined Features. This lets you create your own custom library of form
features.

Associativity
Associatively is a term that is used to indicate geometric
relationships between individual portions of a model. These
relationships are established as the designer uses various functions
for model creation. In an associative model, constraints and
relationships are captured automatically as the model is developed.
For example, in an associative model, a through hole is associated
with the faces that the hole penetrates. If the model is later changed
so that one or both of those faces moves, the hole updates
automatically due to its association with the faces. See Introduction
to Feature Modeling for additional details.
Positioning a Feature
Within Modeling, you can position a feature relative to the
geometry on your model using Positioning Methods, where you
position dimensions. The feature is then associated with that
geometry and will maintain those associations whenever you edit
the model. You can also edit the position of the feature by changing
the values of the positioning dimensions.

Reference Features
You can create reference features, such as Datum Planes, Datum Axes and
Datum CSYS, which you can use as reference geometry when needed, or
as construction devices for other features. Any feature created using a
reference feature is associated to that reference feature and retains that
association during edits to the model. You can use a datum plane as a
reference plane in constructing sketches, creating features, and positioning
features. You can use a datum axis to create datum planes, to place items
concentrically, or to create radial patterns.
Expressions
The Expressions tool lets you incorporate your requirements and design
restrictions by defining mathematical relationships between different parts
of the design. For example, you can define the height of a extrudes as three
times its diameter, so that when the diameter changes, the height changes
also.

Modeling provides the design engineer with intuitive and comfortable


modeling techniques such as sketching, feature based modeling, and
dimension driven editing. An excellent way to begin a design concept is
with a sketch. When you use a sketch, a rough idea of the part becomes
represented and constrained, based on the fit and function requirements of
your design. In this way, your design intent is captured. This ensures that
when the design is passed down to the next level of engineering, the basic
requirements are not lost when the design is edited.

The strategy you use to create and edit your model to form the desired
object depends on the form and complexity of the object. You will likely
use several different methods during a work session. The next several
figures illustrate one example of the design process, starting with a sketch
and ending with a finished model. First, you can create a sketch "outline"
of curves. Then you can sweep or rotate these curves to create a complex
portion of your design.

The Drafting application is designed to allow you to create and maintain a


variety of drawings made from models generated from within the Modeling
application. Drawings created in the Drafting application are fully
associative to the model. Any changes made to the model are automatically
reflected in the drawing. This associativity allows you to make as many
model changes as you wish. Besides the powerful associativity
functionality, Drafting contains many other useful features including the
following:
An intuitive, easy to use, graphical user interface. This allows you to create
drawings quickly and easily.
A drawing board paradigm in which you work "on a drawing." This
approach is similar to the way a drafter would work on a drawing board.
This method greatly increases productivity.

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Support of new assembly architecture and concurrent engineering.


This allows the drafter to make drawings at the same time as the
designer works on the model.
The capability to create fully associative cross-sectional views with
automatic hidden line rendering and crosshatching.
Automatic orthographic view alignment. This allows you to quickly
place views on a drawing, without having to consider their
alignment.
Automatic hidden line rendering of drawing views.
The ability to edit most drafting objects (e.g., dimensions, symbols,
etc.) from the graphics window. This allows you to create drafting
objects and make changes to them immediately.
On-screen feedback during the drafting process to reduce rework
and editing.
User controls for drawing updates, which enhance user productivity.
Finally, you can add form features, such as chamfers, holes,
slots, or even user defined features to complete the object.

Assembly parts may be machined using the Manufacturing applications.


An assembly can be created containing all of the setup, such as fixtures,
necessary to machine a particular part. This approach has several
advantages over traditional methods:

It avoids having to merge the fixture geometry into the part to be


machined.

It lets the NC programmer generate fully associative tool paths for models
for which the programmer may not have write access privilege.

It enables multiple NC programmers to develop NC data in separate files


simultaneously.

6.1Gear Analysis
` The objective of the analysis is to perform Structural static
analysis on the gear by applying tangential load and examine
the deflections and stresses and calculate the factor of safety.
`

e 3d model of the turbine blade is done in CATIA and


converted into parasolid file.

Figure 6.1 Gear 3D model

The parasolid file is imported into ansys and is meshed with 8 node solid45
element type. The structure, number of nodes and input summary of the
element is given below.

SOLID45 Element Description


` SOLID45 is used for the 3-D modeling of solid structures. The
element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of
freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z
directions.
` The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for
this element are shown in Figure: "SOLID45 Geometry". The
element is defined by eight nodes and the orthotropic material
properties. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the
element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system
orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.

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SOLID45 Input Summary


Nodes
I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P
Degrees of Freedom
UX, UY, UZ
Material Properties
EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ),
ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY,
THSZ), DENS, GXY, GYZ, GXZ, DAMP
Surface Loads
Pressures -Face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N), face 4 (K-L-PO), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P)
Body Loads
Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P)
Solid 45 a Hexahedral element used for meshing.
Total number of elements = 199800
Tangential Load of 274749N is applied on the gear teeth
Total number of nodes = 398104

Aluminum
Youngs Modulus = 3.4 E4 N/mm2
Poissons Ratio = 0.22
Ultimate tensile strength = 260 N/mm2
Yeild strength = 165 N/mm2

Boundary Condition
Tangential Load along x-axis = 274749N
Centre shaft location is arrested in all DOF.
Results and discussion:

Figure 6.4. Vonmises stresses

Figure 6.5 Linearised stress along high stress region


Maximum stress observed = 140 N/mm2 which is a stress singularity and can be
ignored.
linearised stress at the high stress region = 49 N/mm2 which is within the design
limit.

The gear was meshed with solid 45 with a total number of


elements = 199800 and 398104 nodes.
Maximum vonmises stress observed in aluminum gear is 140
N/mm2 which is because of stress singularity and can be
ignored.
Maximum linearised vonmises stress observed in aluminum
gear is 49 N/mm2 within the design limit with a factor of
safety of 3.
Maximum deflection of 0.4mm observed in the gear along xdirection.

The 3d model of the gear is imported into ansys and modal


analysis has been performed to calculate natural frequencies
and mode shapes.
Both Modal and Harmonic analysis have been performed on
the turbine blade to see the structure behavior at different
frequencies between the frequency range of 0 1500 Hz
Modal analysis is used to determine the vibration
characteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of a
structure or a machine component while it is being designed. It
can also serve as a starting point for another, more detailed,
dynamic analysis, such as a transient dynamic analysis, a
harmonic response analysis, or a spectrum analysis.

You use modal analysis to determine the natural frequencies and mode
shapes of a structure. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are
important parameters in the design of a structure for dynamic loading
conditions. They are also required if you want to do a spectrum analysis or
a mode superposition harmonic or transient analysis.
You can do modal analysis on a prestressed structure, such as a spinning
turbine blade. Another useful feature is modal cyclic symmetry, which
allows you to review the mode shapes of a cyclically symmetric structure
by modeling just a sector of it.
First 10 natural frequencies have been calculated for the gear model using
modal analysis.

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Aluminum
Youngs Modulus = 3.4 E4 N/mm2
Poissons Ratio = 0.22
Density = 2700 kg/mm3
Ultimate tensile strength = 260 N/mm2
Yeild strength = 165 N/mm2
Element Type: 8 node Solid 45
Shape of the element: Hexahedral
No. of .dof: 3(ux, uy, uz)
Results & Discussions:
First 10 Natural frequencies

Mode-5

Mode7:

Mode9:

The harmonic analysis is performed on the gear between the range of 500
to 1600Hz and the structure behavior at different frequencies is observed
due to applied tangential load of 274947N.
Any sustained cyclic load will produce a sustained cyclic response (a
harmonic response) in a structural system. Harmonic response analysis
gives you the ability to predict the sustained dynamic behavior of your
structures, thus enabling you to verify whether or not your designs will
successfully overcome resonance, fatigue, and other harmful effects of
forced vibrations.
Harmonic response analysis is a technique used to determine the steadystate response of a linear structure to loads that vary sinusoidally
(harmonically) with time. The idea is to calculate the structure's response at
several frequencies and obtain a graph of some response quantity (usually
displacements) versus frequency. "Peak" responses are then identified on
the graph and stresses reviewed at those peak frequencies.

Graph 1 of Frequency Vs Amplitude in X-direction at the gear location

Graph 2 of Frequency Vs Amplitude in Y-direction at the gear location

Graph 3 of Frequency Vs Amplitude in Z-direction at the gear location

Graph 5 of Frequency Vs Amplitude in X-direction at the gear teeth


location

The maximum operating speed of the gear is 3000 rpm.i, e 3000/60=50Hz.


From the above modal analysis the fundamental natural frequency is found
at 504.92Hz.
From the above analysis it is concluded that the gear model is free of
vibrations in the operation speed of 0-50 Hz.

Hanumanna. D, Narayanana. S, Krishnamurthy. S, (2001), Bending


fatigue testing of gear teeth under random loading Proc. Instn. Mech.
Engrs, Vol.(215). Part C: pp 773-784
Glodez. S, Sraml. M, Kramberger. J, (2202), A computational modelfor
determination of service life of gears, International Journal of fatigue,
Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 1010-1020.
Glodez. S, Abersek. B, Flasker. J, Ren. Z, (2004), Evaluation of the
service life of gears in regard to surface pitting, Engineering Fracture
Mechanics, Volume 71, Issue 4-6, pp 429-438.
Direct Gear Design for Spur and Helical Involute Gears Alexander L.
Kapelevich and Roderick E. Kleiss www.geartechnology.com GEAR
TECHNOLOGY SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2002

B. Abersek, J. Flasker, S. Glodez (2004), Review of


mathematical and experimental models for determination of service
life of gears, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Volume 71, pp 439453.
Q.J. Yang (1996), Fatigue test and reliability of TLP tethers under
random loading, Marine structures, Volume 14, pp331-352.
Statistical considerations in Fatigue (1996), Fatigue and
Fracture, ASM Handbook, Volume 19, pp 295-302.
Structural life assessment Methods (2001), Failure Analysis and
Prevention, ASM Handbook, Volume 11, pp 225-289.
Julius S. Bendat, Allan G. Piersol (1966), Measurement and
Analysis of Random Data, John wiley and sons, Inc. USA.