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STATIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SPUR GEAR

A major project work in the partial fulfillment of the degree

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BY

B.HARISH REDDY

(07241A0387)

G.SHIVA KUMAR

(07241A0359)

Under the guidance of

RATNA KIRAN

Assistant Professor

Mechanical Department

GOKARAJU RANGARAJU ISNTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

BACHUPALLY, KUKATPALLY, HYDERABAD-90

(AFFILIATED TO J.N.T.U, HYDERABAD)

APRIL 2011

GOKARAJU RANGARAJU ISNTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

BACHUPALLY, KUKATPALLY, HYDERABAD-90

(AFFILIATED TO J.N.T.U, HYDERABAD)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled

STATIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SPUR GEAR

Submitted by MR B.HARISH REDDY, MR G.SHIVA KUMAR in the partial fulfillment of

the requirements for the award of Bachelor of technology Degree in Mechanical Engineering

Jawaharlal Nehru Technology University, Hyderabad is an authentic work carried out by him

under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the

thesis has not been submitted to any other University / Institute for the award of any Degree.

Internal Guide

RATNA KIRAN

Assistant Professor

Mechanical Department

GRIET

Dr. KGK. MURTI

Sr. Professor and HOD

Mechanical Department

GRIET

The accomplishment of this project has been lot easier owing to cooperation of Concurrent

Analysis Pt. Ltd management of Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology.

We would like to thank the management of Concurrent Analysis Pt. Ltd for allowing us to take up

this project under them.

We would like to express our sincere thanks to our guide Mr. H.PRADEEP for helpful guidance.

We would like to express our deepest gratitude towards our guide Mr.RATNA KIRAN

(Associate Professor, Mechanical Department) for his constant help and encouragement during this

project.

We would like to thank Mr. Jandyala N Murthy (Principal, GRIET) and Mr. KGK Murthi

(HOD, Mechanical Department) for permitting us to take up this project work.

Lastly we would like to thank each and every person who helped directly or indirectly in the

successful completion of this project.

APRIL 2011

B.HARISH REDDY

G.SHIVA KUMAR

stresses, bending stresses, and the transmission errors of gears in mesh. Gearing is

one of the most critical components in mechanical power transmission systems.

The contact stresses were examined using 2-D FEM models. The bending stresses

in the tooth root were examined using a 3-D FEM model.

Current methods of calculating gear contact stresses use Hertzs equations, which

were originally derived for contact between two cylinders. To enable the

investigation of contact problems with FEM, the stiffness relationship between the

two contact areas is usually established through a spring placed between the two

contacting areas. This can be achieved by inserting a contact element placed in

between the two areas where contact occurs. The results of the two dimensional

FEM analyses from ANSYS are presented. These stresses were compared with the

theoretical values. Both results agree very well. This indicates that the FEM model

is accurate.

This thesis also considers the variations of the whole gear body stiffness arising

from the gear body rotation due to bending deflection, shearing displacement and

contact deformation. Many different positions within the meshing cycle were

investigated. Investigation of contact and bending stress characteristic of spur gears

continues to be of immense attention to both engineers and researchers in spite of

many studies in the past. This is because of the advances in the engineering

technology that demands for gears with ever increasing load capacities and speeds

with high reliability, the designers need to be able to accurately predict the stresses

experienced the stresses experienced by the loaded gears.

Table of figures

List of Symbols

Literature review

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Introduction to Gears

1.2 Definitions

1.2.1 Advantages

1.2.2 Disadvantages

1.3 Applications

1.4 Materials for Spur Gear

2.0 Theory

2.1 Internal Spur Gear

2.2 External spur Gear

2.3 Spur Gear Nomenclature

3.0 Mathematical equations

4.0 Finite Element Analysis

4.1 Introduction to FEA

4.3 Types of finite elements

5.0 Introduction To Catia V5

5.1 Overview of Solid Modeling

5.2 General Operation

5.3 Creating a Solid Model

5.4 Introduction to Drafting

6.0 Spur Gear Analysis & Results

6.1 Gear Analysis

6.2 Dynamic Analysis

6.3 Harmonic Analysis

7.0 Conclusion

8.0 Bibliography

Plastic Spur Gear in Film Winding

Spur Gear in Automatic Packing Machine

Spur Gear in Film Cutting

Internal Spur Gear

External Spur Gear

Nomenclature of spur gear

Properties Of Material

Gear 3-D model

Gear Meshed Model

Boundary Conditions

Vonmises stresses

Linearised stress along high stress region

Principal stress along X-axis

Principal stress along Y-axis

Principal stress along Z-axis.

Deflection in Usum.

Deflection along X-axis

Deflection along Y-axis

Model Analysis (Modes from 1-12)

Graph 1 Frequency v/s Amplitude in X- Direction Gear location.

Graph 2 Frequency v/s Amplitude in Y- Direction Gear location.

Graph 3 Frequency v/s Amplitude in Z- Direction Gear location.

Graph 4 Frequency v/s Amplitude in X,Y,Z- Direction Gear location.

Graph 5 Frequency v/s Amplitude in X- Direction Gear Teeth location.

Graph 6 Frequency v/s Amplitude in Y- Direction Gear Teeth location.

Graph 7 Frequency v/s Amplitude in Z- Direction Gear Teeth location.

Graph 1 Frequency v/s Amplitude in X,Y,Z- Direction Gear Teeth

location.

K Structural stiffness

u Displacement vector

F Applied load vector

Pmax Maximum contact stress

d1 Pinion pitch diameter

d2 Gear pitch diameter

Fi Load per unit width

Ri Radius of cylinder i

Pressure angle

i Poissons ratio for cylinder i

Ei Youngs modulus for cylinder i

H Maximum Hertz stress.

a Contact width

r Any radius to involute curve

rb Radius of base circle

Vectorial angle at the pitch circle

Vectorial angle at the top of tooth

Pressure angle at the pitch circle

Bg Tooth displacement vectors caused by bending and shearing of the gear

Hp Contact deformation vectors of tooth pair B for the pinion

Hg Contact deformation vectors of tooth pair B for the gear

p Transverse plane angular rotation of the pinion body

g Transverse plane angular rotation of the gear body

pd Diametric pitch

Y Lewis form factor

Ka Application factor

Ks Size factor

Km Load distribution factor

Kv Dynamic factor

Ft Normal tangential load

Yj Geometry factor

g Angular rotation of the output gear

p Angular rotation of the input gear

There has been a great deal of research on gear analysis, and a large body of literature on gear

modeling has been published. The gear stress analysis, the transmission errors, and the

prediction of gear dynamic loads, gear noise, and the optimal design for gear sets are always

major concerns in gear design. Errichello and Ozguven and Houser survey a great deal of

literature on the development of a variety of simulation models for both static and dynamic

analysis of different types of gears. The first study of transmission error was done by Harris.

He showed that the behavior of spur gears at low speeds can be summarized in a set of static

transmission error curves. In later years, Mark and analyzed the vibratory excitation of gear

systems theoretically. He derived an expression for static transmission error and used it to

predict the various components of the static transmission error spectrum from a set of

measurements made on mating pair of spur gears. Kohler and Regan discussed the derivation

of gear transmission error from pitch error transformed to the frequency domain. Kubo et al

estimated the transmission error of cylindrical gears using a tooth contact pattern. The current

literature reviews also attempt to classify gear model into groupings with particular relevance

to the research. The following classification seems appropriate:

Models of Gear system Dynamics

Models of A Whole Gearbox

Models for Optimal Design of Gear Sets

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Spur Gears are the most common means of transmitting power in the

modern mechanical engineering world. They vary from tiny size used in

the watches to the large gears used in marine speed reducers; bridge lifting

mechanism and railroad turn table drivers. They form vital elements of

main and ancillary mechanism in many machines such as automobiles,

tractors, metal cutting machine tools, rolling mills, hoisting and

transmitting machinery and marine engines etc.

The four major failure modes in gear systems are tooth bending fatigue,

contact fatigue, surface wear and scoring. Two kinds of teeth damage can

occur on gears under repeated loading due to fatigue; namely the pitting of

gear teeth flanks and tooth breakage in the tooth root. Tooth breakage is

clearly the worst damage case, since the gear could have seriously

hampered operating condition or even be destroyed. Because of this, the

stress in the tooth should always be carefully studied in all practical gear

application. The fatigue process leading to tooth breakage is divided into

crack initiation and crack propagation period. However, the crack initiation

period generally account for the most of service life, especially in high

cycle fatigue.

The initial crack can be formed due to various reasons. The most

common reasons are short-term overload, material defects, defects

due to mechanical or thermal treatment and material fatigue. The

initial crack then propagates under impulsive loading until some

critical length is reached, when a complete tooth breakage occurs.

The service life of a gear with a crack in the tooth root can be

determined experimentally or numerically (e.g. with finite element

method). The fatigue life of components subjected to sinusoidal

loading can be estimated by using cumulative damage theories.

Their extension to random load fatigue, through straightforward,

may not be very accurate owing to inherent scatter exhibition by the

fatigue phenomena. Due to the complexity in geometry and loading

on the structure, the finite element method is preferably adopted.

1) MODULE:

Module of a gear is defined as ratio of diameter to number of teeth.m= d/N

2) FACE WIDTH

The width along the contact surface between the gears is called the face width.

3) TOOTH THICKNESS

The thickness of the tooth along the pitch circle is called the tooth thickness.

4) ADDENDUM

The radial distance between the pitch circle and the top land of the gear is called the

addendum.3

5) DEDENDUM

The radial distance between the pitch circle and the bottom land of the gear is called the

dedendum.

6) PRESSURE ANGLE

The angle between the line joining the centers of the two gears and the common tangent to the

base circles.

1.2.1 ADVANTAGES

` Gear is one kind of mechanical parts. It can be widely used in industries. A

gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with

another toothed part in order to transmit torque.

` Spur gear is the simplest type of gear which consists of a cylinder or disk. Its

form is not straight-sided, thus, the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned

parallel to the axis of rotation. Only gears fit to parallel axles can they rotate

together correctly.

` As the most common type, spur gears are often used because they are the

simplest to design and manufacture. Besides, they are the most efficient. When

compared to helical gears, they are more efficient. The efficiency of a gear is

the power output of its shaft divided by the input power of its shaft multiplied

by 100. Because helical gears have sliding contact between their teeth, they

produce axial thrust, which in turn produces more heat. This causes a loss of

power, which means efficiency is lost.

` In addition to these, they also have many other advantages. Spur gears have a

much simpler construction than helical gears because their teeth are straight

rather than angular. Therefore, it is much easier to design and produce them.

And they will not fail or break easily. And this makes them cheaper to

purchase and to maintain which then leads to less cost.

Simplicity

Because their teeth are straight rather than angular, spur gears have a much

simpler construction than helical gears. As such, they are easier to produce, and

they tend not to break or fail as easily. This also makes them easier to find.

Efficiency

Spur gears are more efficient than helical gears. The efficiency of a gear is

the power output of its shaft divided by the input power of its shaft multiplied by

100. Because helical gears have sliding contact between their teeth, they produce

axial thrust, which in turn produces more heat. This causes a loss of power, which

means efficiency is lost.

Cost

Because spur gears are simpler, they are easier to design and manufacture, and

they are less likely to break. This makes them cheaper to purchase and to maintain.

1.2.3DISADVANTAGES

`

Although they are common and efficient, spur gears have disadvantages as

well. Firstly, they are very noisy when used at some speeds because the

entire face engages at once. Therefore, they're also known as slow-speed

gears. Secondly, they can only be used to transfer power between parallel

shafts. They cannot transfer power between non-parallel shafts. Thirdly,

when compared with other types of gears, they are not as strong as them.

They cannot handle as much of a load because the teeth are small and

situated parallel to the gear axis, rather than being large and situated

diagonally as the teeth on a helical gear are.

According to the above, we can conclude that spur gears have many

advantages as well as some disadvantages. Although sometimes, its

disadvantages may affect them a lot, their advantages still outweigh their

disadvantages. That is to say, spur gears are still popular among many

industries. And they can have good performances to meet people's

requirements

The image shows a Spur Gear and Plastic Spur Gears used in a

film winding component.

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wide variety is available. These includes

Steel

Nylon

Aluminium

Bronze

Cast iron

Phenolic

Bakelite

Plastics

This is actually a type of Spur Gear. Internal Spur Gears are not much

different from a regular spur gear. These gear by appearance shows pitch

surface that is cylindrical. Here the tooth is parallel to the axis. In case of

Internal Spur Gears, the gears are positioned to make internal contact. It is

also referred to popularly as Ring Gears. The output rotation produced by

the Ring gears is direction wise same as that of input rotation.

As is clear from the figure the gear tooth are cut from inside. A

typical Internal Spur Gear or Ring Gear consists of typically three or

four larger spur gears referred to as planets. That surrounds a

smaller central pinion referred to as sun. Normally, the ring gear

remains stationary. This is quite like our own Planetary system,

where the planets orbit round the sun in the same rotational

direction. It is quite obvious that this class of gear is known as a

planetary system. It is through a planet carrier that transmits the

orbiting motion of the planets to the output shaft.

freely. This is done by restricting the planets from orbiting round

the sun. This action results in the ring gear rotating in an opposite

direction to that of the sun. Thus a differential gear drive is effected

as a result of rotation of both the ring gear and the planet carrier.

The output speed of the shafts are interdependent.

External Spur Gears are the most popular and common type of spur gear. They has

their teeth cut on the outside surface of mating cylindrical wheels. While the larger

wheel is referred to as the gear and the smaller wheel is known as the pinion. Single

reduction stage is the most basic type of arrangement of single pair of spur gears.

Here the output rotation is in opposite direction to that of the input. In other

arrangements of multiple stages higher net reduction can be achieved where the

driven gear is connected rigidly to a third gear. This third gear in turn drives a

mating fourth gear. This serves as the ideal output for the second stage. In

this way, many output speeds on different shafts are produced starting from

a just single input rotation. The image given below shows the inside of

External Spur Gears.

Actually the working of External Spur Gear is best explained with the help

of Gear meshes. In the external mesh, the gears are made to rotate in

directions that are opposite. The Figure below shows a simple spur gear

mesh where the gears are meshing externally.

a): based on the compressive stress, c=0.7(i+1)/a*{(i+1/ib)*E[mt]}

b): based on the bending stress, b=0.7(i+1) (Mt) / {a x b x mn xYv}

The theoretical design calculations are performed using the input

parameters such as power for marine high speed engine, pinion speed, gear

ratio, pressure angle etc. i.e

Power P = 9000 KW,

Speed of Pinion N = 3500 rpm,

Gear Ratio i = 7,

Minimum centre distance based on surface compression strength is given by

a (7+1){.7/ c}2x{E[Mt]/i}

c = 0.7x ((i+1)/a) x((i+1)/ib) x E[Mt] (c)

Based on the Bending Stresses

b = 0.7x ((i+1)/abMnYv) x E[Mt] (c)

Based on the compressive stress

= 150.303N/ mm2

From the calculations, c and b are > [c] & [b] values of given material,

i.e., Aluminum alloy [98%Al2O3, 0.40.7% Mn, 0.40.7& Mg].

Therefore our design is safe.

Addendum, mn = 18 mm, Dedendum = 1.25 x mn = 22.5 mm,

Tip circle diameter of the pinion

Tip circle diameter of gear

Root circle diameter of pinion

Root circle diameter of gear

= d2 + (2 x addendum) = 2502.4+ 36 = 2538.46 mm

= d1 (2 x addendum) = 357.4 36 = 321.4 mm

= d2 (2 x addendum) = 2502.4 36 = 2466.4 mm

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When the gear transmits the power P, the tangential force produced due to

the power is given by

Ft = (PxKs/v)

V = (xDpxNp) / (60x1000)

= (x357.4x3500)/(60000)

= 65.51 m/s

Ft = (9000x103x2)/65.51

=274749.26

4.1Introduction

The Basic concept in FEA is that the body or structure may be

divided into a smaller elements of finite dimensions called Finite

Elements. The original body or the structure is then considered as

an assemblage of these elements connected at a finite number of

joints called Nodes or Nodal Points. Simple functions are

chosen to approximate the displacements over each finite element.

Such assumed functions are called shape functions. This will

represent the displacement with in the element in terms of the

displacement at the nodes of the element.

The Finite Element Method is a mathematical tool for solving

ordinary and partial differential equations. Because it is a numerical

tool, it has the ability to solve the complex problems that can be

represented in differential equations form. The applications of FEM

are limitless as regards the solution of practical design problems.

Due to high cost of computing power of years gone by, FEA has a history

of being used to solve complex and cost critical problems. Classical

methods alone usually cannot provide adequate information to determine

the safe working limits of a major civil engineering construction or an

automobile or an aircraft.

In the recent years, FEA has been universally used to solve structural

engineering problems. The departments, which are heavily relied on this

technology, are the automotive and aerospace industry. Due to the need to

meet the extreme demands for faster, stronger, efficient and lightweight

automobiles and aircraft, manufacturers have to rely on this technique to

stay competitive.

FEA has been used routinely in high volume production and manufacturing

industries for many years, as to get a product design wrong would be

detrimental. For example, if a large manufacturer had to recall one model

alone due to a hand brake design fault, they would end up having to replace

up to few millions of hand brakes. This will cause a heavier loss to the

company.

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The finite element method is a very important tool for those involved in

engineering design, it is now used routinely to solve problems in the

following areas.

Structural analysis

Thermal analysis

Vibrations and Dynamics

Buckling analysis

Acoustics

Fluid flow simulations

Crash simulations

Mold flow simulations

mesh of finite sized elements of simple shape. Within each element,

the variation of displacement is assumed to be determined by simple

polynomial shape functions and nodal displacements. Equations for

the strains and stresses are developed in terms of the unknown nodal

displacements. From this, the equations of equilibrium are

assembled in a matrix form which can be easily be programmed and

solved on a computer. After applying the appropriate boundary

conditions, the nodal displacements are found by solving the matrix

stiffness equation. Once the nodal displacements are known,

element stresses and strains can be calculated.

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Application of Boundary conditions

Assembling the system equations

Solution for system equations

Post processing the results.

Descritization of the domain: The task is to divide the continuum under study into

a number of subdivisions called element. Based on the continuum it can be divided

into line or area or volume elements.

Application of Boundary conditions: From the physics of the problem we have to

apply the field conditions i.e. loads and constraints, which will help us in solving

for the unknowns.

Assembling the system equations: This involves the formulation of respective

characteristic (Stiffness in case of structural) equation of matrices and assembly.

Solution for system equations: Solving for the equations to know the unknowns.

This is basically the system of matrices which are nothing but a set of simultaneous

equations are solved.

Viewing the results: After the completion of the solution we have to review the

required results.

The first two steps of the above said process is known as pre-processing

stage, third and fourth is the processing stage and final step is known as

post-processing stage.

What is an Element?

Element is an entity, into which a system under study can be divided into.

An element definition can be specified by nodes. The shape(area, length,

and volume) of the element depends upon the nodes with which it is made

up of.

Nodes are the corner points of the element. Nodes are independent entities

in the space. These are similar to points in geometry. By moving a node in

space an element shape can be changed.

0-D Element :

This has the shape of the point, it requires only one node to define it

1-D Element :

This has the shape of the line/curve and hence requires minimum of two

nodes to define it.

2-DElement:

This is an n area element, which has the shape of the quadrilateral/triangle

and hence requires minimum four/three nodes to define it.

3-DElements:

This is a volume element, can take the shape of a Hexahedron or a Wedge

or a Tetrahedron. Hexahedron element requires 8 nodes to define its shape.

A Penta element requires 6 nodes to define its shape. Similarly 4 nodes are

order when it doesnt have any mid side nodes. If the mid side nodes are

present then those elements are called Quadratic or 2nd order elements.

For linear elements the edge is defined by a linear function called shape

function whose degree is one. For the elements having mid side nodes on

the edge quadratic function called shape function whose degree is two is

used.

The higher order elements when over lapped on geometry can represent

complex shapes very well within few elements. Also the solution accuracy

more with the higher order elements. But higher order elements will

require more computational effort and time

i.e., natural frequencies and mode shapes of a linear structure. It is also

used as a starting point for other dynamic analysis

Harmonic Response Analysis: This is used to determine the steady state

response of a structure to loads that vary harmonically with time.

Transient Dynamic Analysis: This is used to determine the response of

the structure under the action of any general time dependent loads

Spectrum Analysis: This is used to determine the response of the structure

to random loading

Brief Over View of Thermal Analysis:

In thermal analysis we can simulate the system for the effects conduction,

convection, and radiation. We can study the steady state response as well

as transient response of the system subjected to temperature loading. In

case of thermal analysis, the respective heat balance equations are solved.

`

This software enables designers and engineers to bring better products to

the market faster. It takes care of the entire product definition to

serviceability. CATIA delivers measurable value to manufacturing

companies of all sizes and in all industries.

CATIA is used in a vast range of industries from manufacturing of rockets

to computer peripherals. With more than 1 lakh seats installed in

worldwide many cad users are exposed to CATIA and enjoy using CATIA

for its power and capability.

CATIA MODULE

CATIA design.

CATIA production.

CATIA shipbuilding.

CATIA routed systems.

CATIA foundation.

Use the Sketcher to freehand a sketch, and dimension an "outline" of

Curves. You can then sweep the sketch using Extruded Body or Revolved

Body to create a solid or sheet body. You can later refine the sketch to

precisely represent the object of interest by editing the dimensions and by

creating relationships between geometric objects. Editing a dimension of

the sketch not only modifies the geometry of the sketch, but also the body

created from the sketch.

Creating and Editing Features

Feature modeling lets you create features such as holes, extrudes and

revolves on a model. You can then directly edit the dimensions of the

feature and locate the feature by dimensions. For example, a Hole is

defined by its diameter and length. You can directly edit all of these

parameters by entering new values. You can create solid bodies of any

desired design that can later be defined as a form feature using User

Defined Features. This lets you create your own custom library of form

features.

Associativity

Associatively is a term that is used to indicate geometric

relationships between individual portions of a model. These

relationships are established as the designer uses various functions

for model creation. In an associative model, constraints and

relationships are captured automatically as the model is developed.

For example, in an associative model, a through hole is associated

with the faces that the hole penetrates. If the model is later changed

so that one or both of those faces moves, the hole updates

automatically due to its association with the faces. See Introduction

to Feature Modeling for additional details.

Positioning a Feature

Within Modeling, you can position a feature relative to the

geometry on your model using Positioning Methods, where you

position dimensions. The feature is then associated with that

geometry and will maintain those associations whenever you edit

the model. You can also edit the position of the feature by changing

the values of the positioning dimensions.

Reference Features

You can create reference features, such as Datum Planes, Datum Axes and

Datum CSYS, which you can use as reference geometry when needed, or

as construction devices for other features. Any feature created using a

reference feature is associated to that reference feature and retains that

association during edits to the model. You can use a datum plane as a

reference plane in constructing sketches, creating features, and positioning

features. You can use a datum axis to create datum planes, to place items

concentrically, or to create radial patterns.

Expressions

The Expressions tool lets you incorporate your requirements and design

restrictions by defining mathematical relationships between different parts

of the design. For example, you can define the height of a extrudes as three

times its diameter, so that when the diameter changes, the height changes

also.

modeling techniques such as sketching, feature based modeling, and

dimension driven editing. An excellent way to begin a design concept is

with a sketch. When you use a sketch, a rough idea of the part becomes

represented and constrained, based on the fit and function requirements of

your design. In this way, your design intent is captured. This ensures that

when the design is passed down to the next level of engineering, the basic

requirements are not lost when the design is edited.

The strategy you use to create and edit your model to form the desired

object depends on the form and complexity of the object. You will likely

use several different methods during a work session. The next several

figures illustrate one example of the design process, starting with a sketch

and ending with a finished model. First, you can create a sketch "outline"

of curves. Then you can sweep or rotate these curves to create a complex

portion of your design.

variety of drawings made from models generated from within the Modeling

application. Drawings created in the Drafting application are fully

associative to the model. Any changes made to the model are automatically

reflected in the drawing. This associativity allows you to make as many

model changes as you wish. Besides the powerful associativity

functionality, Drafting contains many other useful features including the

following:

An intuitive, easy to use, graphical user interface. This allows you to create

drawings quickly and easily.

A drawing board paradigm in which you work "on a drawing." This

approach is similar to the way a drafter would work on a drawing board.

This method greatly increases productivity.

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This allows the drafter to make drawings at the same time as the

designer works on the model.

The capability to create fully associative cross-sectional views with

automatic hidden line rendering and crosshatching.

Automatic orthographic view alignment. This allows you to quickly

place views on a drawing, without having to consider their

alignment.

Automatic hidden line rendering of drawing views.

The ability to edit most drafting objects (e.g., dimensions, symbols,

etc.) from the graphics window. This allows you to create drafting

objects and make changes to them immediately.

On-screen feedback during the drafting process to reduce rework

and editing.

User controls for drawing updates, which enhance user productivity.

Finally, you can add form features, such as chamfers, holes,

slots, or even user defined features to complete the object.

An assembly can be created containing all of the setup, such as fixtures,

necessary to machine a particular part. This approach has several

advantages over traditional methods:

machined.

It lets the NC programmer generate fully associative tool paths for models

for which the programmer may not have write access privilege.

simultaneously.

6.1Gear Analysis

` The objective of the analysis is to perform Structural static

analysis on the gear by applying tangential load and examine

the deflections and stresses and calculate the factor of safety.

`

converted into parasolid file.

The parasolid file is imported into ansys and is meshed with 8 node solid45

element type. The structure, number of nodes and input summary of the

element is given below.

` SOLID45 is used for the 3-D modeling of solid structures. The

element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of

freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z

directions.

` The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for

this element are shown in Figure: "SOLID45 Geometry". The

element is defined by eight nodes and the orthotropic material

properties. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the

element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system

orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.

`

`

`

`

`

`

`

`

`

Nodes

I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

Degrees of Freedom

UX, UY, UZ

Material Properties

EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ),

ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ or THSX, THSY,

THSZ), DENS, GXY, GYZ, GXZ, DAMP

Surface Loads

Pressures -Face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N), face 4 (K-L-PO), face 5 (L-I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P)

Body Loads

Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P)

Solid 45 a Hexahedral element used for meshing.

Total number of elements = 199800

Tangential Load of 274749N is applied on the gear teeth

Total number of nodes = 398104

Aluminum

Youngs Modulus = 3.4 E4 N/mm2

Poissons Ratio = 0.22

Ultimate tensile strength = 260 N/mm2

Yeild strength = 165 N/mm2

Boundary Condition

Tangential Load along x-axis = 274749N

Centre shaft location is arrested in all DOF.

Results and discussion:

Maximum stress observed = 140 N/mm2 which is a stress singularity and can be

ignored.

linearised stress at the high stress region = 49 N/mm2 which is within the design

limit.

elements = 199800 and 398104 nodes.

Maximum vonmises stress observed in aluminum gear is 140

N/mm2 which is because of stress singularity and can be

ignored.

Maximum linearised vonmises stress observed in aluminum

gear is 49 N/mm2 within the design limit with a factor of

safety of 3.

Maximum deflection of 0.4mm observed in the gear along xdirection.

analysis has been performed to calculate natural frequencies

and mode shapes.

Both Modal and Harmonic analysis have been performed on

the turbine blade to see the structure behavior at different

frequencies between the frequency range of 0 1500 Hz

Modal analysis is used to determine the vibration

characteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of a

structure or a machine component while it is being designed. It

can also serve as a starting point for another, more detailed,

dynamic analysis, such as a transient dynamic analysis, a

harmonic response analysis, or a spectrum analysis.

You use modal analysis to determine the natural frequencies and mode

shapes of a structure. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are

important parameters in the design of a structure for dynamic loading

conditions. They are also required if you want to do a spectrum analysis or

a mode superposition harmonic or transient analysis.

You can do modal analysis on a prestressed structure, such as a spinning

turbine blade. Another useful feature is modal cyclic symmetry, which

allows you to review the mode shapes of a cyclically symmetric structure

by modeling just a sector of it.

First 10 natural frequencies have been calculated for the gear model using

modal analysis.

`

`

`

`

`

`

`

`

`

`

`

Aluminum

Youngs Modulus = 3.4 E4 N/mm2

Poissons Ratio = 0.22

Density = 2700 kg/mm3

Ultimate tensile strength = 260 N/mm2

Yeild strength = 165 N/mm2

Element Type: 8 node Solid 45

Shape of the element: Hexahedral

No. of .dof: 3(ux, uy, uz)

Results & Discussions:

First 10 Natural frequencies

Mode-5

Mode7:

Mode9:

The harmonic analysis is performed on the gear between the range of 500

to 1600Hz and the structure behavior at different frequencies is observed

due to applied tangential load of 274947N.

Any sustained cyclic load will produce a sustained cyclic response (a

harmonic response) in a structural system. Harmonic response analysis

gives you the ability to predict the sustained dynamic behavior of your

structures, thus enabling you to verify whether or not your designs will

successfully overcome resonance, fatigue, and other harmful effects of

forced vibrations.

Harmonic response analysis is a technique used to determine the steadystate response of a linear structure to loads that vary sinusoidally

(harmonically) with time. The idea is to calculate the structure's response at

several frequencies and obtain a graph of some response quantity (usually

displacements) versus frequency. "Peak" responses are then identified on

the graph and stresses reviewed at those peak frequencies.

location

From the above modal analysis the fundamental natural frequency is found

at 504.92Hz.

From the above analysis it is concluded that the gear model is free of

vibrations in the operation speed of 0-50 Hz.

fatigue testing of gear teeth under random loading Proc. Instn. Mech.

Engrs, Vol.(215). Part C: pp 773-784

Glodez. S, Sraml. M, Kramberger. J, (2202), A computational modelfor

determination of service life of gears, International Journal of fatigue,

Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 1010-1020.

Glodez. S, Abersek. B, Flasker. J, Ren. Z, (2004), Evaluation of the

service life of gears in regard to surface pitting, Engineering Fracture

Mechanics, Volume 71, Issue 4-6, pp 429-438.

Direct Gear Design for Spur and Helical Involute Gears Alexander L.

Kapelevich and Roderick E. Kleiss www.geartechnology.com GEAR

TECHNOLOGY SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2002

mathematical and experimental models for determination of service

life of gears, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Volume 71, pp 439453.

Q.J. Yang (1996), Fatigue test and reliability of TLP tethers under

random loading, Marine structures, Volume 14, pp331-352.

Statistical considerations in Fatigue (1996), Fatigue and

Fracture, ASM Handbook, Volume 19, pp 295-302.

Structural life assessment Methods (2001), Failure Analysis and

Prevention, ASM Handbook, Volume 11, pp 225-289.

Julius S. Bendat, Allan G. Piersol (1966), Measurement and

Analysis of Random Data, John wiley and sons, Inc. USA.

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