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V

AN

GRAMMAR

ITALIAN

EXERCISES

WITH

BY

YOUNG

VANCE

MARY

"i

Languages, Mount

Professor of Romance

Holyoke College

UNIVERSITY

NEW

HENRY

HOLT

YORK

AND
1904

COMPANY

"

"
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

",

"

"

Copyright,

1904,

BY

HENRY

ROBERT

HOLT

DRUMMOND,

AND

COMPANY

PRINTER,

NEW

YORK

PREFACE.

book

This

Practical

of

lack

of

chapter

and

In

taken

the

up

the

reason

(the

chapter

are

Numerals

and

with

reading
that

Although
out,

be

rather

oral

quite

no

is

way

mentioned

book

claims

to

be

which

Regole
material

and

the

book.

in

connection

for

work
in

ed

the

to

well

as

reference.

independently

been
a

fixes
pre-

nouns,

chapter,

has

the

of

than

largely

consulted
Moise's

from

This

the

auxiliaries

of

learned

intended

before

on

dictionary
be

same

lesson)

end

the

widely

means

that

at

the

of the

grammars

Italiana,

follow

to

first

by

are

the

principal

the

exercises.

part

it in

the

nouns

conveniently

may
or

of
not

of

treated

every

Among

Lingua

does

prepositions,

on

from

modification

belong

grammar

pupil

forms

given

are

of

inflection

for

and

the

verbs

on

rather

is

chapter,

those

verbs

conjugations
tenses

first

irregular

regular,

for

verbal

regular

for

rules

after

before

the

on

the

to

suffixes

numerals

that

harmony
taken

the

in

irregular

present

the

on

and

should

that

familiar

being

placed

on

regular

auxiliaries

worked

chapter

from

separated

is

learned

thoroughly

be

given

order

be

general

being

adjectives

on

pronouns.

may

as

adjectives

than

might

the

instance,

reference.

and

use

more

what

explain

For

plan.

inflection
the

will

This

class

considered

been

has

utility

of. design.

for

intended

is

its

of

tion.
investiga-

preparation
della

Osservazioni
for

the

lists
iii

of

PREFACE.

iv

has

prepositions,etc.,
and

for

Benelli-Marucelli's

dictionaries

of

Josselyn'sEtude
the Italian

on

schen

author

for

book

in

read

the

manuscript;

chapter
to Mr.

whose

by
the

Mr.
the

and

Grandgent
a

device

certain

whose

by

Fraser

Messrs.

the

The

borrowed

material

various

sources.

history

no

few

oral

for

the

In

exercises

are

make

D. C. Heath

"

representingto

the

eye

that

adopted;

was

the

French

and

taken

been

from
facts

Italian

the

the

from

school

assumed.

is

from

sitions.
prepo-

gathered

an

furnished, since
own

on

to

nished
fur-

Grammar

chapter

on

words

English

Spanish Grammar;

has

to

paragraphs

and

in the

ployed
em-

Only

teacher

will

vocabulary

in

useful

to

exercises.

The

author

her Romanic

kindly point

hopes
fellow
out

that

this

Grammar

workers, and

that

Holyoke

may

they

be

in return

its defects.
Mary

Mount

Co.,

Grammar

seq.

the

gestions;
sug-

to

exercises

his

valuable

verbs, similar

his

that

of

most

made

Italian

190

furnished

who

read

Messrs.

responsibility for

usually prefer to

and

Squair, whose

for No.

model

der Romani-

Josselyn, Jr.,who

permission

from

and

the section

and
,

Comba,

and

for

correspondences between
been

T.

Freeman

Grandgent's

Ramsey,

have

the

Mr.

phonetics

on

irregularitiesof
Mr.

to Mr.

exercises

to

permission

in

several

Edgren,

helpful.

thanks

returns

material

the

been

of

Grundriss

in Grober's

language

hints.

given

and

phouetiqueitalienne

Philologiehave

The

also

have

Rigutini-Fanfani
la

sur

mar;
Gram-

Mariotti's

and

drawn,

parts Meyer-Liibke's, Grandgent's,

certain

Sauer's, and
The

been

College,

September,

1903.

Vance

Young.

will

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS.
PAGE

Orthography,

Pronunciation,

Graphic

and

Signs

CHAPTERS

I.
II.

Articles

Principles.

First
Articles

27

Syntax

Prepositions.

with

Nouns

and

ticle
Ar-

the

of

29

III.

Nouns,

IV.

Regular

V.
VI.

Gender

their

Number

and

37

Verbs

48

Verbs

Auxiliary

56

Pronouns.

Personal

Personal

Disjunctive

nouns
Pro-

65
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.

Personal

Conjunctive
Adjectives

Pronouns.

Reflexive

Verbs

72

Participles

and

82

Possessives

98
Relatives.

Demonstratives.

Interrogatives.

definites
In-

102

XT.

XII.

Prefixes

Suffixes

and

Verbs.

Irregular

111

Impersonal

Verbs.

Defective

Verbs
XIII.
XIV.
XV.

116

Dependent

Prepositions.

Infinites

Moods

Conjunctions.
Numerals

Adverbs.

and

and

123

Tenses

Numerical

142

Values.

terjections
In-

156
Irregular
Alphabetical

Verbs

by

Table

Conjugations
of

Irregular

171

Verbs

198

Exercises

207

Italian-English

Vocabulary

English-Italian

Vocabulary

244

258

Index

269
v

UNIVE

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

GRAPHIC

AND

ORTHOGRAPHY,

PRONUNCIATION

SIGNS.

i.

The

followingtables
in

used

all the

contain

narily
ordi-

sounds

Italian, classified according

spoken

to

of their production.
localityand to the manner
(a) Vowels are distinguishedwith reference to their
Consonants
(/?)
localityonly, as frontand back vowels.
classified (a) according to locality,as:
(i) biare
dentals,
labials,formed by the upper and lower lips; (2) labioformed
by the lower lip and the upper teeth;
teeth;
(3) linguo-dentals, by the tongue and upper
the

against
the front part of the hard
palate; (5) back-palatals,
by the ridge of the tongue against the back part of
the hard
palate; (6) gutturals, by the ridge of the
against the soft palate; (b) according to
tongue
the

by
(4) front-palatals,

tip

the

of

tongue

production, as: (1) stops, to form which


is stoppedby the actual touching or closing
the breath
in p\ (2) continuants, in which
the
of the organs,
as
is only squeezed, not
breath
stopped, as in /; (3)
of

manner

liquids,which
they partake
These
into

cords

classes

differ from
more

vibrate.

the

of consonants

voiceless,in the
do

of

continuants

other

of

character
also

must

production

of

vowels,

be

vibrate, and

voiced, in which

For

instance, p

is

stop, i.e.,in forming it the

breath

voiceless
is

/.

as

subdivided

which

not

the

in that

the

vocal

they

do

bi-labial

stopped by

the

i'italiangrammar.

\ ," : : .;
'

"

"

lip, the vocal

the upper 'againstthe lower


//touching'of;
'
'

b is the

and
vibrating,'

cOfds not

with

same

vibration of

key-word is given for each


in question
sound, the letter representingthe sound
being printedin heavy type. The approximate English
correspondent in each case is given below (5,12 sq.2).
An

cords.1

the vocal

Italian

VOWELS.
Front
1

Back

Vowels.

Vowels.

(inni)
i

(inni)
e

u
0

(fremere)
" (fremere)
a

(rumore)

popolo)
(popolo)
'9(popolo)

(fremere)
e

(una)

(ama)
(ama)

CONSONANTS,

(a) Simple

the
2

Any

This

simple

sound

work

can

on

as

Consonants.

yet be only tentatively classified.

phonetics

may

serve

tables.

Heavy-face figuresrefer

to

paragraphs.

to

further

elucidate

CONSONANTS.

(b)

Compound

Consonants.

These

are
thirty-sixsounds
graphically represented
k, w, x, and y not occurring
by twenty-two letters,
in the Italian alphabet. Otherwise
it is the same
the English.
letters of the alphabet and
their
Italian
3. The
2.

as

are

names

(a) K,

y,

x,

(b) The

w,

iccase

called cappa,

letters

the

are

in the

same

singular:i bi, the b's; glia, the a's.


gender of the letters of the alphabet

(c) The
variable,but
ending in
with

"nne

occurring only in foreign words,


ics,ipsilon,
doppio vu.
or

of the

names

in the

as

follows:

as

and

in
are

general
feminine

elision of the

i,0,
i.e.,

u, and

the

"

and

and

the

(lazeta, "the

"the

while

n"),

ending

consonants

are

plural

is

what
some-

consonant

z" ; l,"nne la
=

the

in

other

i,0,

or

n,

ters,
letare

masculine.
4. The

of that
1

and

These
12

number

of

sounds

of the letters used


names

sq. before

being

Italian

attempting

to

to

being

so

much

in

excess

represent them, it is evi-

words,

the

pronounce

pupil should
them.

refer to

ITALIAN

dent

that

one

more

than

one

character
sound.

is much

student

to

represent

Italian

howorthography, ever,
lish
nearly phonetic than is the Engwith

instruction

and

care

every

acquire a really good pronunciation


language. The rules given below (5 sq.) will

found

bear

used

should

of the
be

more

be

must

The

French, and

or

GRAMMAR.

in

useful, although
mind

the

pupil should always


the comparisons therein made
with

that

to him
are
alreadyknown
only approximate, no
Italian sound
the English sound
as
beingquitethe same
most
sound
should
be
nearly resembling it. The
learned by imitation.
The teacher is therefore advised
to pronounce
the Italian key-word slowly,the pupil
noting carefullyhis pronunciation.

sounds

VALUE

OF

THE

LETTERS
Value

(a)
has

5. I

OF

of the

approximately

the

THE

ALPHABET.

Vowels.

of

sounds

English

eel

in "meet".
has

approximately

pin", or,
in
hurry

when

11

' '

"

in

called

sound
1

of

word

English

i in

(as in poi),of y

the
is

approximately

the

sound

mate".3

"open

English e

English vowels,
are

"

e", has

the

is, of

That

of

of

English a
E,

end

sounds

E, called "close
of

the

at

the

in

"

e", has

approximately

the

met".

firstpart of the ee in "meet".


really a diphthong, while the

This,
Italian

as

all

vowels

pure.
2

the

The

pupil may

will in the
3

i's will

two

That

learn

meantime

is,of

the

not

be

them

graphically distinguished
by ear and by imitation.

all purposes.
firstpart of the sound.

in this
The

book;
first i

answer

Cf.

above, foot-note

1.

VALUE

has

is

LETTERS

approximately
a

pupil may
between
the

THE

OF

the

neutral

more

these

in

difficult to

himself

apportunity of hearing

father".

"

The

distinguish

to

his ear,

Italians

describe.

not

Later

sounds.

two

ALPHABET.

of

sound

first content

at

THE

OF

if he

speak, will

has

detect

the difference.

o", has

9, called "open
is

sound

the

between

in

English equivalent.

no
"

"

paw

the

and

in

"

It
1 "

pop
t "

nearlythat given in parts of Maine to the 0 in road


The
"coat".
sound, although difficult of explanation,
be readilylearned by imitation.
may
0, called "close 0", has approximately the sound
of o in
pope".
U has approximately the sound
of 00 in "too".
of 00 in 'toot".
U has approximately the sound
"

"

Between

the

close o, there is

subtle

shades

6. Attention

intermediate

an

detect

may

the close e, the open

and

open

ear

and

of sounds

not

by

is called

sounds, produced alone

to

and

which

sound

and

the

the

dent
stu-

learn

by imitation, such
tion.
being capable of defini-

the

fact

that

in the order

the

given in

vowel
graph
para-

beginning with i and going down the left side


of the triangle,
then up the right,recede continually
and
Therefore
the
i-e-a
regularly in the mouth.
series is called the front,the a-o-u
the back series.
From
the lipsare also regularlymore
a to u
and more
1

rounded.1

Mr.

Josselyn (Etude
calls

reason

the

name

our

back

the

a-o-u

of anterior.

series.

phonetique italienne, p. 13) for this


the i-e-a series
series the labial, giving to
His anterior therefore =our
his labial
jro)it,
sur

la

ITALIAN

7. All

vowels

as

in

GRAMMAR.

well

all consonantal

as

sounds

in
quicker,more
energeticmanner
Italian than in English (althoughthe former are somewhat
less energeticthan
the French
vowels). One
must
reallywork harder in pronouncing them.
vowels
do
The
tend to become
never
neutral, nor

produced

are

the consonants
is the

as

This

take

ever

in

case

is what

after

them

English.
gives to spoken

neutral

Italian

its

vowel,

peculiarly

effect.

staccato

8. The

is the

only

real

distinction

In words

offered
difficulty

of open

and

close

the

by
and

vowels

o.

of

popular development, i.e.,such as


always been a part of the spoken language, the
1 is represented generallyin Italian
e or
by an
Latin e or ae by an ", 6 or u by 0, 6 or au by 9.
It follows
and

uo

are

that

accented

and

in the

Latin
e, the

groups

ie

open:

Pi"de, foot ("pedem);


But:

have

godere,

(" capillum) ;

buQno, good

("b6num).

capello, hair
enjoy ("gaudere);
loro, their ("illorum); volto, face ("vulto

tum).
MORE

SPECIAL

9. E

RULES

THE

FOR

QUALITY

OF

THE

is close:
In

syllables.2
(2) In monosyllables,3whether
standing
composition with other words:
(1)

in
1

The

VOWELS.

unaccented

first element

in these

alone

or

not
being a consonant, they cantable
also
of conso28, Rem.
diphthongs.
(1),
nants,
where
the i is registeredas j, the u as w.
2
This e is really medium
close,but for practical purposes
may
be regarded as close.
3
which
not
Words
are
normally monosyllabic but which have

be

called

groups

See

Me,

with

meco,

me;

LETTERS

THE

OF

VALUE

prepositioncon);

e,

THE

OF

ALPHABET.

of

(a compound

me

i tre

and;

the

re,

7
and

me

the

kings; che,

three

that, which.

",*is; "h! (exclamation); ch", nonsense!;

Exceptions:

(musical note); be, (imitation of the


of foreignorigin;as, il t",tea.
Also words
is

in

ending
by the

(3) In oxytones
regularlymarked

Perche, why, because;

sheep).

vowel,2 which

vowel

(see 32 a) :

accent

grave

feared.

he

teme,

of

bah

re,

Moses;

Mos",
as,
Exceptions: (a) Proper names;
Giosu",Joshua.
of foreign origin3; as, caff",coffee;
(b) Nouns

canap",

sofa.

interjectionsahime,
is,that is to say".

imm", ohim";

(c) The
"that

In the

accented

indicative

and

(4)

indicative
In

(5)

of
the

Mostreremo,

(6) In

of '-ere verbs.

endings

adverbial

the

ending

temerete,

ending

-mento

(See 67 (2).)

of verbs

-rete

-remo,

shall show;

we

become
Ex.:
1

so

But

These

Notice

In

not

cases

fear.

the

stantive
sub-

contraction

by
that

for

this

naturally

sfi,
has

in

"

thou

the

conj. Or, more


exactly,
to distinguishit from
the
2

and

jugations:
con-

going, gait.5

is close:

s"' (notse'),
Notice

of all

shall

you

-mente

Felicemente, happily; andamento,


10.

cio",4

ending of the infinitive,imperfect


subjunctive,and of the preterite

and

-ere

also

never

the
not

to

compounding
covered

accent

by

form

of

under

come

to

conjunction

verbal

pi|, contraction
conform

not

the

rule.

distinguish it from

does

not

pi"de.

e,

rules

take

the

(32 (b) (1)).


Cf.

note

rule.
with

this

".

art

grave

the

do

"is".
the

is open.

to

(2).

grave

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

(i) In unaccented

syllables.1
monosyllablesending with

(2) In

Con, with;
But

11.

not.

non,

accented

vowel, i.e.,where

is open

ending

in oxytones

monosyllablesand

in

consonant2:

ends

that

word,

in
o

S9, I know;

hg, I have;

mostrerg,

Lo, definite

Exceptions:

article

I shall show.
and

also

pronoun;

contractions.

[BUT3In all cases

(1) and

e's and

paragraph

P, b, f,v,

12.

in

as

m,

the

in the mouth.
T and

into

1,and

and

cated
quality indiindicatingthe close,
their

pronounced approximately
stops being, however, more
1 being made
farther forward
q3 are

"

are

so

different

n,

graph
(para-

Consonants.

of the

Value

English,the

and
explosive,4

13.

have

signs,e and 0
pronunciation.

(b)

first rule

(1)),i.e.,all accented

10

diacritic

9 the open

the

by

o's, will in this book

by
" and

covered

not

farther

much

forward

They

sound-category.

as

to

come

not,

are

as

in

the tip of
linguo-dentals,
back of the teeth in producing

English, post-dentals,but
the tongue

touching the

them.
Cf. 9 (1). Not
heart".
cupre,
1

where

the

is

contraction

of

uo

in

cQr, for

"

not

Notice

Q is

the
not

to

difference
be

found

between
in

the

and

table

o.

of consonants

but equals k followed


by
simple consonant
always represents this sound, like English q
a

never

represents k.

"Cf. 7-

it is

because
w.

in

The

Italian

"quick".

It

VALUR

and

14.

THE

OF

Before

LETTERS

voiceless, somewhat

back-palatal stops, c the


English 'cat", 'kid", g
English got :
' '

Canto,

But

(a)

the

as

in

as

in

that

of

voiced, somewhat

' '

in

sing (c as

gola, throat
15.

quite different sounds.


vowels, a, o, u, they represent the

back

the

MET.

ALPHA

two

represent

THE

OF

(g

in

as

English "can");
English "go").

before the front

represents

sound

English ch, i.e.,it

vowels,

i:

like

somewhat

into

passes

and

the

category of

pound
com-

consonants:

like ch

Cielo, sky (c pronounced


to look

for

(b)

(the first c pronounced ch,

also becomes

corresponding

'chain'*); cercare,
second

the

compound

voiceless

and

Gentile, nice (g almost


almost

as

in the

as

in

k).
consonant,

represents

English 'gentle",but

in

legislatura(g

voiced

the

to

like that

sound

in

ble:
forci-

more

cognate "gentle");

corresponding English

the

word).
Remark.
as

Cc,

simple

the

saggio, wise (gg


Where

stop stands
inserted

Chiave,

to

(cc

or

before

one

indicate

key

like tch

like g in
c

and

i have

the

sound

same

only prolonged:

consonant,

Caccio, I hunt

16.

before

gg

the

in

"sage",

'catch", but
but

prolonged).

representing the
of the

front

voiceless

(the initial

sound

prolonged);

back-palatal

vowels,

an

is

pronunciation:
in
the
as
English

word).
Ghirlanda, garland (the initial sound
word).
Ch
17.

never

has

the

sound

Ng is like the

given

English

to

as

it in

sound

in

English

the

English

"

chin".

in, for instance,

ITALIAN

io

GRAMMAR.

"coming", with a distinct hard


sound
however, forming but one
I

Vengo,

vcnggo); lingua, tongue

(pronounced

come

it, the two,

after

(litiggua).
This

same

the stop

before

or

sound

ng

is

given

to

alone

an

before

again (angkora); dunque, therefore (dungkwe).


followed
Consonantal
unaccented
u
by a
u, i.e.,

Ancora,
8.

vowel, x has almost

the sound
like

(u almost

Ucjmo, man

of

Englishw

in

"woman");

guanto, glove (gwanto).


U

which
19.

might

be written

S has

two

the

it in

given to

English "museum",

"mew".

(1) it is voiceless

in Italian:

sounds

the

in "maze".

like

(2) it is voiced

'hearse";

English "see",
in "hears", or

in

as

sound

has the

never

general

The

rule is:
S initial followed
consonants

by

f, p, q, t;

c,

also

voiceless consonant,

Santo, saint;

vowel

by

less
of the voice-

one

followed

medial

voiceless

are

ss,

spiare,to

stone;

sasso,

or

as

in

by
"

see":

fresco, fresh;

spy;

asfalto,asphalt.
S medial

voiced

the

vowels,2

between

Sgridare,to scold;
But

intervocalic

(a) After
(where the
1

Accented
''two"

due,
2

the

This
s

is

is

(u

as

rule does

are

voiced

as

museum.

is voiceless:

by

in the

pre,

pro,

re,

ri, tra

vowel

retains

its vowel

sound.

Ex.:

English "duel").

apply

not
=

1, r,

:
reallyinitial)

really initial,
the

n,

prefixes de, di,

followed

museo,
s

the
s

m,

initial before

or

/.

-^-^

use

b, d, g,

consonants

""

""

in

medial

to

si dice.

is also initial.

cases

In

like dicesi,

compounds

"they say",
like

where

flower",
girasole,"sun-

Mu

Pisa

parastto
'

'

Mussulm.-nnv

MM

pi

susmo

befoi

Sc

"
"

S*ic'.'::i

"\\

"

'

"""'"'

s"

"

ic4toU

ik

'

"

"

"

""..-..""

\n

Kch

cl

'

"

i
'

"
"

""

"

tes this sound

r
;

CHI-

tS

a"ut,
"

'":" ..'

to.
.

"4"fctt*

"

24.

what
" "

i.in

THB

OF

VALtJB
(ii

indicates

1i1"i

that oi

LETTERS

THE

OF

xi.i'ii \iu.

1, a
usuallythe Liquid
in in "brilliant",
or oi

sound
in

ii

[3

some

Brazil

'

'

and
In-idle;
Brij"lia,
^li (article

pronoun),
"to neglect",and its derivativi
(./) But in tieglfgere,
the k' ,:; sounded as
English,also in Angli,Anglicano,
in

and " few other rare word


geroglffico,
glicerlna,
These words are not thoroughly [talianized.
winch
bears ili"."5- Gte represents liquidn, a sound
relation i"" "" as does liquid1 to l. Ii. somewhal
same
resembles the sound ""i nl in "union",
'onion", 01

that

1 "i

French

nj; in

'

montagne

lamb.
VergQgna,shame; agngllo,
;iikI zz usuallyrepresent 8 ti very energeti
26. z
the corresponding
callyenunciated, but sometimes

voiced sound
In

dz.

generala

derived

the voiceless (is) sound,

from

Latin t, ct,
from

one

Latin

pt has

or

"i or

(deck

{ the voiced (dz) :


Grdzia,
tidneui);

no/.zc,

But;

gratiam); azione,action

f.-ivor (

ju-.k-c,

w"-"

rozzo,

l"Inn; (

rude

QUpti"f) all Willi


rudum); zona,

Is

"

iOUnd.
with

/one

ai

dz

sound.

The

rule:; may
following

The

s"

Thia

licelessi

comparison,as
Inadequate.

the middle
and

makes

tion

near

'*

helpful.

it is initialor

when

it

is medial

consonant:

very

1.

v"

Generallywhen

(a)

after

lund is

also be

1 he

as

sounds

Tin-

oi the tongue

the

See note

well

given below

.in-

ww/"/r

foi the
In

liquido,

forming them

flat against the hard palate


In withdrawing the tip from Its po 1

lies almost

ordinary a,

bacl" 1 ii 1 he uppei
to 24.

thai

teeth.

ITALIAN

14
i

Zio, uncle;

GRAMMAR.

"

remainder.

avanzo,

it is followed

(6) When

by

plus a

vowel

Prezioso, precious; gzio,leisure; avarizia, avarice.


It is voiced:
In

(a)
-izzare

X
of

verbs
^

than

more

four

syllablesending

in

",

Armonizzare,

Attizzare,

have

compounds,

utilizzare,to utilize.

harmonize;

to

Exceptions:
stizzare

dirizzare, guizzare, rizzare,

Their
contrary the voiceless z.
in dirizzare,keep this voiceless sound.

the

on

such

as

(b) In z"lo,"zeal",

compounds; in azzurro,
'azure"; bazar, "bazaar"; dozzina, 'dozen"; m"zzo,
'middle", and its compounds; orizzonte, "horizon";
'dinner";
ribrezzo, "shivering"; zeffiro,
pranzo,
words.1
rare
'zephyr"; zona, "zone", and some
initial only
It is found
as
27. H is silent in Italian.
in the

verbal

forms

its

and

hg,

"I

hai, "thou

have";

hast";

"they have", and in a few


exclamations
such
hura
as
(reallynot Italian). It
tain
serves
graphicallyto indicate the pronunciationof cersometimes
combinations
(see 16 and
21), and
show
to
that two
vowels
coming together preserve
'he

ha,

each

one

has";

hanno,

its separate value,

Vowel

in ahi.

as

Groups.

triphthongsexist apparently in
in realityfew
in Italian,but there are
great number
of the
diphthongs and no triphthongs at all,many
vowels
value, and
thongs
diphhaving consonantal
many
in appearance
being reallydissyllables.
28.

For

under

Diphthongs

which

(b) either

sec

and

Moise.

have

the

"

It will be
Latin

noticed

("z)

or

are

that

of

the

words

given

foreign extraction.

VALUE

THE

OF

OF

LETTERS

THE

ALPHABET.

for instance, the


bugno, figliuglo,

In

consonant

(=w),

(cf. 24).

In

bugi the

In

other

3, i is

foot-note

mere

the

and

is

i after

gl is

combinations

before

u
a

15

is

part of the 1

given under

22,

sign.
and

consonant

the

final i forms

syllable.
A real diphthong is two vowels produced by one
and
of which
the same
receives the
breath-impulse,one
A diphthong in which
the second
element
accent.1
is called a rising diphthong,one
is the accented
in
which
the first bears the accent
a falling
diphthong:
(c7)Rising diphthongs:

Ex.:

paese,

country;

paura2,

fear.

(b) Falling diphthongs: ass"i, very;


l"i,she, to her; stoico,stoic.
Remarks,
which

(i)

In

first member

the

all

dura, breeze, air;

(apparent) rising diphthongs

is i

or

u, that

first member

is

in

sonantal:
con-

Piede, foot; butjno,


good.
In

(2)
from

the

i.e.,the

compounds where
diphthong, that
two

vowels

form

principalaccent is removed
diphthong becomes
dissyllabic,
each
a
separate syllable,thus
the

dissolvingthe diphthong:
Paese
(ae diphthong) paesano
,

(ae dissyllabic);paura,

pauroso.

Syllabication.
With

the

few

exceptions of the diphthongs and


vocalic
have
as
dissyllables(see 28), Italian words
divided
are
as
vowels, and the syllables
syllables
many
29.

1
2

Cf.

Hempl,

Care

is not

aw

German

Orthography and Phonology- 146


in the pronunciation of au.
The
be taken
must
but
or
ah-oo, pronounced
rapidly.
ow,
very
,

sound

ITALIAN

in such

that

way

GRAMMAR.

each

begins with

In

consonant.

division

the

(i) A

between

consonant

vowels

two

with

the

divided

into

goes

second1:
I

A-mo,

love;

zo-na;

Exceptions:

mal

(2) Double

consonants

two

with

doz-zi-na.

in medial
with

goes

divided:

are

mez-zo;

(3) Usually
or

Ex.:

parts.

year;

one

are

Mal-a-ge-vo-le,"difficult",
agevole; ab-u-sare, "to abuse"
(ab+usare).

and

An-no,

words, which

Compound

their component
from

119-mo.

of two
or
groups
the preceding, the

more

sonants
con-

other

one

following:

the

Al-to, high; al-tro,other.

(i) In

Exceptions2:
continuant
1

or

plus

n) both

Ma-dre,

groups

of
liquid (i.e.,

members

go

composed

of

stop

p, b, t, d, c, g, f, v,

plus

with the followingsyllable


:

a-cri-mo-ni-a, acrimony;

mother;

or

theatre; a-pri-re,to open;

te-a-tro,

se-gre-to,secret.

is difference of usage:
of c-\-q there
(2) In the case
a-cquistareand ac-quistare.
consonant
Groups of 5 followed by one more
(5 impura)
are
usually said also to make
exception; but while the
question is scarcely decided, it is probable that they are
divided

The

resist

in the usual

be
sharply divided, and
syllables must
between
tendency to attach a consonant

first.

the

cine, the
to

more

the

same
2

way

He

has

been

accustomed

belonging decidedly

the
word

second
thus:

than

to

to

the

to

the

say,

the

He

must

vowels

two

to

for instance, mcd-i-

first syllable,the

third.

pupil

must

(5 sound)

in Italian

divide

me-di-ci-na.

the following
liquid n and / being simple sounds
go with
Ex.:
syllableaccording to the general rule.
i-gnu-do,"naked";

The

bri-glia,"bridle".

VALUE

OF

THE

LETTERS

"dark"

os-cu-ro,

OF

THE

(not o-scu-ro)

ALPHABET.

17

riKjs-tro,"I

show"

(not 1119-stro).

Accentuation.

largemajority of Italian words are stronglythe penult (that is, the syllablebefore
on

The

30.

accented
the last):
mano,

hand

There

are,

accent
a

however,

the

on

castigo,punishment.

antepenult or even
number
bearing it

considerable

Mostr^,1he

showed;

siderano, they

words

many

are

bearing
farther

they

mostrarono,

tonic

back;
last

the

on

the

also

syllable:

showed;

con-

considering; virtu, virtue; propriety,

property.

Accents.

Graphic

graphic accents, the grave, the acute, and


The grave is much
used in Italian.
the circumflex,
are
more
frequent than the others.
is placed:
accent
grave
32. The
(a) On a final vowel stressed in pronunciation:
31.

Three

la

Mostrera

He

bonta.

sua

monosyllables by

(b) On

ending in a vowel:
Gia, already; piu, more;

his goodness.

will show
nature

or

by

contraction

|, is; si, yes; pi" (contracted

foot.
pie,de),

from

(i) A

Exceptions:

words

the

different
1

in

Receives

same

in appearance

meaning),
the

grave

of

number

such
accent.

and

(that is,
in sound, but

homonyms
often

as:

See

following paragraph.

ITALIAN

and,

e,

to

GRAMMAR.

distinguishit from

if,

se,

la

di, day;
" "

it,

neither;

ne,

la,there

(dcf.art.),
"

li

self;

si,yes;

di,of,
of

is;

se,
n

si,self,one,

ne,

e,

li,there

da, from,
(2) Certain

;
;

da, he gives,
verbal

forms
,

as

fa, he does, makes;

va, he
*

sta, he stands

goes;

(c) Also

(1)
them

often

as

Shortened
from

; sa, he
a

forms

knows;

of the

can).

infinitive:

(for mostrarono),1 they showed;

mostrar

he

on:
distinguishingmark
of the preteriteto distinguish

forms

shortened

(but PU9,

(for

mostrar

mostrare), to show.
(fortemerono), they feared;

temer

(for temere),

temer

fear.

to

partir (for partirono),they departed; partir (for

par-

tire),to depart.
(2) Other

verbal

forms

which

have

homonyms2:

dai, thou

givest; dai (prep,plus art.).


danno, they give; danno, damage, harm.
VQi (for vugi),thou wishest; voi, you.
abitino, let them

(3) The
two

accented

This

and

the
are

of

polysyllablesending

in

This

is

usage

accent

Accented

of the
following (corresponding) forms
the antepenult:
accented, in speaking, on

other
trarono,
mos-

partirono.

temerono,

acute

penult

vowels:

conjugations
2

dwell; abitino,3little dress.

optional

in

these

on

the

and

arbitrary.

Some

writers

cases.

penult according

to

the

general

rule.

use

the

ITALIAN

20

(b) Sometimes

the

on

ending

GRAMMAR.

i, plural of the

jective
ad-

and

noun

-io1:

Studi, studies; necessari,necessary.


latitude

and

(b), and

some

this

In

151^

usage.

lack

that

there

is

of

unanimity
of the graphic accents.
use
exceptions,and 34 (a) cover

the

to

as

observed

It will be

35.

book

the

acute

good

of

deal

Italians

among

Sections
the

(a),
ordinary
32

will be

accent

employed only to show the stressingin pronunciation


of a syllableother than
the penultimate or than
the
ultimate
This indication,
bearing the grave accent.2
together with the marking of the closed and open e
under
and
The
(see note
11), is peculiar to it.
o
and marking are
in pronunciaaccent
to be observed
tion,
but not to be employed in writingthe exercises.
Elision,Contraction,Truncation, etc.
36. Besides

lo, la, gli, le,

(pronominal),the preposition
che5
are
conjunctions se and
regularly

le, mi, ti,ci,4 vi,


the

and

di

elided

before

vowel.

-10.

of words
A

vowel

The

whether
3

For

Which

acute

the

which

vowel

follows,6or
should

in

No

ending

-io, -ia.
be

will also be
i be
see

becomes

lose its proper

stressed
41

of

words

Special attention

good dictionary should


2

All

unaccented

an

if another

'-io not

si

ne,

syllableending in
vowel

(article3),
lo, la, gli,

una

be
rule

one

may

elide that

truncate

it before

paid

to

be

can

the

ation
accentu-

given for

it.

the

guide.
placed on all words

or

than

more

ending

in -ia, -io,

unstressed.

only before

Preferably only before

Elision is much

more

and

i, since

it would

Cf. 14.

sound.

and

i.

frequent

in

poetry

than

in prose.

wise
other-

VALUE

THE

OF

LETTERS

initial consonant

any

but

consonant;

except

which

elide their accented

a'

(for ai), p9* (pqco)are

as

conjunctions

(a) The
often

ed, od, ad,

(b)
a

before

add

the
the

vowel,

word

Capitalsare

(a) The

conjunction che,
only oxytones

('on tractions

such

common.

and

and

preposition a
preposition su adds r:

the

of

the

Capitals.

employed

'I", is

io,

pronoun

in

as

English save

libro

]"ccoun

He

(c) The

is

is

Here

italiano.

written

not

capitalunless it begins a sentence,


"you", are often capitalized.
(b) Adjectives of nationalityare
words
used as
a
capital. The same
:
capitalized
an

whereas

that:
with

Lei, Ella,

written

not
nouns

are

Italian

with

usually
|)

book.

Italian.

an

of months

names

usuallywritten
signor, Mr".1

are

by another

preceded by
beginning with s impure, when
in school.
school; in iscugla,
prefixesi: scugla,
Use

Italiano.

21

sur.

consonant

37.

ALPHABET.

followed

are

vowel;

THE

of

compounds

giacche, benche,

dacche,

as

OF

with

days of the week


small letter,also titles such
and

of

"

as

(Exercise I.)

Correspondence
38. There

are

between

Italian

in

corresponding so nearly both


that they
the English ones
1

Greater

Italian

than

individual
in

freedom

English.

Italian and

in

English.

large number
in form

may
the

be
use

of words

and

meaning to
easilyrecognized
of

capitals exists

in

ITALIAN

22

terminations

following lists of corresponding


in this recognition.

The

pupil.

by the

GRAMMAR.

will aid

Nouns.
(The letter / or

at

f ade becomes

the

ata

m.

age becomes

m.

al becomes

the

gender.)

brigata,cascata.

beginning of the line indicates

aggio: paggio, personaggio.1


ale: animale, canale
{or alio: corallo,

metallo).
cristallo,
m.

alt adds

m.

an

m.

ant

m.

arian becomes

m.

ate

m.

ator

adds

asfalto,cobalto.2

o:

veterano.
cristiano,

o:

adds

diamante, instante.

e :

becomes
adds

ario
ato

centenario, unitario.

carbonato, stato.

creatore, oratore.

e:

(zio,zzo) : comme^rcio or commerzio,


precipizio.3
palazzo (sometimes palaccio),
cle becomes
m.
*culo,4colo,or chio: circolo (or cirm.

becomes

ce

(more commonly) cerchio, ostaculp.

culo) or
m.

cio

becomes

ct

tto

f. cy becomes
ent

m.

zia:

adds

intelle,tto.5
contatto, eff"tto,

aristocrazia,
pot"nzia.

age,nte,ori"nte;or
accid"nte,

e:

adds

o:

contento, conv"nto, tal"nto.


m.

ge becomes

m.

gen

are

adds

Also

Rem.

nitrogeno.6

correspondence is not so, perfect


viaggio, "voyage", "journey"; coragoltraggio,"outrage", etc.

Terminations

Also

For

etc.

the

f in

asfalto

see

p.

26,

(b).

Also

ending

the

assalto, "assault",

o:

Many others in which


yet easilyidentified,as:

gio, ''courage";
2

vestigio.
*gio: privil"gio,

solazzo, "solace", spazio, "space",


marked

with

an

asterisk

etc.

indicate

that

antepenultimate syllable.
prodotto, "product".

arc

accented

on

the

6Idrogeno, "hydrogen",

ossigeno,

"oxygen",

etc.

words

so

VALUE

THE

OF

LETTERS

graph becomes

m.

f. ic adds

*a:

izia

f. ine becomes

medicina.
disciplina,

confusione,religione.

e:

isan becomes

m.

isk becomes

m.

ism

m.

ist adds

m.

ite becomes

m.

wewJaddso:

m.

meter

adds

igiano: artigiano,
partigiano.2
isco

asterisco,basilisco.

despotismo, pessimismo.

0 :

artista,dentista.

a:

ito

appetito, granito,sito.

fragmento (orframmento),monumento.

becomes

*metro

becomes

monia

becomes

on

m.

or

adds
adds

f. ose

barone.

adds

despota,patri"ta(patri"tta).

a:

m.

phone becomes

m.

ry becomes

m.

scope becomes

ter

m.

or

tre

splendore,vapore.4

glucosa,rQsa.

osa:

*fono

*rio

f. sis becomes

sermone.

errore,

becomes

ot

m.

e:

ceremonia,parsimonia.

danza, intellig"nza,
sci"nza.3

nza:

e :

anemometro, gasometro.

m.

23

avarizia,malizia.

ina:

m.

f. nee

ALPHABET.

grafo: autografo, fonografo.1

f mony

THE

aritmetica,musica, lggica.

f ice becomes

f. ion adds

OF

gramdfono, telefono.

consistgrio,
mist"rio.

scopio : microscopio,telescopic

si: crisi

becomes

(or crise),
sinopsi.5

tro

f. tion becomes

zione:

f tude becomes

*tudine

c"ntro, ministro,registro.

condizione, nazione.

amplitudine,multitudine, soli-

tudine.
1

This

(6),p.
2

Also

Also

etc.

In

ph regularly becomes

Also

filosofo, etc.

Cf.

Remark

(3)

26.

cortigiano, "courtesan",
eccellfnza, "excellence",
other

4Alsoautore,
5

cases

nee

circonferenza,

etc.

onpre,

"circumference",

provincia, "province",
"honor", etc.

gives ncia;

"author",

tesi, "thesis,"

etc.

as,

etc.

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

24

f ty becomes

ta

*ulo:

ule becomes

m.

becomes

lire

etemita,

ura

m.

um

m.

us

becomes

(not otherwise

f. y

"

genio.

ce,nso,

o :

premio.

museo,

o :

becomes

capsulo (or capsolo),


gl"bulo.
natura.
figura,

societa.1

provided

for

above)

becomes

anatomia, energia,geografia,zoologia.

ia:

Adjectives.2
acious becomes
al adds
adds

an

e :

adds

ar

dominante,

e :
e :

ario
ario
ato

ble becomes

*bile :

becomes

est

tto

becomes
adds
adds

or

id adds

*o:

He remains

de,nso,imm"nso.

manifesto,on"sto.
*eo

calcareo, erroneo,

*fero

ical becomes

ique becomies

nubile,notabile,solubile.

intatto, perf^tto.

ferousbecomes
ic

prec"rio,vicario.

evid"nte,prud"nte (oro: cont"nto).

e:
o :

vacante.

duplicato,ornato.

enso

becomes

eous

ico

ico
:

satirico.3
misantr"pico,

antico.

valido.
rapido, s^lido,

unchanged

fragile.
fertile,
facile,

Also

cittk, "city",

Only

Also

singular of
pubblico, "public", etc.

under

al.

i^eo.

aurifero,carbonifero.

the

verace.

contrario,ordinario.

ate becomes

ent

sagace,

solare.
circolare,

ary becomes

ense

capace,

americano, pagano.

arious becomes

ct

centrale,immortale.

o :

adds

ant

ace

masculine

etc.

the
But

adjectives is given.
musicale
as
given above

Italian

THE

OF

VALUE

ine becomes
zte

diurno, et^rno.

no:

ocious becomes

oce

atroce, feroce,precoce.

preparatories2
meritQrio,

orio:

becomes

ous

or

25

viol"nto.

o :

nal becomes

ose

ALPHABET.

decisivo,definitive1

ivo:

cry becomes

THE

erudito,infinito.

ito:

ive becomes

OF

aquilino,divino.

ino:

becomes

lent adds

LETTERS

verboso, famoso, furioso,

oso:

luminoso.3

tial becomes
und

ziale

becomes

ondo

becomes

ure

uro

potenziale.

:
:

moribondo,

rubicondo.

futuro,puro.

Verbs.

becomes

ate

fy

are

calcolare,investigare.

becomes

ficare:

ize becomes

izzare

often

becomes

fortificare,
magnificare.
:

are

civilizzare,organizzare.

cominciare, continuare,

curare,

etc.4

end

in

fact

(t) The

Remarks,

that

most

Italian

words

is evident.

vowel

(2) It will further

be

observed

that

(a) English x

=ks) is replaced
simple consonant,
by c or s: eccellfnza, 'excellence"; ossigeno, oxy.gen". (6) Ou or u are often replaced by o: corraggio, "courage"; cortigiano, 'courtesan"; circolare,
(which is

not

'

"circular",

(c) In combinations

Also

Preparativo is, however,

Also

of
the

of two

stops assim-

attivo, "active", etc.


more

used.

giocoso, "jocose", lussurioso, "luxurious",

etc.

French
from
English e verbs are mostly derived
the first conjugation, i.e., er
verbs.
The
comparison
three languages with
the Latin
is interesting.
These

verbs
here

of

26

ITALIAN

ilation
'

'perfect";

perf"tto,

occurs:

manufacturer".

(d)

'theatre";

teatro,

GRAMMAR.

manifattore,
"

is omitted:

honor";

onore,

'rheumatism"

reumatismo,

(cf.

27).

(3) In words
(a)

becomes

grafico

(b)

becomes

Ph
' '

pn,

'pneumatic";
(4) It is

consonant

of the words

"

lead

to

out

the

to

be

may

as

understood

and

two

to

English

but

help

it is
to

of the

circulo.

beginning with
theless
English, which never-

the

words:

sviluppare,

dismount".

The

clear

made
sviare

way", etc.
corresponding in

Where
one

forms

two

or

ments
develop-

words

many

'to

ment
develop-

ation
by the consider-

and

the

older

the

two

languages, or

or

hoped

impress

will not

one,

the

that

the

the

be

word

spaced

by

disviare,

the

word

table

will

upon

the

of

vocabularies.

terminations

Italian

help

in the exercises

in the

appear

Italian

more

formed

and

foregoing directions, will

in this book

find two

to

emy".
"Ptol-

Tolomeo,

of the

be

may

Psalmist"

neumatico,

p:

palazzo, circolo and

"to

doublets

ISir3 Words
which

the

English

to

smontare,

such

pt drop

in Italian

strange

correspond

develop";

"

in Italian

are

groups

of

termination,

same

orto-

'

palacio and

There

filosofo, "philosopher";

unusual

of the

(5)

'

tipo-

'

and

ps,

"sympathy";

simpatia,
'

salmista,

not

word:

origin:

f:

orthography

(c) Initial

same

i:

typographical

grafia,

of Greek

correspond
will

even

memory.

be

in these

given,
cases

28

ITALIAN

scolare,the scholar; gliscolari,the scholars.

NLo
v

GRAMMAR.

L' 1191110,
the man;
gliugmini,the men.
the Italian;gP Italiani,
\!L* Italiano,
the Italians.

Feminine

Singularla,pluralle.
becomes

La

before
^La

before

the

1' "rre, the R's.

R;

1' economie,

1/ economia,

the economy;
J L' epistola,
the epistle;V

The

forms

Masculine

of the indefinite article

accordinglyused
The
except impure s and z.
il and

consonant

before all vowels.2

is used

(b) Uno,3 correspondingto lo, and


and

impure s
4

libro,a book;

Un

are:

any

form

economies.

the

the epistles.
epistole,

(a) Un, correspondingto


same

1'

le mani, the,hands.

hand;

v-L* "rre, the letter

before

become

le may

only1:

mano,

41.

vowel,

any

like it before

used

scholar;

scolare,a

uno

un

ugmo,

man.

Feminine

una,

contracted

Una

ragazza,

From

42.

the

is abstracted
number

1
2

with

the

girl;un'

gra,

y^vel:

an^Bur.

foregoingparagraphs and examples


followinggeneralrule for gender and

is the rule for

This

Strictlyspeaking
contraction

by
with

to un* before

an

ordinary prose.

the

of the

o,

apostrophe

form

when

but

since

it

seems

used
the

best

before

contraction
to

consider

vowel
is
it

never
as

is

uno

cated
indi-

identical

un.

Compare

The

English "a" and "an".


indefinite article has no
plural. "Some"
the

use

of

=alcuni.

*"

ARTICLES

The

sign of

PREPOSITIONS

WITH

the masculine

29

singularis

of the

culine
mas-

plurali.
The sign of the feminine
nine
singularis a; of the femiplural e.
This
general rule applies to articles,nouns,
nouns,
proand adjectives.
Exceptions will be noted la}er.
{Exercises

(Read

II

CHAPTER

ARTICLES

43.

Italian
are

nouns

PREPOSITIONS.

indicated

of the

by

the

definite

are

usually contracted

the

article is used

of

use

with

into

Article.

inflected.

not

are

III.)

II.

WITH

Syntax

III.)

write

and

II

and

one

Their

tions
rela-

prepositions.When
prepositionthe two
word.

The

tions
contrac-

are:

Remarks,
the

other

(i)

Per

is less

prepositions.

often

contracted

than

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

30

forms

(2) The

written

though

dei, ai,1etc.

II libro dello scolare

"

on

L*

boy's book.

sulla

tavola.

learned

print be

coarse

referred

would

abstract

class of

carita "

L' ugmo

i/GP Italiani
Before

una

title followed

re

"

II

signor Bernasconi.

Papa
1

De

il

or

The

should

be

curato

not
ma

stralunati
2

But

col

of late,

seen

are

vocative.

maestro2:

pronounced
whether

often

decides

contracted.

Ex.:

Domand^

con

1' orrecchio

ear

cuor

sospeso,

(Manzoni,
the

conte, and

re,

Papa Innoc^nzio,Pope Innocent.

la, etc., often

della, etc.

Emmanuel.

C.

title is

the

papa,

name:

proper

Victor

Countess

(a) Where
before

Often

B.

Mr.

Cesaresco.

Exceptions:

by

King

Emanu"le.
Vittgrio

music.

Italians love

la musica.

II

(b)

is mortal.

Man

amano
a

contessa

denoting

nouns

Attention
s necessary.
" necessaria.
virtu.
Charity is a virtue,

La

and

nouns

mortale.

"

it

where

Italian

in

beings as objects:

L' attenzione

(2)

only the rules given in


this point,although others may
that

English:

in

be

(1) Before

J La

mirror.

Article.

article is used

definite

not

whole

at

in the

to.

The

44.

image

Definite

of the

is advised

It

Remark.

scholar's book

The

sp"cchio.The

nello

immagine

Syntax

as

the table.

is

almost

The

-II libro del ragazzo.

be

pronounced

de', a', etc., are

article

I Promessi
can

never

as

to

con

as
a

though
form

un

all' erta.-

cert'

Con

written

should
atto

or

tras-

gli occhi

Sposi, Cap. II).


be

omitted

before

imperatore,

"

peror".
em-

ARTICLES
In

(c)
sandro
"the

Duse

Dante,

or

of

women:

is Albina.4

rule is sometimes

given

to

men,

extended

mio

often

ptjveroEnrico!

to

vocative

diminutives:

Speak

to

me,

my

poor

Charlie.

Before

the

notice

But

that

lakes, seas, rivers,but


is

magno

that

title,and

countries,provinces,

of continents,

names

mountains,

Carlo,

really a Latin
Alessandro,

cities c

not

word, and

adjective,

an

baptismal,

are

family

not

(See following rules.)

names.

But

gella

la

Vergine
followed

are

French

There

Maria.

by a
being

(the words

these

is in

the

Where

"

title

the

borrowed

Cesaresco, Madam

la Contessa

cases

article
from

the
an

words

that

Countess

used

article is not

where

language)

(Pellico, Le
the

given

in

as

Madama

C.

"

century

Madami-

between

adjective implied

etc.

Voltaire, Voltaire's

Madama,

comes

rule
(6), below.
Compare
Senza
aver
by good writers:
always observed
Without
Condillac.
having great knowledge

known",

The

in the

names

given

the

to

(5)

is dead.

il Dante.5

II Carlino.

persons3:

actress.

an

and
possessive,

the

Parlami, il
Henry

is

names

Here

This

preceded by

Machiavelli

Duse

of well-known

names

of well-known

given

|)cco1' Albina.
Remark.

the

morto.

the

31

Ales"Charlemagne";
Great"; Maria
Vergine,2

magno,

surnames

attrice.

"

(4) Before

PREPOSITIONS.

magno,1 'Alexander
Virgin Mary".

La

not

Carlo

titles

the

(3) Before the


II Machiav"lli
"

WITH

Mie
name

Neither
gran
of

C.

such
is

this

rule

cognizipne di
II

sfcolo di

Prigioni Cap
and

'well

as

the

XXI).
surname

expressed.

are
4

might supply "our", "our good", etc.


is properly speaking not
Notice, however, that Dante
Here

again

Exceptions:

cella,1' Aia.

one

il

Cairo, la Mirandola,

la

Bastia,

la

Mecca,

name.
sur-

la

Rot-

ITALIAN

32

V America

Abitiamo

L' Italia "

del Nord.

live in North

We

penisola. Italy is

una

11 Piemonte

GRAMMAR.

"

peninsula.

parte dell' Italia.

una

America.

is

Piedmont

part

of

Italy.
yIlTevere

pr"sso Roma.

flume

un

"

The

Tiber

is

river

Rome.

near

But:
j

Fire.nze"

11a
be,

una

citta.

beautiful

city.

article is omitted:

The

Exceptions:

is

Florence

(a) After in, meaning either going

to

dwellingin

or

country:

a
v

in Italia.

Vado

|)ccomiin

going to Italy.

am

Here

Francia.

could

in France.

am

the

of
prepositionand name
ality
replaced by an adjectiveof nation-

di, where

(b) After
country

be

II

parlamento

d'

imperatore di Germania.

L'

II Piemonte

"

English parliament.

Inghilt"rra.The
provinciad'

una

German

The

Italia.

emperor.

Piedmont

is

an

province.
(c) Before Candia, Cipro,Corfu, Ischia,Malta.

Italian

article

is

generally used before a noun


qualifiedby a possessiveor a possessive-relative
of
or
adjective excepting one
by any
pronoun,
quantity:
(6) The
"

mi"i libri. My

vLa
mother

la di cui

ragazza

Sua

mamma

Your

mano.

"

qui.

The

hand.

girl whose

is here.

I bu"mi

ragazzisono

]Jccola

mia

(7)

La

books.

After

verb

characteristics
spiritual
1
2

Compare 134,
This example

avere

Good

This

d"stra.

mano

the

studiosi.

boys

are

studious.2

is my

right hand.
descriptionsof physical or

in

135,
would

147

(a).

also

fall under

rule

(1).

ARTICLES

WITH

L' Albina

ha

Je mani

piccole.

Ernestino

ha

il

buono.

(8) Instead

cuore

of the

Io apro

la

Chiudo

M9Striil braccio
(9) Before

hands.

small

E. has

good

where

cases

heart.

is

there

no

hand.

I close my

infinitive

an

33

(1)):

my

sinistro.

has

Little

137

I open

mano.

pugni.

A.

possessivein

danger of ambiguity (see

PREPOSITIONS.

fists.
Show
other

or

left

your

arm.

part of speech used

as

noun:

/L'

andare

/Il bene

il tornare.

ed

il male.

Good

The

going

and

evil.

and

returning.

dication
in(10) Before numerals
indicating the year without
of month,
etc., also before those
indicatingthe

day of the month,


J JJranel mille otto

and

1)il 13 s"ttembre.

La

It is the

lezione comincia

day:

(or nel 1800).

cento

of the

hour

the

alle

of

13th

The

nove.

It

in 1800.

was

September.
lesson

begins

at

nine

o'clock.
le undid.

Sono

It is eleven

o'clock.

:
(11) Distributively

(a) In

in

specifying price,etc., where

definite
in-

the

English

article is used:

Bu^olire il metro.
J

Uo,va

Two

liras

soldi la dozzina.

trenta

u+J-

meter.

Eggs

at

thirty cents

dozen.
Una

volta la settimana.

Once

"

(b) Before the names


English the plural would
of every
j

on

H9

week

una

Wednesdays
is

month
1

be

days of

used

to

week

the

indicate

where
certain

il mercoledi
and

the

on
names

il sabato.

I have

day

lesson

Saturdays.
of the

months

when

certain

indicated1:
specifically

Notice

in

lezione

(12) Before

of the

week.

the

indication

of time

in

(10), (11),and

(12).

ITALIAN

34

Nell' ottobre

mille

GRAMMAR.

(of the year)

In October

c"nto.1

otto

1800

definite

The

45.

article

in Italian than

begmner

in which

before

used

not

those

of countries

the

of

names

Mia

"/

Mio

mio

Good

mio

the

fratellino

than

sor"lle.My

brother

article is used

dear

my

quell'uomo.

modifiers

colla

Ho

due

braccia.

Before

mia

carta

(5) Before
1

One

also

d' ottobre

mille

otto

Compare

rule

certain

(10).

role here.

has

than

mother,

set

say:

two

He

or

possessive:

madre.

My

little

ottobre

It will be

not
seen

that

or

man.

books.

arms.

very

and

del mille

that

pens.

(2).

used

Nell

general'sense:

vague,

Cf. 136

numbers

cento, but

demonstrative

sells paper

phrases.

In

sisters.

diminutives,

the

cara

several

having

ordinal

might

He

penne.

and

with

pointing at

am

I have

nouns

In certain

(a)

My

mother.

parecchilibri.

Vende

B.

singular
possessive:

amico.

"

Ha

(4)

Mr.

relative in the

(3) Before a noun


qualifiedby
numeral
adjective:
Mostro

ings
mean-

friend

near

has other

noun

is with

brother

morning,

il mio

padre

But

the

modifiers

irate.Hoe le mie

where

certain

friend.

Remark.

II

of

name

other

madre,

father, and
v

the

without

before

used:

not

giorno,signor Bernardo.
amico
mio.
Listen, my
Se,nta,

and

have

we

vocative:

Before

tions
construc-

cities,or

di with

^Buon

(2)

easier for

be

may

It is, as

occur.

after in and

It is further

(1) Before

not

quent
fre-

more

first the substantive

it does

seen,

much

so

English,it

in

recollect

to

being

with
otto

ottobre

regard

cento,
del
for

of

names
or

Nel

mille otto

euphony

mese

cento

plays

36

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

48. This

partitiveform is,however, not used


or
English "some"
"any" add nothing

the
sense

where
the

to

"Vuglepane? Do
x/Vugledel pane?
Remarks,

(some) bread?

want

you

Do

want

you

(i) The

(of the)

some

partitiveis

not

bread

in

used

ative
neg-

sentence:

qualche

Ha

yHg
have

della carta,

I19lapis.

non

abbiamo

fiori.

We

construction

(2) The
French.

Its

haven't

I have

some

for me?
I

paper.

is less
is seldom

use

Syntax
The

indefinite

it would

where

not

the

It is, on
would

of the

frequent in Italian
obligatory and

in

the

is

than
often

individual.

Indefinite

article
be

flowers.

any

arbitrary,varying greatlywith

49.

something

you

pencils.

no

vNon

in

Have

cgsa per me?

Articlea

used

never

in

Italian

English.

contrary, omitted

in Italian

where

it

be

expressed in English:
(1) Before a predicatenoun,
expressingoccupation,
without
and following
rank, or nationality,
qualifiers,
the verbs essere
(to be) and fare (to make, do) :
(Also divenire, diventare,
pare re, proclamare, sembrare,
J

%
^
Si

Italiano.

an

dichiarato.)

Italian.

principe. He is also a prince.


fara impiegato. He will become
an
"he will make
himself.")

noun

observed
is

is

e*ssere

anche

But

Remark.
or

He

morire, mostrarsi,

nascere,

answering
that

he?") takes

in the
the

accompanied by

noun

the

question "who

examples

article:

under

official.

an

is he?"

(1) all

answer

erally,
(Lit-

adjective,
(itwill

be

"what

l"un
|)un

Chi

*"

principe.

bu"m

He

| quell'1191110?"
a

doctor

(2) Before

patrioticItalian.

good prince.

me'dico.

Who

is that

man?

apposition:

pr"sso Roma.

flume

y/ II Tevere

is

37

doctor).

in

noun

is
un

is

That

NUMBER.

AND

patri^tico.He

Italiano

is

He

GENDER

THEIR

NOUNS,

The

Tiber,

river

near

Rome.

Ce"are Bgrgia,ugmo
without

man

miseric^rdia. Caesar.Borgia,

s"mza

pity.

Dante, gran po"ta d' Italia.

Dante,

great Italian poet.

(3) After da, meaning ''as", "like"1:


I speak as a friend.
Parlo da amico.
/
da pellegrino,
da marinaio, da
Si travesti quattro vglte,
He disguisedhimself four times, as
soldato,da acrobata.
acrobat.
an
a soldier,as
a sailor,
as
a pilgrim,as
mille
sand"2
thou(4) Before the numerals
c"nto hundred
' '

' '

'

'

V Sono

ce,ntou^mini. They

y Dopo mille anni.

(5)
y

certain

In

"at

casa,

school"; in

(6)

After

there

thousand

adverbial
a

"in

the

Italian

and

(cf.39). The

are

as:

"at
iijscuola),

see

157.

VII.)

III.

GENDER

nouns

men.

bedroom".

CHAPTER

50. All

{or in

exclamations, for which

THEIR

hundred

years.

scuola

(Exercises VI

NOUNS,

are,

expressions,such

home";

camera,

In certain

are,

AND

either

gender and

NUMBER.

masculine

number

or

nine
femi-

usually
indicated
by the ending, singular o, plural i being
the
endings, singular a, plural
typical masculine
1

Cf. French

je parle en

ami.

are

Cf.

291

(c).

38

ITALIAN

feminine.

the

However,

all masculine

not

nouns

all those

do

in o, neither

end

GRAMMAR.

ending in o take i in the


endings always proof that the

plural,nor are these


noun
exhibitingthem

is masculine.
GENDER.

General

(i) Nouns
their

keep

Rules

for Gender.

denoting male
natural genders:

and

female

beings usually

king; la regina,the queen.


Un lavandajo,a fuller;una
lavandaja,a
II toro, the bull; la mia gallina,
hen.
my
Tuo
padre, thy father; ngstra madre, our

y II re, the

Exceptions:

recluta,

'

'

Guardia,

recruit

"guard";

guida, "guide";

'

sentine.Ha, sentinel

mother.

' '

spia,

' '

' '

spy

in

feminine

are

' '

washerwoman.

spite of the fact that they usually


beings. Here the grammatical gender
the natural
(compare following paragraph)

designatemale
prevails over
.

ending in o are masculine, in a feminine.1


as
already noted, the typicalendings of
are,
genders:

(2) Nouns
These
the two
V L'

abito, the

UI1 naso,
v

the

II muro,

coat

The

Latin
common

camicia, the shirt, blouse.


bocca, the mouth.

wall; la stanza, the

(a) Feminine

Exceptions:
in

la

nose;

the

la

"/

room.

nouns

which

are

culine
mas-

ending:

masculines

and

masculine

feminines
accusative

as

rule

retain

singular

their

gender.

gives -o, the


coming from Latin
-um

Nouns
singular -am"a.
from
the
neuter
usually masculine, those
singulars are
plurals
here
decisive.
feminine, the endings being
Templum
"(il) tempio,
Masculine
in
with
nouns
o
a
nants
folia"(la) f"?glia.
plural in a are remdeclension.
Cf. 63 and 64.
of the Latin neuter
feminine

accusative

'

other

few

II

Also

39

'echo", and

"co,

words:

rare

of feminine

ending:
duca, "duke",ll monarcQ,
po"ta, "poet",!l

(b) Masculine
v

NUMBER.

AND

hand".

"the

mano,1

La

GENDER

THEIR

NOUNS,

nouns

cholera"/
Alsoycol"ra,
"

arch".
"mon-

sofa, "sofa", and

foreign extraction2; enigma,


in
"enigma"/ problema, "problem", and other words
from
the
derived
Greek, many
geographical
-ma
and qualcosa,"something" (properlya phrase,
names,
not

of

words

other

few

singleword).
(3) Nouns ending

in

la gru,
gioventu,3 'youth";17

"la virtu, "virtue"; Ma


""

"

"

crane

also

"bamboo",

few

Exceptions:

such

bau, "dog's bark";

bambu,

as
as

as

nouns,

"fennel";

meu,

"Peru".

vPeru,

Of

51.

ending in

nouns

The

feminine.5

some

(a) Masculine
Latin

From

for

Special Rules

More

fourth

foreign words,

parts of speech used

other
and

vilpiu,4"more";

feminine:

are

and

Gender.

of the

meaning

masculine,

are

some

word

cide.
de-

may

are:

which, though

manum,

manus,

in

declension, exactly resembles

form

the

feminine

masculines

of

the

of the

second.
2

Notice

ceptions.
exusually make
imperfectly Italianized
note
Cf. following paragraph, exceptions, also 24 (a), foot-

that

words

5, p. 11, etc.
these
that
Notice

nouns

are

of

names

Cf. 51

abstractions.

(b) (1).
"Cf. 51
5

(a) (2).
Since all reallyItalian
includes

"

lead

pencil ",

all but
etc.

nouns

very

end
few

in

vowel, the

substantives,

above

such

as

fication
classiil

lapis,

ITALIAN

40

V II

generallyof mountains,

of trees, metals,

(i) Names
and

months,

GRAMMAR.

days:
yIl

limone, lemon-tree.

S.

tore, (mountain of) San

"

rame,

Salva-

II San

copper.

Aprile, April. "II martedi,

L'

Tuesday.
This rule is constantly crossed

Remark.
in 50

For

(2) (p. 38).

le

instance,

by

Alpe,

or

given
Alpi, 'the
that

the first form would


Alps", probably because
suppose
end
in o,
of mountains
names
singular,Alpa. Most
else monte, "mount",
"mountain", is understood:
L'

or

IJtna,"Etna".

Monte

|)tna,or

days of the week


"Sunday", and all names
All the

except la domenica,
except la latta, tin".

masculine

are

of metals

"

parts of speech used as nouns:


/ L' andare e il venire.
Going and coming.
vfl mangiare e buorio.
The food is good.
He would
dava
del si e del nq.
v Mi
give me no
"he gave me
answer.
(Literally,
yes and no".)
(2) Other

(b) Feminine

positive

are:

of abstractions:
(1) Names
La
specie,the species. Ly ambizione,

ambition.

La

quiet,rest.
quie,te,

(2) Many
a

indicating often the

masculine

v/ II noce,

In

Exceptions:

bears
\/

La

walnut-tree.

the

masculine

of fruits,1the

names

word

certain

designatesas

tree

noce,

the

used

as

walnut,
of

number
well

word

same

nut.

the

cases

fruit

as

same

the tree

that

it :

II limone, lemon-tree, lemon.2


1

This

rule

is also

by
being feminine
"an
mela,
apple".
well the
as
meaning
2

both

Fico
tree

and
and

crossed

termination:
But

there

tree

as

dattero, both
fruit.

by

(2), the

50

L' arancia,
exists

also

of many

names

the

"the

fruits

orange";

masculine

una

arancio,

its fruit.

masculine

by termination,

also

mean

certain

52.

masculine

GENDER

THEIR

NOUNS,

of

number

feminine;

or

pupil is

The

Remark.
with

as,

nouns

il

fine, 'end".

advised

Most

53.

learned, whether

of Compound

compound

its

exceptional,
concept.

one

Nouns.

retain the

nouns

diately
imme-

connect

to

gender be according to ordinary rule or


them
its appropriatearticle,and to make
Gender

41

indifferently

are

la

or

substantive

every

NUMBER.

AND

gender

of their

second

component:
flat piece of cloth, table-cover.
La mappa,
of
II mappamondo,
II mondo, world.
map
There

Exceptions:

explainedby
^11

capo,

but

many,

analysisof

an

the word

Salvare, to

v/

Formation

feminine

II ragazzo,

*
"

Lo
~11

in

boy^

the

padrone, the

master,

Most

beat, thresh

out;

(Cf.51 (a) (2).)

and

some

in

form

girl.

aunt.
"

proprietor; la padrona.
e

take

essa:

arciduchessa, archduchess.

la dottoressa.

la poetessa.

profeta,prophet ;

(3)

to

the

la ragazza,

zio, the uncle; la zia, the

po"ta, poet

capocaccia,

a:

^11 dottore, doctor;

^11

il

Feminine.

in

in
(2) Those in a and some
L' arciduca, the archduke;

II

usually

il
-/la gente, people-/

save

of the

masculines

(1) Many

are

^ Battere,
life-preserver.
"/salva-ge,nte,
^la lana, wool; il battilana,wool-comber.

54.

they

head, chief; vla caccia, hunt;

of the hunt,

master

are

world.

the

of those

la

profetessa.

in -tore

take

emperor;

-trice

(dottorebeing

an

exception):
y
v

L'

imperatore, the

the
imperatrice,

the director; la direttrice.


II direttore,

empress.

ITALIAN

42

(4) But
certain
form

masculines

many

relation

to

another

one

feminines

and

bearing

totallydifferent

are

in

1/ u9mo,

GRAMMAR.

la

man;

dcmna,

woman.

NUMBER.
General

55.

in

for

Masculines

in

their

form

Rules

the

Formation

and

a,

of the

masculines

pluralby changing

Plural.

and

these

feminines

terminations

to i:
II

libro,i

libri ;

il

po"ta, i poe, ti ;
lo zio,gli zii; il padre, i padri; la madre, le madri; uno
scolare,gliscolari1;la lezione,the lesson,le lezioni;P ape,
un

bee, le api,bees

the

nome,

ragazzi ;

ipocrita,hypocrite,gP ipocriti
; il mio
nomi,

(i) Also

Remarks,

(2) In

; P

i nostri

name,

my

tre

ragazzo,

our

names.

la mano,

le mani.

in -io the

nouns

ii,or j. In any

be written
plural may
only one i is pronounced:

case

i, i,

/Studio, study; plural studi, studi,studii,studj.


56. Feminines

in unaccented

\"2l tavola, the

rLa

tua

their

*""elle
tavole, some

table.

thy

penna,

form

jLe vostre

pen.

pluralin

tables.

penne,

your

pens.

accented
the last
on
Monosyllables and nouns
sonant),
syllable(whether the word end in a vowel or conalso nouns
ending in i (stressedor unstressed)
and ie, do not change in the plural:
57.

II

drink
j

Un

brindisi,the
toasts.

many

barbagianni,

the

king
These

health,

of

words

an

vUn
owl

Italy.^1

toast.

'Fare

molti

di, a day; s"tte di,


II
; i barbagianni.

tre

being familiar

re, the

to

the

three

brindisi, to

not

d'

re

kings,

pupilare

days.

seven

Italia,

Una

translated.

me-

ITALIAN

44

which

have

nature

of

II

i in

an

the

g omit

or

GRAMMAR.

singularonly to indicate
that i in the plural1
:

linguaggio,the language, dialect;

L' arancio

linguaggid' Italia.
orange-tree is beautiful; gliaranci

bello,the

"

the

belli.

sono

La

caccia,the chase, hunt;

guancia

Una

rosea,

le

cacce.

cheek;

rosy

le

guance,2

sue

her

cheeks.

In the

62.

of the

or

plural and

of masculines

case

sometimes

sometimes

accentuation

in

remains

-go the

the

ity
qualin the

same

changes. In most
as
a
guide, nouns

serve

may

and

-co

cases

the

stressed

the

penult taking -chi, -ghi, those stressed on the


antepenult -ci, -gi:
Un
i giugchi dei bambini, children's
giucico,a game;
on

plays.
II castigosevero,
Un

Franco,

punishment,

severe

i Franchi.

Frank;

II

castighi.

fugco,fire;i fugchi.

But:
II medico,the

il polso,doctors
tastano
physician; i m^'dici
feel the pulse. II fisiglogo,
the physiologist;i fisiglogi.
II coll"gio,
the college
; i colle.gi.
L* equivoco, ambiguous expression,gliequivoci.3
1

See

foot-note.

This

rule

of

does

apply to
in which
the
i is accented, as
il leggio,"reading-desk"
nouns
In
pi.leggii; zio, zii; la farmacia, "pharmacy",
pi. farmacie.
like pcchio, "eye", studio, "study", etc., where
nouns
the
i although
accented
is sounded, the orthographical usage
not
varies.
now
Formerly occhj,studj were
occhi, studi are
more
commoner,
usual.
2

But

22,

Occhii, studii

are

provincie, audacie

*The

also

course

not

seen.

retain

the

unnecessary

i.

in the
and
same
adjective equivoco is treated
way,
adjectives in general follow the rule as given for nouns:
pubblico,
"public", pi. piibblici, fern, pubbliche; cattplico, "Catholic",
cattolici,
cattpliche; diplomatico, "diplomatic", diplomatici,diplomatiche.

Cf.

116.

There

Exceptions:
rule.

Words

those

in

word

and

GENDER

THEIR

NOUNS,

it

more

is advised

its article in the

amico,

of

friend

than

learn

each

plural forms.
exceptions:
the penult, yet forming

followingare the commonest


in -co
stressed on
(a) Words
their pluralin -ci :
mio

to

this

singular and

The

Un

45

exceptions to
uniformly1

many

student

The

-co.

are

follow

in -go

NUMBER.

AND

mine;

ngstri amici,

our

friends.

]"cco

il

nemico,

here

enemies

say

dicono, my

in

(b) Words

is the

stressed

-co

forming their plural in


IJccoil suo carico,it is
Un

II manico

Lo

stomaco,

della gu"rra

pig;

the

the

on

mi"i

nemici

due

lo

porci.

antepenult, yet

-chi:
his charge

i carichi.

molti fondachi.
large warehouse;
the knife-handle; i manichi.
del colte.Ho,

fondaco,

gran

II porco,

so.

enemy;

the

gli

stomach;

of

civile,the historian

stomachi.
the

Lo

stgrico

civil war;

gli stcj-

richi.

Iltossico, the poison; dei tossichi forti.


i trafnehi.2
ferrovia,railway-traffic;

(i) Gre,co as

Remarks,

adjectivechi:
Un
Gr"co,a Greek;
Un

So

vino

also

Yet

gr"co,

all those

Gr"ci,the

the

accented

noun

takes

-ci,

sense

wines.

of

takes

'wizard'

antepenult excepting

the

on

an

as

Greeks.

wine; vini grexhi,Greek

Greek
in

mago

della

II traffico

"asparagus", taking -gi in the plural, possess besides


in -ghi. Sparago has only sparagi.
in -gi parallelones

sparago,

the

forms

Catalogo,

"catalogue",has only cataloghi.


2

Other

student
nouns.

exceptions
is advised

to

are

so

rare

consult

scarcely to belong here.


his dictionary for plurals of
as

The
such

46

ITALIAN

it takes

men"

in the

but

plural maghi,

i tre

magi,

(2) Fisico, "natural


", take either ci

wise

three

'the

expression
re

magi.1

philosopher", and

cian
"musi-

musico,

chi.

or

number

certain

63. A

GRAMMAR.

plural irregularlyin

of masculines
and

become

in

form

their

feminine.

They

are:

II

centinaio,the hundred

(about
of them

delle centinaia,hundreds
thousand

thereabouts;

migliaio,a

Un

paio, a. pair; due paia.


miglio,a mile; due miglia.3

Un

forms,

in

one

in

masculines

other

64. Many

and

II

dito,finger; le dita (iditi).

II

braccio, the

II

I19due
le

heel;

calcagno, the
cagni).

v"ngono

due

have

migliaia.2

plural

two

in i :

one

arm;

ne

coming.

are

Un

or

hundred);

braccia

(bracci).4
calcagna (le calcagne, i

le

gingcchio,the knee;
Qcchi)
II

cal-

(igingin^cchia(gingcchie)

II labbro, the

lip; le

labbra

(ilabbri).

form

that

Observe

singular only

of greco, the
so

only

the

Mile, "a

Notice

latter

is

preserved by the Biblical


after the
phrase, i.e.,magi is the Latin plural,maghi being made
hard
after
Naturally a plural is made
singular whose
g it keeps.
1

this

the

where

plural

noun

latter

was

these

was

is the

often

oftener

used, the

used.

In

adjective

the

less

case

often,

re-formed.
takes

thousand",
that

latter

are

all

also le mila.
nouns

designating number

in

rather

seen.
Centinaj,migliaj, are sometimes
4
The plural most
commonly used is placed first. Braccia, gin^cployed
generally em(notice this latter in e) are
chia, labbra, orecchie
The
tion
terminatwo
to denote
etc., of the same
body.
arms,
Compare German
a
(e) has here a sort of collective sense.

vague

way.

nouns

beginning with

Ge.

II

AND

NUMBER.

le membra

member;

the

membro,

GENDER

THEIR

NOUNS,

47

(membrej, (i mem-

bri).
L'

orecchio,the
the

L' ugvo,

In

(gligssi).
(osse),
the

cases

some

meaning

(orecchia),(gli
orecchi).

(gliugvi).1

le U9va

egg;

Remark.

in

le gssa

bone;

L' 9SS0, the

le orrecchie

ear;

forms

two

entiated
differ-

are

II

profits.
frutto,fruit; le frutta,fruits; i frutti,

II

legno,wood

ships; le legna,firewood.
legni,carriages,
walls.
wall; i muri, walls; le mura, city-

II muro,
II

membro,

Le

braccia

; i

the member.

of the

members

of

The

umano.

arms

commissione

Una

body.

human

committee

membri.

del cgrpo

mgmbri

sono

di

are

sette

members.

seven

But:
del cgrpo.

membra

Le

of the

The

(allthe members)

members

body.

65. Plurals altogetherirregular.


ala, the wing; le ali (leale).
Ilbue, ox; ibugi.
L'

II

dio,god

glid"ior dii (with which

the

article is always

gli)moglie,wife

La

L' ugmo,

man

le

mogli
gliugmini.

PLURAL

OF

NOUNS.

COMPOUND

change their ending in


compound nouns
is made
the regular way,
i.e.,the second
component
plural,the first remaining unchanged:
66.

Most

world;

of the

mappamondi.

II

mappamondo,

II

parafugco,fire-screen; i parafugchi.

There

are

map

other

many

Observe

that

plural in

a.

extended

to

such
In

such

other

are

the

words.

nouns

usually
i forms

which
Latin
arc

ma}-

take

neuters

later.

But

Cf. 50, (2) foot-note.

the two
which

the

plurals.
their

have

f" imati"

has

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

48
Exceptions

are

of which

most

many,

explained by

be

however,

There

analysis of

an

may,
word

the

(cf.53):
II

of the hunt

capocaccia,master

; i

II battilana,wool-comber
II

; i

capicaccia.

battilana.

i portalg'ttere.
the letter-carrier;
portal"ttere,

the

are

explanation must be sought


the fact that in some
compounds the components
stillfelt to be independent words
and are inflected

as

such, while

in other

But
in

in others

less

one

or

In other

life.

its individual
or

cases

both

lost

has

of them

words, the fusion is

more

complete:
i sordomuti.

II sordomuto, the deaf-mute;

But:

mezza-luna, crescent;

La

le mezze-lune.

madreperla, mother-of-pearl; le madreperle


madriperle.
II sottolume,lamp-mat; i sottolumi.
II rompicapo, tormentor
; i rompicapo.
La

and

{Exercises X

VERBS.1

REGULAR

in

irregular

are

himself

familiarize

prefer to
tenses

I and

do

so

of the

II),

Italian knows
of such

are

the
matters

placed before

first with
take

the

present

infinitive

the

auxiliaries

desirable

regular forms.
before

this

for the

The

one.

parts, moods,

given.

for

to

granted

that

the

tenses, etc., of verbs,

the

who

present
Exercises
in

student
no

a,

student

Teachers

been

taken

be

because

given (Vocabulary
participialforms are also given

being
is

the

Chapter V
have

isolated
It

in

it is considered

and

auxiliaries

and

vocabularies.

may

end

preceding this syllablemay

vowel

regular verbs

The

latter
to

The

-re.
1

Italian verbs

XI.)

IV.

CHAPTER

67. All

1"

or

other
of

tion
explana-

VERBS.

REGULAR

(accented

the

throughout

recurs

conjugation.

Verbs

their characteristic

according to

divided

are

into:

vowel

verbs,

(i) -are
(2) -ere
Mostrare.

first conjugation.

or

conjugation.
verbs, or third conjugation:
To show, point out.
Temere, to fear.
P"r'-ere verbs,

and

(3) -ire

Partire,to

dere, to lose.

role

68. The

the

between

The

tables.

vowel

what

and

have

main

the

seen,
seen

in the

ence
differing
follow-

part of the infinitive preceding the


is the

characteristic

it the ending of the infinitive.

follows

terminations

the

stem,

parts of the verb

various

various

the

conjugations,is

vowel

characteristic

{alsoto divide).
characteristic
vowel,

set out

go away,

we

as

second

or

played by

constitutes,

which

The

vowel, which

This

i.

or

characteristic vowel,

the

is called

unaccented),

or

49

the

to

by adding

stem.

VERBS.

OF

TABLE

formed

are

INFINITIVE.

Mostr

are

Tern

P"rd

ere

"ndo2

Present

mostr

ando-

tern

Past

mostr

ato3

tern uto4

"to
2

Participle
Participle

Sometimes

transitive

"to

Part ire1

ere

perd

endo

part endo-'

perd

uto

part

ito

divide", but usually intransitive

depart".
There

are

also forms

mostr

ante, tern

ente, part ente, which,

really representing
participles (the forms in
much
less frequent, and
which
are
being gerunds),
be regarded as
verbal
Iente for -ente
adjectives. Cf. III.
may
(=endo) appears
only in finiente, impediente, leniente, obbediente,
the

though

Latin

-ando, -endo

partoriente,sometimes
3

aperiente and

moriente.

The

past participleof a few verbs of the first conjugation is


sometimes
contracted, especiallyin poetry, showing o for -ato,
desto =destato,
4

compound tenses cf. 76.


of the three conjugations showNotice that this is the only one
ing
vowel
other
than
acteristic
its chara
past participlewith an accented
vowel.

etc.

For

ITALIAN

5"

GRAMMAR.

Indicative
PRESENT.

I1 show,

mpstr o1

tern

showing,

am

perd o

etc.

part

o, I

depart,or

part isco, I divide


part i or part isci
part

part isce

or

part iamo

part ite
part

ono

or

part iscono

IMPERFECT.

showed,

showing,

was

etc.

mostr

ava4

tern

eva5

mostr

avi

tern

evi

part ivi

mostr

ava

tern

eva

part iva

mostr

avamo

tern

evamo

part ivamo

mostr

avate

tern

evate

part ivate

mostr

avano

tern

evano

part ivano

The

perd eva,6etc. part iva5

is omitted.

subject pronoun

Cf. 88.

("you show") cf. 91.


in the third plural future of all conThis -o, as also final -no
jugations,
is often
dropped: mpstran, "they show",
temeran,
"they will fear", etc.
4
0 is very
frequently used (indeed almost universally'where
2

For

the

use

of these

forms

danger of ambiguity) instead of this -a as the final vowel


of the first singular imperfect of all conjugations.
5
third conjugations (never of the
of the second
Verbs
and
there

is

first)often drop the

of the

imperfect: io

temea,

egli partia, etc.

pfrdereis conjugated precisely


be given.
like tem6re, the forms of the latter only will henceforth
(For the parallelirregular form of pfrdere see alphabetical table,
.) The second conjugation comprises the verbs of both the
p.
second
and
third Latin conjugations. In other words, the second
conjugation in Italian comprises verbs different in the infinitive
but alike in all other parts. The third, on the contrary, comprises
verbs alike in all parts save
the present indicative
and
tive,
subjuncin
but
different
these, i.e.,it consists of: (a) verbs of the
fourth
Latin
The
conjugation; (b) Latin inchoatives.
latter are
8

now

It

evident
being sufficiently

much

the

more

into the inchoative

that

numerous,

conjugation.

i.e.,most

-ire verbs

have

passed

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

52

Remarks

Regular

on

69. (1) Verbs


h after the

in order

ending

of the First

in

Conjugation.

and

-care

insert

-gare

to mark

the
to

endings beginning with e or


preservationof the hard sound2:

forget;

dimentichi, do

non

you

paghino loro,let them pay.


(2) Verbs in -ciare, -giare,sciare

in which

merely

where

the termination

Cominciare,
1

The

keep

the

vowel, which

sounded

next

to

to

c,

is a,

contains

begin,

an

drop
i

Cf. 16 and

Cf. 22,

third, the

third

59.

foot-note

3" and

61.

with

the

the

before

i is

the

this i in parts
an

e3:

comincio,

commence;

by
subjunctive present is indicated
the
first
vowel,
conjugation taking
of the

or

anything;

pay

soft

sc

g,

desidero

non

pay;

forget;

not

I shall forget. Pagare, to


dimenticher",
che paghiate ni"nte,I do not desire that

inserted

an

g before

or

Dimenticare,

Verbs

am

be-

teristic
change of the charac-

that

theretofore

acteristic
char-

second, that of the first.

REGULAR

VERBS.

53

ginning; comincerebbe, he would


begin.
Passeggiare.to
take a walk; passe'ggino,
let them
go to walk ; passeggerg
anch'
io, I shall also take a walk.
Lasciare, to leave,
let; lasci stare, let it alone.
Bruciare, to burn; brucera, it
will burn.

(3) Verbs
before

an

in -chiare

and

-gliare drop the


in the termination, not before an e :

only

Picchiare,to knock;
but

I shall
picchier^,

picchi(notpicchii),thou knockest,
knock.1
to counsel; conConsigliare,
let him advise.
advise; consigli,

he would
siglier"bbe,
(4) Of other verbs in -iare those retain this i:
(a) In which it has in the infinitive a secondary accent,
the secondary accent
becoming in the indicative present
first singular the principal
one:
Desiare,2to desire; io desio,tu desii. Spiare,to spy, io
spio,che spiino.
there
with
another
might be confusion
(b) In which
verb:

Odiare,

to

hate,

tu

gdii,not

90H, which

latter

"
=

thou

nearest"

(from udire).
strabilisentenziare,
(c) Appropriare,contrariare,
spaziare,
show
the ii. Others
also commonly
are
drop the i before
an
ending beginning with i, retainingit before e:
tu anngi,tu annoierai.
Annoiare,3to annoy;

lable
(5) Certain verbs having an open o in the first syldiphthongize it where it receives the accent (i.e.,
in the three persons
of the singularand third person
plural of the present indicative and subjunctiveand
in the imperative second
:
singular)
person
Giocare,4to play, io giuoco.
1

The

second

That

this

i has

is

the

verb

This

i is

Besides

that

i in

picchien) is distinctlyheard.
is evident
a
secondary accent

contracted

form

from

the

fact

of desiderare.

really a semi-consonant.
giocare,arrolare, infocare, rotare,

and

sonare

exhibit

ITALIAN

54

Remarks

on

(1) Verbs

70.

keep the

to

Regular

or

of the

in

before

latter

Second

and

-cere

g soft before

or

in which

o,

Verbs

ending

not, however,
a

GRAMMAR.

the

Conjugation.

the

an

of the past

participle,
beginning with

terminations

case

insert

-gere

g becomes

or

hard

Pascere,1to feed, pasture, pasco, ch' eglipasca, pasciuto.


(2) There are but few regular verbs in this conjugation,2
and
double

these

forms

present,

given

in the

for

table

the

part, the

most

for the

preterit. The
in -ei, -e, -erono
are
responding
reallythe regularones, corto the -ai of the first conjugation,-ii of the
The followingverbs and their compounds
take

forms

third.

only the -ei, -e, -erono:


lucere, mescere,
div"rgere,

battere, comp^tere, conv"rgere,

mi"tere, pascere,

prudere, rip"-

tere, stridere,t"ssere, tondere3; also compiere and


when

ere

conjugation (they are


according to the third).
frequently

change, also

this

and

provare

probably,
may

and

This

these

not

said

be
1

of this

Notare,

trovare.
to

be

and

mescere

are

Of

the

"to

with

confused

of votare

forms.

rinnovare

and

flected
frequentlyin-

tonare, and,

notice",
nuotare,

empi-

does,

never

"to

swim".

rarely,

in
The

order,
same

vuotare.

the

only regular verbs

irregular some

exhibit

them

exhibiting
all,as,

all

crescere,

(but pret. crebbi) ; conoscere,


conosco,
others
a
as
only
tacere, taccio, taeiuto;
(but pret. conobbi) ;
part,
See
piangere, piango, pret. piansi; past participle pianto, etc.

cresco,

cresciuto

conosciuto

Irregular Verbs.
2
The
entirely regular are:
battere, cedere, compftere, credere,
fendere, gemere, godere, mescere, miftere, pascere, p"ndere, pfrdere,
ripftere,splfndere,temere, tondere,vfnricevere,rifl^ttere,
premere,
of this
and
also
conjugation. See
fmpiere when
cdmpiere
dere,
later that the great majority of the irreguIt will be seen
Table.
lar
of this conjugation.
'-ere verbs
verbs are
Table

of

Many

of these

verbs

are

defective.

VERBS.

REGULAR

(3)

verbs

Some

present the

55

in

having an open o
same
phenomenon

the first syllable

remarked

under

(5):

69,

Cu^cere
m^vere, to

Remarks

-o,

or

of

Third

the

Conjugation.

conjugationtake in the present


and
subjunctive the -isco endings,not
-i, -e endings at all. The following is
of this

verbs

the

Mu^vere

coceva.

irregular.

Regular Verbs

indicative

having

otherwise

are

on

Most

C119C0,

moveva.

muQVO,

move;

verbs

These

71.

cgcere, to cook;

or

for their present tenses.

the model

Capire,

understand.

to

capisco, I understand,

capiamo

capisci

capite

capisce

capiscono

capisca, I may

understand,

capiamo

capisca

capiate

capisca

capiscano

capisci,understand

(thou).1
take

followingregular verbs

(a) The

the

forms

only:
sleep; fuggire,to fly,flee;partirein the sense
sentire, to feel, hear; servire, to
depart"; pentire,2

Dormire,
of "to

to

sortire,3in

serve;

the

of

"to

the

Latin

sense

go

out"; vestire, to

clothe.
1

forms

These
their

to

are

derived

in the

use

from

present only,

"I

inchoatives, hence

understand,

"

am

haps
per-

beginning

understand".
2

Pentire

Sortire, "to

Notice

forms.
takes

is

the

reflexive verb.
draw
that

-isco forms.

lots",
in

both

as

Sec

106.

partire,"to
cases

divide",

it is the

takes

the

transitive verb

-isco
that

56

ITALIAN

followingverbs
usually take -isco

(b) The
but

Abborrire,

take

may

tion,
termina-

either

to
abhor; bollire,to boil; inghiottire,

to

languire,

low;

GRAMMAR.

languish; mentire,

to

bellow; nutrire,

lie; muggire,

to

nourish; ruggire, to

to

also

sip; tossire,to cough;

verbs

in

swalto

sorbire, to

roar;

avvertire,

-vertire,as

divertire,etc.1

(c) Proseguire,""o prosecute, pursue", has


proseguisco.
pros^guo, but sometimes
The

72.

more

(ifexpressed) or

pronoun
Voi

is

verb

interrogativeby placing the


other subjectafter it:

show;

mostrate, you

usually

mostrerete

voi?

Shall

your

brother

you

show?
Non

partiravgstro frat"llo?Will

not

go

away?
The

imperfect tense is used to


habitual, or repeated action,

73.

that

express

which

time

which

is

finished

il libro

CHAPTER
AUXILIARY

The

the
especially
A

number

of

soffrire, cucire, and

Cf. 226

time,

was

showing

the

Italian

are

XIII.)

V.
VERBS.

and

aver

e, "to

have".

in

Both

are

irregular,

first.

as
irregular verbs, such
aprire, coprire, offrire,
its compounds,
also belong to this class.
See

Table.
2

and

principal auxiliary verbs

"to be", and


"'ssere,

certain

quando entrg.

(Exercises XII

but

preteritto

the

he entered.

when

74.

at

ished,
unfin-

quite past2:

Io mostravo
book

was

express

228.

AUXILIARY

VERBS.

57

INFINITIVE.

l"ssere

Sieno

These

This

forms

and

These
Cf. 174

is also used.

regular.

the first and

forms

and

are

177.

are

second

plural are

regular,averfi being

regular.

contracted

into

avrei,

etc.

5*

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

IMPERATIVE.

abbi
abbiate
SUBJUNCTIVE.

Present.

Imperfect.1

abbia
abbi

75. Each

avessi

(abbia)

abbia

avesse

abbiamo

avessimo

abbiate

aveste

abbiano

avessero

of these

stato

Sono

state

Aveva

qui

le Sue

Use

76.

Following
mostrare

is

tenses

here.

sore,lle? Have

of

of all transitive

tenses

compound

had

He

sisters been here?

your

had

the money.

AuxiliaryVerbs.

forms
past participle

+ the

Avere

been

il denaro.

avuto

its

itself.

I have

qui.

forms

verbs

by compounding with
Sono

avessi

synopsis of

the

compound

intransitive

of most

and

the

compound

verbs.
of

tenses

Infinitive.

mostrato,

avere

to

Past

participle.

ave,ndo mostrato,

Past

indefinite.

ho

Pluperfect.
Future

mostrato,

aveva

have shown.

having shown,

/ hare

shown,

mostrato, / had shown

etc.
etc.
,

avr" mostrato, I shall have shown,

anterior.

etc.

Conditional

anterior.

/ should

avre,i mostrato,
shown,

have

etc.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

indefinite,

Past

Pluperfect.
77.

Essere

tenses
1

Which

+ the

abbia
avessi

mostrato,

/ may
/

have

and

the

verbs
reciprocal

regular throughout.

shown,

etc.

might havi shown,

past participleforms

of all reflexive
is

mostrato,

etc.

compound

and

of

some

60

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

SUBJUNCTIVE.

have gone, etc.


sia andato, / may
fossi andato, / might have gone, etc.

Past indefinite.

Pluperfect.
Remarks,

g'ssereis

English "to be", although it


used to express the progressivepresent, English
showing", etc., which is to be translated simply

is not
I

that

observed

the

frequent than

more

"

It will be

(i)

am

mostro.1
A

(2)

passive always
If the
with
with

verb

be

agrees with
intransitive

"ssere in the sense


the subject. In
verbs
and

103

it may,

the

by

of "to
the

but

the
"ssere to form
subject of the verb.

nature

(compounding

have")

it also agrees

of reflexive

case

does

not

amata.

always,agree.

reciprocal
(Cf.

She

is much

beloved.

partiti. They have departed.

Ci siamo

amati.

We

have

loved

one

another.

Auxiliary with Intransitive


78. All reallytransitive

require a
form

or

114.)

|)molto
Sono

with

past participleused

their

Verbs.

verbs, i.e.,all verbs

that

object to complete their meaning,


compound tenses with avere, and have a

direct

All reflexive -or


from
passive voice formed
"ssere.
with
reciprocalverbs form their compound tenses
verbs, i.e.,
"'ssere. (Cf. 102.) All really intransitive
which
which
take a direct object and
verbs
cannot
have
no
passive voice, form their compound tenses
with "ssere, with the exception of the verbs:
1

Stare

and

andare, however,

progressive action.

Cf. 81

are

(a) and

sometimes

(J) (1).

used

to

express

the

6l

VKRBS.

AUXILIARY

desinare, to dine.

sbadigliare,to

dormire,

sonnecchiare,

sleep.
passeggiare,to walk.
to

The

79.

which

andare

to go

take

to

sternutare, to

sjumber, doze,

sneeze.

necessarilyintransitive

commonest

always

yawn.

are
"'ssere

morire

to die
.

to be

born,

arrivare, to arrive.

nascere,

avvenire, to happen.

parere, to appear.

cadere,

pervenire,to arrive.

to fall.

comparire,
cdrrere, to

rimanere,

to appear.

uscire,to
venire,to

certain

intransitive

verbs
with

sometimes

and

avere

go out.

come.

of

number
with

sometimes
the

to remain.

riuscire,to succeed.

run.

divenire,to become.

(a)

generaldistinction being that they take


while

is denoted,

action

verbs

"ssere

"ssere,

when

avere

the

denotes

pound
com-

state

or

With
the verb
avere
resultingfrom action.
to complete
has usually an
object,often an infinitive,
its meaning, with "ssere it has not.

condition

Verbs

80.

to

either

take

to dwell.

fuggire,to flee.
giungere,to arrive.
invecchiare,to

grow

ritornare, to

gu"rra

"

La

gu"rra

ha

ceased

to

to escape.

scendere,

to descend.

succ^dere, to succeed, happen.


tacere, to be silent.

old.

cessata.
cessato

devastate

return.

scappare,

to live.

vivere,

La

perire,to perish.

degenerare,to degenerate.
dimorare,

are
"'ssere

to pass.

passare,

cease.

to grow.

crescere,

or

avere

to depart,divide,
partire,

to walk.

camminare,
cessare,

which

the

The

war

di devastare
lands.

ceased.

has
i

paesi.

The

war

has

62

ITALIAN

Other

81.

GRAMMAR.

Other

Verbs

verbs

sometimes

Used

Auxiliaries.

as

of "ssere for

instead

used

English "to be" are:


(a) Stare, "to stand", which
always
state, frequentlya state of health.
Stava

parlando.

Come

sta ?

How

Sta male.

"to

be

are

how

you,

do you

to do

about

just going to

am

(b) Venire, "to come",


of the

venne
L'ombre.llo

means
infinitive)

an

thing".

Sto per mostrarlo.

the formation

do?

well.

"ssere per (followedby

or

which

is sometimes
of the

simple tenses
The

trovato.

it.

show

umbrella

in

used

passive1:
found.

was

(c) Rimanere, "to remain", is used


less

talking.

was

is not

He

Stare per

expresses

like venire, but

frequently:

state

arrestato.

Rimango

arrested

am

remain

in

of arrest).

(d) Andare,2 "to go", is used

(i) A

state

condition:

or

andate

Che

cercando

(Literally, "What

(2) Duty
Non

va

or

to express:

What

do you

go

are

looking

you

for?

seeking?")

obligation:

detto cosi.

That

must

not

be said, it cannot

be

expressed.

so

Se

aveva

well he

incorragito.If
fattob"ne,andava

ought

been

to have

he

had

dene

encouraged.

by the principalverb more


than does fssere, and is often preferredto it in elegantstyle. Neither
used in the compound
venire nor
II libro
tenses.
rimanere are ever
1

"

Venire

venuto
2

the

expresses

the

trovato, for "

Notice

action

stato

indicated

trovato, would

that, like stare, andare

present participle.

when

be barbarous.
it expresses

state

takes

AUXILIARY

L' amicizia

1/

amore

coltivata

va

63

VERBS.

tutta

con

la

possibiledelicatezza.

superato cgllaforza.

va

with

all

must
Frienclsliip
must
possibledelicacy. Love

tivated
cul-

be
be

quered
con-

by force.
82.

"to

'to

Dovere,

owe",

potere,

wish", fare, 'to do",


"to

sapere,

know",

be

"make",
classed

be

must

'to

able", volere,

and
as

sometimes

modal

iaries,
auxil-

they have, when followed by an infinitive,


of auxiliary function.
sort
'should",
a
"Ought",
"must", etc., are rendered
by the appropriate tenses
of
dovere; "may",
'might", 'can", 'could", by
those of potere;
'will", 'would", when
they express
can
",
volition,not simplefuturity,
by those of volere ;
all
These
verbs are
"could", etc., by those of sapere.
but not defective as are the English modal
irregular,1
auxiliaries,so that shades of meaning, as well as time
of action, may
be more
exactlyrendered by them than
by the English equivalents2:
since

'

D"vo partire. I ought to go, must go (in the present).


I
Dovr"i partire. I ought to go (which does not mean
is less preciseas to time than devo partire)3.
must
go ", and
"

Doveva

I had

partire.

Avr"i dovuto

Non

could

See

Compare

One

non

Table

of
the

also

are

have

gone.

I go ?
go.

swim.

sapeva

ancora

discorrere.

The

child

Irregular Verbs.
German

complete

modal

auxiliaries

kbnnen.

mbgen.

devo

etc.,

in their

conjugations.
partire perhaps on rising to go,
say
going immediately.

would

without

to

yet talk.

not

which

ought

I cannot

so, nuotare.

II bambino

partire.

Pgssopartire? May
Vggliopartire. I will

to go.

dovrei

tire
par-

64

ITALIAN

The

Remark.

GRAMMAR.

abilityrendered in the
sometimes
idiomatically

idea

same

of

examples by sapere is
expressed by g'ssere
bugno a:
il pianofgrte.
Sono
bugna a sonare

last two

play

can

the

piano.
let",

auxiliaries in such

are

abito, "I

un

going

am

had

(i)
in

molto

bgl tgmpo,

(2)
where

in:

"There

da fare.

used

by
is

84. Avere

avere

in need

need.

of, to
to be

"to

avere

paura,

sete, to be thirsty.

avere

avere

caldo, to be

matter

was
1

For

paura?

Were

avere

you

to

vergogna,

qualche

be

cold.

be

afraid.

to be ashamed.
cosa,

note

afraid?

Ng, aveva

4.

to

be

the

with.

hungry.
ci, cf. 36,

C'e

bottles.

be":

freddo, to

avere

Avevate

sono

do.

to

avere

fame,

warm.

ci
c'1^,

followingexpressionswhere

avere

hungry.

undici,

translated

be

three

are

le

sono

g'ssere

of Avere.

Uses

verb
be

pressions
ex-

ago":

But

must

great deal

in the

is used

English uses the


to
bisogna (di)2,

the

are",

vi e, vi sono,

Idiomatic

time

long

idea

in such

be"

o'clock"

bottiglie. There
There

the

express

weather".

one

is", "there

tre

sono

molto

fare, "I

fatto

hg

"to

fa, "it is

tempo

"it is beautiful

"cco is not

Vi

to

verb

the

"it is
" 1' una,
"it is eleven o'clock".

is used

it be";

is used

Fare

English by

as

fa

to

it done".

Remarks,
rendered

expressionsas: Farg fare


have
coat
a
made"; lascia

done", "let

fare, "let it be
have

lasciare, "to

and

make",

"to

do",

83. Fare, "to

Cf.

212

(2).

fame.

No,

PERSONAL

ha?

C9s'

Non

65

PRONOUNS.

I19 nie,nte.

What

is wrong

with

you?

Nothing.
Also:

(a) In expressionsdenoting
Che

ha?

eta

How

age:

is he?

old

s"tte anni.

Ha

He

is

seven.

(6) With
"

have

to

Hg

da

and

da

infinitive to express

an

to

parlare.

I must

speak.

da partire. He

Aveva

had

{Exercises

to

go.
and

XIV

CHAPTER

PERSONAL

obligation,

"

XV.)

VI.

PRONOUNS.

PERSONAL

DISJUNCTIVE
PRONOUNS.

85. There

are

(1) the
The

unstressed.
from
This
them

fact that
the

pronouns.
verb

the

that

therefore

in Italian
tonic

verb,

of

personal pronouns:

stressed; (2) the

or

tonic

kinds

two

be

may
or

may

separated in

appear

without

atonic
the
a

or
tence
sen-

verb.

joinedto the verb has given


of disjunctive,
name
absolute,or independent
The atonic forms
are
so
-dependent on the
they always appear
joined to it. They are
called conjunctiveor dependent personalpronouns.
they

are

not

Remark.
may
1

be
Which

The
made

nature

clearer

by

of these
the

two

classes

of

pronouns1]

following examples: Mgstro,

Latin
simply the different forms of one and the same
different
word, developed under
circumstances,
me
emphasized
mi.
Cf. the
different
giving me,
unemphatic
pronunciation of
"me"
in "give it to me",
and "him"
English
"give it to him",
and "give it to me,
not
to him".
are

66

"

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

Io

are

"I!

mgstro.
are

of

All

Che

showing."

am

C9sa

Mgstro me,1 "I am


emphasized in
pronouns,

these

Io!

showing?"

showing?'

you

myself."
Mi

is

"Who

mostra?

"What

are

Chi

showing"

am

mgstra?
showing
English,

But in
disjunctiveforms.
showing myself" ; Che co,sa fai?" What
Bistro, I am
showing myself to
doing?' Mi ti m9Stro, "I am
you
Italian

in

rendered

the

by

"

you",

is

there

in Italian

no

laid upon

stress

conjunctive forms

the

are2:

noi, we,

io, I

therefore

Pronouns.

disjunctivepronouns

The

pronoun,

used.

are

Disjunctive Personal
86.

the

us

me

me,

voi,you

tu, thou
te, thee

eglino,6loro,essi,they
lui,esso, he
egli,3
loro,essi,them
lui,esso, him
elleno,5loro,esse, they
essa,5she (you)
ella,4le,i,
loro,esse, them
essa,5 her (you)
le,i,
se, himself,herself,themselves
87. These

They

forms

always

are

more

verb.

object either emphasized


preposition.
the

(b) As

Or

The

emphatic.

used:

are

(a) As the subject of

less

or

or

governed by

stesso.

me

personal

are

pronouns

the

only real declension

left

forms

in Italian.
3

Sometimes

shortened

into ei

Sometimes

shortened

to

la vi
5

sara.

Be

Ella, l"i,are
Seldom

used

careful

used

to

for

in modern

gli.

la: Ti raccomando

una

good carriage.
you", but essa is

get
"

or

Italian.

"

bupna s^dia.

If there
not.

"

is

one.

Se

68

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

"you",
in

for the

plural.

present the following are

At

use:

tu

V9i
qSinS-

!V9i
JLoro1

Plur

Ella1

[Up
'you") is
(generallyto be translated
relative, an intimate friend,
used in addressing a near
or
a
child; also in elevated or poeticallanguage and
or
scorn
to express anger
; voi as a pluralin addressing
these

Of

two

tu

relatives,friends, or

more

or

children, also

less familiar than

singularsomewhat

tu

yet less formal

Ella, Le,i,used, for instance, in addressing

than

Its

is also

use

frequent

as

vants.
ser-

in the

in poetry, and

frequentlyemployed than
Italy it is more
in speaking with strangers.
Ella even
Excepting in
the south the ordinary form of address is Ella, plural
of the third performs
These
Loro.
were
originally
son,
such
antecedent
as
Signoria,
representingsome
Highness", Eccell"nza, Altezza,
Vossignoria, "Your
All such words
etc.
being feminine, the pronoun was
(Cf.89.)
naturallyfeminine.2
of

south

Vossignoria vuol
Ella " servita.

(a)
but
use,

Your

cenare?

She

is served

Highness wishes

(i.e.,
"you

grammatical form

Ella is the proper

form, has

Le,i,reallya dative

in
supplantingElla, especially

Loro

are

(Lor signori,Lor

come

to sup

served").
in this case,

into

common

conversation.

signore) is

the

corresponding

plural:
Loro

You

verranno.

will

come.

ella, lei,loro.
initial,
2
An
adjective or participlequalifyingElla, Lei takes
Thus
one
of the person
represented by that pronoun.
in speaking to a man:
L"i " troppo bu9no {notbu9na).
1

Also

written

with

small

the

gender

would

say

PERSONAL

DISJUNCTIVE
This

of the

use

in

originto

extended

more

speaking.

He

should

mio, che
figliucilo

tu

of you,
mia

learn

the

one

to him

eigner
for-

need

t" "

or

recognize all
of meaning conveyed by
to

practiceconfine

in

It is the

now.

himself

to

what

will

the

forms:

Ella, L"i, Loro


E

should

but is much

only

addressed

shades

the

the

and

sponds
corre-

person

usage,

really formal

not

of address

and

second

formal

own

to hear

but

them,

for the

is likelyever

forms

the

our

and

ordinary form
when

third

69

PRONOUNS.

diventerai?
0

son?

my
O

speranza.

my

And

figli
mi"i, voi

children, you

che

siete stati la

have

who

come
be-

been

my

hope.

L^i,1Signor Bardi,

How

state,poverino?

Come

do you
sta?

come

do, you

And

man?

poor
do

how

do,

you

B.?

Mr.

bene

Stanno

Me, te,

92.

con:

Loro

tutti?

are

often

se

all well?

you

with

compounded

"with

meco,

me",

is

Occasionallycon

etc.

Are

seco,

placed also

the

sition
prepo-

by himself"2,

before

this

pound3
com-

Vi"ni meco
(a) Esso

also be used

may

with

Come

(con meco).

me.

redundantly with

(con) noi,voi,lui,lei,loro:
noi.
Restate
con
esso
Stay with us.
lui se n' and" nel giardino.
E
esso
con

meco,

teco,

seco;

him

with

away

This

pronoun

others, the

into the

showing
"she"

he

went

garden.

is omitted

context

And

under
whether

the

circumstances

same

the

verb

is to

be

as

the

translated

subject.
I understand,
I
lui: Ho
Seco
con
inteso, parlerQ seco.
may
him.
shall speak with
Corresponding forms of the pluralare the
of noi and voi, but
not
and vpsco (compounds
poeticalnosco
rare,
"you", "he",

with

or

as

of the
3

Cf.

archaic

nos,

vos.

Spanish conmigo, contigo,consigo.

ITALIAN

70

of

whole

Venite

Noi

voialtri.

(or noialtri)Romani

all of you.

me,

siamo

reflexive

The

se

is

The

objectiveonly.

myself", "we ourselves", etc., are


by adding the adjectivesstesso or medesimo
"I

io medesimo.

Andr"

stessi

Loro

you

mans
Ro-

subject
rendered
the

to

pronoun

Ma

We

altieri.

proud.

are

forms

ing
speak-

with

Come

noi, voi, in

to

class of persons1

meco

altri

93.

frequently added

is

(b) Altri

GRAMMAR.

I shall go

themselves

qui. They

sono

myself.

signore,Loro medesime
said so yourselves.

l'hanno

here.

are

detto!

But, ladies!

But:
L' ha

fatto da

Sono

partitida

(or: of their

own

being in

(she) did it by himself


have

se.

They

free

will).

gone

by

away

(herself).
themselves

subject of an impersonal verb, never


degree emphatic,is not expressed
slightest

"It",

94.

He

se.

the

the

in Italian2:

Pigve,non " vero? 3


95. Although these

It is

vosotros,

Cf

Spanish

might
2

But

also be

somewhat

(86, foot-note

3):

distinct

meaning

now

of

the

simply

impersonal "it"

teco

may

be

lesser villano (Orlando Furioso,


thee"
rude with
"it, the
(literally,

sense:

neuter

is

In

verita, ella " cosi.

would
ser"bbe b"lla. "That
3
This
"
expression, non
used
the

in Italian.

hearer, which

by gli

cortesia

of

"It

taineer
moun-

rendered

being rude

77).

"we",

Tennessee

courtesy to be
with thee, is courtesy"). Ella (la)is also used

27,

case

adduced.
less

Gli

it?

have

pronouns

"you'uns"

"we'uns",

The

"you".

nosotros,

raining,isn't

be nice
vero,

It is

call is rendered

'In

truth

in

sort

it is so".

La

"

(sarcastically)
literally"is it not true", is

mere

in

call for assent

on

the

stantly
con-

part of

English by repeatingthe

verb.

PERSONAL

DISJUNCTIVK
for

forms

subjective and objective,the objective


as
subject. It is so used :
there
verb
the
e"sere in phrases where

(a) With

might

be

in the

case

uncertainty

some

of

form

verbal

the

almost

the

constant

as

ject
sub-

the

where

and

emphasis (redundant

of

also

Observe

construction,

the
and

with

sake

the

repeated for

then

to

as

predicate pronouns

really understood

is

71

the

used

is often

PRONOUNS.

struction)
con-

of

use

Lei,

"you",
che

Costui

"

(91 (a)) :

nominative

as

altro

un

That

me.

is my

who

one

other

self.

Ma

s"i piu giovane

te, tu

di

and

his brothers

Sta

are

me.

But

was

you

you.

are

younger

one

English
Sono

io.1

the

Le,i!

studious

lui

come
as

he

You
non

struction,
con-

with

is like the

used
made

only :

one!
I know

no

one

else

(is).

French
in

expressed,

verb

no

person

altri.

conosco

they.

is

unfortunate

(Exercises XVI
Contrast

It is

there

third

of the

pronouns

Studiosi

oftenest

expressed

verb

construction

essi.

Sono

It is I.

Sfortunata

oftener

the

to

as

one:

(b) Absolutely,i.e.,where
with

is

it, the

near

pronoun

he

uncertainty

no

there

i.e.,where

only

well

you

is

there

where

Both

cortesi.

molto

sono

polite.

very

Are

b"ne L"i ?

But

lui

che
suo,ifrat"lli

Tanto

thought

I.

than

as

He

ch' io fossi te.

credeva

Esso

c'est

conversation

in the

forms

moi.
than
for the

and

objective

The
in

XVII.)

writing.

third

person.

for
The

subjective
substitution

Cf. below,

(b).

is
is

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

12

VII.

CHAPTER

REFLEXIVE

PRONOUNS.

PERSONAL

CONJUNCTIVE

VERBS.

conjunctivepersonal
their name
indicates,cannot be separated
as
pronouns,
of which
the verb
from
they are the object,either
direct or indirect,without
a
preposition.
The
found
forms
cusative
correspond to the unstressed acand dative cases.
They are :
particlesor

96. Pronominal

mi

te

me,
disjunctive

me,

myself,to

me,

me,

to myself

te, a te, thee, thyself,to thee, to

self
thy-

'

"

lo1

gli

5=3

la

lui,esso, him, it

"

a
"

essa,
l"i,

"

le

lui,to him

"=

to
le,i,

her
her

"

si

se,

"=

to

ci2

vi

"

voi, a voi, you,

le

"

"

from
2

used

II is sometimes

the
Ne

in

poetry.

article

selves
our-

loro, to them

and

us, to

yourself,yourselves,
to yourselves
to you, to yourself,
loro,them, to them (masculine)
(feminine)
loro,them, to them

Italian

to themselves
himself,to herself,

noi, a noi,us, ourselves,to

"

himself, herself,themselves,

"

gliorli3=
loro4

se,

(you)
(to you)

in

Both

place of
forms

especially in older
carefullydistinguished

this lo,
be

must

il,lo.
used

is sometimes

instead

of

this ci,

especially in

older

Italian.
3

Gli is the

instead
*

The

of li before

right

object, li the direct, but gli is often used


h, or s impure.
vowel, a liquidconsonant,

indirect

of

this form

to

be

called

conjunctive may

be

dis-

CONJUNCTI
these

To

97.

YK

PKRSONAT.

be

must

I'ROXOIXS.

added

the

73

verbs:
pronominal adthem, some, any,

ne,1 of it, of him, of her, of

hence, thence; ci,2vi,2'3to it,here, there.


Mi

vede.
Mi

da

Ti dicono.

He

sees

un

fiore.

parlavi?

Did

give him

talking

to

Vi

us.

to

him.4

Ci

washing

am

to

me)

He

They
saw

do.
Le

self,
him-

sees

parlano.

I seldom

Gli

ink-stand.

Si vede.
Si

self.
my-

flower.

him.

see

the

cercano.

of it.

some

me

him)

her?

di rado.

vedeva
I have

(orn'hq).

another.

Lo vedo.

speak to
people see

one

lavo.

gives

you

is seen,

he

for

He

tell thee.

They

il calamaio.

Mi

me.

They

are

looking

are

Ne

you.

ho

Vi" (orv'", cJ e'). Thereis

(some).
N.B.

all
must
emphasized these pronouns
replaced by the corresponding disjunctiveforms,
vede me
not
non
sees
te, "he
me,
you"; partir9

be
as:

To

be

lui.

con

Remarks

98. (1)

and

ne,

sometimes

are

be

Lo

the

on

Conjunctive

less often

and

used

Pronouns.

where

in

other

conjunctives,
English they would

pleonastic:
(cf. 99V
always follow the verb
used
without
a
preposition: Gli dico,
loro, or
(still more
emphatic) dico a

It must

puted.

but
dico

It is loro

junctive,
dis-

(more

phatic)
em-

lpro, "I

tell

or

them".
1
=

French

In

the

All

before

Cf. 104

This

It may

also
when

and

in

as

meaning

i.

and

lp is

both

one

represent

forms

forms

French

y.

elision,lo,gli,la, le
subject
="
when
the same
circumstances
you", "to you") under
articles; mi, ti,si,vi, ne before any vowel, ci only

monosyllabic

(these last
as

("inde).

en

function

to

are

Cf. 36.
105.
of the
a

whole

very

few

clause:

neuter

forms

Sperava

che

left to

the

verr^bbe

ma

Italian.
non

lp

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

74

"

stanco?

Are

libri.1 We

dei

I have

have

the

seen

Lo

tired?

you

Ne

am.

t"Vola

La

books.

some

sono,

abbiamo

Pho

vista.

table.

pronominal particlesare often used with


the articles in place of possessives
(cf.137 (2)):
Mi duQlela t"sta. My head aches.
Le gettaile braccia al cgllo. I threw my
around
arms
(2)

The

neck.

her

Si ruppe
Mi

lost

often

are

would

be

Glielo2

his

broken

friend

leg.

of mine

died, I

has

ci,vi, ne
He

Ci vede.
He

sees

for it for you.


are

pronouns

adverbs3

has

is

reallya dative,
English a preposition

in

I will look
as

ne

as

which

necessary

cercherg.

N' ha.

of
one
particles,
used togetherwhere

(4) Ci,vi,and
from

has

friend.

(3) Two

He

amico.

mcjrtoun

"

have

gamba.

una

by

Ci

us.

va.

Ne

some.

the

to be

distinguished

context:

He

is

going there.
vi"ne. He is coming

from

there.

(5) A

verb

pronouns
"I

sapeva,

would

you

accompanied by

maybe

only
hoped

when

would

you

come).

is

one

La, le, and

direct, the other


but

come,
una

conjunctive

two

did not
also

are

know

it"
in

neuter

an

in-

that
(i.e.,
idiomatic

phrases where they represent an indefinite object not expressed:


delle sue,
"he
has
run
Darla
away"; Ha fatto una
a gamba, "to
is like him";
of his ordinary blunders", "that
committed
one
Non

ce

ne

perdonava

feminine
neuter
1

The

indeed,

yes

is

"he

treated

us

more
we

with

The
the

ently
appar-

Latin

gives emphasis. The Italian phrase may


"we
have indeed
some
than the English
books,
In the second
some".
have
example lp is reallyan
"

adverb.
2Cf.

all alike".

explained by comparison

plural.
repetitionhere

much

mean

form

una,

101.

the
Etymologically

words

arc

identical.

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

76

(b) The

le, for which

glior

except gli (and glie

conjunctivepronouns

when

101) double

see

verbal

initial

their

sonant
con-

which

they are added


is a
monosyllable or a polysyllableending in an
accented
vowel,1 as cominciQllo,"he began it" ; dhxmi
(di'from dire, "to say", "to tell"),"tell (thou) me"2:
(to) him the newspaper.
Mgstragliil giornale. Show
Ijxcolo. Here it is.
E mostratolo
vi"niqua a parlarmi. And when you have
shown
here

it

the

"and
(literally,

talk

to

form

to

Mostrandolo

to

been

having

it

shown")

come

me.

se,istato

In

obbedi"nte.

it you

showing

obedient.

were

Dammi

la

condurti
vcjglio

mano,

your hand, I will take


Parliamo
loro.
Let

the infinitive

may
sentirlo

Desidero
him.

infinitive

transitive

dependent

it follows

me

may

depending
either

be

upon

united

to

precede the principalverb:

or

that

sentire.

lo desidero

or

intransitive

(Since an

Give

spasso.

talk to them.

conjunctive pronoun

Remark.

us

walk.

to

you

verb

the

where

I desire to hear

take

cannot

direct object,

infinitive is intransit

dependent

object always belongs to the principalverb.


lated
phrases like "I see him coming" must be transthe

Therefore

lo vedo
but
vie,ne,

venire, or

venendo,

lo vedo

vedo

venirlo.) But there


of choice; the followingcases

never

this freedom

lo vedo

or

is not
must

che

always

be distinguished

When

(a)

always

must
1

This

Da + ci
2

In

dacci,

these
as

as

with

go

doubling
=

principalverb

the

in

the

impersonal

the

pronoun

infinitive:

composition

is not

confined

to

this

compound.

etc.

in all the

above

usual, the pronoun

3=condurre

is

tje.

compounds

unaccented.

the verbal

form

is

cented
ac-

PERSONAL

CONJUNCTIVE
sentirlo.

Bisogna

One

PRONOUNS.

him

hear

must

77

lo

(not

bisogna

sentire).
(b)
the

in Italian

Where

principalverb

and

with

the

must

Andr"

go

farlo.

(c) Where

object of

which

(d) In

infinitive has

its

keeps

Gli fa

He

has

and

object attached

l^ggerlo. He

to

verb3

one

Mi

Loro

Me
io

him

loro.

loro.

He

I.e.,without

vedere

and

out

you

showed

also

may

to

to

you

take

Having pointed

you

near

Mostra-

me.

rule

not

are

common.
un-

them.
out

to

them.

him.

they

their i to

accompany
direct:

me.

to

change

infinitive

the

him.

see

you

I drew

fare

it.2

read

showing

was

dependent

usually does:

Mi, ti,si,ci, vi, when

la, li,le, ne,

it,and

Infringements of this
last:
regularlycomes

gliaccostai.
i.

the

object,the object of

I shall let him

He

Mostratovi

is fare and

before

lasciare

Having pointed

Vi mostrava

it.

do

me

conjunctive pronouns
indirect object precedes the

the

Exception

tive,
dependent infini-

two

vi mostrava.

tomivi.

andr" a fare).

it:

makes

lascer9vederlo.
Where

of the

direct

placed

this construction, and

ioo.

noun
pro-

already a pronominal

seen

(e) Lasciare, sentire,udire,


Gli

has

principalverb

indirect

is made

it (not lo

do

to

also that

pronominal

the
infinitive,

directly1:

it governs

the

between

stand

infinitive:

it takes

own

case

dependent

principalverb

1' ha visto fare.

Me

its

I shall go

the

its

prepositionmust

e.

preposition between

followed

are

Gli

and

it and

by lo,

le, 'to him'

the infinitive.

Cf.

ib) above.
2

have

This

is

an

extension
direct

only one
object of fa. This
3Cf. 98 (5).

of the

principlethat a
object,lfggere being in the

construction

is found

transitu
exam]

also in French.

verb

le the

can

direct

78

ITALIAN

"to

and

her"

glie,and

GRAMMAR.

("to you"), before


are

written

one

as

the

forms

same

word

with

come
be-

the other

:
particle

mgstro; c" lo mostrava;


mostrati.
ler^1; eglime li aveva
Te

lo

Exercises

ve

and

XVIII

ne

parlo; glienepar-

XIX.

Verbs.

Reflexive

Any transitive verb may be made reflexive by


giving it throughout the appropriateconjunctivepronouns,
the subject.
those of the same
as
i.e.,
person
Followingis a synopsisof a reflexive verb :
102.

to dress one's self


vestirsi,

Infinitive.

participle. vest"ndosi
vestitosi
participle.

Present
Past

1
"

The

I shall

context

speak

will in such
to him

about

show

cases

it"

"

or

I shall

the

whether

speak

to

her

meaning
about

is

it".

REFLEXIVE

VERBS.

79

SUBJUNCTIVE.

Present.

mi

ve,sta,etc.

Imperfect.

mi

etc.
vestissi,

Tenses.1

Compound
INDICATIVE.

Past indefinite.

mi

Pluperfect.

mi2

anterior.

Past

anterior.

Future

Conditional.

vestito,etc.

sono

"ra vestito,etc.

mi

fui

mi

sar" vestito,etc.

mi

sar"ivestito,etc.

vestito,etc.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

indefinite.

Past

mi

sia

mi

fossi

Pluperfect.
Remarks

As

the
est
same

vestito,etc.

Reflexive

on

Verbs.

flexive
already observed
(77), all reverbs form their compound tenses
from "'ssere
+
past participle.The past participle
agrees oftenof the
with the direct object (which is of course
number
and gender as the subject)3:

103.

La

has

vestito,etc.

signora

lady

told

been

mi

disse
she

that

me

che

had

Ess"ndosene vergognata
little girlhaving been

poor

There

Remark.

reflexive and

another",
Le

dcmne

may
s'

is

s* "ra

gotten up
molto
much

amano

added
le

at

se,tte. The

o'clock.

la pgvera piccina. The


ashamed
of it.

but

in order

une

alle

seven

distinction

no

verbs,
reciprocal
be

alzata

le altre.

of form
V

to

V altro,

un

avoid

The

between

women

Cf.

78 and

103.

Or m'

$ra vestito.

one

ambiguity:
love

another.
1

'

Cf. also 114.

one

80

ITALIAN

third

The

104.

GRAMMAR.

impersonal (neutral)

(b) an

(a) a passivesense;

with

used

is often

reflexive

of the

person

sense.

(a) In

the

transitive

first

the

ease

(since only

one

passive),and the verb


its direct object:

is

verb

transitive

with

agrees

naturallyalways

its

become

may

subject,si being

Questi libri si cdmprano dappertutto. These


sold everywhere (literally, sell themselves").
si di"de. The
book which
II libro che mi
was

books

are

"

given

to

me.

(b) In the second

the verb

case

often

be and

may

is

subject expressed,and the si


which
accompanies it, although it is not its subject,
'one",
'they",
conveniently be translated
may
It has

intransitive.

"we":

"people",

It is

Si dice.
Se

said,they

parla. People

ne

say.

are

talking

it.

about

dancing.
Se ne va.
People are leaving.
che
Io sperava
e-ggi si sare,bbe stati allegriinsie,me.
have
been
would
together
happy
we
hoped that
Si ballera.

no

will be

There

to-day.
The

105.

with

there

fact that

the reflexive

and

that

by all has given rise


the

Where
the verb
its

were

latter

the

is often

non

si

constructions

not

stood
clearlyunder-

certain

made

pcjssonofare.

Or:
si

to

are

subjectfollows

done.

Non

they

two

of

amount

and

fusion.
con-

precedes
though si

the si

singular as

subject:

Queste C9se
be

these

are

pu"

fare

queste ce-se.

These

things

cannot

REFLEXIVE

Or

(a)

plural

si " costretti.

die.denuQve

(b) Si
tense

singular

the

When

creduto.

with

Tliere

passive

bad

was

mark

to

news.

of

change

not

in

so

verbs

reflexive

are

there

English, and

perceive",

their

abituarsi

meaning,

get accustomed

a, to

rallegrarsidi, to rejoiceover,
The

107.

verb

andarsene,

special mention,
throughout
me

ne

andava,

se

ne

andranno,

non

se

go
ne

going

am

se

vatene,

it takes

used

never

except

as

etc.3
"to

go

away",

conjunctive

two

deserves
pronouns

away.

was

going

they

will go

he

away.
away.

andatevene, go
(thou) away;
not
vadano, let them
go away.

(Exercises XX
1

Literally, "news

For

Lingua

flexive
essentially re-

to.

ess"ndosene andati, they having

this

are

vado,

ne

as

which

repent", accgrgersi, 'to


verbs
require a preposition

reflexive

Many

etc.

complete

to

credu-

stato

Italian

many
are

pentirsi, 'to

as

in

are

which

verbs, i.e.,verbs
reflexives,

(="

believed.2

been

Many

106.

Si " creduto

It is believed.

It has

to).

by

as

followed

is constrained.

one

consolanti.1

P9C0
serve

may

be

may

adjective:

or

noun

Quando
Si

in

verb

81

VERBS.

little

curious

usage

Italiana, "332,

Cf. lists under

211

p.

and

gone

(ye, you)

away,

away.

etc.

XXI.)

consoling".
cf. Moise,

298.

(3) and

212

(2).

Regole ed

Osservazioni

delta

82

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

VIII.

CHAPTER
AND

ADJECTIVES
1

Adjectives and

08.

agree

their

with

PARTICIPLES.

participlesused
in number

nouns

speaking, this agreement

adjectives
and gender. Generally
is indicated
by the
as

termination.1

(a)

An

masculine

made
the

of

nouns

more

or
participlequalifying two
and gender is usually
different number
plural,but it may
only with
agree

adjective or

nearest

noun

to it :

Signore,signori,do,nnedel pgpolo,operai,ufficiali,
no,nne,
e i libretti di promomano
s"rve, tutti coi ragazzi per una
d' entrata
zione nell* altra,empivan la stanza
e le scale.
of the lower
classes,workmen,
Ladies, gentlemen, women
officials,
grandmothers, servants, all holding boys by one
and the certificates of promotion in the other, filled
hand
and the stairways.
the entrance
II padre, i frat"lli
e le sore,lie sono
partite. The father,
brothers, and

sisters have

noun
(b) A plural,

gone.

take

may

two

or

more

adjectives

where
in point of fact each
singularin cases
in the
adjective should be accompanied by a noun
:
singular
Le lingue francese
e ted"scasono
lingue mode,rne. The

in the

French
109.

and

languages are

in either

modern

languages.

adjectives(with the exception of those few


under
118) end in the masculine
singular
Those
in o have a correspondingform
o or
e.
form their plural
both masculine
and feminine

All

mentioned

in a, and

German

Cf. 42.

84

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

Remarks

The

in.

it has

|)una
Le
I

of

is

derid"ntiogni cred"nza lo
is

There

an

affectionate

girl.

amanti.

sono

ragazze

She

amante.

ragazza

all belief say

at

the forms

takes

so

become

Participles.

participlein -ante, -ente, where


is always an
noun
adjectiveand
an
adjective:

present

not

the

on

dicono.

Those

who

scoff

so.

large class of words made up of these participles


substantivized; as, amante, cantante, comandante,
nti in the last example above
Deride,
rappresentante, etc.
(a)

is almost

substantive.

present participlein -ando,

The

112.

used

adjective,but

an

as

Ess"ndo ammalati
ill (

since

Dic"ndo

cosi

The

113.
or

they

noun,

II

two

the end

I done

which
which

essa

be

either

adjective

an

(venire,rimanere

"ssere

with

verbs

of the

I have
I

have

the

avere

of

may

into

I have

such

as

"

cf.

81) it

with

agrees

its

e'ssere:

book

is

(being)

shown.

stati mostrati.

difference

The

consideration
at

are

predicateadjective and
i.e.,with the subjectof
libro vi"ne mostratq. The

(b) Used

these

p^ssono andare a trovarlo.


Being
ill)they cannot
go to see him.
mi lasci^. Thus
saying she left me.

with

I libri sono

force,

non

past participle
may

(a) Used
a

verbal

verb:

is

never

invariable:

is therefore

and

with

always

is

-endo

is
past participle

verb.1

the

used
with
participlewhen
be made
clear by turning the phrase under
question. Thus, taking the examples given
I have

paragraph :
shown

shown.
shown.

of

function

(which
What

is

books

(No

shown

the books.

action)

an

Here

are

action

these?

They

here,

"shown"

arc
are

What

have

the

books

the books

qualifying

ADJECTIVES
remain

it may

such

As

85

PARTICIPLES.

AND

invariable

in
(i.e.,

the action

is done

the

line
mascu-

singular).
it is evident

But

object of

that
the

so

avere,

toihc

past participlemay

direct

with

agree

that direct

object.
usuallyagrees with

It

often

verb, and

the

personalpronoun
with an
object other
it precedes the verb :

when

pronoun

preceding

than

sonal
per-

i libri.1
H9 mostrato
i libri che ho mostrato
(or mostrati).
]j)cco
Ifccoi libri,li ho mostrati.2

The

114.

active

verb,

it

above,

of

mentioned

those

which
"'ssere,

has, however,
a

predicate adjective,and as such it may


direct object preceding it. As
noted
a
this object is a
usually does agree when

with

agree

is

reciprocalverbs

past participleis therefore

The

sense.

not

is here

verb

The

above.3

and

either

from

different

somewhat

an

reflexive

of

case

personalpronoun:
siamo

Le

dgnne

si

sono

loved

have

The

amate.

another

one

have

women

selves).
(or our-

loved

one

(or themselves).

another

the

But
direct

reflexive

is

pronoun

frequently not

the

object:

"books",

just
questions: He

as

to

answer

any

is

"

the

We

amati.

Ci

"

the

other

"Hehasdone

what?"
first is

adjective might.)

noun

or

"

Taking

what

?"

adjective,that

the

it is clear

to

the

two

that

second

verb.
1

H9

mostrati

Li

ho

that
with
3

mostrato

the

avere

Cf. 103.

unusual.

i libri is very

would

be

tendency is

invariable.

in

very

unusual.

Italian

to

make

It

is. however,
the

dent
evi-

past participle

86

ITALIAN

parlati. We

Ci siamo

this

In

GRAMMAR.

is

there

where

case,

spoken

have

to

direct

no

the

and
direct
with

Ci

receives

the

detti

siamo

(detta,detto) la

of the

not
plural,
plural:
e

have

women

le

brother

and

dgnne

la

sister

the

(a)

Before

sant' ;

able:
invari-

have

told

masculine

made

The

singular

man

and

the

Hi
be,

Saint

tutt'

due.

Both

the

handsome.

are

beginning with a
b"llibro. Un gran
Carlo.

venuti.

sorgllasono

of

Bgllo,grande, and
bugno its final vowel

vowel

We

either

nouns

more

gender,are

sono

115.

San

or

same

Forms

Un

verita.

either

come.

e
frat"llo

noun

forms
perperson
where
there is a

the truth.1

or

L* ugmo

say

same

But

action).

of two
(a) The qualifiers

II

the

difficult to

objectexpressedthe participle
agree
may
remain
that or with the subject,
or
may

another

one

verbs

these

which, since with

pressed,
object exthe subject

with

usuallyagrees
participle
be
indirect object,it would
the

(or

another.

one

Adjectives.

ble,
drop their final syllabefore a singular masculine

santo

consonant
ragazzo.

Un

bugn

cane.

Charles.

beginning with a
singularmasculine
grande, grand'; santo,
;
bgll'
bgllo becomes
bugno, bugn2:
a

It is
said to one
another
the truth".
have
literally, "We
of mental
confusion, the speaker
probable that we have here a case
the
latitude of
the participlequalifies. But
not
knowing what
the Italians in this matter
lightensit for the foreigner.
2
there
is no
that
Note
Compare
apostrophe. Cf. 41, note 2.

throughout the forms

of the

definite

article.

bglP U91110, un

Un

87

PARTICIPLES.

AND

ADJECTIVES

sant'

grand' 1191110,un

bu9n

un

uomo,

amico.

(b) Before
forms

impure

b"llosps'cchio.L'

u9mo

pluralforms

(c) The

(1) For D9I,gran,

(2)

predicatedthe regular

used:

are

Un

when

or

grande.

are:

b"i,grandi, santi, bu9ni.


b9ll',
grand',sant', btu^n:b"gli,santi, grandi,

For

bu9n

san,

bu9ni.
(3) For b9llo,
grande,

santo,

santi, grandi,
bu9no : b^lli,

bu9ni.
Remarks,

(i)

It will be
than

observed

the

latter

These

b"llois

that

others,being

the

only

regularforms.
more
irregular
irregularalso in

the

are

much
one

plural.

the

in the feminine
grande also occurs
singular,
times
ending in e1, and someespeciallyas qualifierof a noun
takes the place of grandi in the masculine
plural:
La gran Brettagna.
Una gran nazione.
Great events.
La gran via. The highroad. I gran casi.
madre
che ci
Tutti oltre alia grande patria,alia gran
una
piccola patria : la
racc9gliesotto le sue ali,abbiamo
all have
We
citta od il villaggioche ci ha visti nascere.

(2) Gran

for

besides the great native


under

us

which

her

wings,

witnessed

our

land, the great


little country

"

who

mother
the

gathers

city or

village

birth.

Adjectives in -co and -go form their plurals


according to rules closelyresembling those given for
nouns
(cf.62).
having these terminations
(1) Adjectives in -go may
always, and do usually,
form their pluralin -ghi:
116.

Also

cosa,

"a

in

the

very

expressions una
good thing", "bad

gran

b^lla

thing".

C9sa,

una

gran

bruttB

SS

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

I casi

analoghi (or analogi). Analogous cases.


Uno
stivale largo. A wide boot.
Stivali larghi.
(2) All feminines, as well in -ca as in -ga, likewise
the

preserve
Cucina

qualityof
Home

casalinga.

cooking, middle-class

Abitudini

homelike

food.

Una

larga camera

guttural:

the

casalinghe.
wide

(3) Adjectivesin -co having the accent


take in the plural -chi; those stressed
-ci
II

habits.

Domestic

Camere

room.

cookery,

larghe.
the

on

penult

the

on

penult
ante-

v"nto " fresco.

wind

The

L' U91110 " caduco.

The

is fresh.
is feeble.

man

V"nti freschi.
5CC0 due u^mini

caduchi.

^
of

gusto animalesco.

un

Sente
kind

qualche sucpo

un

of

harmonious

sound

armonico

Adjectives in

117.

for

of the

nouns

II cavallo

Un

"

"

pezzo

Acque

sono

ragazze
1

Cf. 61
in

faded

legno

marcio.

and

-esco

lirici.

also

follow

the

horse

Putrid

given

Dei fioriflosci.

flower.
A

Cavalli restii.

"

bit of rotten

wood.

waters.

" sazio.

non

rules

is restive.
"

marce.

II ragazzo

classici.

"

di

some

termination:
This

" restio.

hear

you

Si,s"nto dei sugni armonici.


laico.
That is the opinion of a

po"mi
-io

same

fiore fldscio.

Un

Dei

lirico.

po"ma

Do

opinioned' un ugmo
layman.
Siamo
tutti laici qui.
Un
autore
classico.
Degli autori
Un

taste, the taste

animaleschi.

Gusti

animal.

an

animal

It is an

The

boy

is not

satisfied.

Le

sazie.
foot-note.
take

In

-eschi,those

accordance
in

with

'-ico take

this rule all adjectives


'-ici.

So

eccfntrico

i, filantrQpico
-ci, magnifico -ci, peripdico-ci, pratico -ci, problematico

pudichi.

-ci, but

antico, antichi.

Pudico

is

an

exception, forming

ADJECTIVES

89

PARTICIPLES.

AND

Quite irregularadjectivesare:

118.

'unequal";
ogni,
form
"every". Pari and impari have only the one
for both
genders and numbers.
Ogni has naturally
no
plural;it has also no formal distinction of gender.
These three are the only adjectivesin i.
(b) Qualche, "some", has no pluralform, and nouns
used with it remain
ing
singulareven
though their meanbe plural :
'equal";

(a) Pari,

imparl,

Comprer9 qualche fiore. I shall buy some


'several", has
(c) Parecchi, "some",
Its feminine

(d)
verb

singular.2

no

is parecchie.

gia, "formerly" (the first a part of the

and

Fu

flowers.

the
"'ssere,

second

of

adverb

an

time),

variabl
in-

are

La

fu

Signora Bianco

maiden

name

(or gia) Cesarotti.

Un

invariable

adverbial

are

phrases

and

dabbe,ne. A well-meaning

ugmo

B., whose

Cesarotti.

was

(e) Dabbe,ne, dapp9co


therefore

Mrs.

and

(ExercisesXXII

of

Comparison

man,

good

man.

XXIII.)

Adjectives.

quality expressed by an adjectivemay be


affirmed as simply existingor as existingin a certain
degree. The simple affirmation,i.e.,the simple form
of the adjective,implies no
comparison, although it
has often been called the positivedegree (as compare
119.

The

might
2

It

The

implication

qualche

is

"a

few",

whereas

dei

fipri

great many.

mean

is in

fact

meaning.

with

There

the

plural

is also

an

of

parecchio, "like", with

adverb

parecchio.

change

ITALIAN

90

with

GRAMMAR.

the

comparative and superlativedegrees) There


five possibledegrees of comparison, expressiveof:
are
(i) Comparative equality(incomparing two things).
(2)
superiority (in comparing two
things).
(3)
inferiority (in comparing two
things)
(4)
superlativeness
(incomparing more
than two
things).
(5) Absolute superlativeness(in which the quality
is affirmed as existingin a superlative
degree,and yet
without
comparison).
clear by the followingEnglish examThis may
be made
ples:
.

(1)

This

is

rose

more

beautiful

than

that.

than

(4)

beautiful

as

(5) This is indeed

(3) This

that.

This

is the

most

that.

as

(2)

This

is

is less beautiful

rose

beautiful

most

rose

of

rose

all.

rose.1

beautiful

All these

pressed
degrees may be and usually are exin Italian analytically,
i.e.,by the use of
adverbs, the form of the adjectiveitself remaining
unchanged (cf.122, 125).
120.

Comparison
The

121.

cosi

"

come,
or

come

"

Equality.

equality is expressed by

of

comparison
tanto

of

tanto

come,

"

che,

tanto

"

quanto,2

quanto alone:

|)cosi grande

come

suo

frate.Ho.He

is

as

large

as

his

brother.
1

In

"This

rose

is beautiful"

we

have

the

so-called

"positive

degree".
2

Cosi-quantois rather antiquated, also si-quanto(sibeing simply


the abbreviation
of cosi) Altrettanto
tanto.
=

ITALIAN

02

GRAMMAR.

grande, large,great, maggiore,


minore, il minore
piccolo,little,

(a)

All these

il

maggiore
minimo.

or

also be

adjectivesmay

alto, phi alto, il piu alto, etc.


have

massimo;

or

compared
(cf. 122).

larly:
reguThe

differentiated

become

by usage, superiore,
inferiore,being usuallyemployed to signify superior",
inferior"; piu alto, piu basso, to mean
"higher",
forms

"

"

"lower", in the material


do

differ in

not

tivo, but

are

from

meaning

oftener

Migliore and

sense.

piu buo.no and

than

used

peggiore

these

piu

latter

cat-

forms.

dissociated
from
so
Qttimoand p^ssimo have become
be regarded as independent
that they may
the group
adjectivesmeaning "very good", "very bad", being
thus
absolute, not comparative, superlatives.1The
and
be said of massimo
same
minimo,
'very
may
"very high,great",and
large", very small", sommo,
"

infimo,

"very low, base".

Maggiore and

have

minore

usually

the

of

sense

'older", "younger"; piu grande, piu piccolo meaning


'larger","smaller".2
adjectivesin -"rrimo and -issimo must also
124. The
of the
regarded as remnants
absolutely superlative in

be
are

of

that

Those

common,

and

superlativeby
adding this ending.

is in full

measure

without

comparing
any
interiore, intimo;
estremo;
int"rno,
esteriore,
Estfrno,
iiltimo,can
scarcely be regarded as still building groups
2

As

is natural,

absolute

adverbs

superlative:$

molto

are

ting
cut-

The

thought

other.

with

measure

in
any

absolute

is,the quality described

That

very

They

system.

meaning.3

in -issimo

-"rrimo are rare, those


an
adjectivebeing made
off its final vowel

Latin

ulteripre,
of

parison.
com-

the
frequently used to form
b"llo,assai b"Uo, oltremQdo b$llo;etc.
also

ADJECTIVES

PARTICIPLES.

AND

preceding this final vowel


quality:
jjun poeta celeb^rrimo. He is a
or

does

dei versi dolcissimi.

Scrive

Pochissimi

He
cosi

poeti scrivono

93

change

not

celebrated

very

writes very

sweet

its

poet.
verses.

b"ne. Very few poets write

well.

so

(a) Adjectives ending

in -dico

superlativewhich

-issimo

maledicentissimo
,

forms

These

might

and
seem

-fico

(flee)have

an

irregular:maledico,

benefico, beneficentissimo.

reallyderived

are

beneficente.
participle),
Adjectivesin -evole have

from

maledice.nte(present

similar forms:

malevole

male,

volentissimo.

comparison

The

125.

that

as

manner

same

of
of

is formed
inferiority
superiority,using

"less",instead of phi:
bella delle sorelle.
5 la meno

is the

meno,

least beautiful

sisters.

of the
Esse
than

She

in the

fgrtiche gliugrnini.They

men

sono

less

are

strong

men.

Manco1

infelice di

Less

me.

Comparison by

unhappy

than

of di and

means

I.

che.

comparisons whether of superiority


is rendered
of inferiority
by di or che.
(a) Di is used in comparisons of:
strative
(1) Nouns
accompanied by articles (or demon-

126.2 "Than"
or

in

pronouns).
(2) Nouns
1

Manco

"not

so

This

or

is oftenest

bad",

"not

paragraph,

used
so

in

the

means

adverbial

of their

adjectives.

expression manco

male,

badly".

for the

subject of adjectives and

speech.

by

pronouns

sake

includes

of

completeness,
comparison also

goes

beyond

of other

parts

the
of

ITALIAN

94

(3) Numerals

GRAMMAR.

between
(i.e.,

piu

or

and

meno

meral)
nu-

(b) Che is used in comparisons of:


(1) Nouns
(2) Nouns

articles.

without
or

by

pronouns

(3) Adjectives.
(See also 127.)
(4) Verbs.
(5) Adverbs, and in all cases
' '

rather

than

' '

the

than

other

II vino

than

than

the

(a, 2).
II vino " piu buono

altro.

che

This

wine

(b,2).

other

Wine

dell' acqua.

chiaro

meno

"

more

(a, 1).

rather

pleasesme

means

I like this wine

delP altro.

piace piuttostoquesto vino

Mi

"than"

where

piacequesto vino piu

Mi

of their verbs.

means

is less

clear

water

Meglio
than

dormire

than

P9SS0

hours

seven

che

Lavora

sette

or

b, 5).

It is better

I cannot

ore.

sleep

to

sleep more

(a, 3).

s"ipiu giovane di

Tu

(b,2,

tormentarsi.

(6,4).
dormire piu di

to worry

Non

che bello2

piu in

You

me.

che

fretta

are

than

younger
He

b"ne.

works

(a, 2).

rather

fast

well

(b,5).
Better late than
never
(b,5).
5 meglio tardi che mai.
than
fortunate
|)piu fortunato che felice. He is more
happy (b,3, or b, 5 "rather fortunate than happy").
harm
Egli ne recav" piu danno che utile. He got more
harm
than
than
good out of it (b, 1, or b, 5 "rather
good").
than

"

"

tore

non

sagace

d' Italia.
of the
2

be used

Che may

Or:

V.

is

to avoid

meno

wise

past vicissitudes
piuttqstobuono

de'

repetitionof di, as:

mali

presenti che

investigatornot
of Italy.
che

bello.

delle

less of the

Villari

passate
present

" indagavicende
ills than

and

nouns

them

is between
done

their

or

and
qualities

sufferedby

or

them

che

in

the

wherever

pronouns

95

di is used

that

It is evident

Remark.
of

PARTICIPLES.

AND

ADJECTIVES

comparison
between

not

in

sons
comparitions
ac-

comparisons of

in themselves,i.e.,considered
apart from
qualities
they are ascribed, between actions
beingsto whom
whole concepts.
and between
or
suffered,

comparison
II

turns

umore

suo

the

on

piu

"

changeable

more

difficult to

it is sometimes

But

than

che

mutabile

the

on

or

noun

decide

the
done

whether

the verb

V onda.

the

His humoi

is

(is).

wave

che figlio
e meno
giorno mi comparisti davanti meno
One
less than
che uo,mo.
a
day you appeared before me
son
(is)and less than a man
(is).
I due anni rappresentarono per noi piu che due s"coli
di esperi"nza. The
two
more
represented for us
years
centuries of experience (represented).
than two
Un

Where

127.

the

verbs

"

comparison

than

"is

takes

place between
either by che non

rendered

flected
inor

quel che :
Spe,ndepiu che non guadagna {or sp"nde piu di quelloche
than he earns.1
guadagna). He spends more

di

which

Words

128.

adverbs

sometimes

adjectivesand

sometimes

are

tanto,

molto, po,co, quanto,

are:

trgppo2:
lo
utjmini

Molti
Ne

P"che persone
Sono

This

is

Cf.

really a crossing of
he

156.

"

earns

and

"

He

men

say

unhappy
people have

Few

They
a

the

so.

very

am

venute.

pQ;ca distanza.
p9* piu sicuro. It is

than

more

son

andati

|)un
1

Many

infelice.

molto

sono

dicono.

went

about

it.

come.

distance.

short

little surer.

two

does not

'He

constructions:
earn

as

much

as

he

spends
spends ".

96

ITALIAN

Ne
Vi

tanti libri.

sono

How

felici.

tanto

sono

Trgppi.

Too

There

happy

so

are
are

so

phrases such

them"

I received

Iftrgppo

many.

(a) Adverbial

tale

They

it.

over

Quanti ?

books.

many

many

I received

GRAMMAR.

"in the state

them")

as

lontano.

far.

them

just as

"I returned
in which

be

rendered

quali li ho

recevuti.

to

are

It is too

they

by

the

were

when

adjectives

quale:

Li

hg

renduti

tali

of

Place

Adjectives.

and

Numerals

jectives
admost
pronominal adjectives,
of size and
quantity, adjectivesof emotion,
also (usually)
:
bglloand bugno precede the noun
grandi. IJccoi migi
Hg tre libri. Questi1 libri sono
129.

grandi

Hg

libri.

ancora

molti

Mgstro

migi bgi

libri al mio

amico.

caro

130.

used
Participles

by an adverb
shape, color, and
the

5
a

libri.

un

noun

or

of

figlioamato.

well-known

fied
adjectives,
adjectivesmodia
suffix,adjectivesof nationality,
material
low
qualitiesgenerally,folas

thing.

"

una

Sono

cgsa

bgn

conosciuta.

libri italiani.

|)uno

It is

spgcchio

rotondo.

"cco

un

abito

L' ugmo

nero.

" cieco.

Un

bgll*uccgllo.

But:
Un

uccgllobellino.

Euphony often decides as to the placingof the


adjective. In general one of fewer syllablesthan its
with
bello and
noun
precedes,as is the case
bugno
above
mentioned
two
ador
more
(129). Where
131.

-"these".

OF

PLACE

jectives qualify
sometimes

jj un

uo,mo

onesto.

]J un

ucjmo

onesto

the

and

precedes

is

He

other

follows:

honest

an

man.

is

He

simpatico.

97

usually follow, although

they

noun

one

one

ADJECTIVES.

and

honest

an

genial
con-

man.

il

Sente

of the

perfume

the

Vedete

certain

132.

erba

verde

Only

smell

you

beautiful

the

see

the

after
x

usual

that

different
When
before

be

the

ordinarily

have

they

noun,

is usual.

than

whether

place,

take

adjectives

elsewhere

placed

their

of

out

of

number

when

meaning

literal

or

ing
mean-

Un

grande.

uomo

great

large

Un

man.

grand*

U9mo.

man.

Un

Un

galante.

ugmo

honorable

gallant

Un

man.

galantuQmo.

man.

amico.

caro

Una

friend.

dear

cara.

casa

house.

costly
Una

scrittura.

doppia

Double-entry

doppia.

|)la
sola

Do

roses?

Spring
bell'

la

pure

primaverile

rQse

grass!

green

An

delle

profumo

sola

l'ha

She

Only

Cf.

130,

also

the

is my

my

{Exercises
1

double

La

copy.

scrittura

book-keeping.

miafiglia.

sentito.

French

only daughter.
has

daughter
and

XXIV

usage

of

heard

Mia
it.

XXV.)
the

same

adjectives.

figlia

98

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

CHAPTER

IX.

POSSESSIVES.

133.

Possessives
their

according to
is

libro,mio

an

either

are

in the

use

is

the

whether
other
Italian

form

its function

by

|)il suo

and

one

il mio

ecco

such.

as

But

cedent
representingan anteabove case
libro) In Italian,
the possessive is the
same,
adjectiveor pronominal. In
.

of
be

"my"

words,

is treated

pronouns

pronoun

(thisbeing in the
however,

In

sentence.

adjectiveand

in "cco il mio, mio

adjectivesor

"mine"

and
the

in

rendered

word1:

same

This is your

newero
fazzoletto,

are

handkerchief,

isn't it?
Ma

no,

134.

non

The

"

il mio.

article

No, it is not mine.

being

44), it follows that it in

used

most

with
cases

most

(cf.

nouns

immediately

cedes
pre-

the

The
possessivequalifyingthe noun.
nominal
prois treated as
possessive,
representinga noun,
that is,it also usuallytakes the article.
Thus
a noun,
the possessiveis seldom
without
found
an
article,and
that article being generallythe definite,the latter is
which
are:
given with the forms of the possessive,

my,

"

mine.

thy, thine

(your,yours),

f-his,her, hers (your, yours).


1

Cf. French

mon

and

le mien,

which

more

resemble

the

English.

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

ioo

figlie. These

mie

Queste sono

daughters of mine,

daughters).

of my

some

daughters

my

are

But:

Queste sono le mie figlie. These are my daughters (


all of my
daughters).
is mine (=it is one
of my
That
book
Quel libro " mio.
books, not of yours).
books (=all the
Quellisono i mie,ilibri. Those are my
in question).
books now
=

5 Sua questa
|)la Sua casa
(2) In

this house?

own

you

Is this your

home?

phrases,such

of set

number

Do

as:

vgstra lic"nza. By your leave.


It is not my
fault.
I colpa mia.

Con
Non

Per
Da

casa

On

vostra.

causa

parte mia.

Vado

in tua

137.

The

For

more
stricted
repossessiveis much
than
in English, it being replaced
article;(2) the definite article and

by (1) the definite


a conjunctivepronoun.
the subject of
(1) Where
where

or

stead.

of the

Italian

in

part.

my

I go in your

vece.
use

account.

your

for other

the

there

reasons

ambiguity, the definite article


possessive :
Pr"ndo il quad"rno nella mano.3

is the

sentence

is used

could

instead

be

sessor,
posno

of the

in my

copy-book

the

hand.
il

Portami
Dammi

I take

la

However,

soprabito. Bring
Give

mano.

casa

mia

me

is often

my

me

your
used

overcoat.

hand.

for

"at

home"

without

the

article.
2Cf.
3

mano.

44(8).

Sometimes

even

the

article is omitted:

Prendo

il

quaderno

in

POSSESSIVEvS.

ai

freddo

Hg

pi"di

H9

or

ioi

pie,di freddi..

cold.1

.My

feet

are

II bambino

la

cerca

child

The

mamma.

looking: f.or his

is

mother.

accompanied

but

by
lavi

Mi

of

to

hanno

Let
"let

in

the

wash

his

him
him

wash

pronoun

is

possessive

face, he

himself

to

capelli.

possessive

placed
re-

wash

must

face").

the

broken

have

and

gender

well

"her

mother"

"her

or

made

cases

be

might
the

leg (one

my

It follows

Egli
di

non

l"i.

by

He

of
mai

third

conosciuto
knew

never

(Exercises

*Cf.

lui,

84.

his

XXVI

is

di

lui

mother;

and

2Cf.

madre
he

loves

XXVII.)

98

(2).

means

"his

in

most

the

sense

of

instead

used

are

sessor,
pos-

madre,

where

singular

person
la

padre

meaning

l"i

hair.

denoting

sua

but

di

the

noun

suo

father",

context,

di

the

that

The

the

ambiguous

ha

"his

as

with

the

her

off

cut

person

with

mother".

clear

possessive

in

number

father"

have

They

agrees

object possessed.

as

personal

whom,

gamba.

una

tagliato

The

138.

the

reflexive

not

legs).

my

Le

la

faccia.

rotto

sono

verbs

article2:

an

la

with

or

conjunctive

person

(literally,

face

his

by

the

indicating

Si

verbs,

reflexive

With

(2)

ama

hers

molto

dearly.

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

102

*.""

'CHAPTER

X.

ifel"ONSTRATIVES,
RELATIVES,

INTERROGATIVES,

INDEFINITES.

adjectivesor
used

be

as

which

forms

1.

Plural.

questi

fern,

questa

queste

masc.

cotesto1

cotesti

fern,

cotesta

coteste

quello
quella

quegli,quei2
quelli,
quelle
Forms

Pronominal

questi,this
costui,this

often in

this

sense,

these

Or codesto, codesti, etc.

Sometimes

Notice

cotesto,
cf. that

be

must

Latin

colui, )

shortened

into

added

some

que'.

of iste.

forms

of llle.

trace

those

men,

cio, "this", "that",

meaning "this"
Tste,those meaning "that", with
the

[women.

woman,

coloro, those

woman.

that

[women.3

that
col"i,

To

140.

quegli )

these

men,

fellow.
this
cost"i,

Persons).

these

costoro,

man,

these_

that, those.

of

(used only

man.

contemptuous

not

Forms.

questo

2.

used

persons.

masc.

fern,

may

always

are

Adjectiveor Pronominal

Singular.

masc.

which

forms

have

They

pronouns.
either and

pronominallyand only to represent

the

be either

Demonstratives, like possessives,


may

139.

For

the

all have
the

some

trace

single exception of

contemptuous

sense

of

costui

Costei, costoro, colui, colei,coloro, sometimes,

frequently,have

this contemptuous

sense.

of

but

DEMONSTRATIVES.

which

is

invariable

an

pronoun,

thing, but a concept


That
IJcco ci9 che I19 detto.
or

person

which

or

representingnot
phrase:

(=that

I said

is what

said).

Remarks

usuallydrop final
inflected like b"llo (115):
cotesto

Quello is

vowel.

the Demonstratives.

on

Questo and

141.

103

Quest' UQmo ; cotest' ugmo


quelloz"lo; in questicampi

;
e

quell'uomo
in quelli.

before

quest' (Jpera
;

vised like English "this"


Questo and quelloare
the speaker,
"that", questo for that which is near

142.

and

quello for that which


words

two

than

in
the

near

allows

of greater

of

perspicuity

English, cotesto being used of that


person spoken to, quelloof that which

Prendete

quell'altro
and give me
other

143.

questo libro

datemi

which

is

is remote

Desidera

cotesto,

pgi cercatemi

(which is near me)


that one
you), and then look for
(which is near
from
both) for me, please.
one
(which is remote
per

this book

piacere. Take

also used

Quello and quegli are

questo and

(=i

"that"

existence

him:

from

that

for

the

But

is remote.

latter"

questifor "the
i fiori azzurri

fiori rossi),
non

for "the

i fiori rossi?

quelli(=i

former",

Desidero

questi

fiori azzurri).

adjectivesand pronouns
not used in the singularas subjectpronouns
are
the
corresponding pronominal
representing nouns,
forms being then preferred. They are, however, used
in the singularas objectivesand in the pluraleither
as
subjectsor as objects,to represent persons as well
as
things:
144.

The

forms

which

are

both

ITALIAN

104

GRAMMAR.

H9 parlato con Alessandro, e ho capito che questi (or


questo Alessandro,but not questo alone) ti vuol b"ne. I
I understood
and
that he
have
spoken with Alexander
of whom
we
are
(=this one, this Alexander
speaking)is
well inclined
Hai

towards

parlato

you.

quegli altri?

con

Have

spoken

you

with

others?

those

Quelli(or coloro) che


Those

whom

ho visto

did not

saw

hanno

non

want

voluto

parlare.

talk.

to

Relatives.

The

145.

relatives

that, which.

che, who, whom,


il quale,i

quali,la quale,le quali,who, whom,

cui,whom,
chi,the

are:

to

whom,

whose.

who, any one who, whoever.


onde, of whom, of which, with whom,
one

by which,

whom,

(a) These
sometimes
II

that which.

are

with

all pronouns,
noun

first three

much

are

although

il

is

quale

quale padre Crist^foro.This

(b) The

which, by

etc.

forms

used

with

Father

Christopher.

frequent than

more

the

others.

Remarks

the

on

is invariable.

146. Che

It is

subject or direct object.


throughout by combination
the article,is used

for all

Relatives.

II

generallyused

quale, which

with

the
As

Che

is

noun

in the

as

is inflected

various

forms

of

subjector direct
it exceptingwhere ambiguity

cases.

objectche1 is preferredto
might result from its invariableness
1

only

expressions:

un

of form:
bel che,

un

gran

che.

RELATIVES.

1191110che parla " mio


is my

II

you

del

quale parliamo

is the

colla

since

ambiguous,

is

who

man

ing
speak-

the

" il

The

the children of the

are

(a) Che, meaning


clause,is

The

quale abbiamo
whom

che

might

nemico.

suo

we

abbiamo

refer

of

man

vista

i"ri.

yesterday.

saw

visto

would

either to the

figlidella signora la quale

man

young

enemy.
la

woman

donna

che

amico.

be
the

man,

both.)

or

They

with

man

(IJcco 1' ugmo

Sono

The

friend.

speaking is your
colla dgnna
ugmo

IJcco r

woman

is my

there

are

we

There

li " il mio

see

L' ugmo

whom

padre.

father.

giovane che vede

whom

105

sort

abbiamo

lady whom

"which"

of neuter.

incontrata.

met.

we

and
It

referringto
usuallytakes the

whole

definite

article1:

L"i non
You

say

il che vuol dire che non


ni"nte,
nothing,which indicates that you are
dice

n' "

cont"nto

pleased

not

it.

about

Cui

147.

is invariable.

object,generallybut not
It is interchangeablein

It is used
with

always

quale,dei quali,al quale, etc.:


signora cui (a cui, alia quale) parla

della
La

preposition.2

with

cases

many

del

" mia

he is talking is my aunt.
IJccola persona cui (dicui, della quale) Le

lady

indirect

an

as

quale,

zia.

The

to whom

Here

is the person of whom


Questa " la ragione per

is the

reason

on

spoke to you.
cui presto partirrisolvo.

of which

account

I19parlato.

am

resolved

to go

This
away

at once.
1

It is found

Cui

is sometimes

this usage
note

in older Italian without

1, p.

is
106.

rare

found
and

is

instead

of

it.
il

really contrary

quale as
to

the

direct
nature

object,but
of cui.

Cf.

106

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

cui, meaning "whose", is used without


(a) When
the prepositiondi, it should
be placed between
the
noun
:
qualifiedand the article belonging to that noun
le cui

di cui
l"tto,or L' autore
(Jpereabbiamo
abbiamo
l"ttole (Jpere.
In this example the difference in the use
of cui and il
quale is clear. One could substitute for the latter phrase:
Ly autore
del quale abbiamo
could
l"ttole (jpere,but one
i quali (Jpereabbiamo
tto.
Cui comnot say : L' autore
prehends
le,
L' autore

in itself
il

which
which
with

with

former

the

preposition

the

expressed

be

must

latter.

the

is invariable.

148. Chi
used

where

ship.1
prepositional relation-

some

quale does not, therefore

omitted

be

may

of

notion

often

more

che, coloro che, which


Chi ama,

teme

It

less

is

frequent, but

elegant,than colui che, col"i


have the same
meaning:

(or colui che

He

teme).

ama,

loves,

who

fears.
Chi

con
Consigliatevi

who

those

He

trovera.

cerca

Troverai

chi ha

had

have

seeks

who

shall find.
with

counsel

esperie,nza. Take

experience.

chi t' aiutera.

will find

You

who

somebody

will

help you.
(a)

"some

others", "the
chi

vi"ne.

va,

Chi

ride,chi piange.
Onde

by

Chi

149.

rendered

chi is to be

Chi

one

Some

other",

or

laughs, the other

is invariable.

It

always

some",

the like:

coming.

going, some

are

One

the

"some

weeps.

has

sense

of

:
relationship
prepositional

gloriosaonde
glorioussoul of which

L' anima

The
1

the

It is the
notion

"to".

Latin
of the

si
we

dative, which

"of"
est

si

parla).

speaking.

are

expresses

preposition
A qui

Cf. French:

parla (or della quale

as
ce

well

the

notion

as

chapeau?

that

of

possession,

of the

tion
preposi-

108

ITALIAN

Chi

Chi

is it?

Who

"?

GRAMMAR.

queste d9nne?

sono

Who

are

women?

these

chi parlate?

Di

Di chi

questifiori?

sono

are

speaking?

you

flowers

Whose

is sometimes

Che

154.

whom

Of

sometimes

pronoun,

always invariable. As a
things,as an adjectiveit may

It is

only of

used

these?

are

jective.
ad-

an

it is

pronoun

also be used

of persons:
Che

cerca?

What

Che

persona

ha visto?

What

person

(a) Che
Che

have

you

Chi ha

visto?)

seen?

you

co,sa is

looking for?
than
(lesscommon

are

frequentlyused

for "what":

co,sa ha visto?

155.

Quale is either

is in either
It is used

Quale

case

both

dei due

adjective.
adjectiveending in
things:

or

pronoun
inflected like any

of persons

and
la?

ragazzi "

Which

an

of the

two

It
e.

boys is

there ?

jjun

ugmo

che

aspgtta.

What
Qual ugmo?
Quali ragioniha per
for thinking so ?

any

who

man

is

waiting.

man?
crederlo?

156. Quanto is either


adverb.1

It is

What

Except in the latter

adjectiveending

in

an

pronoun,
case

have

reasons

adjective,or

you

an

it is inflected like

o :

do you want
?
Quanto vuo,le? How much
How
seats
are
Quante s"diesonvi?
many
"all":
(a) Tutto quanto (-i,-a, -e) means
Li ha visti tutti quanti. He has seen
them

there?

all.

also be
interrogatives
except chi may
used in exclamations.
They are not accompanied by
the article as in English:
157.

All these

Cf.

121

and

128.

INDEFINITES.

Che

What

peccato!

pity!

What

1191110!

Qual

Quanti dispiaceri!

man

109

How

troubles!

many

Indefinites.

158. The

principal indefinite

the

following are

nouns
pro-

ni"nte,nulla, nothing.
altri, another
(altri
altri, ognuno,
everybody.
parecchi, several,
one
another).
piu, i phi, most, the most.
altrui,of another, to another,
of others, to others.
qualchecgsa,something, anything.
altro, something else, anyqualcuno, qualcheduno, any
thing else.
alcuno, -i,-a, -e,

some,

any.

certuno,1

certain

one.

person.

taluno,3 such

ciascuno, ciascheduno, every,

(checchessia),

checchesia

checche,2 whatever,

uno,

chicchesia,

niuno,

nessuno,

altro,gli uni

gli

one.

no

like

This,

Rare.

one.

both.
altri,4

whatever.

one

any

ever,

nobody.

1' uno

who-

everything,

all.

one,

every
veruno,

any

whatever.

chiunque,

one.

tutto, -i, -a, -e,

one.

every

an

ciascuno,

nessuno,

etc., is

of uno,

compound

"one".
2

from

che

+ che

Rare.

Fern.

three"

sia,

"both",

used

often

Not

checchesia

che,

Italian.

in modern

from

+ che

che

that

Observe
+

this

is formed

sia, chicchesia

from

chi

etc.

Puna

the

but
=tutti

l'altra, le
commonest

tre, "all

four"

une

le

altre.

expression
=tutti

also

Ambedue
is

quattro,

tutti
etc.

due.

means

"All

ITALIAN

HO

Remarks

denotes

always

some

of persons

used

are

altri
li"to,

Altri "

the

on

Altri1 is used

159.

GRAMMAR.

Indefinite

Pronouns.

either

subjector object,altrui
prepositional
relationship.Both
only,altro only of things:
as

One

misero.

is

the

happy,

other)
(an-

other

miserable.
Io

v9glio(la)rgba altrui (or d' altri).I

non

want

not

people'sproperty.

other

ha

Non

No, ni"ntedi piu.


No, nothing more.

else?

and

Checchesia

160.

used

not

meaning

Did

detto altro?

anything

are

do

"

as

chicchesia

subjectof

the

' '

whatever

he

not

say

being reallyphrases
Other
verb.
phrases

qualsivoglia,
qualsiasi,tutto

are:

quel che, quale che sia, per quanto,2 etc.


lo dir" a chicchesia.
I shall not
Non

tell it to any

one

whatever.

dirg checchesia.

Non

I shall not

anything
Quali che siano i suoi talenti,non parla b"ne.
his talents may
be, he does not speak well.
Chiunque tema torni a casa.
Per quanti tale,nti
Whatever
abbia, non lavora.
have, he does

he may

is

161. Nessuno
niuno

or

adapted
all these

Non

vi "

Che

cgsa dice?

Most

in casa?

talents

every-day Italian

style.

phrases
(4) (a).

Is there
is

There

nessuno.

Ni"nte.

feminine, altra,is

Cf. 232

Whatever

Nulla

nulla.

is

is often used

Non

than
more

with

negatives:

nessuno

in

ni"nte than

elevated

to the

whatever.

work.

commoner

and

veruno,

Vi "

not

say

of like

also

nobody

at home?

nobody.

What

are

you

saying?

ing.
Noth-

found.

meaning

are

followed

by

the

subjunctive.

PREFIXES

Non

ne

nulla.

so

Vergogna

I know

dovere

SUFFIXES.

AND

in

nothing about
nulla

un

sono

it.
lui.

per

Shame

duty are nothing to him.


with non
also means
"no one":
(a) Alcuno
che capisca. There
is no one
Non v' " alcuno

be used
Ho

adjectivesare

Alcuno, ciascuno,

nouns.

as

indefinite

Many

162.

nessuno,

and

who

stands.
under-

sometimes

used

may

ognuno,

also

adjectives:

as

comprato

giornaliillustrati.

alcuni

illustrated newspapers.
rime'dio.
Non trovo nessun

have

bought

some

visto

Ho

Molti
but

sono

quel tale. I
ma
partiti,

I find

have

remedy.

that

seen

tutti.

non

no

individual.

Many

have

gone

away,

all.

not

Ogni and

(a) and

qualche

always adjectives. Cf. 118,

are

(b).
(ExercisesXXVIII

CHAPTER
PREFIXES

AND

and

XXIX.)

XI.
SUFFIXES.

and adverbs1
adjectives,
meaning of nouns,
of prefixes
in Italian by the use
is frequentlymodified
the latter.
and suffixes,especially
and
straare
164. The prefixesarci-, sopra-, sovra-,
and adjectives. They all have a superused with nouns
lative
meaning. They are not very frequent2:

163. The

Adverbs

less often

are

than

less often

modified

than

adjectives,and

adjectives

nouns.

of
prefixes are also used with verbs, and most
them
considered
with
forms
are
produced by compounding
to word-building and
They belong therefore
separate words.
the province of the dictionary,not
to the grammar.
2

All

these

the
as

to

ITALIAN

H2

GRAMMAR.

beautiful; arcibriccone, arch-scoundrel;

Arcibe.Ho,very

citable;
exsoprabbondevole,superabundant; sopraeccitabile,
very
overexcitability
sopraeccitabilita,
; sopraccarico,
overburdened, overloaded; il sovrappiu,the excess
; sovrap-

pi"no, overfull; strata,


stragrande,very large.
165. Suffixes

are

an

very

unusual, unreasonable

hour;

They

numerous.

may
sometimes

press
ex-

so
meaning so various and
enable the foreigner
elusive that only wide reading can
their use.
ever,
They constitute,howfullyto understand
of the language.
of the great charms
one
Suffixes may
be classified accordingto their meaning
terms
diminutives, augmentative
as
expressiveof
's, as
endearment, of disparagement,or of deteriority.1
166. The
are
(those oftenest
principaldiminutives
-ino (-cino, -icino, -iccino,
used being placed first)
:
of endearment)
-olino); -etto (-osetto)(often with a sense
-ic"llo)
(-c"llo,
-ar"llo,er"llo,
; -uccio (often
; -e,llo
with a pejorative sense); -U9I0 (-9I0,
-eruglo,-ettu9lo,
minutiv
dia
noun
-iciottalo,-icolo, -iccu9lo)
; ~9tto (used as
of animals
only in speaking of the young
cf. 167); -9ccio;-ognolo, -fccio; -igno; -astro, -ticolo,
-uzzolo (allfour pejorative)3:
-uzzo,
little boy; ragazRagazzo, boy; ragazzino,4ragazzu9lo,

of

shades

zetto, dear little boy;


1

Italian:

In

ragazzuccio,naughty

little boy.

diminutivi, accrescitivi,vezzeggiativi,peggiorativi

(dispregiativi)
.

2Cf.
3

171

Added

(b).
to

adjectivesof

color

"yellowish".
giallastro,
all used
-igno, and -ognolo are
asprigno, "somewhat
'

Words

that suffix

to which
were

an

is

-astro

Otherwise

diminutive:

giallo,"yellow";

it is

pejorative. -Iccio,
adjectives: gialliccio,'yellowish";

with

harsh".

suffix has been

added

integralpart of them:

are

accented

ragazzino, etc.

as

though

PREFIXES

Fiume,

river;

SUFFIXES.

AXD

113

fiumicello, little river; flumicolo, insignificant

little stream.

Figlio,son

(which
figliu9lo

little
figliuolino,

Braccio,

sense),

son.

bracciuglo,arm

arm;

lost its diminutive

has

Via, street; viuzza,

narrow

of chair.

street, alley.

Cane, dog; cagnolino,pretty little dog.

eaglet.
Aquila,eagle; aquillgtto,
Orso, bear;

orsacchio^to,bear's cub.

Grande

large.
large; grandino, somewhat
Caro, dear; carino, winning, Deary (epithet).
Pallido, pale; paliduccio,rather pale.
Grazioso, graceful,pleasing; graziosetto,graziosettino,
pretty, charming.
Grasso,fat; grass^ccio,
plump.
verdastro, greenish.
Verde, green;
pianino, he came
Piano, softly; veniva
quite softly,
quietly.
,

167. The

principalaugmentatives are : -one (-done,


and for adjectives-uto:
-accione, -oncione),-gtto,1
il

Do,nna, woman;

donnone,

the

Ragazzo^to, big strong boy.


Naso, nose; nasuto
(adj.formed

big woman.
from

it),long-nosed.

principalsuffixes indicative
-ino, -olino, -etto, already mentioned

168.
are

The

The

context

shows

whether

of endearment
utives.
dimin-

under
the

meaning

is

endearing or diminutive.
-accio, -astro,
169. The
principal pejorativesare
diminutives
and those already mentioned
under
-azzo,
etc.):
(-ucolo,
-uzzo,
Poeta, poet; poetastro, poor poet, poetaster.2
1

Added

to

the

names

of animals

diminutive.
2

Which

is in fact the Italian word.

-9tto is, as

stated

in

166,

ITALIAN

H4

Giovine, young

GRAMMAR.

dissolute youth.
giovinastro,

man;

St^fano,Stephen;

Stefanaccio.

Amore, love;

amorazzo,

Frate, monk;

fratuzzo,monk

The

170.

naughty Stephen.,

illicit love.

suffixes have

of bad

in many

habits.

lost their

cases

nal
origi-

meaning:
Conte, count, contessa, countess;

(not "little")count

sina, the young


the

son

il contino

and

and

daughter-in-lawof

la

(for

countess

the

"little house"

"

(Casetta,

latter usually "wretched

the

"

stance,
in-

conte).

Casa, house; casino,country-house, club-house.


casuccia

contes-

tle
lit-

house".)

(a) In the
from

same

a diminutive
originally
frat"llo,

way

(which latter now


religiousorder", "monk"),
frate

diminutive

new

brother".
of

formed

means

only "brother

means

"brother",

from

it,

fratellino

In figliastro,
"stepson", there

is

in
and

a
a

"little

"

no

sense

of the diminutive
disparagement,just as there is none
in matrigna, "stepmother", or in matrina, "godmother
"

1
.

suffix

final vowel

The

171.

is

Pazzo,

testolina,little

(a) If the

g it retains

its

In

being

all these

used

"dish",
Latin.

as

an

words
element

-the diminutive

faceva
the

woman.

scendere

non

sense

final vowel

be

giu.in chiesa, a
ordinato

freschetto,avevano

suffixes have

for

woman;

little bit.

Per

Fresco, fresh, cool.


mattutino, quando

peasant

preceding this
quality:

consonant

P9C0, little;pochino, a

head.

fool; pazzerello. Contadina,

contadinetta,strong peasant

or

before

Testa, head;

usually dropped

simply

word-building.
of

the

sullix

been

incorporated,

In others,
was

la

as

probably

scod^lla,
lost

in

n6

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

XII.

CHAPTER

IMPERSONAL

VERBS.

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

DEFECTIVE

We

173.

have

(67 and

seen

VERBS.

68) that

regular verbs
endings,which vary

by adding certain
the conjugation (67) to a stem
In many
irregularverbs the

their tenses

form
with

of the

variations

The

stem

the

are

which

is invariable.1
is variable.2

stem

result of:

traction;
(a) con-

(b) the stressingof the stem-vowel.3


"ssere have

irregularverbs except
remain
regular.

All
which

Contraction

174.

is unstressed, that

Dire, to

infinitive may

of the

initial vowel

the

where

is to

certain parts

say,

of the

occur

infinitive

cially
espe-

ending

in '-ere verbs:

(contractedfrom dicere).

say

call the

form

dire itself

irregular,
yet
the fact that parts of the verb
are
quite regularly
infinitive dicere4 give
the uncontracted
from
formed
of irregularity
the whole system an appearance
:
One

cannot

He

Dic-eva.
175.

saying.5

was

future

The

and

conditional

e
the infinitive,
exhibit, where

the
1

contracted

same

In

for the most


2

Some

formed

from

the latter is contracted,

form:

words, regular verbs

other

being

are

weak.

Irregular verbs

are

part strong.

grammarians

prefer

to

say

that

the

verb

has

several

by

the pres-

stems.

of all variations

The

Which

does

Which

is in fact

These

secret

tenses

not

are

is

exist in modern
a

reallychange

of stress.

Italian.

perfectlyregular form.

composed

of the infinitive followed

IRREGULAR

But

they

and

not

be

may

be

cannot

Tenere,

would

when

contracted

say.

the

infinitive

is

I shall hold.1

Terrg.

parts of the

the stem,

on

He

117

hold.

to

176. Those
falls

Direbbe.

1 shall say.

Dir".

VERBS.

in

verb

which

i.e.,the present, indicative

the

accent

and

junctive
sub-

the singular
(exceptthe second person plural),
and the preterite
imperative,
(except the second person
singularand the first and second persons plural)are
the parts oftenest
irregular. The past participleis
also frequentlyirregular:

(contracted from traere);


Traggo, I draw; Trassi,I drew.
But:
Traeva, I was drawing, etc., regular.

Trarre,

to

As

177.

with

draw

have

we

(173),Italian irregularverbs

seen

tain
singleexception of "ssere, regularin cerverbs given below
parts. In the model irregular
those which
are
regular in all irregularverbs (except
mentioned
those
under
marked
with
180) are
an

are,

the

asterisk.
(a) Trarre

ent

or

the

have

"I
1

This

to

(contracted from

traere) to draw, drag.


,

mostrare
+ ho " mostrerp
preterite of avere
(literally,
show"), servire + "bbe" servirebbe ("he had to serve").
"

is because

the

accent,

which

in

the

infinitive falls

on

the

(tenere),is in the compound


antepenult, preventing contraction
thrown
the
on
tenere +ho"
penult
tenere?" terrQ. Tener9 does
"

exist

not

in modern

The

Regularly formed

forms

Italian.

bracketed
from

are

less
the

frequent.

infinitive trarre.

n8

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

INDICATIVE.

Imperfect.

Conditional.

*traeva*

*traevamo

trarrei2

trarremmo

*traevi

*traevate

trarresti

trarreste

*traeva

*traevano

trarrebbe

trarrfbbero

Preterite.

Imperative.

trassi

*traemmo

*traesti

*traeste

trasse

trai

traete

trassero

SUBJUNCTIVE.

Present.

Imperfect.
*traessi

*traessimo

tragga

tragghiamo
tragghiate

*traessi

*traeste

tragga

traggano

*traesse

*traessero

tragga

(6) Venire, to

come.

Imperfect.

Conditional.

*veniva

*venivamo

verrei

verremmo

*veniva

*venivate

verresti

verreste

*veniva

*venivano

verrebbe

verrfbbero

Preterite.

Imperative.

venni

*venimmo

*venisti

*veniste

venne

vieni

venite

vennero

SUBJUNCTIVE.

Present.

venga
venga
venga
1

(vegna)
(vegna)
(vegna)

These

Imperfect.

veniamo3

*venissi

*venissimo

veniate

*venissi

*veniste

vfngano (vfgnano)

*venisse

*venissero

regularly formed
These parts are
regularly formed
Sometimes
v"nghiamo.
parts

are

infinitive traere.

from

the

from

the infinitive trarre.

VERBS.

IRREGULAR

178. In these
the stem,

(1)

or,

The

verbs

which

from

present stem,

so, three

call them

prefersto

if one

modifications

three

seen

are

119

stems:

formed

are

of

the

tive;
subjunctive and the impera(2) The preteritestem, from which is formed
and
only a part of the preterite;
only the preterite,
(3) The infinitive stem, formed by a contraction of the
present indicative

and

found

often

infinitive and

irregularonly in so
contraction). To these might
(which

future

uncontracted, in the

remains

far

are

infinitive itself

the

where

as

and

they

be added:

conditional
exhibit

this

(4) The

perfect
im-

regular
Whether
the infinitive itself or only the
infinitive stem
conditional
be contracted, the imperfect
and
future
the
indicative and subjunctive,the present participle,
second
plural present indicative, the second
person
singularand pluraland the first person plural
person
finitiv
infrom this uncontracted
formed
of the preterite
are
(or imperfect stem), and so are regular in all
is in fact the

stem, which

originaland

irregularverbs.
(a) The

Latin

irregular.The
upon

forms

tratto " tractum

is not

explainand
:
irregularities

often

Italian

the

the memory

(b) The

be, but

past participlemay

detto " dictum

etc.
,

plural present
irregularonly in the verbs

second

always,
impress

person

indicative

dare, dire
might be called
The
180.
see
tive
imperafare, stare, for which
(s'ssere1),
It may
usually follows the present indicative.
it is
be, although it is not often, irregular. Where
so, as, for

instance, in the verb

sapere,

present subjunctive:
1

Which

is

entirelyirregular.

it follows

the

ITALIAN

120

sappiate,you

know;

sapete, you

GRAMMAR.

(ye).1
sappiate,know
(c) It will be observed
in

third
their
and

in the

that

first person

others, the

many

know.

may

model

verbs

singular and

as

the

plural of the present differ slightlyin


from the other persons of that tense,
irregularity
that the present subjunctive follows these two
person

forms:

Traggo, traggono, tragga;

(d) It will also be


forms

except the

simply
the

forms)

all the

conditional

and
are

v"'ngono,venga,
that

observed

future

contracted

vengo,

etc.

irregular

(which

strong, i.e.,stressed

are
on

Cf. 176.

stem.

Constructing IrregularVerbs.

By observing for certain verbs the remarks


be
180, any irregularverb (except "'ssere)
may

179.

under

constructed
the

singular of

after these

models, the infinitive,the participles

indicative,and

present

the

first person

the

preteriteand future2 being known.


first person
The
singularof the present indicative
junctive
gives the third person plural,3and the present subexcept, in

plural.

verbs, the first and

some

The

second

singular of the
present indicative gives the singularimperative. (Cf.
also 180 (3).) The first person singular
of the preterite
givesthe third persons singularand plural.

persons

'Cf.
2

be

may
3

person

180(3).

This

future

second

latter

but

the

leave

formed

Except

is necessary

from

in the

only with

verbs

infinitive uncontracted.
the

verbs

which
Otherwise

contract

the

the future

infinitive.

andare,

avere,

dare, fare, sapere,

and

stare.

VKRBS.

IRRKOULAR

of
Irregularities

Other

and

Dire

the second

pluralof

person

Verbs.

that
fare

the

dare, stare, have

(2) Dare, fare, stare, form

apart (cf.74).

case

(for dicere) and

fate,1and

and

as

be remarked

further

It must

(1)

considered

be

must

Certain

noted, entirelyirregular,

before

"ssere is, as

180.

121

(for facere) have


present

date,

in the

indicative

in
dite

state.

future

and

tional
condi-

dar9, dar"i; farp, far"i; star", star"i. This

is

explained by the fact that these verbs are only apparently,


not
really,of the first conjugation.2
The
ordinarilyregular persons of the preteriteand
the whole of the imperfectsubjunctiveare also slightly
in dare and
stare, the a changing to e : desti,
irregular
"thou
gave", dessi, 'I might
gavest", demmo, "we
give", etc.; also stesti,stemmo, steste, stessi,etc.
ordinarilyfollows the
(3) The imperative, which
present indicative, is in the verbs

avere,

sapere,

and

subjunctive: abbi, abbiate;


sappi,sappiate; vogli,vogliate.
ends in 1, n, or r frequentlydrop
whose
Verbs
stem
the final i of the singularimperative:
like

volere

Pon

Put

Vie,n qua!

An

the

present

it down

here!

Come

dare, dare, dire, fare, and

stare

also

drop

this i
"

va', da\ di',fa',sta\

compound
their primary. Those

(4) Most
of

that

Cf. French

Cf

follow

verbs

the

differ from

dites, faites.

the Latin

forms.

irregularities
it in any

way

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

122

mention
givenspecial
fare, stare, etc.).

are

Defective

Impersonal Verbs.
181. A

defective

verb

of

(cf Table

is

Verbs,
Irregular

Verbs.

only certain

one

forms

of

impersonalverb is one used only


this form has no
in the third person singular.Even
the apparent
real subject(although gliis sometimes
subject;cf. 86, foot-note 3, and 94), since the verb
precludesall idea of any person or thingproducingor
Impersonal
receivingthe action which it denotes.
so used.
so
or
verbs are either essentially
occasionally
"to rain";
Verbs essentially
impersonal are:
pigvere,
avvenire, "to happen"; bisognare, to be necessary",
exist.1

which

An

"

etc.

often used

Verbs

impersonallyare: convenire,
"to
appear"; bastare, "to

be

fitting";parere,
enough", etc.; also "ssere and fare:
Piove?
No, n"vica. Is it raining? No,
molto.
It was
Faceva
caldo i"ri
e tonava
and it thundered
Le

Pare

seems

|)meglio

cosi.

The

It is better

defective verbs

sia

the author

(ExercisesXXXII,
1

are

snowing.

warm

day
yester-

you like this

Do

che V autore

though

as

be

great deal.

piacequesto po"ma?

Punto.

It

it is

"to

uno

were

poem?
stupido. Not

at all.

blockhead.

thus.

XXXIII,

included

in the

and

XXXIV.)

list,
alphabetical
p.

198.

GRAMMAR

ITALIAN

124

fra

contro,1against.
dopo, after.

toward.

of di before

usage

dopo

venuti

|)rimasto
Mia

senza

without

go

me.

They

danaro.

He

II loro astio

it after dinner.

after

came

me.

without

was

di

senza

money.

My

me.

daughter

me.

tanto

era

Their

Raimondo.

andare

pu"

figlianon

cannot

di

is not

personal pronoun

obligatorywith fra (tra)and verso


I shall do
Lo far$ dopo pranzo.
Sono

without.

senza,
verso,

(a) The

between.

(tra),among,

acre

wrath

lei quanto

contro

di

as

fierce

was

against

contro

her

as

against Raymond.
noi

Fra

But:

or

fra di noi,

a:

accanto,2 )
\
,

attraverso, across.

beside,

near.

avanti

accgsto, )

addgsso,3
upon

davanti, )
\ before.
dinanzi, )

(111mezzo),

m"zzo

the

dintorno

(of).

midst

near,

fino,4until, as far

Takes

Also

also di.

seen

the

Used

Ha
also

far

him

top".

Used

adverb.

an

as:

as

as.

186.

go

(of time).

entro, within

beside.

attorno, around.

around.
(intorno),

dirimpetto, opposite.

appetto, facing,opposite.
appresso,

-.

,.

front

according (to).
,

,.
_

...

(davanti), m

conforme,

allato,beside.

^f.

'

(of).

(one'sback),

about.

or

usuallyfollowed

followingprepositionsare

184. The

lui

Verso

him".

v"rsodilui,"toward

by

us";

"among

with

da

and

with

Florence"; Non
since
yesterday";

as

has

f"bbre addpsso, "he

where

idioms

in many

in:

be translated,

it cannot

fever".

Andrg

1' ho

visto

Vado

fino

fino

fino

in

da

Fir^nze,
i"ri,"I

cima, "I

am

"he

have

will
not

going

to

PREPOSITIONS.

innanzi, before.

[around,inquanto,

incirca
in

(or circa), about,


faccia,opposite.

in
in

in

fondo,
in the

INFINITIVES.

DEPENDENT

)
-

at the

end, bottom, ras^nte,close (to,by),


midst.
vicino,near
(by).

185. The
are

causa,

motivo,

" on

ragione,)

prepositional

la, on

(of).1

account

the

side

other

ing.

(of).

in spite (of).
dispetto,

favore,in

the

by
fcjrza,

means

favor

the

ad onore,

in honor

cambio,

in

in

luogo,\

instead

invece,

(of),with

per

much.
alP

186.

The

exchange.
(of)

j
by

m"zzo,

(of).

means

outside (of).
infugri,

following take either


personalpronoun2:

di, di preferably

or

(contra),against.
dentro, within.

pre,sso, near,

behind.
di"tro,

sopra,

in m"zzo,

sotto, beneath.

contro

la, that

oltre,beyond, besides.

in the midst.

187. The

followingtake

da

da

or

giu, down.

di:

lungi,

by

this side.

lontano, )
,

(b) Giu,

''down'

per,

It will be

Cf. 183.

"

far.

also
"up", may
especiallyif they are preceded by

observed

and

by.

above.

di qua,

followingtake

close

side.

(a) The

owed

(of).

prima, before.

fuqrior

di

(of).

spite (of).

in
.

(of).

foot

appi",at

ad onta, in

al di qua, this side

notwithstand-

malgrado,

(of).

before

occasionallya.

con,

followingprepositionsand
usuallyfollowed by di :

locutions

regard (to).

in

riguardo,
risp"tto, )

(a) Insi"me,"together ",usuallytakes

al di

125

that

many

su,

of these

take

"of"

in

fol-

be
di

English.

126

ITALIAN

Correvano

giu

per la

GRAMMAR.

They

scesa.

running

were

down

the

slope.
Egli ha preso

di

su

la collina.

per

He

taken

has

the

hill
up-

road.

Prepositionsregularlyprecede the word


erned.
govThe
simple prepositionsare usually repeated
before each of several substantives
governed1:
II padre di Giovanni
e di Giuseppe. The
father of John
1

88.

and

Joseph.

Carico

d* anni

dJ onori.

Loaded

Idiomatic

years

and

honors.

Distinctions.

of

prepositionsis in
idiomatic.
It can
be thoroughly
all languages most
learned only by careful observation
and long practice.
different renderingsfor
The followingparagraphs show
the commoner
English prepositions.
189. The

usage

meaning

About.

190.

(1) In the
dintorno

of "around"

sense

attorn

a, intorno

a,

a:

Andava

solo

alia

attorno

chi"sa.

He

went

alone

about

church.

the

(2) In the
A

of

sense

di lui.

Parlavamo

the

"concerning"

We

che C9sa pensa?

(3) In
a

and

with

were

What

of

sense

are
'

di, a:

talking about him.


thinking about
you

approximately "=

circa, pr"sso

pQco, su, in su, da:


V*

"'ranocirca

hundred
Che

it?

due

ce,ntougmini. There

were

about

two

men.

ora

About

"?

Sono

le undid

pr^sso

eleven.
1

Cf.

46.

poco.

What

time

is

Verra

sul

Aveva

in tasca

fare

del

giorno.

da

ottoc"nto

lire in his

hundred

will

He

lire.

about

come

He

127

had

break.
dayeight

about

pocket.

After.

191.

(1) Denoting place and


dopo Paltro.

Uno

tre o,re.

Dopo
Chi

INFINITIVES.

DEPENDENT

PREPOSITIONS.

di

Dopo
After

with

three

di me?

dopo, dopo di:

the

other.

hours.
will

Who

esitato

aver

me?

hai?

Che

"

time

long

after

come

lungamente

hesitated

having

wrong

after

One

After

dopo

verra

time

domandg.
What

asked:

he

is

you?

(2) In the

of

sense

Alia mo, da di Francia.


Secondo

to"

"according
After

l'uso ordinario.

After

fashion.

French

the

the

secondo:

=a,

ordinary

custom.

Unclassified:

(3)
Di

giorno in giorno. Day

In

somma

after

(infine). After

day.

all.

At.

192.

(1) Denoting time

Ven*9 alle die,ci.I


fine !

Alia

5 m9rto

At

in

less often

a,

shall

at

come

in:
o'clock.

ten

last !
di venti

eta

anni.

He

died

at

the

age

of

twenty.

(2) Denoting place


A

(or in)

La

figtta"

(3)
Sta
the

In the
dalla

house

sense

of "at

Signora

Stardi.

of Mrs.

Ci

fleet is at

He

dell*

onor

is

sea.

of

the house

"

=da:

living (or staying)

at

ragione di die,ci
per ce,nto.
va

house.

our

S.

(4) Unclassified
A

At

The

mare.

in:

a,

ngstra.

casa

in

mio.

My

At

honor

the

rate

of ten

is at stake.

per

cent.

128

ITALIAN

Because

193.

of.

della

causa

di:

di, per motivo

causa

GRAMMAR.

stanchezza.

sua

of her

Because

fatigue.

Before.

194.

time

(1) Denoting
nanzi

innanzi

di,

prima

(a),

di-

a:

prima di me.
Innanzi
quel tempo,

He

Parti

left before
innanzi

or

me.

quel tempo.

Before

time.

that

Dinanzi

fur cgse create.

non

me

Before

me

was

ing
noth-

created.

(2) Denoting place


Davanti
the

davanti, dinanzi:

{or dinanzi) al giudice.


of the

presence

scolare

di

ferito di

It

per te,rra. He

is

grande
metri

la

He

measure

di due

pupil was

fatto da

manner

I did

traveling by
seized

lui.

di notte.

sword.

him

land.

by his clothes.

meters

two

by four.

da

it

by myself.

=accanto

was

feet.

a:

sittingbeside

(6) Unclassified:
giorno e

di, su:

of '"beside"
a

by

by post.

came

Two
=

me.

(5) In the sense


|)raseduto accanto
Di

ished
pun-

etc. =per:

pie,di.Bigger by

quattro.

su

(4) Denoting
L' ho

The

wounded

was

means,

pel vestito.
afferr^

Due

He

posta.

per

(3) Denot'ng
Piu

in

da:

spada.

una

(2) Denoting way,


Viaggia

passive

teacher,

(a) Or descriptive

|)venuta

punito dal maestro.

venne

by the

Lo

judge,

judge.

(1) Denoting the agent after

Fu

the

By.

195.

Lo

Before

By day

and

by night.

him.

Lo

him

I know

di vista.

conosco

INFINITIVES.

DEPENDENT

PREPOSITIONS.

by sight.

vglta. Two by two.


it by heart.
Learn
Imparatelo a mente.
Mugiono a migliaia. They are dying by

A due

per

capelli.

al color dei

riconosco

La

129

I know

thousands.

her

the color

by

hair.

of her

196. For.

(1) In the

of", "on

of "instead

sense

of"

account

per:

fatto per

L'

hQ

L'

ho,preso per

it for you.

I did

l"i.

for his brother.

him

I took

frate.Ho.

suo

for you.
Here
is one
per voi.
IJcconeuno
We
start for Pisa.
must
Bisogna partireper Pisa.
li serbo per me.
I keep my
I mi"i consigli
counsel,
own
keep my opinions to myself.
da:
(2) Denoting duration of past time
=

Dimora

for many

Rome
Li

da

cercava

for three

"

or

for"

tre mesi.

is often

He

living in

been

looking

been

has

Pistoia

for

s"i anni.

Durante

Restera

of present time

for

Pistoia per

couple of days.

them

paio

un

di

durante
:

giorni. G.

six years.

For

quattro mesi.

per,

at all in Italian

rendered

not

"ra andato
to

gone

197.

has

months.

Gemmati
had

He

years.

(3) Denoting duration


"

anni.

molti

da

Roma

He

will remain

for four months.

From.
'

(1) Denoting separation da, di1:


from
Paris.
V"ngo da Parigi. I come
=

Partii subito di

I left home

casa.

(2) Denoting the time


1

The

Remark

separation is
2.

more

from

at

which

once.
=

fin da:

forcibly expressed by

da.

Cf.

213,

da

Fin

quel momento
spoke no more

he

(3) Denoting
198. In,

From

that

ment
mo-

of it.

=di:

cause

is

She

sufferingfrom

neuralgia.

into.

(1) Denoting time


in

Avenne

parlgpiu.

ne

non

Soffre di nevralgia.

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

130

It

marzo.

andato

in campagna.

Mettetevelo

in tasca.

(2) In the

place

or

in:

happened
He
Put

in March.

it in your

of "within"

in

giorni. They

will

sense

into the

has gone

country.

pocket.

speaking of

time

fra:
fra due

Verranno

in two

come

also
(3) Denoting place after a superlative,
of day (morning, afternoon, etc.)=di:
It is the
most
|)il piu b"lpaese del mondo.
in the

country

IJranole

days.

the time

beautiful

world.

tre del

dopopranzo.

It

(4) In description di :
IJranovestite di bianco.
They

in the

three

was

noon.
after-

(5) Unclassified:
Is he
|)a casa?
Avanti!

Come

]Jraci"coda

in white.

in?

in!

un

colla

Stava

dressed

were

(Jcchio.He

spada

alia

blind

was

He

mano.

in

one

eye.

stood

sword

in

hand.

Of.

199.

(i)=di:
Alcuni

|)un

di loro

ugmo

sono

d*

degP ingrati.

ingegno.

He

is

Some

man

of them

are

grateful.
un-

of talent.

(2) Unclassified:
II cugre

anni.

My

mi
heart

batteva
beat

come

like that

ad
of

un
a

ragazzo

di

lad of fifteen.

quindici

ITALIAN

132

Till,

203.

until.

fino a, sino

GRAMMAR.

a:

star"fino a domani
to-morrow
evening.
Vi

alia

there

stay

until

To.

204.

(1) Denoting the


vowel) :

I19dato ad un
(2) Denoting

object

often
have

They

|)caduto in t"rra. It has


(3) In the sense of "to

it to

I gave

of motion

the end

(ad before

amico.

in1 Francia.

andati

Sono

indirect

mio

L'

I shall

sera.

fallen

to

in

the house

of

France.

to

gone
the

friend.

ground.
"

or

to

person

da:
Sono

andati dal

(4) In the
Con
God

Dio

verso

have

gone

to

=ve,rso:

vgrso gliugmini. With

Mr.B.'s.

love

to

man.

(5) In

the

Dissi fra

of

sense

"

within"

I said to

me.

=fra:

myself.

Towards.

205.

Cf. 204

verso.

They

of "towards"

sense

amore

and

Signor Bardi.

Under,

206.

(4).

underneath.

sotto, di sotto:

|)sotto

la tavola.

Guardate

di voi.

sotto

Cf. 186.

With.

207.

(1) In the

of

sense

"along with

"=

con

or

insifme

con2:
Vanno

noi,

con

Vanno

or

going with us.


(2 ) Denoting instrumentality
=

of

a
2

In

is

so

city:
Or

used
Sono

insieme

before
andati

a.

the
a

name

Parigi.

Cf. 184

(a).

noi.2

insie,me con

of

con

They

are

country,

never

before

that

fatto

L' ha

con

INFINITIVES.

DEPENDENT

PREPOSITIONS.

semplice matita.

una

did

He

133

it with

an

ordinary pencil.

(3) Descriptive
=

canuti.
(dai,coi)capelli
pugnale del manico b"llo.

suo

Cammina

(4)

The

gray-haired

With

man.

his dagger with

handle.

beautiful

the

con:

ai

L' uo,mo
Col

da, di, or

a,

chino.

capo

In the

sense

of

'at
1

da

molti anni

Dimorava

He

with

walks

the house
noi.

He

bowed

of",

lived

head.

etc. =da:

many

years

with

death.

with

us.

(5) "With"
Fu

punito

Piangeva

He

punished

was

"on

of "from",
and

of verbs

di rabbia.

She

was

di molti talenti.

dotato

"

sense

number

specificationdi

di mgrte.

In the

(6)
after

of

He

of", and

account

adjectives=di:
weeping
is

with

rage.

endowed

with

many

talents.

(7) Unclassified:
Che fece delle f^rbici? What

did

she

do

with

the

scissors ?

Within.

208.

(1)

In the
di

Dentro

(di,a) :

dentro

me.

"

al mio

Dentro

fra

'inside of"

Within

me.

"

(2 )

of

sense

In the

Within

cuo,re.

sense

of

' '

between

heart.

my
"

"in the

course

of

"

(tra),dentro:

Fra2
Fra
209.

(or dentro a) queste


tre

giorni. Within

mura.

three

Within

these

days.

Without.

of "outside
of" =fu9ri
(1) In the sense
Without
the walls.
Fugri delle mura.
(2) Denoting deprivation=senza:
*Cf. 213.

"Cf.

204

di:

(5).

walls.

ITALIAN

134

di

l'assistenza

Senza

GRAMMAR.

Without

nessuno.

the

assistance

of

anybody.
of

Use

Since

210.

used, and

English
their

di,and

is used

in

generalto
where

there

is

idea of direction

an

express

such

no

notion

in

It is used:

English.

indicate

(i) To

the

the action

Datemelo

(2)

prepositionsoftenest

is necessary.

towards, often

Fammi

the

are

they are often used where they have in


equivalent,specialinstruction concerning

no

which

da

da.

since

use

211.

a,

di, and

a,

is

questo favore

after verbs

object,

it to

to

or

for

me.

Do

me.

this favor.

me

infinitive after verbs

an

that

"

performed:

Give

me.

Before

indirect

of motion,

also

of

pelling,
accustoming, attaining,beginning,comcontinuing,hastening,helping,learning,preparing,
and teaching. All these verbs
tion
direcexpress
towards some
goal. A in this case renders English

"to"

"and":

or

Andiamo
M'

vederlo.

"ra abituato

Let

us

and

go

ad andarvi.

was

him.

see

in the

habit

of

going

there.

Cominciarono

parlarne. They began

Seguitava a seccarmi.
I piccini imparavano

(3)

towards,

mio

on

scrivere.

boring
The

me.

children

were

frat"lloa l"'ggere.I

am

teaching

my

read.

to

In

went

of it.

write.

learningto
Insegno
brother

He

speak

to

general

after

verbs

which

as:

Avvicinati

me.

Come

near

me.

imply direction

Si

appgggiaal

He

muro.

after
especially

And

abituarsi,to
self

is

the

to
pensare,1

domandare,
a

sopravvivere,to outlive.
to
etc.). toccare,1to concern,
[cards,

al

Parliamo

a
a

padrone.

Ask

Oggi tocca
(4) Before

Think

loro.

the
Let

quell'ugmo.

noi.

to

(games,

play

to

Domandi

Pensate

or

son).
per-

ask, demand

to

person,

giuocare,

be

(a

to reflect.
riflgttere,

(to).
of

of

think

addicted

become

to

wall

leaningagainst the

parlare,to speak.

one's

accustom

135

verbs:

(to).

darsi,

INFINITIVES.

DEPENDENT

PREPOSITIONS.

of

the

fall

lot of.

master.
us

speak

to

that

man.

us.

It is their turn

to-day.

followingadjectives(which, it will
observed, express also in English the relation "to"
"for"):
the

inclinato,inclined.

attgnto,attentive.
atto,

necessario, necessary.

accustomed.

awezzo,

bugno

(in

"able".
caro,

inferiore,inferior.

apt, fit.
the

Cf.

of

sense

82, Remark).

nocevole,

nocivo,

harmful.

ngto, known.

dear.

conforme, like,conformable.

odioso, hateful.

contrario,contrary, inimical.

pericoloso,dangerous.

convenient,

conveniente,

preparato, prepared.

[ing.
corrispondente, corresponddannoso, prejudicial.
disposto,disposed.
eguale,equal.

pronto, ready.

fedele, faithful.

utile,useful.

grato, pleasing.

vicino,near.

suitable.

Only

when

proporzionato,proportioned.

prgprio,
proper,

peculiar.

simile, similar.

superiore,superior.

the verb

has

this

sense.

136

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

(5) After
of

followed

noun

limiting

or

material, in which

another

by

first (but

the

indicative

not

used,

di is

case

tive
descrip-

noun

purpose,

or

212,

of

expressed by da, 213).


form in English a compound
Usually the two nouns
is

which

noun:

barca

Una

vela.

sailboat.

"

lumaca.

Una

scala

Uno

a
sgab"llo

Una

macchina

(6) In

L"ggeread
Averselo
A

pi"di. A three-legged

tre

steam-engine.
of idioms, such as:

alta

At

potere
Di

212.

in

expresses

It is used

indicate

to

thing ill.

first.
di.

meno

aloud.

read

take

To

prima giunta.

Non

To

voce.

male.

stool.

vapore.

number

winding stairway.

Not

help.

of

possession.
possessing,also some

general a

the

able to

be

to

sense

person

qualitypossessed,as the material of


its origin,nationality,or
is made,

which
other

article

an

istic
character-

La

del mio

casa

amico.

My friend's house.
gold ring ( ring of gold).

an"llo d* gro. A
di Sciampagna.
Vino
Un

L' ambasciatore

(a) The
is also

Un
Una
Un

of

sense

by

di

second

bambino

La

strada

Un

maestro

di

wine

Swiss
a

from

pagne).
Cham-

ambassador.

qualitypossessed,

where

the first

noun

The

scugla.

kilogram

of butter.

of tea.

cup

cinque anni.

di Roma.
di

The

cases

di burro.

t|.

of
description,

in many

chilogramma
tazza

Champagne

di Svizzera.

expressed

modified

road

A
to

child of five years.


Rome.

schoolmaster.

is

DEPENDENT

PREPOSITIONS.

di

Male
Col
the

(1) Before

used

(2) and

211

that
some

Italians

the

padre
the

cases

C"rto,fingo di

ciate.

all'

indipende,nza. He
of

state

di may

in

(2) After the followingverbs

quale

saperlo,

mezzan^tte.

midnight.

at

be omitted

saper

non

independence.

di scrivere

stopped writing

sapete, o fingetenon

Non

to

smetteva

his father

except those

214:

Italiani

gV

richiamare

sought to recall
Sapeva che suo
In

dagger with

infinitive after all verbs

an

under
specified

Cerc9 di

his

be,llo. With

handle.

beautiful

(a)

del manico

pugnale

suo

knew

137

te,sta. Headache.

It is further

He

INFINITIVES.

voi n.i las-

stato

so,.1

ma

less

(and others

mon)
com-

abbisognare, j
avere
bisogno, )
abbondare,
abusare,
ill use

to

have

to

need

to abound

(of).
(in).

abuse, make

an

fun

burlarsi,to make

congratularsi,to
on

contentarsi, to

(of).

late
congratu-

something).
one's

content

self

(with).
divertirsi,to
self

upon

one's self.
inform

informarsi, to
self

one's

(of).

int"ndersi,to

(of).

(one

take

to

incaricarsi,

skill

have

understand,

(in).

lagnarsi,

) to

lamentarsi,

complain
(of).
wonder

maravigliarsi, to
(at).

one's

amuse

occuparsi,to
self

(with).

dubitare,to doubt
to trust,
fidarsi,

(of).
have

dence
confi-

(with).

to repent (of).
pentirsi,
to profit(by).
profittare,
to
ricordarsi,

(in).

impadronirsi,to
(of).
1

take

session ridere, to
posto
ridersi,

Goldoni,

II Vero

one's

occupy

Amico,

remember.

laugh (at).
make

11,3.

fun

(of).

138

ITALIAN

(3) After

adjectives,such

many

abbondante,

(in).
ammalato, ill.

capace,1capable (of).

ricco,rich (in).

"

soddisfatto,satisfied (with).
vestito,clothed (with).

(of).

degno, worthy

(with).

(of).

vugto, empty.

fecondo, fruitful.

etc.

(4) To express
dei fiori.
"

(with).

pi"no,full (of).
(of), ptjvero,
(in).
poor

avido, greedy, desirous

Ho

contented

pago,

contento, contented

as:

meritevole, deserving.

rich

abundant,

certo,1certain

GRAMMAR.

the

partitivesense

I have

(cf

47

and

48) :

flowers.

some

"

(5) In comparisons (cf.126) :


Mi

piace questo vino piu dell' altro.

than

the

and",facendo
del s^lito.He
bow

than

(6) Before a
Quel benedett*

un
d"jnAbbondio
went
making
away,

inclino

Don

A.

men

pro-

less profound

usual.

in

noun

apposition:
del

uomo

signor

curato!

That

blessed

curate

(7) In
Di

ter
bet-

other.

Se n'
fondo

I like this wine

many

adverbial

expressions,such

Di

ngtte. At night.
In Springprimavera.

Di

vista.
Da

213.

expresses

Dire

di si, di 119.

yes,

By sight, [time.

as:

To

say

no.

etc.

denotes

It also
(a) the agency
by which.
in general (b) a sense
of removal, of ration
sepa-

from:

(a)

by

|)una

macchina

fatta da lui.

It is

machine

him.
Essa

" lodata da tutti.


1

Also

She

is

praised by

incapace, incejrto.

every

one.

made

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

140

Camille

Camelia?

da

la Duse

veduto

Ha

Have

Duse

seen

you

as

Egli ti fara

da

He

padre.

will be

father to you.

adjectivesof separation,deprivation,and

(/) With

the like,as1:

ali"no,foreign,averse.

indipendente, independent.

distante,distant.
diverso,different.

lontano, far,remote.

Dependent
The

214.

followingverbs

Infinitives.

rule

i.e.,English "to"
directly,

is not

ardire,to

parere,

dare.

bastare,to

suffice.

bisognare,to

need.

convenire, to

be

desiderare,to
dovere, to

"ssere

be

called

ought,

necessary.

dare.

know.

to

sentire,to feel,hear.
vedere, to

) to be need-

see.

volere,to wish.

ful.

udire, to hear.2

observed

that

auxiliaries

modal

seem.

potere, to be able.

lasciare,to let, allow.


It will be

to be

to

sapere,

must,

mesti"ri,
)

to appear,

osare,

suitable.

d* ugpo,
"'ssere

be translated:

to

occorrere,

desire.

owe,

infinitive

dependent

of these

most

in the

wider

verbs

might

sense

of the

term.
farlo subito.

Bisogna
necessary

to

N9, non

do

it at

conviene

Desidera

It must

done

be

at

it is

once,

once.

farlo.

No, it is

partireade^sso? Do

partire alia
N9, vcjglio

sera.

not

you

desire

No,

want

to

do it.

to

proper
go
to

now?
go

in

the

evening.
1

Cf.

(b) above.

2Bramare,
rule

the

"to

long for", and dubitare, "to


infinitive directly.

doubt",

also

times
some-

I bambini

non

alle

venire
S119I

s"i.

After

verbs

under

211

215.

by

(b) "to" in
denoting duty

the
or

(212 (1)),except:
ing
to", i.e.,denot-

order

"something to",
da2:
necessity,which
arrivare

per

in

time.

good

scendere

through, courtyards
V^ngano tutti,non

salire,lunghi corridoi

nothing

is

the

Quello
has

m'

Non
a

burden

da pr^mere

ha
to

affair of

an

Stare

or

passed

be

to

all of

Come,

you!

of !

il tramonto.

We

waiting

were

he

time.

short

What

tempo.

vita.

la mia

My

life need

not

be

me.

given ! 3
Io glidava
1

temere!

fare " cgsa di poco

da

ha

che

Quanti conti
be

stairs to

were

sunset.

do is

to

afraid

per vedere

Aspettavamo
see

c' " da

be

to

da

crossed.

be

to

leave

I must

t"mpo.

There
percorrere, cortili da attraversare.
and
ascended, long corridors
be descended

There

also "to'

da

scale

"rano

infinitive

an

of

sense

to arrive

in order

di

tioned
men-

per1;

D"vo partiresubito
once

by

of "in

sense

others

before

it.

known

have

to

those

and

otherwise

a,

which

purpose,

to

children

The

at six.

comes

ought

of motion

in the

"to"

usually

(2), English "to"

is to be rendered

(a)

He

saperlo. We

dovuto

Avremmo

discorrere.

ancora

sanno

141

yet talk.

cannot

at

INFINITIVES.

DEPENDENT

PREPOSITIONS.

I gave

da bere.

per

"ssere

It is evident

r^ndere!

da

s' ha

"to

after

that

be

about

How

him

to

of motion

verb

accounts

many

something
do

to

anything".
either

or

must

drink.

Cf. 81

per may

(a).

often

used.

be
2

Cf

avere

da

"
=

to have

to

This

construction

"
,

is often

84 (b)
.

best

translated

by

an

English

sive.
pas-

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

142

qualche 095a
you anything

Ha
Have

Yes, I

do?

to

after

prepositionplaced
meaning:

216.

its

assistere,to aid; assistere a,


to

cercare,

seek;

di,to seek after.

cercare

giocare,to play; giocarea,


pensare, to think; pensare

to

play

to

of

of (a

person); pen-

XIV.

the

Following are

AND

0,

che, that.

ma,

come,

per

as.

ne, neither

e, both

(ne

TENSES.

simple conjunctions:

anche, also.2

XXXVI.)

MOODS

CONJUNCTIONS,

of, etc.

be the turn

and

CHAPTER

(e

(a game).

at

think

a, to

(ExercisesXXXV

ask

a, to

a, to

toccare

toccare, to touch;

..

person).1
(a person);

believe in (a

reflect.

su, to

e, and

fies
modi-

often

verb

to do.

di, to ask after (a person).

domandare

217.

great deal

be present at.

to

credere,to believe; credere a,


domandare, to ask; domandare

sare

have

fare.

da

Si, ho. moltissimo

fare?

da

and),

.n", neither

or

(0
)

0, either

or).

but.

$,

pure, yet.
se,

if,whether.

.nor).
18.

Following are

the

credere in Dio, in

Cristo.

principalsecondary conjunctions,
also words
sometimes
times
conjunctions and somerelative adverbs
and conjunctionallocutions:

But

Anche, che, also

before

and

i.

nemmeno

and

neppure

elide

the

final vowel

CONJUNCTIONS,

after,1dopo

che

MOODS

(dop chfc),

P9sciache.
che, benche,

; as

as

as

more

so

soloche.

spiteof

as, cosi

in order that, accioche, affin-

che, affine di, perche.

as, tanto

fact that, mal-

the

grado che.

sebb"ne.

...

for,in quanto
if, come
se,

as

in

tale, tanto
quale
.quanto,etc. (Cf. 121.)

come,

the

only,

stante

non

che, quantunque,

...

if

J43

incase,caso,incaso,casomai.

although, ancorche, avvegna

as,2 siccome

TENSES.

AND

nulladimeno, tuttavia, ci^

piu che.

a.

nondimeno,

nevertheless,
ostante.

non
nor.

comecche,

either,nemmeno,

nep-

pure.

quasi.
long as, tanto, tantoche,

notwithstanding that, nonostante


che, malgrado che.

fin tanto.

on

zione

because, perche, perciocche.


but

but

rather,

indeed,

bensi.
even,

even,

quando

anche.

except, salvo

ecc"tto che
except that,

non

che.

given that, granted

that,

dato che, semprechfe.

quanto, quantunque,

per

provided that, purche.


rather, anzi, anzi che.
che.
than, piuttosto

since

(causal),giacche,poi-

(temporal),dacche.
so, so then, adunque,
so, and
dunque.
che, sicch^.3
so that, di modo
supposing that, posto che,
supposto che.

tuttavia.

than, che, di.4

if,se, quando.
1

ossia.

since

for, che.

however,

condi-

che.

non.
se

else,ossia.

rather

che, fuorche,

that,

che, a patto che.

or, ovvero,
or

anche, anzi, pure.


if,anche se, ancorche,

condition

English equivalent is placed first to facilitate reference.


For
"as"
"while", "as" ="since", cf. "while", "since".
le
In other
"as" =" that
Fece
which":
cases
quel che la madre
She
did as her mother
bade
her.
comand9.
The

Cf. also "in order

Cf. 126.

that"

above.

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

144

perci9,

dunque,

therefore,

ancorche,

benche,

quantunque.
unless,
7

che

che,

meno

che, infino

whence,

quindi.
though,

"

"

whereas,

considerando

whether,

se,

che.

sia, sia che.


che.

mentre

"

che,

ecettuato

non,

a.

!o che.

per

while, whilst,

meno

sino

until, finche, finche non,

is, cio".

che; that

that

se

yet, nulladimeno,pure,

perg.

non.
m

following

The

219.

by the indicative

subjunctive,sometimes
anche

"

"

che,

appena
di modo

soon

as

che,

as.

that.

so

following are
(cf. 232 (5)):
.

order

}"m

che,

provided

che non,

ancorche,

unless.
if.

even

che,

patto

condition

on

that.

che, before.
che, )

awegna

",

'

(che), in

dato

se,

if.

che
non,

non,

that.

unless.

until.

"

standing

,.

'

order

that.

that.

posto che, supposing that.

prima che, before.


purche, provided that.
if.
quandanche, even
quasi, as

although.

if.

sebbene, although.

senza

che, granted

eccetto

finche

as

notwith-

che, I

ostante

sempreche,

case.

che,

quantunque,

alth0Ugh
bencS, J"

come

perche, in

that.

as.

junctive
by the sub-

followed

non

caso

soon

as.

condizione

meno

long

as

malgrado

that.

'

'

avanti

,,

always

The

arnnche,

se,

"

accioche,

220.

quando,

tostoche, as

finche, until.
"

(cf.233) :

tantoche,

after.

dopoche,

the

by

onde, wherefore.

if.

se, 7 even

followed

sometimes

are

provided.

che, except.

soloche,

if

only,

provided

that.

supposto che, supposing that.

MOODS

MOODS

AND
The

TENSES.

verbal

be

good
Mi

II

secca

ol

non

(a)

made

in

(b)
with

other

after

one's

is

noun

with

not

ing
hav-

usually

to

participle.Cf.
with

pnjpriorischio

To

begin

the

be

222.

infinitive

di,

pericolo,una

is to

unbeaten

peril,an

di venire.

dove,

then

may

the

point out,

road,

be used

instead

words

them

with

orms

writes

He

after

infinitive

cept, which

road

at

that

coming.

che, chi, come,


substantive

one
as

of

the

object of

cona

verb,

Non
to

His

me

prepositionsdi, dopo di, invece

da battersi.

risk and

c) The

etc.

invece

Scrive

donde,

She bores

beaten.

be

must

Reading

(Cf. 45 (4)). It is also usually

" mostrare,

battuta
own

time

same

senza:

Cominciare
non

omitted

be

noun

the

prima di, and

as

the present

English by

any

omitted

used

article may

The

so

dove

to

(d) In the

same

nor

adjectiveor

ne

che

way

an

andare,

what

go

feel doubtful.

me

infinitive

The

the

dubitare.

fece

it

noun

gioventu.

ete,rnochiacchierare.

suo

chattering.
eglirispostomi

aver

rendered

via

utile alia

governed by

at

mav

is useful to the young.

answered

as

it

books

ceaseless

her

As

noun.

article and

accompanied by an
preposition,and as a verb
rule an object:
II l"'ggere
dei buoni libri "
may

145

Infinitive.

infinitive is

The

221.

TENSES.

AND

fare.

I do

not

know

where

do.

adverb

forms

infinitive
one

after

concept:

" with

an

146

ITALIAN

5 meglio

It is better

dirlo.

non

GRAMMAR.

to

not

say

it

"not(i.e.,

to-say-itis better").
should

student

The
instance

out

reason

the

presented.

cases

|)piu

facile criticare che far

than

do

to

It is easier to

meglio.

criticism is
(i.e.,

better

better). Therefore

the

phrase

should

be

easier

The

Neither

222.

noun

and
such

or

not:

rendered

in

present participlein -ante, -e,nte,

categoriesmay

(1) Where
him

saw

the

ever

be used

as

noun.1

the

be

:
distinguished
is evidently a verb:
participle

going to

the

city (

him.

saw

He

was

going

city).

In this

the

case

correspondingverbal

in -ando, -endo, is used:


participle
V hg visto andando
alia citta.
(Or
alia

and

noun?

Three

to

doing

it is a verbal
English present participlewhere
be rendered
must
ing
existby the only verbal noun
in Italian, i.e.,by the infinitive (cf. above, 221
with regard 0 every
(a)). The question occurs
Is the participle
English construction:
reallya

verb

the

icise
crit-

Participle.

in -ando, -endo, may

that

The

Present

than

ats above

|)piu facile di criticare che di far meglio.


(e) An English infinitive is often to be
Italian by the subjunctive. Cf. 232 (1).

nor

For

form, i.e.,the

L* ho visto che

andava

citta.)

(2)

Where

the

participleis apparently, but not


In this case
it is in
a
noun.
reallyand necessarily,
but
English governed by a preposition,
an
attempt
x

Cf.

become

in

and

nouns,

112.

but

The

they

-ante, -ente
are

never

forms

verbs

used

where
as

not

nouns.

adjectives

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

148

Participle.

Past

The

it follows a
English past participlewhen
verb of perceiving,also g'ssere,
a
transitive, especially
tive.
by the Italian infinifare, lasciare, is to be rendered
An
English passive infinitive is also rendered
The

223.

and

infinitive after lasciare

by the active

often

after

the

prepositon da :
L' hg sentito dire.

Lo

vidi

Hg

fatto fare

|)un

abito.

un

killed.

him

saw

I have

is

da temere.
He
ugmo
si lasciano mai vedere.

Non
be

ammazzare.

it said.

heard

I have

had

man

to

They

made.

coat

feared.

be

let themselves

never

seen.

cgsa " da fare?


(a) The use of the

Credevo

done

passiveis avoided
by using the infinitive

in Italian

cases

is to be

What

Che

ferito.

severamente

gsser

?
1

in many

other

thought

was

severely wounded.

protasis,relative clause, or the like,


often, and elegantly,expressed in Italian by a present
infinitive:
or
an
a
participle,
past participle,

is

whole

224.

malata

Essgndo
being

mia

ill (or: Since

Guardandolo
it well he

madre

be

sure

gsser lui ugmo

Disse

is

mother

my

ill)I

of the

mother

come.

If he

looked

at

matter.

He

ricco.

My

cannot

sargbbe sicuro.

bgne, ne

would

pgsso venire.

non

said that

he

rich

was

man.

Vedutagli
a

bottega.

him

into

Passata
1

The

Cf. 104

tale

the

disposizione,un

brother

shop

with

of his

is much

had

who

lo

tglse con

his

se

bent

took

appagherg piiidi

chiac-

seen

him.

questa settamana,

passive
(a).

fratglsuo

less

non

m'

frequent

in Italian

than

in

English.

MOODS

Once

chiere.

myself

with

Dette

che

this

words
lo

se

padre

he

longer

no

save

content

mendicante.

him

did not

who

man

he

as

of Past

From

his

beggar.

used

father

My

soon

away.

think

Rendering
An

went

As

and$.

ne

"sser difficile salvar

diceva

salvarsi lui.

hard to

I shall

over

credergbbeun

would

one

appearance

voleva

is

"bbe queste parc-lese

vederlo

Mio

week

talk.

said these

had

TENSES.

AND

U91110 che

un

to

that

say

non

it

was

himself.

want

to

save

Tenses

in

Italian.

represented as unfinished and still


continuingis often expressedby the present tense:
long have you been here ?
Quant* " che si"tequi ? How
I have
in Italia da s"imesi.
in Italy about
Sono
been
225.

action

six months.

(a) A

vividlydescribed
Aspettavo
waited

un'

hour,

by the
piu

ora
more

or

use

in the

An

less,and

then

he

in the

An

came.

ancora.

se,mpre

when

he

action

past, but

took

place;

still

was

b"ne allora.

action

waiting for him.


always slept well then.

The
cagnino seguiva ordinariamente.
usually followed.
d alta voce
quando egli entr^. I
Leggevo

227.

eppoi "ccolo che viene.

meno,

11

aloud

more

action

10 1' aspettava

Dormivo

past is

of the present tense

representedas:
(1) Incomplete;
(2) Habitual;
other past
(3) Going on when some
expressedby the imperfect tense :

226.

is

an

if finished

past action

little dog

was

ing
read-

entered.

represented
in

as

past either

having taken
place
recently or not yet

w
ITALIAN

aitirelyelapsed,and
is rendered
Glien'

An

at

I have

Have

moment

indicated
definitely

not

the past indefinite:

by

I19parlato.

ha viste?

Le

GRAMMAR.

spoken
them

seen

you

him

to

it.

about

action

entirelypast, completed in the past,


and which
happened at a fixed time in the past, is
rendered
by the preterite.1This is the Italian narrative
It is more
used in books
tense.
formal public
or
address than in conversation
or
easy correspondence:
228.

Gli

parlaiun

Le vidi in
Che

ottcjbre.I

be,lla
gitafeci

excursion

(a) The
made

be

indicated) your
Si,ma

hq

the

What

ful
delight-

of these

tenses

may

followingexamples:

ritrovata.

Have

Yes,

you

lost

(at a time

not

and

but

I found

it

again.

passata,e la ritrovai i"riV altro.

settimana

found

it

of all tenses

usage

go.

father!

my

in the usage

borsa ?

sua

I lost it last week

The

padre !

yesterday with

by

month

in October.

them
mio

him

to

purse?

perdei la

La

spoke

saw

difference
clearer

ieri con

I took

perduto la

Ha

fa.

mese

again day

is best

before

yesterday.

learned

careful

by

reading.
The

229.

is used

future

The

Future

in Italian where

it is not

in

English2:
(1) In dependent clauses

in which

in

present tense reallyexpresses futurity:


Partir"domani se fara b"lte,mpo. I shall
if the
1

t9sto che, "as


2

For

the

that
soon

future

leave

row
to-mor-

is fine.

weather

It follows

English the

the

preteritemust

as", and
of

the

be

used

after appena

ch$,

like.

impending action, cf. 81 (a) and

215

(a).

TENSES.

AND

MOODS

la l"ttera,
ve
Quando avr" l^tto1

read the

letter I shall return

Remark.
future

The

would

in

vividly (cf. 225

English

To

(2)
Sara

I shall go

riccone.

Saranno

He

be

must

che

se,ianni

(3) Sometimes
Padre
and

"

where

action

an

the
more

Germany.

to

He

meco.

rich

very

man.

have

must

been

with

imperative force:

with

madre

onorerai.

Thou

domattina.

You

shalt

dirai tutto

The

something else were


(1) To express in
statement

Conditional.

to

pendent
denoting result dewould
what
(i.e.,
happen in case
happen) is employed in Italian :

reserved

condition

on

wish, request,

or

I should

like to

there.

go

di dirmelo?

Would

sapre.i.Is

he at home

have

you

the

ness
good-

tell me?

to

|)in

casa?

he may

Non

be, but

I cannot

tell

it

seems

me

ought

"

do

imperfect ind:cative

The
we

to

should

future

comes

under

know

uncertainty:
I

ought

I know

is

the

same

to

know

this

her?).

sometimes

expect the conditional

anterior

I do not

you).

(2) In a generalway to express


questa signora.
Dovr"i conoscere

The

way

Vorr"i andarvi.
Avr"bbe la bonta

where

everything

me

conditional, besides

The

230.

(a)

tell

must

morning.

to-morrow

lady (

thy father

honor

mother.

thy

Mi

Italian

six years.

me

in

suppositionor uncertainty:

express

un

I have

you.

describe

to

When

(a)):

in Germania.

Vado

it to

render^.

is used

present

be

la

151

used

rule

as

the future.

ITALIAN

152

interrogava,glirispondeva di ng.

Se m'

I should

me

answered

have

conditional

(b) The

him

avr"bberopotuto
from

distance

dal

distava

scala

had

is often

used

where

we

tense:

davanzale

bugn

un

attaccarvisi ?

How

could

Come

tratto.

ladder

The

window-sill.

the

asked

If he

no.

anterior

expect the simple

should
La

GRAMMAR.

was

quite

they get hold

of it?
i suginon
avevan
aprile,
egli avre,bbe trovato V inv"rno, e
pensato che in America
His
vestito da estate.
1' avevan
family, putting him on
board
ship in Genoa at the end of April,had not reflected

Imbarcandolo

in America

that

suitablyfor

Gf'novasul

would

he

find

from

had

dressed

him

Imperative.

to express
imperative is used as in English,i.e.,
command.
The
a
missing persons are supplied
the present subjunctive:

The

Non

lo faccia.

Che

non

Non

domandare

Do

(you) do it.

not

Let

paiano.

che

is necessary

what

winter, and

summer.

The
231.

finir d'

them

not

quelloche

appear.

ti " necessario.

only

for you.

imperfect subjunctive

(a) The

Ask

may

also

express

mand.
com-

Cf. 232.
The
232.

has

gone

verb

subordinate

(1) After

action

expressingan

before

It follows

Subjunctive.

as

that

the

clause.
verbs

in

some

indicated

doubtful

way

by

is made

subjunctiveis usuallyfound
It is used

ve
express'

what

junctive.
sub-

in

of

command,

consent,

TENSES.

AND

MOODS

153

denial,desire,fear, hearsay, hope, ignorance,necessity,

approval,disapproval,etc.),preference,
opinion (belief,
surprise,will,wonder, and the like:
che

Desidero

Si dice che
has

she

mi

Non

do

piace

him

to

come

soon.

that

say

England.

to

Vorr"i solamente
believe me,
only

to

I want

partitaper Inghilte.rra. They

sia

essa

gone

siibito.

v"nga

che

credessero.

mi

wish

that

facciano

che

they

them

want

believe

would
I do

cosl.

only

me.

like them

not

to

so.

maraviglio che siate

Mi

che fossero partiti. I thought

Credevo
Pensi

Bisogna che ci
I should

of

out

(2)

wish

never

They

how

write

must

credeste ch* io avessi

che

gone.
much

me.

scrivano.

vorrej.mai

sione.

they had

ci" mi affliggesse.Think

L"i quanto

this (must have) distressed

Non

surprisedthat

am

still here.

are

you

qui.

ancora

you

to think

us.

scritto

that

per

I had

pas-

written

passion.

expressionsof

In

Peccato

che

emotion

sia arrivato!

non

sentiment:

or

What

pity that

he

has

come!

not

!1

Volesse

Dio

Potessi

scoprir1'

grant it !

God

!l

arcano

Would

Could

to

but

God

discover

the

secret

is qualifiedby a comthe antecedent


parative
(3) When
superlativeor by solo, unico, primo, or ultimo :
|)la prima vo,ltache 1' abbia visto. It is the first time
I have

that
Tu

only

it.
di cui pc;ssa fldarmi.

l'unico amico
se,i
friend

(4)
1

seen

After

in whom
a

can

You

are

the

confide.

qualifyingor

restrictive relative clause


'

called the
ent
independexample of what is sometimes
in
clause".
or
a
subjunctive",
"subjunctive
principal

This

is

'

an

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

154
Cerco

(P

s"rvo che parliinglese. I

tin

looking

am

for

speak) English.
Scelga un allgggiodov' Ella pgssa stare piu tranquillo.
be quieter.
Choose
a dwelling where
you can
(a) Also after indefinite relatives such as chiunque, any
such asqualwhosoever", and indefinite adjectives
one",
speaks (=

who

servant

can

"

"

"whatever":

unque,

vggliovederlo.

Chiunque sia,non
I do

not

want

to

Whoever

he

be,

may

him.

see

(5) After the conjunctionsgiven tinder 220:


he is.
Andr" dovunque sia egli. I will go wherever
Gli scriver"
prima che parta. I shall write him before

he

leaves.
Lo dico accioche
that

know

they may

Quand'

sappiano la

ne

anche

the

truth

about

1*avessi detto.

non

it in order

I say

verita.

the matter.
if I had

Even

not

said it.

conjunctionsgiven under 219 and in


the question,Shall the indicative or
other cases
many
the subjunctive be employed?
is to be decided
by
the action is indicated
not
as
or
determining whether
After

233.

the

doubtful
Se

padre

studiera,suo
will

father
Se

Si da

that

suo

often

padre sar"bbeccont"nto.

he does

c"rto che

per

studies,his

not), his father would


sia fatta.

la pace

If he would
be

They

say

satisfied.
for

tain
cer-

is made.

peace

|)c"rto che

If he

satisfied.

be

studiasse

study (but

cont"nto.

sara

la pace

" fatta.

It is certain

that

peace

is

made.

|)la piu b"lladgnna


1

one

In

some

of these

cases

che io abbia mai

of so-called

conjunctions

sar"i contrario
I should

alia
not

sua

is understood:

with

Were

him.

he

She

is

(as far

principalclause"
Fosse anche
un
magistrate)
(=if he were) a magistrate

"subjunctive

opinione.

agree

vista.
in

156

ITALIAN

gliattestati.

They

in to bestow

come

I should
to

have

twelve

the

boys

to

certificates.

the

in lui

piu vggliad' imparare.

avesse

se

in him

confidence

more

for

waiting

were

fiducia

Avr"i piu

GRAMMAR.

if he

had

desire

more

learn.

(a) The

compound
for the

laid down

reckoned

the

as

dubitato

Hg
would

verb:

che v^ngano.

they

whether

either

past definite

the

present

is

past time

whether

by

pending
imperfect subjunctive,deaction related in the secondary
taking place in present or in

the

given us
you

doubted

however, be followed

may,

represented as

Iddio ci ha dato la

come

had

the

or

whether

on

clause

come.

(6) The

And

doubted

I have

che venissero.

dubitato

they would

generalfollow the rules


primary ones, the auxiliarybeing

come.

Aveva

has

in

tenses

ragione,affinche
in order

reason

si vendicasse

know,

you

that

ce

we

ne

may

il Buondelmonte

have

heard

God

serviamo.
make

use

of it.

lo avete

saputo.

B.

avenged

before, how

himself.
and

(Exercises XXXVII

CHAPTER
ADVERBS.

XV.
AND

NUMERALS

XXXVIII.)

NUMERICAL

VALUES.

INTERJECTIONS.
ADVERBS.

236. Adverbs
of manner;
and

be

distinguishedas: (1) Adverbs


of place; (3) Adverbs
of degree
(2) Adverbs
of comparison; (4) Adverbs
of affirmation
may

ADVERBS.

of

and

157

negation; (5) Adverbs

of time;

cal
(6) Numeri-

adverbs.
Adverbs
237.

Most

adverbs

by adding

of

of

Manner.

manner

formed

are

to the feminine1

-mente

from

jectives
ad-

singular:

c"rto, certain; certamente, certainly.


franco, frank; francamen'e, frankly.
on"sto, honest;

honestly.
sincere; sinceramente, sincerely.
sinc"ro,
onestamente,

(a) Adjectivesending in e2 when

by

those
add

consonant

any

in

ending

1 and

except
e

preceded by

that

is

preceded

simply add -mente


and
or
r drop the
e

-mente3:

felice,happy;

felicemente, happily.

fgrte,
strong; fortemente, strongly.
facile,easy;

facilmente, easily.

difficult ; dirncilmente,
in
difficile,

difficult manner,

with

difficulty.
particolare,particular; particolarmente, particularly.

(6) Altrimenti,"otherwise
"in

like manner"

(pari),are

guarimente, "(not)
"

almost

"

parimenti

irregular,isolated forms, and


"(not) long", quasimente,

much",

remarkable

"; are

(from altro-a),and

as

showing

-mente

added

to

an

adverb.

238. Other
end

in

or

adverbs

of

fewer

manner,

in

number,

i:

b"ne, well.
cosi,thus, in this

male, badly.
volentie,ri,
gladly.

manner.

etc.
1

Mens, mente,

being

Which

but

have

one

Latin

feminine.

termination

for

masculine

and

feminine.

Cf. 109.
3

Adjectives in
mente, "softly".

-lie do

not

drop

the

e:

mplle, "soft";

molle-

158

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

used

as

in

ending

number

certain

(a)

reallyadjectives

are

l:

adverbs

pr"sto,quickly.
subito,suddenly, at

alto,loud.
basso, low.

once.

etc.

class of adverbs

Another

239.

suffix

of the

]Jcaduto

added
(-oni),

-one

Andar

brancolone

Andar

carpone.

Star
In

same

has

usually to

fallen

To

go

means

nouns:

grope

one's way.

all fours.

on

lean

by

his face.

on

To

(or tastone).
To

gomitoni.

the

He

boccone.

is formed

on

one's

elbows.

way:

cavalcione,astride.

rotolone, rolling.

ginocchioni,kneeling.

sdrucciolone,slipping.
etc.

gara,
6

locutions

Adverbial

240.
'

as

common,

are

indarno, )

competing.
F

m
.".

vain,

malincugre,unwillingly,

vice,nda,by

turns.

adagio,slowly.

)
in fretta,in haste.
invano,

dubbio, doubtless.

senza

etc.

(a)

Such

locutions

are

the

also among

found

other

classes of adverbs:
appena,
di

quando
time

di

as

to

soon

in

hardly.
quahdo, from
as,

time.

d'

ora

innanzi, henceforth.

fra poco,
per

soon.

t"mpo, betimes, early.

sometimes.
talvglta,

rado, seldom.

etc.
1

Some

adjectives from

formed

live

which

the

-mente

adverb

has

been

larly
regu-

in certain
pressions:
exyet used in their adjective forms
"to
Parlar
chiaro, "to
felice,
speak plainly"; Vivere
are

happily".

ADVERBS.

Adverbs

The

241.

avanti

of Place.

of

principaladverbs

(avante), before

donde, )

place are:

ci, qua,

(also

cola,

there.
,

y where

dove,

qui, here.

vi, ivi, li, la, costa,

comein).

159

indi, quindi,

ne,

addietro,)

} behind.

....

d'

onde, di

la, thence.

mdi"tro, j

Ci, "here"

242.
"

thence",

in

used

are

and

("there"), vi, "there",

speaking of
the

when

never

idea

and

ne,

tioned
placealready menof place is at all emphasized.
positionwith regard
a

They occupy the same


elided like the
to the verb, change their form, and
are
ci,vi,ne (cf.97 and 101). They
conjunctivepronouns
beginning with 1 or n,
precede conjunctive pronouns
otherwise
they follow the conjunctive forms:
Ce ne vi"ne. It comes
there.
to us from
Ce n' " molto.
Va alia citta?
I

No,

(a)

N9, ne
from

coming

am

"Here

"ccola, etc.

is

There

it

is",

idea

for

qua

from

spoken
1

the
is used

"there".

place near

They

the

to

city?

"here

is",

she

etc.

="ccolo,

When

or

going

you

there.

Here

qui

Are

v"ngo.

IJccociarrivati.
243.

great deal of it.

both

of

are.

place

for "here",

In

the

we

general

person

the

all

emphasized

li, la, ivi, costa, costi,

costi

addressed,
person

is at

and

indicate

costa

li and

speaking

la

and

mote
place re-

the

person

to:

are

often

used

where

they would

in

English be superfluous.

160

ITALIAN

There
a
are
great many
" molti.
dalla citta?
Is he
No, vi torn a.

Ven'
Viene

No,

city?

Venite

is

he

qua.

li.

Andate

"

Go

that

moglie "

di la.

My

of them.
from

coming

the

it.

returning to

Fatti in costa.
Mia

GRAMMAR.

Come

here.

Go

"

way

(the

wife

is there

there.

you).
(e.g.,in the
near

way

next

room).
Adverbs

The

244.

of

Degree and

Following are
times

of

principaladverbs

come,1 phi, meno,2 di, and


the

of

Comparison.

comparison

che.3
of

principaladverbs
of quantity):

called adverbs

abbastanza, enough,

cosi,

are

degree (some

po,co, little.

sum-

quanto, how

ciently.
alquanto,somewhat.

tanto,

assai, very.

trgppo,too much.4

so

much,

as

much.

much.

molto, much.
etc.

Adverbs

The

245.

si,
.

I
"

gia,

of Affirmation

principaladverbs

and

Negation.

of affirmation

are:

davvero, indeed, truly, of


yes.

course.

sicuro,yes indeed, of

(a)

Gia

in other

Pio,vea
2

Cf.

3Cf.
4

For

Gia

is used

cases

Pigve?
"Cf.

Si.

in

si is

assentingto
employed :

Is it

raining?
It
catinglle.Gia.
"

self-evident

course,

truth ;

Yes.
is

pouring. Quite
"

true.

121.
122

and

125.

126.

molto, poco, quanto, tanto, trpppo, adj.,cf. 128.

gia

del monte.

sometimes
The

sun

"
=

was

almost":

almost

II sole

touching

toccava

the

gia gia

mountain

la

cima

peak.

ADVERBS.

246. The

not.

non,

of

negation are:

mai,

giammai,

non-mai,

principaladverbs

not.

119,no,

non-mica,

non-punto,

not

non-piu,

all.

at

never.

longer.

no

nignte affatto,)

(a) Ng is sometimes

placed after the noun


is made
negative:

is then
which

denari

Ha

amici

ma

ng.

Saparlare, pensare

(b) Non
the

ng.

It

non.

the

statement

of fact

but

friends.

He

has

money

He

can

talk, he

stands

then

non-mica, non-mai,

not

think.

cannot

In

between.

etc., the

stands

verb

locutions

the

between

the

members:

two
Non

parla

Non

g mica

Non

lo

Non

"

dice

piu.

has

not

Lo

until I have

In

Cf. 235
2Cf.
="he

detto cosi.1

finche

value

non,

the

"until7',

credevo.

non

in

I have

che

se

che,

non

more

of

non

money

thought.

studiergfinche

Non

ha mai

negative

comparison,2 nor in
"except that", etc.:
Hg piu di denaro che
than

nignte.

Non

tardi.

farg mai

(c) Non

or

of

sense

less
always immediately precedes the verb1 unlatter is accompanied by a conjunctive pronoun,

which

in the

used

ha

ne

learned
che

non

compound
(a).

tense

127.

has

not

but

avrg imparato.

I shall

study it

it.

due.3

two".

He

the

has

only

two.

auxiliary is considered

the

verb.

l62

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

of T

Adverbs

of time

principaladverbs

The

247.

me.

are

quando,

when.

ora,

se,mpre,

always.

allora,then.

subito, at

dibu9n'ora,|

sometimes.
talv9lta,

adesso,
3

now.

domani,

tardi,late.

per tempo,

once.

tgsto,soon.

to-morrow.

ultimo,

yesterday.
i"ri,
9ggi,to-day.

prima,

last.

at

at first.1

etc.

of Adverbs.

Comparison

248. Adverbs

like

regularly compared

are

tives
adjec-

(cf. 1 19-127) :
fa cosi facilmente

Lo
"

come

Lo

fa

piu

Lo

fa

meno

"

fa

Lo

facilmente.

piu

male

manco

di

me.
"

compared irregularly:
il meglio,2
best

meglio, better

benissimo,

)
"

ottimamente,

male, badly

di tutti.

facilmente

"

followingare

bene, well

fa il

Lo

"

The

frate.Ho.

suo

facilmente.

249.

che

facilmente

fa molto

Lo

fratello.

suo

"

"

..

well

very J

il pfggio,worst

pfggio, worse

malissimo,

badly

pessimamente, { yery
molto, much

(very)

il piu, most

piu, more

moltissimo, very
ppco,

little

Che

is

visto che

meno,

adverb

an

faceva

ancpr

of

less

time

il meno,

) least,

pochissimo,

f very

in

quando
I have

piu.caldo.

much

like:

sentences
seen

little

it when

it

lo
was

1' ho
still

hotter.
2

Meglio

parve
or

the

maniera

is

il meglio
least
or

adjective-noun

an
o

il meno

bad".
some

male, "this
In

such

in such

fare

noun

alia

expressions as:

seemed

meglio

being

to him

it is

understood.

the

again

Questo gli
best

an

course,

adjective,

164

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

another
qualifyingan adjective,
adverb, or a phrase usuallyprecedes it:
due
tre viaggiatori
incontravano
a
o
Rarissimamente

mediately.

cavallo.

They

travelers

on

Appena
see

me

Essa

as

adverb

An

very

long intervals

two

trovarmi.

They

arrivati
as

soon

venuti

sono

always

She

have

They

il ragazzo

to

came

Cardinal

cardinal

the boy.

Numerals.

numerals

are

it

older.

purposely.

piu fissamente.

s"mpre

fixedlyat

more

is somewhat

done

NUMERALS

The

three

they arrived.

fatto apposta.

Egli guardava

251.

or

horseback.

" alquanto piu attempata.

L' han

looked

at

met

He

165

NUMERALS.

If the

una.1

form:

etc., follows

uno,

the

precedes it,it

it

Ventuna
Lire

is

by

weeks.

Twenty-one
and

hundred

trent-

singular;if
plural:

regularlymade

One

ventuno,

it is made

numeral,

settimana.

centuna.

modified

noun

liras.

one

(b) Millione, 'million", billione, 'billion", trillione,


"trillion",etc.,

are

of number,

nouns

having

lar
regu-

plural,millioni,billiori,etc.; the plural mila


already been given. With these exceptions and
of uno,

the

cardinals

mille,

thousand".

No

the different parts of


Cento

' '

Eleven

be

translated

not

counted

Nell'

tre

'

'

and

between

twelve

'

hundred

'

etc.
,

thousand

must
,

etc., and

hundred",

one

dred
hun-

one

hundreds:

mille

due.

cento

ngve

In

the

nineteen

year

two.

Both"

=tutti

due

or

due,

"

all three"

=tutti

i tre, etc.

or

numerals

(/) The
words

two

"one

and
"

hundred,
by

anno

hundred

0)

conjunctionis used

quarantacinque (centoquarantacinque).
forty-five.

and

(d)

'a hundred",

cento,

number

that

indeclinable.

are

(c) No article is used with


"

has

when

or

the

they

second

Trentuno

or

one

shortened

as

uno,

hundred

into

is

number

trent'

The

As

an

one

or
or

written

be

may
venti

due) except

eight,in

which

case

trentotto, etc.
and

forty

on

cento

may

cen:

ordinal

as

one:

Cenquaranta, censettanta,
252.

twenty

(ventidue

one

be written

must

From

as

after

numbers

etc.
are:

adjective it has the pluralforms:

gliuni, le

une.

be

66

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

ventesimo

21st

ist

primo

2d

secondo

3d

tfrzo

2d

ventesimo

30th trentesimo3
40th quarantesimo3

sesto

7 th

sfttimo

8th

ottavo

9th

nono

10th

dfcimo

110th

nth

undfcimo

etc.

etc.

200th

13th tredfcimo or dfcimo terzo


14th quattordicesimoor
dfcimo quarto
15th quindicesimoor dfcimo quinto
sedicfsimo

dfcimo

or

8th

diciottesimo

or

dugentesimo
tesimo

etc.

ottavo

1000th

millesimo

2000th

duemillesimo

19th diciannovesimoordfcimon9no

etc.

ventesimo2

20th

duecen-

or

trecentesimo

300th

sesto

dfcimo

ducen-

or

tesimo

17th diciassfttimoor dfcimo sfttimo


1

centesimo

secondo1

dfcimo

or

ooth

centodfcimo4
115th cento quindicesimo

dfcimo primo1

or

duodecimo

6th

or

etc.

6th

secondo

ventiduesimo

5th quinto

2th

or

ventunesimo

4th quarto

primo

millionesimo

1000000th

etc.

(a)
La

ordinals

The

trentesima

ninety is

except
is

"

novanta

The

tre.

of

thirtieth

"one

expressed by the regular ordinal

are

half"

un

adjective,me' a a
minuto
ci salgo.

an

In m"zzo
up

parte di

adjectives:

three.

(b) Fractions

m"zzo

all

are

Of

meta.

una

me,zzo,

bers
num-

these

noun:

In half

minute

I shall

come

there.
solamente

Datemene
Un

quinto, J. Due

(c) "Firstly",

"

la meta.

Give

dfcimi,T2Tr.Due
"=

secondly

mieramente, secondariam

me,zzo,

primo, secondo,

nte, etc.

Undicesimo,

Vigesimo is also found.

Trigesimo, quadragesimo, are


Centesimo dfcimo, etc., are

only half

me

dodicesimo,

also

exist.

rare.

not

allowable.

of it.

2\.
or

pri-

(which
Multiplicatives

253.

167

VALUES.

NUMERICAL

adjectives)are:

are

quadruple* etc.:
triplo,1
triple.
ddppio,double.
Una doppia vittgria.A double victoria.
(

Collectives

254.

ambedue,

ambo,

entrambo,
And

the

are

adjectives:

y
)

the

nouns

C9ppia,a couple.

una
un

paio, a pair.

un

terno,

dozzina,

dozen.

una

ventina,

score.

centinajo,4(about)

un

decina,3half

score,

ten.

migliajo,(about)

un

NUMERICAL

ahun-

[sand.

dred.

numbers.

three
una

of

combination

una

thou-

VALUES.
Dates.

In dates

255.

is

preceded by

where

the number

prepositionand

month, the definite article


nel mille

Accadde

with

be used

must

trecento

representinga
not by the name
It

ottantuno.

year
of a

it :
in

happened

1.381.
Fino

dal 18

in tre atti

12

avea

Even

presentato

in 181

tragedy in three acts.


Dal 1870 in pgi. From

he

had

1870

(a) It is frequentlyused
month

padre

suo

presented

una

trag^dia

to his father

of

on.

also where

the

name

precedes:

Nacque

il 29

giugno

del 1798.

He

born

was

the

29th

of

June, 1798.
1

Also

2Cf.
3

quadruplice,etc.
triplice,
251

(s).

Sestina, "a poem

of six stanzas,

stanza

of six

lines",is not

now

collective.
4

Cf. 63.

Di is used

after these collectives:

Un

centinaio

di

u^mini.

68

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

Questi 1119SSO a compassione


1833

lo meng

seco

his friend, in October

1833

compassion for
with him to Naples.

with
him

he took

article is used

definite

(b) The

Moved

Napoli.

amico, nell' ottobre del

deir

before

numeral

the

in English,but it
as
indicatingthe day of the month
in dating letters etc., as it is in English:
is not omitted
del mese?
Quanti abbiamo
Qggi " il di"ci. What day
is it?

of the month

Allora scriviamo
Then

let

write:

us

is the

(c) Primo

days

To-day is the tenth.


il 10 (or il die,ci)
maggio,
Fire,nze,
Florence, May 10, 1902.

of the

ordinal

only

used

indicatingthe

in

the

otherwise

month;

1902.

cardinals

ployed
em-

are

II1

il due

primo (di)maggio,

of

Time

the time

of

It follows

day

that

except in the case of


Che
ora
"? Sono
gtto e

and

maggio.

numerals

with

cating
indiwith

is understood

ora, ore,

article is feminine, and

the
"

o'clock", the verb

one

Sono

undici.

le

il di tre di

Day.

definite article is used

256. The
all.

maggio,

is

le ngve.

that,

plural:
le

Sono

mezzo.

Sono

le

(a)

cinque

II tocco

is

die,ci.

meno

commonly

of V una,

instead

used

"

one

o'clock".'
(b) M"zzo

giorno

Antimeridiano

pomeridiano
Arrivano
5

"
=

alle

in the

"noon",

"

mezzangtte

in the

morning",
afternoon", "p.m.":
=

cinque pomeridiane.

They

will

night".
"mid-

"a.m.";
arrive

at

p.m.

Li

or

ai may

aprile. "Vienna,

also be

employed:
April 5."

Vifnna

li

cinque (ai cinque)

Numerical

Ordinals

257.

Titles.

in

used

are

169

VALUES.

NUMERICAL

titles of

numerical

the

rulers,also in indicating a book', chapter, etc., "but


article intervenes

in

as

no

English:
the Fifth.

Charles

Carlo

quinto.

Libro

quarto, capitolo t"rzo, paragrafo 119110.

chapter three, paragraph nine.


Luigi de_'cimose.stoe.ra un re sfortunato

Book

the

Fourth,

Sixteenth

the

was

verb

Che

is used

avere

(or Quanti anni) ha

eta

is

old

How

etremes'.

Age.

of Time.

Duration

258. The

king.

unfortunate

very

to
suo

denote

age

figlio?

Ha

cinque

anni

years

and

three

Five

son?

your

Louis

molto.

months.

Cosi

nel

adesso

rono

nell'

anni

sessantadue

Avrg

The

259.

verb

fa, or "
Dodici anni fa, or
anno

|)molto t"mpo

un

Sono

che

anno.

dodici

"Twice

"Two

and

"

Six minus

"

two
two

di

are
are

three

table

iunghezza

in

now

note
to de-

four"

four"

died

three"
.

ago.

time

ago.

long

via due, quattro.


due

fanno

=se,imeno

broad"
.

years

Idioms.

=due

=due

leaves

della

Twelve

Numerical

long by
e

ago.

year

anni.
He

" mo,rto.

Miscellaneous

260.

am

of time:

duration
Un

anno.

"ssere, is used

less often

fare, or

So

April.

old next

sixty-two years
sixty-secondyear.

venturo.

anno

secondo

sessantesimo

mio

shall be
my

dell'

aprile

tre, tre.
tavola

=una

larghezza di

quattro.

della

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

i7o

INTERJECTIONS.
The

261.

interjectionsand

commoner

expressions

are:
interjections
(1) Expressive of joy, admiration, approval,

used

as

and

like:

the

Ah!
Good

Oh!

Ah!

done

Well

Bene!

Oh!

Che !

Well!

What

(2) Grief, pain, fear, pity,and the


Ohi!
Ahi!
Ah!
Ahim" (or Ohim") !
Oh

Wretched

me

pQvero
Peccato

(or Che

Pieta!

Pity!

Den

that

What

like:
Alas!
I

Ahimisero!
!

am

pity !

Oh, poverino!

Mercy!

Woe

Alas !

being

peccato) !

Bravo!1

Good!

Oh,

thing!

poor

(3) Surprise:
OhbeUa!
Bacco

Curioso!
Man

Ehi!

Strange!

Ahi!

Per

E cosi!

(4) Disdain, disgust,disapproval:


Guai!
Beware!
Woe!
Oib"! Fie! Vergogna! Shame!
nonsense!
Eh, via, sciocchezze!
Oh, come,
Questa

b"lla!

fine state

"

of affairs!

(5) Encouragement:
Orsu!

Come

Animo!

now!

Courage!

Di

su!

Speak

out!

Via!

via!

cheimpgrta?

(6) Enthusiasm,
Evviva!

Bravi!;
2

he

Che

to
or

an
a

Viva

adjective. Thus

woman,

che

already

is oftcd

done

does

what

it matter?

Italia!

to

two

Long
persons

live

Italy!
would

one

say,

Brava!

used, especiallyin Tuscany,

question implying doubt:


has

come,

applause:

Hurrah!

is

This

Come,

it!"

Che

V abbia

to

gia fattol "Can

introduce
it be

that

ITALIAN

172

it ; if the

future

is not

be constructed

to

For

GRAMMAR.

given,it and the conditional

from

are

the

the construction

of

infinitive.
the preterite
see

178 and

179.

The

imperative,unless otherwise stated, is like the


correspondingforms of the present indicative.
Irregular
There

are

Andare,

1.

Present

Vado

Verbs
but

to

go,

va

vanno

andato; andai; andr" (ander^).2

Va'

go

andate

Vada

andiamo

vada

andiate

vada

vadano

back

The

first and

rida)take the written

for

Subjunctive.

Present

again, to examine
again.
trasandare, to go beyond, to neglect.
Dare, to give,dato; di"dior d"tti,
dar".

Remark.

gation.1
conju-

andare:

riandare, to

of the first

Imperative.

andate

2.

Conjugation.

andiamo

vai

Like

First

the

irregularverbs

Indicative.

vo

or

four

of

accent.

Really only one, dare; fare


their preteritesshow.
as
Forms
use

Di"

bracketed

in exercises.
also

are

Forms

sing.ind. pres. (rid",

third

and

stare

belonging
forms.)

not

(Cf.Latin

for reference

and

preceded by

exists, pi. dier,diero,

or

are

"or"

didrono.

not
are

to

here

be

alternate.

nally,
origi-

learned

VERBS.

IRREGULAR

3.

faccio

fo

or

fa' fate

fate
fanno

Like

assuefarsi,to

malfare,

one's

accustom

the

All these

f"cciano

do
to

mischief.
tame.

do

again.
soddisfare,to satisfy.

verbs

3d sing.ind.

1st and

take
pres.:

the

written

accent

disfa,rifa,etc.

Stare,to stand, be; stato, stetti,


star".
Pret

Ind.

Imperative.

Ind.

stg stiamo

stetti stemmo

stai state

stesti steste

sta

stette stfttero

stanno

Like

Present

Subjunctive.

stia stiamo

sta' state

stia stiate

stia, stiano

or

stieno

stare

ristare,to

sovrastare, to stand

cease.

soprastare,to stand

over,

to

over,

to

tarry.
sottostare,to be subject.

command.

like the

accented

Rista, etc., are

compounds

of dare

fare.

(a) Distare,
and

f"ccia

undo.

to
(sfare),

Remark.

and

facciate

to

rifare,to

contraffare,to counterfeit.

Pres.

faccia

mansuefare,

confarsi,to be suitable.

4.

facciamo

to liquefy.
liquefare,

self.

on

faccia

fare:

affarsi,to suit, become.

disfare

Subjunctive.

Present

facciamo

fa

Imperative.

Indicative.

fai

fac"ndo, fatto; feci,far"

Fare, to do, make,


Present

173

has

no

"

to be

distant," is regular in the present

present participle
; otherwise

it is like stare ;

constare, contrastare, instare, ostare, etc.,


verbs.
(Exercises XLI

and

XLII.)

also

found.

Faci, face,

are

are

regular

ITALIAN

174

Verbs

Irregular

GRAMMAR.

of

Second

the

Conjugation.

great majority of the verbs

263. The

of the

second

ing
less irregular.1Of those endor
conjugationare more
in -ere, only two, godere and
temere, are
perfectly
nate
regular,i.e.,have all the regular forms without alterirregularones.
The
following are all the '-ere verbs that are perfectly
regular:
2

of the Second

(a) IrregularVerbs
264. Most
the

of these

verbs

stem-vowel, only in

-6re.

stressed
strong, i.e.,

are

the present indicative

and

on

junctive,
sub-

the past participle


preterite,4
being,
persuadere and rimanere, weak, i.e.,ending

and

except in

Conjugationin

in the

of the
The
infinitive,the vowel
regularly in -uto.
perfect
contracted
antepenultbeing stressed,is never
; the imtherefore be formed
tenses
directlyfrom
may
it.

The

future and

conditional

are

in

some

verbs

irregularin the present tenses,5 but


regular weak preterite
:

Verbs
the
1

Conversely, the great majority


second
conjugation.
2
And
their compounds.
3

In the

Some

Sometimes

sense

of

have

the
with

"

to

weak

of all

meditate."

See

preterite.

contracted

future.

irregularverbs

68, p. 184.

tracted.
con-

having

are

of the

IRREGULAR

5. Dovere, to owe;

VERBS.

175

dovuto, dovei fdov"tti),


perative
dovrj. Im-

lacking.
Present

devi

(debbo, dfggio)
(debbi)

deve

(debbe)

devo

dobbiamo

d^vono

"

(dfbbono, dfggiono)

Subjunctive.

(deva, d^ggia)

debba

(deggiamo)

dovete

Present

debba

Indicative.

dobbiamo

"

dobbiate

d"bba

d"bbano

(d"vano, d^ggiano)

Potere, to be able, potuto; potei,poti-9. No

6.

Present

Indicative.

posso

possiamo

Subjunctive.

Present

possa

possiamo

pu9i potete

ppssa

possiate

p9ssono

ppssa

p9ssano

pug

Sedere, to sit,seduto; sedei

7.

si"do

Present

sediamo

seggo

(seggiamo)

sedete

si"de

sifdono or sfggono
sedere

sieda

or

"

siedi

Like

sedftti,
seder".

or

Indicative.

Present
or

tive.
impera-

segga
"

"

Subjunctive.

sediamo(seggiamo)
sediate

si|dano

or

sfggano

"

possedere,to

to supersede.
soprassedere,

possess.

risedere,to reside.
(Exercise XLIII.)

II.

irregularin the present


preterite:

Verbs

and

having

plicated
redu-

Cadere,

8.

Present

cado

to

Indicative

(caggio)cadiamo

cadi

cadete

cade

cadono

Avere

Like
2

by

fall,caduto; caddi,2cadr".

belongs

avere:

The
the

dero.

aid

of

forms
179:

(caggiamo)

to

this

class, but

Subjunctive.

(caggia)cadiamo(caggiamo)

(caggiono)

riavere,

other

Present

cada

has

cadiate

(caggiate)

cadano

(caggiano)

already

been

given (74).

etc.

of the

preteriteare

to be

caddi, cadesti, cadde,

constructed

cademmo,

from

this,

cadeste, cad-

176

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

cadere:

Like

"

accadere, to

to fall again,
ricade*re,
scad6re, to fall off.

happen.

decadere, to decoy.
sapr".
9. Sapere,to know, saputo; s"ppi,

sappia sappiam"

sappiamo

so

Subjunctive.

Present

Imperative.

Indicative.

Present

sai sapete

sappi sappiate

sappiate
"

sa

sappiano

sanno

Tenere,

10.

to

hold, tenuto; tenni,terr$.


Present

Indicative.

Present

tengo

teniamo

tieni

tenete

(tenghiamo)

teniate
"

tifne tfngono
Like

Subjunctive.

tenga teniamo

(tenghiamo)

tfngano

tenere:

appartenere,

attenersi,to belong, to hold


contenere,

rattenere, to detain.

ritenere,to detain,to retain,

contain.

to

obtain.

belong, [to. ottenere, to

to

intrattenere,to
delay.

entertain,

mantenere,

maintain,

to

sostenere, to sustain.

[keep. trattenere,to entertain,keep


waiting.

Volere, to wish, voluto; vglli


or vglsi,
vorr^.

11.

Present

Indicative.

Imperative.

Present

v$glio vogliamo
vupi

volete

vuole

v9gliono

"

v^gli vogliate

volere

Like

Subjunctive

v^glia vogliamo
vogliate
v^gliano

"

disvolere

(svolere)not

rivolfre,to

to

wish, to refuse.

have

wish

mind

to

again, to
do again.

III.
Preterites in -si :
12.

Calere, to matter,

make

difference,caluto, calse.

Impersonal.
conditional
Present

Imperative, present participle,future


lacking.1
Indicative.

Present

cale
1

are

Moise
not

in

gives
use.

and

Subjunctive.

c"glia
carra

Caluto

(calera)and
is also almost

carrebbe
never

(calerebbe),but
used.

they

IRREGULAR

Dolere,

13.

Present

VERBS.

grieve, hurt, doluto;

to

Indicative.

Subjunctive.

d9lga (d9glia)dogliamo (dolghiamo)


dogliate

dolete

d9lgono (d9gliono)

"

d^lgano (d9glianoj

dolere:

Like

condolere, to condole.
Persuadere,

14.

dolsi,dorr$.

Present

d9lgo (dQglio)dogliamo
du9li
du9le

177

to

Like

persuade,

in the

Regular except

ridolere, to grieve again.

persuasi.

persuaso;

and past participle.


preterite

persuadere :
dissuadere,to dissuade.
Rimanere,

15.

to

remain,

rimasto

(or rimaso) ; rimasi,

rimarr^.
Indicative.

Present

rimango

rimaniamo

rimani

rimanete

rimane

(rimanghiamo)

rimanga

rimaniamo

rimanga

rimaniate

(rimanghiamoj

rimangano

rimangono
rimanere:

Like

to

permanere,

remain.

Valere, to be worth, valuto

16.

Subjunctive.

Present

Present

Indicative.

valga (vaglia)vagliamo (valghiamo)

vali

valete

vale

valgono (vaglione)
valere

to
equivalere,

of the

vagliate
valgano (vagliano)

be

equivalent, invalere,to

become

rivalere, to

worth.

same

Subjunctive.

Present

valgo (vaglio)vagliamo (valghiamo)

Like

(valso); valsi,varr^.

prevalere,to prevail.

one's

self

recover,

valid.
avail

again.

IV.
in -vi

Preterite
17.

Parere, to

Present

seem,

Indicative.

paio paiamo
pari parete
pare paiono

or

pariamo

appear,

paruto
Present

parso

or

parvi,parr J.

Subjunctive.

paia paiamo
paiate

paiano

or

pariamo

178

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

V.
*

Preterite in -cqui

Giacere, to lie,giaciuto;giacqui,giacer".

18.

Present

Indicative.

Present

Subjunctive.

giacciagiacciamo
giacciate
giacciano

giacciogiacciamo
giaci giacete
glace giacciono

"

giacere:
piacere,to please.
Like

tacere, to be silent.
VI.

and

Solere

of the

other

vedere

Indicative.

Present

sogliamo
s"?glio
suoli

solete

suole

s"?gliono

Vedere,

20.

Present

conjugation:
has no imperaof, sglito,2
tive,

"

to

see, veduto

visto; vidi (v"ddi),


vedr".

or

Indicative.

Subjunctive.

Present

vediamo
vedete

vede

vedono

vedere

Subjunctive.

solessi,etc.

vedi3

Like

Imperfect

Subjunctive.

sdgliasogliamo
sogliate
s9gliano

(veggo, veggio)

vedo

any

conditional.

nor

Present

from

of this

habit

in the

preterite,future,

different

somewhat

verbs
irregular

Solere,to be

19.

are

(veggiamo)
(veggono, veggiono)

"

antivedere,4to foresee.
awedersi,

to

perceive,

mark.
re-

provvedere,6 to provide.
ravvedere, to improve,

form,
re-

[again.
divedere,5to convince.

rivedere,

prevedere, to foresee.

travedere,to

{Exercises XLIV
1

Cf. Class

Used

Sometimes

XLV

shortened

into

/e' in

Future

and

conditional

familiar

see,
see

examine

indistinctly.

.)

(6),nascere, 114, p. 190.


"I
only as an adjective. Ex. : era splito,

also become
imperative singular may
4
Past participleonly anteveduto.
6
Only the infinitive is used.
6

and

to

was

accustomed."

conversation.

ve\

provvedero, provvederei.

The

180

29.

ITALIAN

Chiudere,

to

GRAMMAR

close, chiuso; chiusi.

chiudere:

Like

include.

accludere,to enclose.

includere,

concludere, to conclude.

precludere,to preclude.

to

escludere,to exclude.
30.

Collidere,to collide, colliso; collisi.

31.

Conquidere, to

conquer,

32.

Contendere,

to

bruise,

33.

Correre, to

run,

corso;

Like

Rare.

conquiso; conquisi.
contuse-

Rare.

; contusi.

corsi.

correre.
"

accorrere,

to

run

flock,to

to

concorrere,

in haste,
com-

pete.

percorrere,

through.
to have
ricorrere,
soccorrere,

incorrere,to

scorrere,

to

occorrere,
34.

happen.

to

succor.

to pass

trascorrere,to

recourse

away.

run

over.

Decidere, to decide, deciso; decisi.


Like

decidere:

circoncidere,to
coincidere,1to
to
incidere,

35.

rapidly,

pass

run

discorrere,to discourse.
incur.

to

cut

cut

round.

coincide.

to
precidere,

recidere,to

cut

off.

cut.

into.

Dif"ndere,to defend, difeso; difesi.


Like dif "ndere:
to
ofr^ndere,

offend.

36. Dividere, to divide, diviso; divisi.


37. Elidere,to elide,eliso; elisi or elidei.
to expel,espulso; espulsi.
38. Esp^llere,

Like

esp"llere:

to compel.2
comp^llere,

to repel.
rep^'llere,

to impel.
imp"llere,
to
explode, esplc;So;
esplgsi.
39. Esplgdere,
1

Also

regular.

Rare.

to.

IRREGULAR

40.

Evadere,
Like

evade,

to

evasi.

evaso;

evadere:

invadere,
41.

181

VERBS.

Fondere,

to

to

invade.

melt, fuso (fonduto); fusi (fondei).

fondere:

Like

confdndere,1to confound.
42.

Imm^rgere, to immerse, imme.rso; imme.rsi.


Like imm"rgere:
to plunge.
m"'rgere,2

44.

Intridere,to dilute, intriso (intrito)


; intrisi.
Intrudere, to intrude, intruso; intrusi.

45.

L"dere,to hurt, offend, l"so;l"si. Rare.

43.

46. Molcere, to soothe.


47.

Pret. mulse.

Defective.

Rare.

Mgrdere,to bite, mcjrso; mcjrsi.


Like mgrdere:
to grieve.
rimgrdere,

48. P"rdere,

lose, p"rso

to

(oftener perduto);

(oftener perdei or perd"tti).


49. Pr"ndere,to take, preso;
Like

learn.

compr"ndere,to comprehend.
Radere,
Like

to

radere

shave, raso;

to retake.
riprgndere,
to surprise.
sorpr"ndere,

rasi.

sorradere, to
51.

presi.

prgndere:

to
appre*ndere,

50.

p"rsi

graze.

R^ndere,to render,

reso

(renduto);

resi

(rendei,ren-

detti).
Like

r"ndere:

to yield,surrender.
arrg'ndere,
1

Which

This, the primitive,is rarely used.

does

not

have

the weak

forms

exhibited

by its primitive.

82

ITALIAN

Ridere,

52.

Like

laugh, riso; risi.

to

ridere:

arridere,

smile

to

sorridere,to
53.

Rodere,
Like

GRAMMAR

to

smile.

rosi.

roso;

gnaw,

rodere

favor.

to

upon,

corrddere, to corrode.
to
(discendere1),
54. Scendere
Like scendere:

ascendere,
55.

Sparge re,
Like

to

strew,

spargere:

Sp"rgere,to

asp"rgere,

scesi.

(sparto,poetical); sparsi.

sparso

sprinkle.

to

56. Sp"ndere,to spend,


Like

sceso;

to ascend.

cospargere,

57.

descend,

speso;

scatter, sperso;

spesi.
spersi.

Rare.

spargere:
to disperse.
disp"rgere,

cospargere,)

-nkle

58. T"ndere,to extend, teso; tesi.2


Like

t"ndere:
to show.
ost"'ndere,
to
st^ndere(dist"ndere)

to attend, wait.
attgndere,
contendere,to contest.
to understand.
intgndere,

59.

tend.

to wipe, t"rso; tersi.


T"'rgere,

Like

ex-

Rare.

t^rgere:

ast"rgere,to absterge. Rare.


60.

Uccidere, to kill,ucciso; uccisi.


Like

uccidere:

ancidere, to kill.

no

Discendere

This

is the

is the

older

transitive

past participle.

Rare.

form
verb

of scendere.

; the

intransitive

is

regular,but has

183

VERBS.

IRREGULAR

II.
in
participle

Past

Mettere,

61.

Like

ammettere,

to

preteritein

-sso,

put,

messo;

misi

-si:

(messi).

mettere:
admit.

premettere,

to

premise.

to commit.

promettere,

to

promise.

to

commettere,

compromettere,

to

rimettere,to

compro-

remit.

scommettere,

mise.

framm^ttere,
manomettere,

smettere

interpose.

to

to

lay

hands

to

wager,

(dismettere),

to

quit.
sottomettere, to submit.

upon.

permettere,

to

permit.

trasmettere,

transmit.

to

III.
Past
62.

in -ssi:
in -sso, preterite
participle
annesso;
ann"ssi.
Ann^ttere,to annex,
Like

ann^ttere:
connect.

conn"ttere, to
connettei.

64. Comprimere,

deprimere,

to

press,

comprimere
to

cedei

depress,

compre.sso;

de-

opprimere,

c^ssi.1

succeed.1

compre,ssi.

to

reprimere, to

of

premuto

exists.

is

oppress,
repress.

sopprimere,to

Italian.
Generally a weak verb in modern
The
primitive primere (oftener prf mere)

pre,sso instead

or

esprimere,to express.
imprimere, to impress.

or

succ"dere,to

preciate.

c"sso;

connettuto,

c"dere:

conc"dere,to concede.1
to intercede.
interc"'dere,
Like

also

Rare.

63. C"dere,to yield,ceduto


Like

Has

suppress.

regular, although

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

Ksctitat

iiscuaBO; jjmhhm

"
-

dis:_:e:f

Like

coz:_:r:r

incutrrr
Fendere.

66

concoaN)
past participle

:;

inspire mfnse.
split,fenduto

fendei

:e=5o:

fendftti

Eessi

Figgere figere

--

Fiertere.

Like

bend, Hesse

tc

rif.r::r:r

69. Influere

u
u

prom

in

influence,influsso

be

overe

Alsc reflettuto

reflect

to

infioss

movendo.

mcve.

1 riflettei.:

an
"

mosso:

moss.

overe

overe

Rare

kneel

muovere

affect

rim

mote.

s:mm

Scindere

-:

to

be

Mgvere
Like

rlessi.

::":::

genufl$tteretc

comm

me'sseU

::vt hide

5:~:i"rre

-:

fitto: fissi fisi

tljggere:

[ike

fix,fisso

t:
.

sdsBQ

overe.
o

:o

overe.

scindei

remove.

fee

?::r

up.

s::?s.
.

S;::e:e

-:

scuotere
BC

perc

BCfSSO

....-.-.

scossi.

::ere

tc

otere

rise

sti

| a shake

otere

Suggere.

-:

sock

bo

snggei

boss

s_::

(up)

rticiple. Preterite

re

5_"r.

sugga.

etc

--"::

IV.
-

-_

rl

A;:orgere

in -si:

ret

". -to

accorgersi ,to pes

accorto:

accgrsi.

accorgerr
,;:

-I.

rgere

to

e.

pe~
weak

when

gh\

t means

CI
lird

36,3
conjugation, is

Strang
oft

ener

used.

VERBS.

IRREGULAR

75.

Ass^lvere,to

assolvetti

assglto or

assolvei,

ass^lvere:

to
ris^lvere.

dissolve.

melt,

76. Ass^rbere.to absorb,


77.

assoluto;

assglsi.1

or

Like

absolve,

Assumere,
Like

to

ass9rto; ass9rsi. Rare.


assunsi.

assunto.

assume,

assumere:

to

consumere,

to

presumere,

consume.

78. Cingere (cignere),

to

cinto

gird,

presume.

cinsi.

cinger^

(cignerj).
Present

Indicative.

Present

Subjunctive.

cingo (cigno) cingiamo (cigniamo" cinga (eigne cingiamo (cigniamo)


cingi (cigni) cingete (cigneto
cingiate 'cigniate

(cignono)

cinge (eigne) cingono

(cignano;

cingano

Imperative.

cingi (cigni) cingete (cignete)

cingere:

Like

giungere (giugnere),to

(pugnere), to prick,
punto: punsi.

pungere

ar-

giunto. giunsi.
raggiungere, to rejoice.
rive,

(mungere),

mugnere

sp^'gnere^spengere),2to

tinguish, sp"nto; spensi.

milk,

to

munsi.

munto:

piangere (piagnere),to

to push,
spingere(Spignere),
stringere (strignere), to

weep,

pianto. piansi.
compiangere,

to

ex-

brush,

stretto

strinto;

or

strinsi.3

bewail.

rimpiangere,to regret.
pingere (pignere),to paint.
dipingere (dipignere), to

to
tingereitignere),

dve.

lignere (lingere),to
unto;

anoint,

unsi.

paint.
1

cf.

The

forms

strong

solvere,122,

The

This

forms

are

poetical.

For

riscUvere,

"to

determine

",

p. 191.
with

gn

are,

however,

quite as

common

as

those

with

ng

stretto.

differs

from

cingere

only

in

having

the

past

participle

86

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

gather, cogli"ndo,cglto,cglsi,

Cggliere(cgrre),to

79.

coglierg(corrg).
Subjunctive.

Present

Indicative.

Present

c9lgo (coglio)cogliamo (colghiamo) C9lga (c9glia)cogliamo (colghicogliate


[amo)
cogliete
C9gli
C9lgano (c9gliano)
c9lgono (c9gliono)
C9glie

Imperative

present indicative.

like

cggliere:

Like

to collect.
raccggliere,
ascigglisciggliere
(scigrre,
to untie.
ere, disciggliere)

receive, wel-

to
accggliere,
come.

to absolve.
prosciggliere,

change of

with

Also

to
prescegliere,

choose

(e for

vowel

throughout) :

scegliere(scerre)to choose.
to select.
trascegliere,

be-

fore, select with

care.

And

1,
tggliere
(tgrre)to take, take
distggliere)
stggliere
(stgrre,
,

to

dissolve, divert

80.

Cglere,to

revere,

away.

colto

C9I0and

present indicative
81.

from.
or

cglein

culto.

Defective.

Only

Rare.

use.

Distinguere,to distinguish,distinto; distinsi.


Like distinguere:
estinguere, to extinguish.

to erect, "rto; "rsi. Rare.


JJrgere,
83. Fingere,to feign,finto; finsi.
to break, franto; fransi.
84. Frangere (fragnere),
Like frangere:
82.

infrangere,to crush, infringe.


85. Fulgere, to
fulsi.

shine.

No

present participle. Preterite

Rare.
Like

fulgere:

rifulgere,to

shine.

Also

rare,

defective, and

poetical.
1

Here,

contractcd

as

always, the present participleis formed


infinitive:

scegli^ndo, togliendo,

etc.

from

the

un-

88

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

to turn, vglto;vglsi.
V^lgereor v(Jlvere,
Like v^lgere
:
to wrap
invglgere,
up.
awglgere (awglvere), to
to turn, revolve.
rivglgere,
wrap.
to overturn,
to devolve
(past
sconvglgere,
devglvere,
to unfold.
devoluto).
svglgere,
participle

95-

V.
in
in -tto^preterite
participle

Past

-ssi:

to afflict,
affiitto;afflissi.
96. Affligere,
97. Condurre, to conduct, conduc"ndo, condotto;

con-

dussi.
condurre:

Like

addurre, to bring,allege.
dedurre, to deduct
(dedotto

introdurre,to introduce.

dedutto).
ducere1,to conduct.

ridurre,to reduce.

indurre, to induce.

tradurre,to translate.

or

produrre, to produce.
sedurre,to seduce.

to correct, corr"tto;corr"ssi.
98. Corrgggere,
Like correjggere:
to direct.
dirigere,
rgggere 2,to govern.
to

erigere,
99.
100.
1 01.

erect.

to cook, cocgndo,cgtto; cgssi.3


Cgcere (cugcere),
Friggere,to fry,fritto;frissi.
Lgggere,to read, lgtto;lgssi.4
Like lgggere:
to elect.
elgggere,
to have
a partialityfor.
prediligere,
No past participle.
Defective.
Lucere, to shine.

102.

Preterite lusse.
Like

Rare.

lucere:

to shine.
rilticere,
1

This, the primitive,is used


often

not

its past
2

The

contracted

into

participle.
primitive,but

8Cf.7o(3).

or

rilucei.

infinitive
is
poetry. The
Dutto, "duct", is etymologically

only

durre.

much

Pret. rilussi

less used

in

than

corrfggere.

4Cf. 70.

IRREGULAR

189

VERBS.

103.

Negligere, to neglect, negl"tto;negl^ssi.

104.

Prot^ggere,to protect, prot"tto; protgssi.

105.

Scrivere, to write, scritto;scrissi.


scrivere:

Like

ascrivere,to ascribe,
circoscrivere,
descrivere,to

to prescribe.
[scribe. prescrivere,

circum-

to

proscrivere,

describe.

to

proscribe.

sottoscrivere, to subscribe.

inscrfvere,to inscribe.

trascrfvere,to transcribe.

to destroy, dissolve,strutto;
Struggere (distruggere)

106.

strussi.
107.

Trarre

(traere),to

draw,

tra"ndo, tratto; trassi,

trarr".
Like

trarre:

attrarre,to

attract.

estrarre,to

extract.

contrarre, to contract.

protrarre, to protract.

detrarre,to

to
ritrarre,

detract.

distrarre,to divert from.

draw

back.

sottrarre, to subtract.
VI.

Past
108.

in
participle

-sto, in -si :

or
Chigdere,to ask, chi"sto;chie,si
Like chi^dere:

to request.
rfe^^dere,

to inquire.
inchi"dere,

109.

Nascondere,

to

nascondere

Like

chiedei.

hide, nascosto;

nascosi.

"

ascondere
no.

(ponere)2, to put, pone,ndo,posto; posi.

Porre
Present

1,to hide,

Present

Indicative.

Subjunctive.

pongo

poniamo

poni

ponete

poniamo
poniate

pone

pongono

pongano

The

This,

primitive, but
the

uncontracted

ponga

less used

form,

than

nasc"3ndere.

is still used.

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

190

Like

anteporre,

porre
to

intraporre,to interpose.

prefer.

(apponere),to affix,

apporre

impute.
disporre,to dispose.

oppose.

posporre,

to

postpone.

preporre,

to

prefer.

riporre,to replace.
sopporre, to place under.

(esponere, sporre),

esporre

to

opporre,

expound.
imporre,to impose.
to

to

supporre,

suppose,

Rispondere, to respond, risposto;risposi.

in.

rispondere:
to correspond.
corrispondere,

Like

VII.

showing reduplicationin the preterite.


(a) Preterite in -bbi,past participle
regular:

Verbs

Condscere,

112.

to

know

the

(by

senses), conosciuto;

conobbi.
Like

condscere:

ricondscere,to recognize.
sconpscere

Crescere,to

113.

Like

(discondscere)not

to

know.

cresciuto; crebbi.

grow,

crescere:
"

increscere, )

to increase.

accrescere,
,

decrescere, to decrease.

(b) Past participle


regularor
Present

Indicative.

Present

nasco

115.

-cqui2:

Preterite.

nacqui

etc.

nacesti,

etc.

etc.

to harm, nociuto; nocqui.


N^cere (nugcere),

Present
or

sorry.
J

nacqui.

Subjunctive.

nasca,

nasci,

y to be

in -to,preterite
in

Nascere, to be born, nato;

114.

nuQco

rincrescere1,)

Indicative.

Present

mjiccionociamo

nu9ci

nocete

nu9ce

nu9cono

nuoca

[ciono
or

119c-

in
(c) Past participle
1

Impersonal.

or

Subjunctive.

n^ccia

nociamo

"

nociate

"

nu^cano

in -ppi:
-tto, preterite
2

Cf.

giacere,18, p. 178.

[ciano
or

n9c-

IRREGULAR

Rompere,

116.

Like

191

break, rotto; ruppi.

to

rompere:
to

corrompere,

interrompere, to interrupt.

corrupt.

dirompere, to break,
to break

erompere,

VERBS.

break

irrompere, to

bruise.

forth.

in.

to burst

prorompere,

regular,preteritein -wi
participle
(bevere),to drink, bev"ndo; bevuto
117. Bere
bewi
(beveior bev^tti).
(d)

bevo
bevi
beve

Past

Present

Indicative.

or

beo

beviamo

or

bei

bevete

or

bee

bevono

Present

beva

bea

forth.

(beuto);

Subjunctive.

be(v)iamo

or

beiamo

or

beete

be(v)iate

or

beono

be(v)ano

or

Pi^vere,to rain, piovuto,pigvve. Impersonal.

118.

VIII.
Verbs

irregularin

the past

participle
only:

Assistere, to be present,

119.

Like

to

assist,assistito.

assistere1:

consistere,to consist.

to perish.
persistere,

desistere,to desist.

resistere,to resist.

to
esistere,

sussistere, to subsist.

exist.

to insist.
insistere,

Concepere,

120.

Like

to

conceive, conc"tto.

concepere

percepere,

to

Like

perceive.
esatto.

esigere:

to
transigere,

transact.

to undo,
Solvere,
Like solvere:

to dissolve.
diss^lvere,
1

Esigere, to exact,

121.

122.

soluto.

to determine.
risglvere,

irregularonly in having the participialform


proper to the -ire conjugation.
2
used.
Concepire, percepire,are the verbs commonly
These

verbs

are

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

192

IX.

Vivere,

123.

vivrg.

(vivuto),vissi,viver"or

live, vissuto

to

"

Like

vivere

"eat
convivere, to live together,

or

drink

together.

rivivere,to revive.

Verbs

Irregular

of

Third

the

Conjugation.1

I.

irregularin the present


regularweak preterite:

(a) Verbs
the

Cucire, to

124.

Present

cticia
a

and

o, but

Like

or

cucire

sdrucire

Empire

125.

Present

or

having

cucisco, etc.
(This verb

and

Present

junctive
sub-

inserts i before

i.)

:
or
scucire,to rip.
(sdruscire)

"mpiere,to fill,
empi"ndo,empito, empii.
Present

Indicative.

empiamo
empite
fmpiono (empiscono)

irregularforms
Like

or

cucisca,etc.

fmpio (empisco)
"mpi (empisci)
fmpie (empisce)
These

cucio

before

not

but

cucito, cucii.

sew,

indicative

tenses

are

from

Subjunctive.

fmpia empiamo
empiate
^mpiano

"mpiere.

empire:

to accomplish. (This verb


adempire (ad"'mpiere),

has also the past

participleadempiuto.)
to
compire (cgmpiere),
perfect. (Past participle
compiuto. Cdmpito is used as an adjective.)

For

forms

verbs
see

71.

which

do

not

show,

or

do

not

always show, the -isco

VERBS.

IRREGULAR

126.

Salire,to ascend, salito,salii

salsi.

Indicative.

Present

or

193

salite

salgono (saliscono)

(salisce)

sale

(sagliamo, salghiamo)

saliamo

salgo (salisco)
sali
(salisci)

Subjunctive.

Present

saiga (salisca)

saliamo

(sagliamo, salghiamo)

sagliate
(salisce)

sale

salgano (saliscano)

salire:

Like

to reascend.
risalire,

assaiire,to assail.

or

127.

Seguire,to follow, seguito,seguii.

The

stem

diphthong

may

under

the accent

s"guo

etc.
si^'guo,
128.

Udire, to hear, udito, udii,udh-9,or udr".


odo

udiamo

odi

udite

ode

129.

Uscire

oda

udiamo

"

udiate

"

9dono
to
(escire),

Present

go

fsco
esci

uscite

Present

Subjunctive.
usciamo

esca

"sci fscono
Like

9dano

out, uscito,uscii.

Indicative.

usciamo

Subjunctive.

Present

Indicative.

Present

"

usciate

"

fscano

uscire:

to succeed,
riuscire,

to turn

out.

in the present and preterite


:
(b) Verbs irregular
Sparire,to disappear, sparito,spariior sparvi.
130.
Present

Indicative.

Present

Subjunctive.

'
spaia or sparisca spariamo
spaio or sparisco spariamo
spariate
[cano
spariot sparisci sparite [riscono
or
spaiano
sparisspare or sparisce spaiono or spa"

"

Like

apparire,to

sparire:
appear,

apparso,

apparito

apparvi,

parsi,apparii.

ap-

comparire, to
parso

or

appear,

comparito,

er
comcom-

parsi,comparvi, comparii.

ITALIAN

194

Venire,

131.

venuto, venni, verr^.

come,

Present

Indicative.

Present

(ven-

veniamo

(vegno)

vengo

to

GRAMMAR.

venga

Subjunctive.

(vegna)

veniamo

ghiamo)
vieni

venite

viene

vfngono

ghiamo)
veniate
4"

(veg-

venire

nano)

prevenire, to hinder.

avvenire, to happen.
convenire, to
divenire

[come.

agree,

(provvenire)

to

proceed from.
sovvenire, to relieve.

intervene.

invenire,to find

provenire

be-

(devenire),to

intervenire,to

(vfg-

vfngano

nono)
Like

(ven-

svenire,to faint.

out.

in the present and past participle,


irregular
and preterite
:
present, past participle,
Morire, to die, mQrto; morii, morrg or morh-9.
132.

(c) Verbs

or

Indicative.

Present

mugio (muoro)

Present

moriamo

or

muo-

muQia

Subjunctive.

(muora)

moriamo

iamo
muori

muoi

or

muore

"

mugiono

"

Dire, to

say,

(mug-

muoiate

mugiano

dice,ndo,detto; dissi,dirg.
Imperative.

dico

diciamo

dici

dite

dice

dicono

dire

Like

(sdire)to deny.

replacing
2

diciate

(benedicere), to

In all forms

diciamo

dicano

Subjunctive.

di' dite

bless.
disdire

Present

dica

addire, to assign.
benedire

(muo-

rano)

Indicative.

Present

muo-

iamo

morite

rono)
133.

or

where

the

indire, to

announce.

maledire,

to

curse.

predire,to predict.
ridire,2to repeat.
diphthong

uo

occurs

is sometimes

found

it.

Redire,

"to

Cf. 153, P- ICA

return",

(poetical,)has

nothing

to

do

with

dire.

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

196

wise
OtherNo past participle.
Comp"tere,to compete.
regular.
No
past participle.
converge.
146. Conv^rgere, to
Otherwise
regular.
No past participle.
147. Delinquere,to be delinquent.
Otherwise
regular. Poetical.
wise
to diverge. No past participle.Other148. Div"rgere,
regular.
found.
to extol.
Only estglle
149. Estgllere,
No past participle.Used only
to be hot.
150. F"'rvere,
145.

in the third person.


to
Fi"dere,
regular. Poetical.

151.

Gire,to

152.
Present

go,

No

wound.
Rare.

gito.
Imperfect.

Indicative.

past participle.Otherwise

Imperative.

giva (gia) etc.

giamo

gite

gite
conditional

and

Future

Present

Subjunctive.

giamo
giate

gir$, gir"i,etc., regular.

Poetical.

ire:

Like

redire,to

return.

to
Illanguidire,
Otherwise
regular.

154.

155.

Lambire,

in the third

lece

No

other

to lick.

No

faint.

No

past participle.

past participle. Used

person.

156. Lecere
Present

grow

to
(licere),

be lawful, lecito

Indicative

(lice)

parts found.

Poetical.

(licito).

only

VERBS.

DEFECTIVE

Olire,

157.

olivano

and

oliva

used.

Perire,

158.

indicative

imperfect

Only

smell.

to

197

No

perish.

to

wise
Other-

participle.

present

regular.
Priidere,

159.
in

the

third

Used

participle.

past

only

person.

Ri"dere,

160.

No

itch.

to

Present

to

return.

Present

Indicative.

Subjunctive.

ri"do
ri"di
ri"de
161.

Stridere,

No

shriek.

to

participle.

past

(Poet.)

rifdano

ri"da

rifdono

Otherwise

regular.
162.

Tangere,

163.

Urgere,

164.

V"rtere,

indicative

to

Has

urge.

and

only

tange.

urge,
but

urgeva,
used

urgesse.

only

in

the

imperfect.

v"rtere:
controv"rtere,

165.

only

Regular,

turn.

to

present
Like

Has

touch.

to

Vigere,
Used

to

only

be
in

to

controvert.

in

force,

the

third

to

nourish.

person.

No

past

ciple.
parti-

Verbs

conjugated in

this index
verbs

are

in

set

verbs, are

included

not

Accadere,

Accfndere,

the

Rare

manner

same

the

from

placed.

so

AND

IRREGULAR

OF

INDEX

margin.

compounds,

and

Accdrrere,

Asciplvere,
Ascdndere,

unusual

Aspfrgere,

113

57

Assidere, 27

133

Assistere, 119

97

Ad"mpiere (adempire), 125


Affarsi,3

Ass^lvere,75
Ass^rbere, 76
Assuefarsi, 3

96
Affliggere,
Algere, 22

Assumere,
61

Ammettere,

77

Astfrgere, 59
Att^ndere, 58

23

Ancidere,

109

Assalire, 126

Acquisire,143
Addurre,

88

Ascrivere, 105

33

Accrescere,

Attenersi, 10

60

Att9rcere,93

Anteporre, no

Attrarre, 107
Avfllere, 28

Antivedere,

Avere, cf. " 74

Ann"ttere,

very

AsciQgliere,79

29

62

20

Avvedersi,

Apparire, 130
Appartenere, 10
App^ndere, 24
Apporre, 1 10
Apprfndere, 49
Aprire, 134
Ardere, 25

Avvenire,
Avvincere,

20

133
94

Avv9lgere, 95
Benedire,
Bere

133

(bevere), 117

Arr^ndere, 51
Arridere, 53

in

compound

commoner

obsolete

are

Ascendere, 54

Acc^gliere,79
Acc^rgere, 74

Andare,

The

verb

other

some

Arr^gere, 26

Accludere,

Alludere,

as

here.

21

Addire,

VERBS.

DEFECTIVE

Cadere, 8
198

OF

INDEX

Calere,

Capere,

IRREGULAR

DEFECTIVE

VERBS.

Contendere,

144

Convertire,

131

135

Convincere,

29

Circoncidere,

C9rre (c9gliere)79
Corr^ggere, 98

34

Circoscrivere,

105

Correre, 33

C9cere (cupcere), 99

Corrispondere,1

C9gliere (c9rre),79
Coincidere,

04

Coprire (cuoprire),136

Cignere (cingere),78

Corrodere,

34

16

Conv^rgere. 146

Collidere, 30
Colludere,

23

Commettere,

61

Comm(u)9vere,
Comparire, 130
Compfllere, 38
Comp^tere, 145

57

Cospfrgere,

57

Cucire,

Dare,
78

Compr"ndere,

49

Comprimere,

Cospargere,
Crescere,

70

Compiangere,

114
124

Decadere,
Decidere,

34

Decrescere,

64

Compromettere,
Concfdere, 63
Concepere,

13

Dedurr:,, 97

61

Delinquere, 147
Deludere,

120

23

Concludere,

29

Deprimere,

64

Concorrere,

^^

Descrivere,

105

Concutere,

65

Desistere,

Condolere,

13

Detrarre,

Confarsi,

Diffndere,

Confondere,

19

107

Dip^ndere,

62

Dire,

31

(costruire)
,

Consumere,

77

Contendere, 58
93

Contraffare,

119

133

Dirigere,98
Discendere

(scendere") 54
,

Disci9gliere(sci9gliere)79
(sconoscere),
,

Disconoscere

10

Cont9rcere,
Contrarre,

24

Dipingere, 78

112

Contenere,

35

Digerire, 138

41

Connfttere,
Conquidere,

Dev9lvere, 95

97

Conoscere,

1 1

53

Corrompere,

Cglere, 80

Construire

99

32

Convenire,

Cfdere, 63
Chifdere, 10S

Condurre,

Controv^rtere, 163

12

Chiudere,

AND

107

112

Discorrere,

Discutere, 65

^^

ITALIAN

200

GRAMMAR.

Essere, " 74

Disdire, 133
Disfare, 3

(smettere), 61

Dismettere

Dispfrgere, 57
Disporre, no

Estinguere, 81
(estogliere)149
Est"?llere
,

Estrarre, 107
Evadere,

40

116

Disrompere,

Dissplvere,122

Fare,

Dissuadere,

F^ndere,

66

Distare, 4

F^rvere,

150

Distfndere, 58

Fifdere, 151
67
Figgere (figere),
Fingere, 83

14

Distinguere,81
Distpgliere(distprre),
79
Distprcere,93
Distrarre, 107

Distruggere,106
Disvfllere(svfllere),
92
Divedere,

20

Divfgliere (div^llere) (div"rre),92


Di

venire,

131

Fl"ttere,68
Fdndere, 41
Frangere, 84

Friggere, 100
Fdlgere, 85
Genufl^ttere, 68

Divfrgere, 148

Giacere,

Dividere, 36
Dolere, 13

Gire, 152

Dovere,

61

Frammettere,

18

Giungere (giugnere),78

Dticere, 97

Illanguidire,154
Illtidere,
23

Elfggere, 101
Elidere,37
Eludere,

23

Equivalere, 16
]"rgere,82
Erigere, 98

Er6mpere,
Esaurire,
Escire

Inchifdere,
116

139

(uscire),130

Escltidere,29
Esigere,

121

Esistere,120
Esp"llere, 38
Esplpdere,

Imm^rgere, 42
Impfllere,38
Impfndere, 24
Imporre, no
Imprimere, 64

39

Esporre, no
Esprimere, 64

108

Incidere, 34

IncMdere, 29
Incdrrere, 33
Increscere, 113
Incutere, 65
Indire, 133
Indurre, 97
Infliiere,69

Infrangere,84
Insistere,119

INDEX

IRREGULAR

OF

(iscrivere),105

Inscrivere

AND

VERBS.

DEFECTIVE

N^cere (nu^cere),

201

116

Instruire, 137
Occdrrere,

Int"ndere, 58
Intercfdere, 63
Intervenire,

Offfndere, 35
116

Interrpmpere,

131

Intrapprre,

Offerire

Oppprre, 1 to
Opprimere, 64

10

Intridere,43

Orire,

Introdurre, 97
Intrudere, 44

Invadere,

40

Invalere,

16

(offrire),140

Olire, 157

no

Intrattenere,

33

141

Ost^ndere, 58
Ottenere,

10

Parere, 17

Invenire, 131

Percipere, 120

Invplgere,95

Percprrere, ^^

Ire, 153

Percptere (percuptere),72

Irrdmpere,

116

Pfrdere, 48
Perire, 158
Permanere,

15

Lecere, 156

Permettere,

61

L"dere, 45

Persistere,

Lambire,

155

Persuadere,

Lfggere,
Liquefare, 3
101

Lucere,

119

14

Piacere,

18

Piangere (piagnere) 78
Pingere (pignere), 78

102

Ludere,

23

Maledire, 133

Pipvere, 119
Pprgere, 86

Malfare,

Porre

Manomettere,

61

Mansuefare,
Mantenere,

M^rgere,

(ppnere),

no

Pospprre, 1

10

Possedere, 7

Potere,

10

Precidere, 34

42

Mettere, 61

Precludere,

Mplcere, 46

Prediligere,101

Mprdere, 47

Predire,

Morire, 132

Premettere,

Mpvere (mup vere) 70


Mtingere (mugnere), 78
,

Pr"ndere,

29

133

61

49

Pre porre,

no

Prescifgliere,79
Nascere,

Prescrivere,

114

Nascpndere,

109

Negligere,103

Presumere,
Prevalere,

105
77

16

ITALIAN

202

Prevedere,

GRAMMAR.

Rifulgere,85

20

Rilucere,

Pre venire, 131

Produrre,

Rimanere,

97

Promettere,

102

15

Rimettere,

61

61

Rimordere, 47

Prompvere (promupvere), 70
Prorpmpere, 116
Proscipgliere,
79

Rimpiangere, 78
Rimpvere (rimupvere),70

Proscrivere, 105

Rincrescere,

Protpggere, 104

Ripr^ndere, 49
Riporre, no

Protrarre, 107
Provenire

(provvenire)

Provvedere,
Prudere, 159

20

Pungere (pugnere), 78
Raccpgliere,79
Radere,

131

Risalire, 126

Riscuptere,72
Risedere, 7
Risolvere, 75 and

Risprgere,90
Risppndere, in

Raggiungere, 78

Ritenere,

Rattenere,

Ritprcere,93
Ritrarre,107

10

Ravvedere,
Recidere,

20

34

Redimere, 87

10

Riuscire,

129

Rivalere,

16

Redire, 153

Rivedere, 20

Rpggere, 98

Rivenire, 137
Rivivere, 123

51

Reppllere,38
Reprimere, 64
Resistere,

119

Rivolere,
Rpdere,

53

Rpmpere,

Riandare,
Ricadere,

Salire,126

117

Richi^dere, 108
Riconpscere, 112
Ricprrere, t,^
2

Ridere, 52

Ridire, 133
Ridolere,

Rivplgere,95

Riaccpndere, 21

Ridare,

126

Ristare, 4

50

R^ndere,

113

13

Ridurre, 97

Rifdere, 160
Rifare, 3
68
Riflfttere,

Sapere, 9
Scadere,

Scfgliere(scerre),
79
Scendere,

54

Scindere,

71

Scipgliere(sciprre),
79
88
Sciplvere,
Scommettere,
Sconpscere,

61

112

Sconvplgere, 95
Scoprire,137

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

204

(ungere),

Ugnere

78

165

Vigere,

163

Urgere,

164

V"rtere,

Vilipfndere,
24

Uscire,
129

Vincere,
94

Vivere,
16

Valere,

124

Volere,

Vedere,

11
20

V^lgere

(v"rre),

V"llere

92

Venire,
132

(v^lvere),
95

EXERCISES.

I.

EXERCISE

(For

drill in

pronunciation.)

I. Vowels.

inni,bibita,indi,minimo, nimico; e: avere, me, e, averemo,


to have, me,
and, we shall
Hymns, draught, thence, least, enemy;
", fbbe, semto, l'anello;
consapevolmente, fidele; ": pssere,
have, consciously, faithful; to be, is, he had, I feel, the ring,
a:
amai, scale, l'Alamanna, l'ala;9: np, cpsa, to
amava,
amare,
loving,I loved, stairs, the German, the wing; no, thing,
love, I was
dolore, curipso, curiosita,
vi^ttola; p:
sprte, mpdo,
sp,
I know,
narrow
pain, curious, curiosity,
fate, manner,
way;
dopo, doveva; u: utile,punto, nulla,studiare,ultimo.
afterwards, I ought; useful, not at all,nothing, to study, last.
i:

II. Consonants.

nptte,
Pevere, b"ne, finire, mplto, npbile, tutto, temere,
noble, all, to
fear, night,
Pepper, well, to finish, much,
l'acca,
prometto, tedesco, dico, medico, dpsso, adornare, capo,
I say, doctor, back, to adorn, head, the
h,
I promise, German,
nocchiere,
caccia, accid"nte, bacchetta, bacchiata, npce,
blow
with
a
stick, walnut-tree, pilot,
hunt, accident, wand,
pagina, dugento, gente, castigo,
duchessa, arciduca, cip, pago,
archduke,
this, I pay, page, two hundred,
duchess,
ment,
people, punishcastighi,ghiaccio,casa, mese, rpsa, scpglio,scegliere,pascere,
rock, to choose, to graze,
rose,
punishments, ice, house, month,
raschiare, pesci, vpglio, paglia, gli specchi, magnifico, pgni,
the
mirrors, magnificent, every,
to
fish, I wish, straw,
scrape,
bagno, mfzzo,
bath, middle,

guizzare,z"lo,azzurro,
to

dart, zeal, blue,


III. Vowel

to

alzare.
lift.

Combinations.

Bupno, pi"de, maestoso, aria, chiama, causa.


Good; foot, majestic, air, he calls, cause.
IV.

Accent.

Calamita, calamita, metafora, metafprico,metallo, metallico.

Magnet, calamity, metaphor, metaphorical, metal,

metallic.
207

208

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

VOCABULARY

la
lo

piccolo,small, piccoli; piccola,


piccole
much,
pi. quanti,
quanto, how
how
(fern, quanta,
many

boy, pi.i ragazzi


pi.le ragazze
ragazza, the girl,
the
scolare,
pupil, pi. gli
scolari
la
scolare, le
(fern,
the

il ragazzo,

quante)

scolari)

gentleman (signor,
sir,Mr.) pi. i signori
la signora,the lady, pi.le signore
l'uomo, the man,
pi.gliu^mini
inglese,English,pi.inglesi(fern.
the same, cf. 109)
il signpre the

due,

siamo,

not

no,

si,yes

fssere,to be;

avere,

to have

io ho, I have

egli ha,

he

has

noi abbiamo,

are

we

hast

hai, thou

tu

art

egli ", he is
noi

["behold")

two

non,

am

tu sei, thou

(literally

are

e, and

io sono,

is,here

here

"cco,

voi siete,ye (you)


essi sono, they are

we

have

(you) have
essi hanno, they have

voi avete, ye

are

INTERROGATIVE.

ho

io?1

sono

sei

io?,etc.

tu?, etc.
NEGATIVE.

10

tu

non

io non

sono

ho, etc.

sei,etc.

non

(1) The

Remarks.
I

Sono.
Ha.

He

Non

hanno

pronouns

are

usually

not

expressed.3

am.

has.
i libri?

Haven't

they the books?


singular of these and all verbs

(2) The second person


(tu)is used
intimate
in addressing a near
friend, or a child, its
relative, an
in
relatives,friends, or children,
addressing two or more
plural,voi,
of
the
this
in
but
voi is
of Italy often extended
south
even
usage
to

ordinary
ha,3
1

and

Tu

strangers.
form

voi

of address

are

also

much

is the feminine

used

3d

in

poetry, but the


Lei ", Lei
or

sing.4,Ella

etc.
2

Cf. 72.
Cf. 91.

exercises,the

For

fuller

explanations see 87 and 88.


Only the third person singularwill be used
other forms
later.
being introduced

in the

first

EXERCISES.

209

EXERCISE

fJcco un
Si,"

libro

un

i tali

ani

libri itali

II

L'

libri.

hanno

Ipcco

scolare.
libri

non

it ali

Si,sono

ha

uomo

lo

ho

scolare,e

Ij)piccola la

ani

I tali

libro.

un

Lo

americana?

ragazza

e?

Lei, signor professor


1

For

Note

the

scolare

capitalization see

Here

English
(5)

he

and

The

(10) She

has

Is the

pupils. (12) The


books?
(14) Yes, I
(16)

pupil.

The

Italians

English

"

The

indicate

Omit.

Una-scolare

have

" piccolo.

ano

libri ha

libri.

have

Italian

two

(7) Yes,

are

books.

he

is

pupil

pupil? (9) Yes, she is a2


books.
(11) The boy and the

have

English books.

Italian

I tali
are

ah

books.

(17)

pupils.

they1

(3) They1

girl a

two

not

has

pupil?

the

Is

The

books.

have

(13)

(15)

(2)
have

men

(19)

Italians.

(22) They

books?

pupil

employed
to

Lei?

Are

(21)
Italian

the

Have

Have
am

(0

no3
men

the

books

and

books.

English
Note.

man

pupils

are

(20) Yes,

Italians?

book

men

(18) Yes, they1

books.

scolare

books.

boy

Italian

two

girl are
you

hanno

37.

two

are

American

(S)

book.

uno

III.

Here

(2)

(6)

pupil.

has

pupil.

book.

(4)

books.
is

He

is

"

non

scolari

"

itali

scolari

position of the adjective.

the

EXERCISE

(1)

Gli

Si," piccola. Quanti


libri.
Gli u9mini hanno

due

Ho

Gli

scolari.

sono

"

II ragazzo

No,

scolari.

due

Sono

ragazza

ani.

scolare?

uno

libri.

scolari.

sono

ragazza

o?1

an

americana2

ragazza

libri it ali

ha

i"cco

due

inglesi. La

La

libro, "

un

scolare.
Gl'

la

Ha

sono

ano.

ano

ragazzo

ani.

uno

itali

ani,

libro i tali

un

ragazza.

It ali

"

libro.

un

i t ali

sono

il ragazzo

scolare.

ha

Ipcco una

o.

No,

inglesi,il ragazzo

libri
uno

an

Americana,1
ha

II ragazzo

ragazzo.

II.

in

should

in

Italian,

the

writing
the

not

use

only accents,

diacritical

signs

used

pronunciation.

taking
In translating arrange
"

the

logical gender.

words

in order

as

etc.,

numbered.

in

monly
com-

this

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

2IO

VOCABULARY.
Note.

beginning

Before

"

of

present indicative

show, point" (68).

"to

strare,
Like

change its form either in fern.


in pi.)
or
destro, right,destri; fern, destra,

mostrare:

salutare,

dimorare,

good-

say

to

destre

live,dwell

to

altro, other, altri; fern, altra,

like,love

to

are,

salute,

to

morning
am

verb

model

the

pupil should learn the


of the first conjugation, mo-

guardare, to look
il giorno,the day

altre

at

mprto, dead, morti; fern, morta,


morte

bupno, good
bupn1 giorno, good-day,

good-

mplto, much,

morning
il

the

il fhime, the

country, i paesi
river,i fhimi

1' indice, the

index

[belle
utile, useful, pi. utili (fern,like

king
the

il paese,

pcchio,the

eye,

the

la mano,

masc.)
Emmanuel

Chiara, Clara

le mani

Italia, Italy

la tavola,

the

mio, my,

mine, miei;

Victor

Emmanu"le,

Vittprio

finger
glipcchi

hand,

mplta, molte

terzo, third

picture,portrait

il ritratto, the

molti,

bel,1bello, beautiful; fern, bella,

teacher

master,

much,

very

fern,

many;

maestro,

il re, the

the

IV

Exercise

table, le tavole

1'

fern, mia,

Eurppa (fern.)

il Tevere,

the

Tiber

dove, where

mie

loro, their, theirs

(does

da, with,

not

at the

of,among

house

lCf. 115.
EXERCISE

il mio

tavola.

libro.

no.

Dove

il libro

paese.
1' Italia.

altro libro.

un

il

ritratto

un

^ mprto

I.1

dimpra

nella

Si, guardo
Ecco

Emmanuele

il libro

Ho

coll' indice

Ecco

mafstro.
it alia

i loro

Hanno

il libro

Mostro

libro, Carlo

giorno, signpre

Bupn

maestro!

giorno,signor

"cco

scolari.

i miei

Saluto

IV.

d' Italia?

re

II Tevere

Dimpra

il

"

un

Dante

flume

re

libri ?

della

cogliocchi.
un

Vittprio
Dimpra

il libro

no,

Emmanuele?

in

Np,

Italia.
Ama
Dante

sulla

"

il

Guarda
del

"

della ragazza.

dell' Italia.

in Italia?

"

it alia

re

i libri.

II libro

destra.

mano

Buon

signori.

Si, abbiamo

destra.

mano

Ipil libro
d'

del

signor
libro

un

Vittprio

re

Si, ^ mprto.
L'ltalia

1' Italia?

" mprto.

bel

un

Si, amo
E

la

ITALIAN

212

GRAMMAR.

EXERCISE

dell'

Hanno

Francesi.

libri

dei

vi

Non

del

degl'Italiani

gli scolari?

sulla

delle

gran

"

spno

America

le

calamaio

gli

per

lapis,

ma

i,

an
e

dei

italiani?

dell'
Non

Dante

inchigstro
lapis

hanno

Sono

penne.

Si,

del

Qpere

con

scolari.

non

degl'

sono

I tali

dei Tedeschi

libri

Sono

un

Vi
molti

anc'he

sono

dell' emisfero

paese
paese.

vi

Si,
Vi

tavola.

penne

dei

Si, hanno

un

in

vi

Si,

cosa?

anche

Ho

dentro.

"

npbili.

gP

America,

Nord?

Italiani

italiani

altra

in

Nord

del

nell' America

sono

"cco

siamo

No,

L' America

9vest.

Italiani
Vi

Italia?

in

Siamo

VI.

Italiani

American
Hanno
dei libri italiani,
i.
No, sono
gli scolari?
della carta e dell' inchipstro. Io sono
e anche
degl'inglesi,:Hanno
il ma"stro.
II padre del ragazzo
col libro inglese" anche
maestro,
il
|pun buon maestro di lingua francese.
Insegna
francese,lingua
Ha
bella e molto music
ale.
scolari?
degli
Si,ha degli scolari
ha scolari italiani.
Non
non
americani,
" a scuola adesso, "
a

casa.

1="some

English
it"j

EXERCISE

(i)
paper

Have
and

he

any

ink?

some

(4) I have some


Dante
(6) Was

books.

poet.

VII.

(2) No,
pencils. (3) I have

you

Italian

of the
a

ones."

some

He

ink;

books

too,

of Dante.

works

Frenchman?

(8)

no1

I have

(7) No, he

lived

in

I have

some

Italian

some

(5)

Dante

was

an

was

Italian;

Florence.

(9) Florence
is a city of Italy. (10) It is in Tuscany, a
province of Italy.
Tuscan.
was
a
a
(11) Dante
(12) He was
politician. (13) He
speaks as2 a2 poet and as2 a2 politician. (14) tie speaks for Italy.
(15) Italyspeaks with the mouth of Dante.
(16) They3 say3 that3
an

was

Dante

not

was
1
2

="I

noble.

have

Cf. 49

poet.

not

(3).

ink"

"

placing "not"
3

before

"have".

Si dice che.

VOCABULARY.
il

piede,the foot

il leone, the

lion

il mare,

sea,

the

il fratello,the
il

la

the directress
direttrice,

la maestra,
ocean

brother

direttore,the director

V "ssere,

the mistress, teacher

the

being

V insetto,the insect
V autore, the author

EXERCISES.

la

la

la

le

spagnuolo, Spanish
cinque, five
for, since
poichfc,

sponge
le ali

the bee

1' ape

lunga,

lunghi;

human

umano,

settimana, the week

wing,

our

lungo, long,
lunghe

lesson

the

sue

sua.

corto, short

lavagna, the blackboard, slate


matita, the pencil,crayon

1 ala, the

la

nostro,

the bench

la spugna,

his, her, suoi, fan.

suo

seat

la lezione, the
la

mountain

the

the
s"?dia,

la panca,
la

questo, this

pittura,1the picture

la montagna,

213

like, as

come,

study
danno, they give (from dare, irr.)

studiare,

regina,the queen
Alpe (or Alpi) the Alps
,

to

tutto, all
1

Cf.

Remark

ure, and

38,

VIII.

EXERCISE
Sulla

mia

vi

tavola

grossi e piccoli,italiani,inglesi,

libri

sono

(c).

Lo
"cco un libro di Shakespeare.
francesi,spagnuoli, e tedeschi.
V Ari9sto sono
e
autpri
autore
inglese, Dante
Shakespeare " un
Tutti
E il Goethe?
italiani.
questi autori
" un autore tedesco.
sono

fa

si.

mo

ritratti di

Dante

ritratto

un

dell' Ariosto?

scuQle in questo edificio.


panche, tavole e lavagne. Vi
matite

una

scolari

diligenti1

Hanno

anche

Hanno

una

delle
corta

Vi

spugna.

stiidiano.
lezioni

lezione

libri.
una

Studiano
delle

geografia.

Dove

vi

delle

una

nei

lezipni di
Hanno

dei

calamai.

lezione

sono

sedie,

sono
e

penne

sono

scupla, vi

scuola

" dell' inchiostro

inglesi e
di

in

nostra

anche

sono

nei

anche

Ha

Shakespeare.

Siamo
Nella

molte

delle

dello

Si, sono

scupla, sulla tavola.

Nella

libri?

]"cco

lapis,
Gli

italiana.

geografia.
cinque lezioni

la settimana.
1

Observe

the

positionof

EXERCISE

the

adjective.

IX.

in1 it1.
classrooms
are
(2) There
(1) Here is our school.
many
(4) There are a great many
(3) The scholars have Italian books.
school.
of the
directress
and
the
director
tables.
are
(5) Here
(7) The
girl on the
(6) They give the lessons to the scholars.
also
is diligent.
two
bench
(S) The
boys, her brothers, are
diligent.
(9) They have long English lessons and short Italian
lessons.
(10) Here are pictures of two kings of Italy, (n) Here

ITALIAN

214
is

picture

of

the

of the

(12)

Alps.

(13)

week.

GRAMMAR.

The

scholars

in school

are

five

days

mistresses)2

also.

(3)

(2)
The

teachers

(1)

(masters

and

girls2have desks,3pencils,pens, books, paper,


and
ink.
(15) They are4 studying4 geography.
(16) Geography
speaks of continents,countries, oceans,
rivers,mountains,
and
cities.
lion
speaks of animals.
(17) Zoology
(18) The
mals.
is the king of ani
like human
(19) For animals,
beings,
have
have
not
kings. (20) Bees
kings. (21) Bees are
queens,
(22) Bees have
insects, but insects are animals.
wings, men
(14)

The

have

feet.

and

boys

Omit.

Cf.

46.

they study"

Tavole.

sttidiano.

"

VOCABULARY.
il

la

prontincia,the pronunciation
la guancia, the cheek, le guance
the shoe
la Scarpa,
[period
susuperiore, superior, upper,

polso,the pulse
the

mfdici
il singolare,the singular
il plurale,the plural
il

mfdico,

il nome,
il

the

doctor,

the thumb
ppllice,

1'

ring-finger

duke,

monarch,

the

the
figliuolo,

little

irregolare,irregular,irregolari
difficili
difficile,
difficult,

mo-

dabbe, ne, the

V inimico, the

enemy,
1' ucc^llo,the bird
1' "st, the

povero,

of

the
(lit.

forte, strong, forti

son

good man
man
good)
the
friend,
amico,
gliamici

1' uomo

roseo,

gl'inamici

rosy,

unghia, the nail, le unghie


the leg
la gamba,

extremity,

suna,

le

exception,1' ec-

cezioni
P "rre, the "r", V
la rfgola, the rule

"rri

rosei;

rosea,

rosee

no,

nessuni;

none,

nes-

nessune

savio, wise, savi; savia, savie

estremita

the

p"?vera,

antico, ancient, antichi; antica,

nessuno,

the

p9veri;

antiche

1'

V eccezione,

poor,

p9vere

east

1' estremita,

attaccare)

sinistre

narchi
il

(p. part.

sinistro, left, sinistri; sinistra,

i duchi

Egiziano, the Egyptian

il monarca,

of

attaccati;

attaccate

attaccata,

the

il dito annulare,
il duco, the

attached,

attaccato,

name

tastare, feel

(first
conj.)
imparare, to learn (first
conj.)
vedono
vede, you see, pi.
(from
to
vedere,
see, irr.)
si unisce, is united

itself"),from

(lit."unites

unire

EXERCISES.
done

fatto, made,

of

(p. part,

always

se,mpre,

fare)

tre. three

had

(p. part, of avere)


(p.part, of l^ggere)
mostri, show
(imperative of moavuto,

215

[narily
usually, ordi-

ordinariarmente,

lftto,read

quale, what
di, of

strare)

cio". that

is,that

is to say

qualche volta, sometimes


often

spesso,

non

Vedono
le

la mano?

al

braccia,

braccio

col

del

colle

membra

Io

polso del

I"cco le unghie.
il pgllice. Quanti pglliciha?
il

plurale di labbro.

Sono

eccezipni.

difficili. 5
dell'
1

Le

Hanno

tastano

cplle dita della

ordimano

" all'estremita
dita.

Mpstri

gli ucce,llile dita?

Quale
vero?
Dite
irregolare,non
"
irregolare. E il plurale di due a?

nome

un

anche

rfgole
la

sinistro

si unisce

mano

mfdici lo

sono

attaccate

sono

La

dita?

hanno

eccezioni.
dell'

proniincia

L'

italiano?

eccezioni
La

sono

pronuncia

| difficile.

erre

the

Really

third

plural of

person
to

persons

of

one

the

whom

Used

verb.
third

the

in addressing

person

singular

used.

be

would

"

difficile

several

singolare di dita?

gambe

unghia (pi.le unghie)


delle
Impariamo2 i nomi

dito.

il

cinque

le

mani

gambe.

polso.

braccio

Le

Le

L'

unghie.

alle

il

tasto

superiori,e

forti.

sono

attaccati

pie,di
il

II dito anulare?

braccia

sono

Tasto

de,stra. Non

Le

polso.

nariamente.

le

Sono

inferiori.

membra

alle

X.

II braccio?

le braccia?

true

than

piu...di,more...
EXERCISE

Vedono1

is not

vero,

Means

as

wTell "let

learn"

us

as

"we

EXERCISE

learn ".

XI.
(2)

(1)

are
(1) Oxen
strong. (2) They have
large bones.
(3) Oxen
but men
are
are
more
stronger1 than men,
intelligentthan oxen.
are
made
(4) Many animals
(5) Men have sometimes
very strong.
(6) The ancient
gods of animals.
Egyptians made
gods of bulls

of

and

birds.

(8)

Do

is

friend

is poor.
two

see

you

the

of my

man

and

cheeks.

ancient
with

father's.

(12) Parsons

the

Greeks

large book

(10) He
often

had

has

had

on

hundreds
his knees?
two

wives.

of

gods.
(9) He

(11) He

(13) His little son has not


(14) But he is a good man.
(15) He has no2
he has
friends.
His
little
(16)
daughter3 has
many
(17) Kings are
not
always good men, are
they?4

pairs of shoes.

enemies
rosy

(7) The

are

poor.

2l6

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

monarchs

(18) No,
5

about

are

always good
That

men?

wise

three

the

not

(19)

men.

is to

the

say,

Have

three

you

kings

read

of the

East.6
1

from

Construct
the

(with art.).

forti di

Piu

word

the

given

Non
for

nessuni.

ha

son"

"little

by changing

ending.

it

="is

true?"

not

="of."

Cf. 62, Remark

1.

VOCABULARY.

rising,sunrise (the

il collo, the

neck

quickly
lentamente, slowly
gladly
volenti^ri,
davvero, indeed, truly
altre volte, formerly

the

dog

fino a,

il levare, the

infinitive used

il cane,
il

tive,
substan-

sun

coraggio,the

courage

the

il sentimento,

Torino,

(a) (2))

cf. 51
il sole, the

as

sentiment

Turin

Spagna, Spain
la porta, the door, gate
la

the

la svoltata,
la

strada, the

la via, the
la spesa,
la

the

essa,

soon,

far as, until

as

insi^me, together
to counsel
consigliare,
pensare,

to

think

sperare,

to

hope
lack

to

mancare,

to accompany

accompagnare,

sob

singhiozzare,to

road

cost

the tranquillity
tranquillita,

noi, we,

se,

street-

street

way,

la vita, the

me,

turn,

[corner

subito,

life

us

gettare, to throw, cast


restare, to remain, stay
tornare,

return

to

picchiare,to

knock

dimenticare,

to

passeggiare,to

she

mi, me, myself


himself, herself,itself

forget
walk

viaggiare,to travel
chiamare,

call

to

meet

giovane, young

incontrare,

oggi,to-day

lasciare, to leave, let

il mercoledi,

quando,

Wednesday

when

benchfc, although

subjunctive)
cosi, so, thus
perp,

but, however

fra, within,

to

(followed by

to

complain
stare, to be (of health),3d pers.
sing.ind. pres. sta, pi. stanno
risppndere, to reply (irr.pret.
risposi)
piangere,to weep

lamentarsi,1

abborrire,

to

to

abhor

EXERCISES.

sentire, to feel

aprire,to open
dire,

to

(irr.pret. dissi, I

say

217

capire, to understand

said)

tossire, to cough

flnire,to finish
1

un'

Mancava

alia porta.

in

Chiamerp

la

Cf. 96 and

XII.

quando partii. Mia


Io, singhiozzando, le 2 gettai le

che

mostra

seggiavo

la

Ma

Io

fra

braccia

restava

ma

me,

Coraggio!

Incontrai

alia

un

Picchierp?

porta.

no, dicevo

parti subito!

la via.

per

la

madre

te! Comin-

con

parlare.

casa,

Ma

aprire?

di

temeva

s"i upmo,

amico.5

mio

parto! Resterp

guardare

ad

lentamente

Npn

102.

del sole

lei,e

istrada

mamma

stare,

strada

anche

piangere

momento

lascia

levar

dissi: No, mamma!

a3

ciava

al

pra

accompagnp

al collo

was

Si is the reflexive pronoun.

EXERCISE

mM

"ra,

svoltata

d'

mi

np,
pasuna

domandp, partite? Si,


risposi, parto per la Spagna. Capisco, ma
perch" npn siete condi
le grandi
temessi
tfnto
partire? Viaggerei sfmpre
io, se non
un

"

come,

"

spese.

Lascerfi pggi

quando

vi

p"nso

la

adesso

finisco

sfnto, perp, sfmpre


d' allpra. Abbprro
Perdiamo

Cosi,non

for mi

M'
Le
For

lamentarmi.

senza

dire7:

per

Capisco

il momento

Com'

in casa,

before

E mi

bino
del bam-

al collo

the

of

use

benche

vowel.

="

partire.

davvero,

sciocco!

ero

i sentimenti

ancora

del

"

a
consiglier^i
viaggiassimplto quando e,ra gipvane.
mplto tutti,perd"ndo la tranquillitadella vita di casa.
viaggiamo piu!

tutti di restare

casa,

lo stesso!

"

"

"

around
and

her

neck".

di before

Cf. 98 (2).

dependent infinitive cf.

211

(2),

(1).

212
4
5

for strada

Istrada
"A

friend

because

of mine."

ORAL

(1) Quanto

tempo

mancava

ragazzo?
(2) Chi V accompagnp

(3)

Che

(4)

Ha

(5)

Perche

cpsa

faceva

preceded by

alia

"Of

Cf. 36

in.
7

it."

al

levar

del

sole

pprta?

part^ndo, e

che

cpsa

diceva?

np?

(7) Cpsa

ancora

voleva

qualche tempo

fare?

Bv

(b).
saving."
'""

EXERCISE.

parlato la mamma?

(6) Restava

"

Cpsa diceva

in istrada?
fra se1?

quando

parti il

218

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

(8) Chi incontrp


(9) Che domandp

(10)

Che

(n)

Perche

dove?

amico?

risppse2

cosa

npn

parte

?
1' amico

per la

Spagna?
viaggiare?

Lei la casa
per
(12) Lascerebbe
le grandi spese?
(13) Teme
del
(14) Capisce i sentimenti
del partire?
moment
o
(15) Ha viaggiato mplto?
volentieri?
(16) Viaggerebbe ancpra

ragazzo?

Abborrisce

il

Viaggerebbe volentiericon

me?

(17) Quando
1

="to

From

partiremo?
himself."

risppndere preteritethird
XIII.

EXERCISE

(2)

sunrise.

before

hour

singular.

person

"

sleep well, and so I


knocked.
hear
when
did not
(3) Who
accompanied you ! to
you
the house?
(5) Oh, I
(4) Your brother; he2 travelled with me.3
him13
in Turin, did4 you4 not4?
You
met
understand.
(6) When
Turin?
did you5 leave
(7) I left6 Turin yesterday,but I left home
2
(8) I hope that you will stay with us a 2 long 7
on
Wednesday.
time.
(9) I shall stay a week, then I shall travel as far as Rome.
to us.
(11) Do not
(10) Let us hope, then, that you will return
(12) I shall not forget. (13) I shall show
forget your friends.
and
you8 that I do not forget. (14) Let us speak of your mother
of your
(15) Yes, they are well.
brothers;are they well?
(16) My
9
well.
but she feels
mother
(17) Shall we take 10 a 10
coughs a little,
walk10
together? (18) Yes, I will gladly take a walk.
(19) My
will accompany
is a
us.11
brother
(20) There
dog; do not be
of2 him.13
afraid12
(21) I am not afraid of him.
(22) My sister
she does15 not
fear them.16
used14 to be afraid14 of dogs, but now
shall not
to the house
now.
(24) We
(23) Let us return
go out
any2 more
to-day.
(1)

It is still an

T'

Use

second

Use

partirefollowed

before

Supply

person

si before

12

="

fear."

14

="

feared

lb

="

fears

verb.

Omit.

formerly."

"

10

verb.

more."

Is it not

="

plural preterite.
7
much."
by di.
13

no

Me.

Use

="

walk."

Lp before

Ti before

Ci before

verb.

imperfect.
16

Li before

true?"

verb.

verb.

verb.

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

220

e
dagli altri due trhimviri
agli estremi, fu da Ottavio
dei soldati
condotta
una
col9nia militare a Firenze, e a ciascuno
5
Essendo
numerosi
porzione di terreno.
venne
assegnata una
stibito molto
piu grande. Vi spno
questi coloni la citta 9 divenuta
molte traccie delle edificazioni del periodo. Cost nel lupgo
ancora

"ra

romana

dei Peruzzi
v' era
un
e
piazzettedi San Simone
anfiteatro
o
an
r o m
Firenze,fin dai primi tempi, ebbe molti diritti,
di dipendemza assoluta da Roma, e le C9se di
stato
"ra pen) in uno
in
male.
Fu alia m9rte dell' imperatore Teodosio
andavano
Roma
fra i su9i due
diviso
che V imp^ro venne
figli. Fir"nze "ra
395
dove fu signore Onorio.
della parte Occidentale
naturalmente
dove

9ggi

le

sono

city of ours."
4
Read
hold it as certain that."
"We
quaranta.
Third person
singularpreteriteindicative of venire.

Cf. 36.

dear

"This

ORAL

Cf. 251.
Cf. 81

EXERCISE.

citta antica Firenze?


(1) % una
(2) Che C9sa va perd"ndo?
(3) ^ interessante la st9ria dell' origine di Fir"nze?
a
Firenze
(5) Da chi fu condotta la col9nia militare
40

avanti

(6)

Ch'

Gesu

(b).

nell'

anno

Cristo?

"ra allora la condizione

i col9ni?
(7) I"rano numerosi
(8) " divenuta grande la citta

della

di

repubblica romana?

Firenze?

del periodo?
(9)
Dove?
(10) Vi "ra un anfiteatro romano?
(11) E*a indipend^nte la citta?
diviso 1' imp^ro romano?
(12) Quando venne
(13) Di che parte e,ra Firenze?
(14) Chi fu signore della parte occidentale?
la st9ria dell' origine della
i Fiorentini
(15) Dimenticheranno
Sonvi

ancora

traccie delle edificazioni

citta?

EXERCISE

XV.

l
the history
let us
talk about
(2) Then
sleepy? No!
of Florence.
(3) I should be2 very glad to listen.2 (4) I have
been in Florence
not
long,3 but I love it.4 (5) It is an old city,but
Columbus
old city when
it is changing5 very6 much.
an
(6) It was
7
a baby.
was
long history. (S) We should
(7) So it has had a very

(1)

have

Are

to

you

study

long time

(in order) to

(1)
know

(3)
its

(4)

(2)

historywell.

(9)

EXERCISKS.

Roman

colony

there

were

into

that the

but

that8

who
does

who

and

"

Etruscans

from

were

has

will

was

be, let

Florence?

Cambiandosi.

Omit.

We

have

the first colonists


of Fiesole

spoken

knows

Fiesole? (14)

(15) FJ"sole was,

but

"

And

Florence

hope!

us

time."

"much

city,and

in Florence

="of."

(13)

(u) Listen!
They emigrated

Romans,
Greece.

Etruscan

an

been

not

from

were

(10) But

Octavius.

by

not

were

Fiesole.

know

not

Florence

to

city who

Italy. (12),Fiesole

of Florence

is

the

in

men

It is believed

brought

was

221

="

L'

listen

gladly/'

before

rendering of

the

For

Molto.

verb.
"

is

"

cf. foregoingexercise.

Che.

VOCABULARY.
Io str"pito,the

noise

il genitore,the

parent

il

piacere,the

pleasure
as
piacere, a favor, please

per
il

qui, here
li,there

cugino,

the

la zia, the

volere,
I

cousin

la

the

favor;

grazie,
grace,
thanks
grazie,
quiet
tranquillo,
piccino,little,little child
tan to, such

a,

da,

thou)
giocare (giuocare) to play
rincrescere
(impersonal) to
,

at

be

to

good, quiet

(a person)

Parla

Lei?

No, parla lui.


Nemmeno

tanto

strfpito.

tu,

Carlino, vieni

"

cugino

ride

ridono

di se,

non

laugh

star(e) buono,

EXERCISE

amico

for

di,to be sorry

ridere, to laugh

either
.

be

sorry

ridere di, to

nor

to

vuoi

come

rincrescere

niente, nothing
nemmeno,

to

much

so

(irr.voglio,vuoi,
wishest)
(irr.vieni,come

thou

wish,

venire,

aunt

wish

to

venire

di te.

con

con

di
me?

me.

"

piacere che non voglio


E
Voi, bambini, state tranquilli!

zia, non
Non

fa

Si, si, vieni

Enrico, voglio giocare


saresti contento

di

loro

Dica

Cosi.

me.

No, no,

"

non

io.

XVI.

con

vederli1?

per

Starai
ride

buono

di

niente.

Io
tu.

lui.

Oh,

Mi

Essi

me!

anche
"

adesso

"

vado
Io

rincresce.2

"

ridono,

dalla

no,

cattivo!

tu?
ma

mamma,

vedo
E

II

li il mio
i

genitpri,

Ebbene,

venite

ITALIAN

222

voialtri

GRAMMAR.

buona, studierp
Grazie, signora,Lei " molto
di lpro.
lui
che " contento.
Vedete, piccini? $

"

io,senza

bene

adesso

"

Li

"

them"

="

"

sorry"

am

"

conjunctive form.
a
conjunctive form.
XVII.

EXERCISE
is

(2) It is they, not I; children,it


talking so much?
is you, isn't it?
Be
to study.
(3) You, Charlie!
quiet! I want
(4) Be quiet now,
please, you (=thou) and he and all of you!
(6) The two little girls are very
(5) He is quiet,and so is she.
but
good. (7) Yes, they are good
you! (8) Mrs. Baretti,where
I?
I
are
am
(9)
here; don't you see me1?
(10) We are all
you?
do you do?
And
here; talk with us.
(11) How
your brother, how
is he?
(12) I am
well, but he has been ill. (13) Oh you poor
were
thing2! (14) We
speaking of him yesterday, of you and of
for him.
him.
so
(15) I am
(16) Let us speak to them
sorry
about him.
They 3 will be so sorry too.
Who

(i)

"

Non

mi
3

vede

mi

"

Translate

being
'

'

them

to

conjunctive form.
"

Exercise

Cf

Omit.

XVI

VOCABULARY.
la voce,
ad

the voice

alta voce,

assicurare,

aloud

poco

well

(p9') little
,

gia,already

preso)
EXERCISE

Dov'

"

il libro?

excuse

"

but

ma,

assure

spiegare,to explain
dare, to give (irr.)
(a thing), (irr.
sapere, to know
I
so,
know)
potere, to be able (irr.posso, I
can,
puQ, he can)
piacere,to please (irr.and often
mi piace,
used impersonally
I like)
prfndere, to take (irr.p. part.

sight
a
sight
prima vista,at (first)
la lettura,the reading
V immagine, the picture,cut
interessante,interesting
solamente, only
ebbene, well, very
allora,then

to

scusare,

la vista,the

to

"

Eccolo.

"

Datemelo.

P9'. Oh, signor maestro, np!


Non
1' ho, letto. E perch^ no?
"

"

XVIII.

La
ne

"

prego

Grdzie!
di

I19 avuto

Ne

parleremo un
scusarmi, poich^ npn
il

tempo.

"

Ebbene,

EXERCISES.

^ccovene
non

altro

un

assicurarvi

p9sso

bene

l"ggerload

farebbe

alta

anche

sia

interessante.

leggeremo

Lp

di poterne

cont^nto

sono

" piu facile,solamente,


che

vista.

gerlo a prima
Come

che

223

voce,
lui.

capire

allora

Ma

insi^me
molto

avendolo

non

S9 che

ve

da

me

lo

potrete Ifg-

spieghierp.
"

solo!

fratello

vpstro

letto,

Vi

fara

1' ascoltera.

Gli

"

la lettura ad alta voce


farp volentieri,
mi
Non
Le piace, signorina? Si, signore,mi
piace molto.
piace
Nostanto, e ne farp la mia parte. Avete visto le b$lle immagini?
signpre.1 Allora guardatele. Esse spno davvero
bflle. Mostratele
anche
ad Ernesto. Non
" qui? Chiamalo, Carlo, per piacere.
Ma
ad"sso dpv' ^ il libro. Dammelo, ti prego, glielo
Oh, eccolo!
mostrer^.

b"ne

"

Lo

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

for np

Frequently used
EXERCISE

(1)

Show

me

him

say:

hands.

(2)

XIX.
Here1

they

(3)

are.

Show

them

showing them to you.


(4) Take the book.
(5) I have taken it. (6) Give it to them.
(7) They are showing
him
have
the
them.
already seen
pictures. (8) We
(9) Show
them
to me.
(10) I have seen
them, and I shall show them to him
them
and
to her.
to them
at once.
(11) I will show
(12) Show
it.
me
some.
(14) I have not seen
talking about
(13) We were
it. I told her so, but she would2
him.
listen to
not
(15) I knew
them
seen
me.
(16) Have
to-day? (17) Yes, and I have
you
(18) I have talked to her about it,but it does not
spoken to them.
please her.
to

and

your

signore.

Use

am

"cco.

Cf. 82.

VOCABULARY.
la

grandfather
the
il nippte,
grandson
the
il gusto,
pleasure,delight
the

il npnno,

il
in
il
in

the

manner,

mpdo

da,

in such

fpndo,

the

bottom

mpdo,

the

way

la carezza,

manner

la

as

the

tiratina,

1' assenza,

the

1' arditezza, the

the

course

certo, certain

[scolding

caress

contention,

absence
boldness

respectful
rispettpso,

study

the evening
la cpsa, the thing, matter,

demand

the

heart

lo studio, the

mild-

ness

la domanda,

at

fpndo,

il cprso,

dolcezza, the sweetness,

la sera,

rosso,

affair

matto,

red

mad,

immoderate

ITALIAN

224

GRAMMAR.

lively

vispo, merry,

the

stesso, same,

liberare,to

very

affinche, that, in order

that

mai,

"

pra,

seek
free

observe,

to

osservare,

to apply
applicarsi,

never

contentarsi,to

now

allentare,

loosen

to

contrariare,

to

accomiatarsi,

lower,

to

sbacciuccare,
to
ripigliare,

to kiss

down

cast

self

one's

take

to

leave

part, interrotto)
proseguire, to continue
p.

repeatedly

to repent
pentirsi,

resume

EXERCISE
la vpstra assenza-disse

Durante

content

self

stringere,to press, draw close


fingere,to feign
interrpmpere,to interrupt (irr.

vex

saltare,to jump
esclamare, to exclaim
abbassare,

one's

become

farsi,to

to throw

buttare,

notice

crollare, to shake

durante, during
npn

to

cercare,

XX.
il npnno

ai tre

gipvani-parlerp io

pp' di cpse fiorentine a' npstri ragazzi. 0 che se ne ricprda Lei


di certi studj? domandp
Adolfino
arditezza
con
rispettpsa:
poco
II npnno
abbasso
glipcchi' si fece un pp' rosso e disse con dolcezza
ad Adolfo,il quale gia s' era
inconsiderata.
pentitodella sua domanda
me
ne
meno
ricprdo. Ai miei tempi si studiavano
Si,figliuplo,
cpse,
ma
quelle ppche s' imparavano bene, in mpdo da npn dimenticarle
mai
piu. Oh, frano altri tempi quelli! Ora
Ppvero signor Leoppldo! Npn gli fu possibile
proseguire la
tiratina.
Adolfo
saltato
sulle ginpcchia, gli aveva
sua
gli era
un

"

"

le braccia

buttate
stato

gusto

da

cpllo e
II npnno

bambino.

un

di liberarsi
un

al

quellecarezze

matto,

del

lo sbaciucchiava

se

fingendo d'
tumultupse;

si sarebbe

ben

esser

guardato

tutto,

come

fosse

se

contrariato, cercava
in fpndo ci aveva
ma
di allentare

le braccia

disse il signor
di vpi
vispo nipotino. ^Se il npnno sara1 contento
i
" mplto p r o b a b 1 e ch' io vi faccia venir
Leone, accomiatandosi
da me
Oh
a
paio di giprni. Torneremo
Firfnze insieme.
per un
J
esclamarono
al
oh
bene!
i
due
strettisi
e
lp
bene,
fanciulli,
npnno,
di
la
il
versazioni,
sera
stessa
affinch^
ripigliasse cprso
quelle conpregarono
"

"

"

"

"

cosi presto interrotto.


1

'

'

having pressedup close

to

' '

02.

Cf. 229.
EXERCISE

(1)
(2)

Cf
of stringersi.
,past participle

"

"

Oh

XXI.

another) about the affairs of Florence."


(to one
to one
another)
yes, grandfather,let us talk together (i.e.,

Let

us

talk

EXERCISES.

studied

do

(3) "Well, boys,

them."

about

Florentine

about

history?

225
remember

you

"

(4)

"

We

what

do

you

remember

not

have
it as

do,1grandfather ", said little Adolph. (5) " I have noticed that ",
rather
said
their
red.
grandfather. (6) Adolph
(7) He
grew
(8) More things are studied now", said he.
repented his remark.
shook
his head.
(10) But Adolph jumped on his
(9) The old man
you

"

knees

and

himself

threw

from

pleasure

those

Mr.

apply

is

Leo

ourselves
2

back."

(13)

with

Well

taking leave, let


to

the

Omit.

he

But

old

study
things

of

(14)

us

go

be

"when

Let

with

us

"

let

go

him."

Florentine

cannot

Translate

"

(15)

in

shall

we

us

away
"

history when
done

freed

man

really took

", said the grandfather,


have."

we

(11) The

(12)

caresses.

"

what

"These

(16)

his neck.

about

arms

stormy

them.

in

ourselves
since

his

great
tent
con-

now;
will

We
we

come

moment."

back."

come

VOCABULARY

the

il danno,

cost

p9polo,the

people,nation,

il potere, the

race

power

caso.

unlawful
illegale,

barbaro, barbarous, barbarian

il

famigliare, the

case

mate
familiar, inti-

friend

il verso,
il

the

invader

il Franco,

[age

mind, heart,

cour-

the

the

Longobard

Frank

1a

gente, the

la

signoria,the rule, lordship

la

race,

nation

salvatichezza, the

wildness,

rudeness

la

pieta,the piety
grandezza, the greatness
vivacita, the vivacity

la

violfnza,

la
la

vfrso,

subito,

towards
soon,

solo, alone,

verse

Longobardo,

analogo, analogous
sfortunato, unfortunate

1' invasore, the


the

Germany

restio, restive

il

V animo,

arms

la Germania,

scellerato, wicked

kingdom
il veleno, the poison
il sogge,tto, the subject
the

fall

the

br"ve, brief, short

the

il regno,

la caduta,
le armi,

fact

il fatto, the
il

damage, loss,

the violence

quickly
only

prima, at first
indi, afterward, from

there

(or come) out


cade*re, to fall (irr.p. part, caduto, pret. caddi, etc.)
tggliere (torre),to take, take
uscire,

away,

to

go

to carry

distruggere,to

off

or

away

destroy (irr. p.

part, distrutto)
ammansirsi,

to

grow

mild

226

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

to

fermarsi,

stop

to

passare,

lodare,

pass

"rano

Longobardi,

gente pagan

Guidati

superiore dell'
di Lombard!
verso

rispose il

"

dal loro f

la

eroce

to

guide

fondare,

to

found

XXII.

npnno?

caro

usciti1 dalla

bugn vf cchio,

Alboino,

re

Adolfo.

domandg

"

"

si fermarono

che

fatto

ha

Firenze.

che
Ma

in

parte

gran

breve

fu

cadde

dello

il regno
si narra,

da

nella
il

conservato

subito

|prano

"

Pannonia.

prima

Italia,
per questo
e
indi, passati gli Appennini,
a;

Toscana,

Presere

tell

praise

to

guidare,

EXERCISE
Chi

narrate,

intitolare,to entitle,call

keep

to

conservare,

to

narrare,

approach

avvicinarsi,
to

self

one's

arrichirsi,to enrich

parte
nome

si avvicinarono
in

loro

potere.

scellerato

Alboino;
famigliare, lo

veleno, datogli,
contenta!
dopo soli cinque anni di signoria. Ne sono
la feroce salvaticol tempo
s' ammansi
esclam.9 V Adalgisa. Ma
lodati per pieta,valore
re
e
dei Longobardi ed ebbero
chezza
granle
cadde
armi
dei
La loro dominazione
d' animo.
dezza
per
Franchi,
molta
vivacita
altri pQpoli barbari
domandc? con
Scusi, n9nno,
i Franchi
Adolfino
avevano
so
non
Carlomagno,
per re il fa mo
un
esclam9 V Adalgisa, divenendo
figliodel re Pipino? E, nQnno
Manzoni
intitolata
la
bella
tragfdia di Alessandro
P9' rossa
dei Longobardi, non
Si.
hi parla della caduta
A dele
" vero?
Oh i bei versi!
Oh la bella tragfdia,n9nno!
poich^

il

come

tglsedi vita

un

suo

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

As

collective

gente

EXERCISE

may

take

"

plural modifier.

XXIII.

was
talking to his grandsons about the
(i) The good old man
attentive.
(2) They were
listening,they were1
Longobards.
of the wicked
(3) A large part of Italy had fallen into the power
drawn
beautiful
to
near
Tuscany,
(4) They had
Longobards.
dominion, being2 founded
(5) But their unlawful
upon
Tuscany.
(6) The Franks, a race come
destroyed by violence.
violence, was
from
from
into Italy.
times
France
forth in ancient
Germany, came
heathen
no
were
longer a
people. (8) They had
(7) The Franks
and
a
a
king.
very wise4
king called Charlemagne, a great3 man
of
restive
wild
his
ferocity
subjects. (10) The
(9) He tamed the
of Italy, but
called
the liberators
liberation
Franks
were
invasion
and in analogous cases, only a new
in this case
means,

228

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

fronto

tra

vero?

Ha

discprso

grandissimi upmini, tra


sentito 1' an^ddoto del
Sant'

su

miei, era un
grandissimo

santo,

gran

Ma

santo.

Ecco

Antonio

frate
il

San

sommi

discprso.

Pietro, cari

Sant' Antonio

ORAL

poeti,e difficile,
npn
faceva
predicatore che

wh

"

San

wh

II.

instincts.

generous

(3)
(4)

Emmanuel

And

he

(2)

indeed

was

fiuuiiiu!!

was

great man,

is often

He

a
"

called

honorable

more

certi santi?

XXV.

EXERCISE
Victor

EXERCISE.

(i) Chi " 1' autore della Divina Comm"dia?


(2) Ha scritto il Racine delle comm"die?
un
fampso autore tedesco.
(3) Nomini
(4) Chi I piu grande, il Goethe o il Racine?
(5) l" facile il confrpnto tra upmini grandissimi?
(6) Era facile pel frate predicatoreil confrpnto tra
(7) Raccpnti 1' anfddoto del suo discprso.

(1)

un

Paolo, fratelli
fratelli miei, era
un
.

"

than

good
the

man,

man

honorable

certain

of

king."
kings.

other

concerning the origin of his welland


d' Azeglio,a poet and a politician,
known
name.
(5) Massimo
of Spartan
a
man
character, had a profound affection for the
able
monarch.
one
(6) He remarked
day to the king: "Honoryoung
in the world."
(7) It would
kings have not been numerous
be beautiful to begin the series,
would
it not?
(S) Victor Emmanuel
than
was
(9) He
monarchs, but wiser than most.
younger
many
faith to the
he meant.
said more
than
never
(10) He had sworn
more
was
Statute, and his word
precious to him than gold, more
dear than power.
(12) The
(11) I shall keep my word," he said.
is the

Here

related

anecdote

"

word

of

word

was.

smaller

(13)

man

than

The

wisest

Victor
men

Emmanuel

is

precious

as

as

his

feel that.

XXVI.

EXERCISE

(For this and the following exercises no special vocabulary is


given. The pupil is expected to use the general vocabulary found
and
the table of irregularverbs, pp
of the book
at the end
198 and
sq.)
245
Roma,
Caro

marzo

ptto giprni
l^ttera 1' ho ricevuta
potuto nsppnderti presto perche mi spno fatto male alia
La

"cco

1900.

Carlo,

cpme.

tua

cara

II babbo

ha

un

cosi

bel

temperino,

mentre

fa.
mano.

che

Npn

hp
Ed

il mio

EXERCISES.

"

un

finalmente

1' ha

detto

ho

parecchie V9lte: Pap"


i miei
lapis. E
temperino, voglio aguzzare

il tuo

mio, prestami

Gli

orrore.

vero

un

orrore,

229

dato

mi

tagliatosubito 1' indice


Ma
II nostro
adesso
sta
della destra.1
quasi bene.
viaggio mi
ha fatto tanto
ai miei
piacere. Anche
genitori. La citta di Roma
mi piace moltissimo, coi suoi vecchi
palazzi,colle sue grandi vie e
me

in

mano

"

spno

"

bel sole sopra

suo

line

al

me,

Santita

Leone

carrozza

in

Campidoglio
XIII

potuto vederlo.
Altavilla
vostra.

da

Sua

letto.

Buona

il

condotti,

le sorel-

fu

che

detto

Sua

passeggiata in
precisamente la sua
naturalmente
abbiamo
non
sue
guardie ma
II signor
andati dai tuoi amici gliAltavilla.

re

Abbiamo

per

Ci ha

noi.

Anche

gentile.
parlato di te e
tanto

Ho

cugini?

Maesta

Ci

al Vaticano.

bupno

moglie "

i tuoi

visto

molto

Abbiamo

simpatici.
stanno

Siamo

stato

-Sua

"

ci ha

faceva

alle

mezzo

zio Andrea

Lo

tutto.

visto

tante

visto

belle

cose

che

figlimi

famiglia.

tua

abbiamo

ma

mia

casa

i loro

dei libri per loro.

comprato

Umberto,

della

detto

"

col

Non
la

ne

casa

spno

Come

abbiamo
camera

sua

stance

sono

notte!
II tuo

affmo.2

amico,
Enrico.

destra.

=mano

the ordinary Italian abbreviation.


affettionatissimo,

For

XXVII.

EXERCISE

little sister with him?


is your
brother?
(1) Where
(2) Is my
(3) I have lost my little sister. (4) Have
book, my pen,
you my
his
ing
lookand my
finger. (6) I am
pencils? (5) My friend has cut
for my
mother.
(7) Your parents are not here, they are with
is here, but I
hats ?
their friends.
are
our
(8) Where
(9) Mine
do not
see
(11) No, it is his.
(10) Is not this your hat?
yours.
and his wife.
His Excellency the Governor
seen
(12) I have
(13) I
of your
like her face.
(14) Is this one
(15) Yes, the two
dogs?
hand.
book
a
(16) Give me
(17) Have
dogs are mine.
you
your
under
arm?
(19) Thy
(18) Yes, but it is yours, not mine.
your
here.
friends
(feminine) are
XXVIII.

EXERCISE
II libro
ancora

altro
che

un

che

po\

cerchi
"

Non

servira,solamente
devo

avere

per

non

c'

".
"

Non

ne

sono

sicuro, lo cercher^

No, nessun
puoi1 adoperarne qualche altro?
quello li. Bisogna ben2 trovarlo, | quello
"

preparare

la mia

lezione.

Chi

1' ha

avuto

ITALIAN

230
1'ultimo?
a

cui lo

GRAMMAR.

quello che me
imprestastii"ri1'altro?
Sara3

1' avra3

fatto4 visita questa mattina.

ha

perduto. Chi " quell'amico


" il figliodella signora la quale ci

Avra3

"

mai

dimenticato

di

r^nderlo?

"

possibile,
glielodomanderp, e se " davvero lui che 1' ha,
sempre
Chi non
npn glieloimpresterp piu per un
p"zzo.
pe,nsa a r^ndere
dovrebbe5
non
non
pigliarin pr^stito. Ma guarda dalla finestra,
"
Ma
lui che vifne adesso?
Me
si,e col mio libro sotto il braccio.
se il libro perduto fosse
mio.
Buon
n? rallegroper te come
giorno,
Enrico, "ccoti il libro che mi hai imprestato. Te ne ringrazio e ti
di perdonarmi la mia
dimenticanza.
Avr"i6 dovuto8 riporprfgo
visita di mio cugino, il che m' ha
tartelo gia i"ri. Ma
una
hg avuto
ieri.
in casa
fatto restare
tutto
Non
Quale cugino "ra?
lp conosci
ch'
di
da
noi P anno
tu.
$ fratfllo quello
"ra
scorso, quello che
da
fui
Ma
cui
il cane
morso.
aveva
con
tutto cip "ra un
bel cane,
E
di
chi
parlando
quello,vero?
cani, di
" quello che ho visto nel
vostro
Mio
giardino? 5 mi"" n9n I v?r0 cn? I bello?
padre me
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

dato.7

1' ha
Vieni

con

le

Tutte
e

me

lo

che

cose

mi

vedremo, quel

da7

belle.

sono

cane!

Chi

vuol

Ha

gusto

vederlo

lui!

venga8

noi.

con

the
2

"Can

not"

you

"

second

irregularpotere.
must
really."
of probability
Future
(2).
Made", from fare.
"I ought to have."

B
8

present of

"I

"

229

singular indicative

person

"it

"

"Let

him

come."

See

venire

EXERCISE

(1) Who

is

have

must

"Ought

From

not

dare.

been

he

to

borrow.

See

who."

Cf.

"

tables.

in tables.

XXIX.

(2) It is I, Henry, and nobody else;1


did you
think
it was?
who
(3) I thought it was 2 my cousin whom
been
I have
expecting. (4) I am
glad to see you; I wanted3
to1
That5
boy who is in our class now.
speak to you about that new
(5)
thin?
one5 who
is so pale and
(6) Yes, that is the one.
(7) We
fortunate
than
ought6 to4 do something for him, we who are more
he.
speaking about him to my mother, and she
(8) My father was
his mother.
said she would
(9) He who does not think
go to7 see
does not deserve to8 be happy himself,
of others
of the misfortunes
it who
was
was
as
our
(10) Who
copy-book says.
asking you
yesterdayabout that other poor boy, the one with9 the ragged coat?
knocking?

EXERCISES.

(n)

said

John
noticed

has
1

="

3
7

coat, but

that

Voleva.

Use
6

Omit.
8

A.

had

nobody

other."

nobody

mia

siamo

mamma,

Rosina,

che

spero

nella

ragazzetta
sette

mente

molto

classe

terza

"

anni.

un
giovinotto,2

anche

uomo!

qui

molto

Oh

"

belle

tante

di

Naldo

li.

sei

Uomo+-ino
"You

Why

==

have

do

is

call

your

un

bambinticcio

v^glia d' imparare,


Ah
d' omino!1
"ria
che
capisco!
Oh
la giacchetta e i calzoncini.
fatto un
Lei si | dunque
sta?

chiasspne

"

ha

ma

dai del lei3?

mi

Perch^

mammetta!

"

young

lei,not

me

man

tu?

a' calzoncini.
e

ma

vero,
Naldinol

"

Non
sono

Vieni

(lit."have
See

yourself").

made

91.

XXXI.

EXERCISE

(1) Here
(2) Leave

piu

omino.

become

you

Tu

prossima-

avra

un

alia tua giacchetta e


Ma, carino, | per far onore
del papa,
i calzoncioni
cosi lunghi come
sono
abbastanza
lunghi per le tue gambette. Bravo
me
colla sorellina e con
per vedere gliuccelletti.

cara

Sulla
le

anc9ra

Si,

cosine!

studio, perfino

guardi
pietruzza
Ricciardetto
e
adesso,
che

vero

".

campagna?

che

piccino
E
adesso!
poverino. Eccolo
lp il primo giorno che indossa
Come
riverito,signor Rinaldo!
"

alia

arrivati

d' osservazione

piccole erbicelle,perfino

school

XXX.

impareremo
la

"of

"Translate

Di.

prpprio

meritevole

"

tutto

terra

the

of it.

spoken

ever

in

boy

subjunctive imperfect.
fi
Dovremmo.
Quel tale.

EXERCISE
Oh

(12) Every

it.

about

something

231

let
pretty-little-stream;
big-ugly-books!1 (3) The

us

walk

trees

on

are

the

bank.

getting-green.2

yesterday it
to-day! (5)
was
nasty-weather! (6) Are you pretty-well4to-day? (7) I am
(9) You are also rather(S) You are plump.
quite well,5thanks!
father.
will be a big-man, like your
(11) Here is
tall. (10) You
(13) He
pretty-little-dog.(12) He loves his little-master.
your
at the dear-little-flowers!
is afraid of the country-boy.8 (14) Look
is your little-dog? (16) He is running away,7 the
(15) But where
little-rascal!
poor(17) He is afraid of the peasant-boy's big-stick,
bad
road!
a
(19) Full of ugly-stones!
little-thing! (18) What
very-fast.8 (21) Call him, deariel
(20) The dog is running away
(4)

How3

beautiful

the

weather

is

And

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

2J2

(22)
(24)

will

He
Let

hear.
I0

rest

us

the

on

now

actio.

Bfne with

-ino.

Contadino

with

Omit

Use

"woman",

little-old- woman

The

(23)

(25)

short- grass

Translate

a-

am

are

Che.

one.
8

7Scappare.
using only the appropriate word
suffix.

diminutive

little tired.

greenish".

'

with

B"ne

bringing him.

is

Prestissimo.

from

formed

Vfcchio.
10

Reflexive.
VOCABULARY.
Pres

Infinitive.

dire,to

say,

uscire,1to

volere, to wish
1

piaciuto

parvi
parrQ
piacqui

uscito

uscii

voluto

volli

paruto

out

go

with

Compounds

"

All forms

required

or

parso

fssere.

XXXII.

EXERCISE
Note.

dissi

detto

seem

Future.

Preterite

Part.

Past

dicemdo

speak, tell

parere,1to appear,
piacere,1to please

Part.

are

to be

constructed

from

those

given

The
given in 179.
present participleand future when
not
given are regular.
(3) They have
gone
(1) He was
saying. (2) It1 pleases me.
out.
to me.
(6) Will you
(4) It had seemed
(5) They wished.2
out ?
(8) They said.
(9)
(7) Wishing and having wished.
go
(n) They might go out
(10) They would
They had said.
say.
(imperfect subjunctive)
(12) They appeared.2 (13) They would
out?
to
me.
they go
(15) Would
(14) It appears
appear.
wished3
it.
(18) They
(17) Did you say2 so?
(16) Pleasing me.
said
I
have
so.3
(21)
(20) It has pleased me.
(19) He will go out.
Would
it
to you?
(23) Did they wish it? (24)
(22) Does it seem
(imperfect subjunctive).
please you?
(25) It might please you
She
has
out.
to say it.
(27)
(26) They wished
gone

by

the

rules

Omit.

Express

in two

Signora Carniola, direttrice

centemente

p9vero
e

aveva

questo
bambino
fatto

fatto:

di 9U0
in

m9do

aveva

anni
di

='*I

have

said

it.'

XXXIII.

EXERCISE
La

ways.

con

di

visto
i

scu9la, mi

una

in

piedi

una

che

procurargliene

delle
uscivano

un

paio

raccontava
sue

classi

dalle
dal

reun

scarpe,

Patronato

EXERCISES.

scarpe,

rosso

trice,

commossa

II

soldi.

bambino

II

scolastico.

di

gioia, ringraziava

sul

i tacchi

batt^ndo

il

giorno dopo

bambino

pavimento,

quelli buoni

di

vie,na

ringraziare la

di biscotti. "Ma
si

il

bambino,

questo

la

gentilepensiejo

del

quale

dice

donna

ppvera

tutto

mano.

rive-

tante

con

di scarpe,

biscotti
la

"

madre

direttrice,
pacchetto

non

saperne

conffssa

rosso

due

cont^nto,
in

pacchettino

un

paio

del

la

b-scotti?":

il

interroga

del

ringraziare

che

con

tutto

pacchettino quattro
qualche giorno
Dopo

queste
la diret-

che

nel

direttrice

vuole

scherm^ndosi, la
nulla:

i canarini

per

Direzione

in

le manda

Signora direttrice,la mia madre


re,nze." La signora apre e trpva
"

ricevere

riconosc^nza, gli regalp

va
e

effusione

tanta

con

ingfnua

sua

Direzipne

in

chiamato

della

233

che

li

comprati lui con i due soldi della direttrice. Gli "ra parsa la
riconosce-nza:
non
di dimostrar
la sua
un
forma
fiore,
piiiadatta
i due
n| un' immagine, che avrejbbe pure potuto acquistare con
i biscottini,
che ess^ndo la cosa
piu desiderata per lui,gli
soldi,ma
E
dovesse
questa gentilezza
"sserlo anche
per la direttrice.
pareva
della madre, perche gli sembrava
voluto fare a nome
egli 1' aveva
aveva

"

piu importante di lui. Cosi


persona
iniziativa.
e al piacere della sua

partisseda una
rinunciato per l"iall' onore
ch'

m"glio
aveva

essa

EXERCISE

ORAL
V

(1

Chi raccontava

(2
(3

Che

eta

Era

cont"nto

(4

Come

d'

le

avere

Cosa

(8)

Ch'

"ra

Chi

aveva

(11

Con

che

nel

was

vifne

Quando

Perche

la madre

regalato
denari
ha

li

scelto

I will tell you

recently by
in

school

one

with

in

va

Direzione?

pacchettino?
e

perche?

i biscotti

the

of the
her1

an

feet

signora direttrice?
?

dei biscotti ?

XXXIV.

anecdote,

directress

classes

alia

comprati

aveva

EXERCISE

me

nupve?

b"lle scarpe

dice?

(9
(10

(1)

riconosc^nte?

il bambino?

aveva

ringiazipla direttrice?
essa?
Che cpsa gliregal"?
il giorno dopo quando
Cpsa ti^ne in mano

(5
(6
(7

(12

(quanti anni)

bambino

del ppvero

an^ddoto

coming

of

poor

if you

like.

(3)

school.

little

through

girl of
her

(2)

It is

She

said

six years

shoes.

(4)

fact told

that

who
The

came

there
to

teacher

ITALIAN

234

GRAMMAR.

to
(5) The child came
school a few
joy, clicking the heels of her1 new
flowers
the
shoes
on
carrying in her hand some
Catherine
of Sienna.
little picture of Saint
and
a
(7) She went
and made
her a present of them.2
into the directress' room
(8) This
show
her
to
gratitude. (9) The
appeared to her the best way

managed

picture
be

was

also

so

get her a pair of


days after red with
floor.
(6) She was

to

beautiful

to

the

the

them

too?

flowers.

How

Regalare

her

to

(11)

is this to

like

flowers

in

this

Exercises

takes

direct

De

Amicis'

that

it must

really more

were

beautiful

more

much;

very

object. Cf.

do

you

like

and

XXXVII,

Vlnfermigredi

Tata.

Exercise

XXXIII.

XXXV.

The

XXXVI,

flowers

be translated?

pupil will explain


extract,
referring to the

"

her

to

kindly thought

EXERCISE

Note.

the

But

the

picture,and

it seemed

and

(10)

directress.

the

than

than

beautiful

very

ones.

new

the

of the

use

prepositions found
above.

paragraphs
XXXVIII

are

an

This

and

adaptation of

{Cugre.)

vestito
da
un
giorno piovoso di marzo,
ragazzo
involto
e
un
infangato, con
campagnuolo, tutto inzuppato d' acqua
dell'
al portinaio
di panni sotto il braccio,si presentava
Ospedale dei
di suo
padre, presentando una
Pellegrinidi Napoli, e domandava
d'
viso
ovale
bruno
bel
un
un
lfttera. Aveva
p alii do, gli occhi
vedere
i
semiaperte, che lasciavan
pensierosi,e due grosse labbra
Veniva
da un
denti bianchissimi.
villaggiodei dintprni di Napoli.
lavoro
addietro
Suo padre, partito di casa
1' anno
a
cercar
per andare
in Italia e sbarcato
in Francia, era
tomato
pochi di prima a Napoli
fatto in tempo
improvvisamente, aveva
appena
dove, ammalatosi
il suo
arrivo
dirle
e
a
scrivere
un
rigo alia famiglia per annunziarle
di quella notizia,
che
all' ospedale. Sua
entrava
moglie desolata
inferma
bimba
di casa
e
una
non
perche aveva
potendo moversi
mandato
un
a
Napoli il figluolo maggiore, con
piccino, aveva
fatto
aveva
suo
padre. II ragazzo
qualche soldo, ad assistere
alia
occhiata
dieci
II portinaio, data
un'
miglia di cammino.
il ragazzo
infermiere
e
gli disse che condusse1
l^ttera,chiamp un
mattina

La

dal
"

II

il

d'

padre.
Che
padre?
ragazzo,

nome.

"

un

domando

tremante2

1' infermiere.

per

il timore

d'

una

trista

notizia,disse

236

ITALIAN

of his mother

desolation

GRAMMAR.

the

at

arrival

of the

letter.

(17) And

he

mother

dressed

in19

thought of death,15he saw his father dead, his


black, the family in misery.
I
4

opened."
Translate
through
="

' '

What

the

13

Cf.

15

Cf. 216.

(3).

222

14

Use

Translate
16Cf.

10

stare

st"tte molto

spalla,ed

una

domandp subito.
Si, " mio
padre,

"

mente.

"

ragazzo,
senza
"

risppse

"

la

supra,

Omit.

' '

Reflexive.

the

Use

vpi.

participle.

present
"to

much."

="how

="recognize."

with

sink

one's self ".

198 (4).
XXXVII.

t"mpo cosi. Quando


ei si riscpsse: era
una

le

padre?

arrived.

reflexive verb

with

EXERCISE
E

"
=

face swollen."

breathe."

="to

be used?

12

entering in."

"

air.

would

pronoun

"Hehad

II

="

"

tuo

una

mpnaca.

Che
il

verra

pra

Che

"

disse

padre?"

venuto.

son

leggifragli toccp

mano

la

cos'

mfdico.

cps' ha1
supra,

ha?
E

"

s'

mio

dolce-

Coraggio"
allontanp,

dir altro.

Dppo

m"zz'

da

accompagnato

vide

pra

un

Cominciaron

vano.

al

arrivdrono

letto

questo il ragazzo

si

in

entrare

fpndo

assistfnte;la supra
la visita,
fermandosi
vicino.

levp

Prima

ch'

al
e

il

il

mfdico,
infermiere
seguiFinalmente
letto.
pgni
camerpne

un

m"dico

li

si staccasse

da

in

pie,
di,e quando gli s* avvicinp, si mise a
Fatti animo,
piangere. ^ il figliuplodel malato, disse la supra.
disse il medico.
II
c' " ancpra
1$ grave, ma
figliuplo,
speranza.
E
domandar
allpra
avr"bbe voluto
altro; ma non
osp.
ragazzo
"

comincip la
Npn
da

sua

potfndo

bere.

vita d' infermiere.


far altro

II malato

di ricondscerlo.

cop^rte al malato, gli dava


dava
npn
qualche vplta; ma
segno

accomodava

lp guardava

Senonch^

il

le

sguardo si arrestava
piii
s"mpre
E cosi passp il primo giprno. II giprno dppo
di lui.
a lungo sppra
che glipcchi del malato
rivelassero
un
principiodi cosci"nza.
parve
Alia voce
carezzevole
del ragazzo
che
un' espressipne
pareva
di gratitu dine
nelle pupille,e
gli brillasse un momento
vaga
dir qualche cpsa.
una
se volesse
vplta mpsse un ppco le labbra come
che
Dppo pgni breve assopimento, riapr"ndo gli pcchi, sembrava
il suo
cercasse
piccolo infermiere.
Vfrso sera, avvicinandogli il
il
bicchi^realle labbra, ragazzo
credftte di veder sulle labbra gpnfie
E
un
allpra comincip a riconfortarsi, a
leggierissimo sorriso.
E
la
d'
con
confusamente,
^ssere
sperare.
inteso,almeno
speranza
E
esortava
farsi
animo.
a
gli parlava, gli parlava a lungo, e lp
suo

EXERCISES.

che, anche

gli pareva

c"rto piacere la

un

di

sovente

bench" dubitasse

non

237

il malato

comprendendo,

npn

parlava, perchfc

capito, pure

esser

ascoltasse

con

voce.

sua

Cf. 84.

XXXVIII.

EXERCISE

(1) And so passed the second1 day, and the third,and the fourth.
(2) The hours, the days passed, and the boy was always there with
his father, palpitating at his every
sigh, tossed without
ceasing
fifth
The
and
pectedly,
unexbetween
day,
(3)
discouragement.
hope
the

sick-man
his

shook

head,

as

if2 to3 say

it

that

when2

doctor

(4) The

worse.

grew

finished.4

was

rogated
inter-

(5)

The

him.
(6) In spite of2 the2
thing consoled
it seemed
to him5 that the sick-man
fact2 that he was
growing worse
looked
was6
(7) He
slowly regaining a little intelligence.
his medicine
to take
fixedly at2 the boy, he wished
always more
of the lips as if he
movement
a
only from him, and he often made
the boy continued
to watch
to say
wished
something. (S) And
the
entered
a
man
him.
(9) Suddenly about four in7 the afternoon
followed
(10) On seeing him the boy
by one of the sisters.
room,

boy

wept

and

yet

one

"

Father
turned 8 and also
!
sharp cry, the man
gave a cry
(11) "But how is this,"exclaimed
"Bfppo!
My little Beppo!
taken
to the
the father,looking at the sick-man, " they have
you
how
of another!"
bed
(12) "Oh, how
glad I am!
glad I am!"
the boy.
stammered
(14) " And
(13) And he could say no more.
still
(15) We can
well, come, let us go home.
son, I am
now,
my
reach
home
this evening."
(16) The boy turned8 to look at the
at2
moment
at that
opened his eyes and looked
sick-man, who
"
is10
him.
I cannot.
(18) There
(17) No, papa," said he, wait
that old man.2
(19) I have been11 with him about five days. (20)1
(21) He always looks at me, he looks at2 me
thought he was
you.
and then I give him
who
(22) I do not know
something 2 to12 drink.
he is,but he wants
he would
die alone; let me
stay here, dear
me,
heart.
a
(23) "Stay," said the father, "stay; you have
papa!"
of anxiety.
mother
at once
to relieve
(24) I shall go home
your
for your
needs.
(25) Here is money
Good-by, my brave son."
gave

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

4
5
8

10

Cf. 252 and


Use feminine
Use

form.

$.

Cf.

verb.
242.

"

Omit.

This

disjunctive form.

Reflexive
C

129.

and

Why?
Place

"he

Cf. 225.

similar
6

also
12

Cf. 215

cases

Cf. 81
"

at

are

(d).

end

Cf. 213

(a).
sort

a
7

of

Cf. 198

of sentence.

(d).

neuter.

(3).

238

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

XXXIX.

EXERCISE

hanno
lezione
d' italiano?
Quattro
Quante vplte la settimana
il
il
abbiamo
lezione
venerdi.
il
e
il
Npn
V9lte, lunedi, martedi, giovedi
il mercoledi, ne il sabato, e la Dominica
" f"sta. Quanti abbiamo
Domani
1' altro "
del mese?
l"oggi il quindici. Qggi " venerdi.
Mercoledi
Dominica.
prpssimo sara il venti luglio," 1' anniverdel po"ta Petrarca.
Ha
le "$peredel Petrarca,
sario della nascita
ho
volume.
ne
J^ il secondo.
qui un
signorina? Sissignpre,1
alia pagina dug"nto trentas"tte.
sonetto
predile,tto
l"cco il mio
Mi dica qualche cosa
della sua
vita.
L"ggo spesso il Petrarca.
sulla punta
delle dita
ma
Volentiejri,
capira che npn ppsso aver
della vita di mess"r
Francesco.
tutti i particolaripiiiminuti
Egli
Allora
in Ar"zzo.
Man!
non
ejra fiorentino?
Arfzzo "
nacque
cosi vicino
Boccdccio
a
a
Fir"nze! Neppur Giovanni
" nato
chi oser"bbe npn
chiamar
fiorentine le sue
Fir"nze, ma
nov"lle
?
Continui.
Petrarca
immortali
Bravo!
que
nacEbb"ne, Francesco
il venti luglio del milletrecento quattro.
ad Arezzo
Suo padre,
di Dante
del partitoghibellino,
amico
e anch'
esso
" ra stato bandito
dove
esercitava
ufficio pubblico. Ripada Fire,
un
mod^sto
nze,
i
del
ratosi a Pisa,affidp primi studj
figliosuo, allora in eta di sftte
anni, ad un vfcchio grammatico di quella citta. Due anni dppo,
av"ndo la mprte dell' imperatpre Enrico sfttimo tpltapgni speranza
la sua
condusse
ai Ghibellini,il padre del Petrarca
famiglia ad
trasferito la cprte pontifiAvignpne, dove Clem"nte quinto aveva
il Petrarca, che
Nel
cia.
ventitrfc
aveva
milletrecentoventisftte,
bellissima
anni, s' invaghi d' una
gipvane avignonese, chiamata
Se ella fosse stata
Laura.
avrejbbe
libera, cfrto il Petrarca npn
ad
esitato un
m
omen
to a farla sua
mpglie, ma
"ra sppsa
Ugo
V
colo
di Spde.
secondo
di
usanza
e
sf
Nulladimeno,
quel
specialdi quel paese, comincip a scrivere per l"i poesie che subito
mente
tutta la vita del Petrarca,
lp rSsero illustre. Due amori dominano
di Laura
V ampre
e
mprto il diciquello della patria. Fu trovato
otto
luglio del milletrecentosettantaquattronella sua
bibliot^ca
Aveva
la t"sta piegata sppra un
libro ap"rto, che "ra
ad Arqua.
di Virgilio.
V Eneide
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Frequently

used

for si

EXERCISE

(1) The fourteenth


(2) Dante was

century
born

was

signpre.

XL.
the

in Florence

golden
in the

age
month

of Italian
of

ture.
litera-

May, 1265,

EXERCISES.

and

died

who

was

in

Paris

(5)

So

when

child
and

and

1313

Boccaccio

and

and

died

last.
in

eight

three

ought to
of Boccaccio,

yean

old

and

before

days

the
and

the

almost

four-hundredth

every

The

Boccaccio
of

were

was

of

seventeen

intimate
died

friends.
one

year

(9) Every
Dante, of Petrarch,

child

Italian

1375.

Italian

of

birth

born

was

December,

(S) Petrarch

Boccaccio.

anniversary

great trio,and

Petrarch

Boccaccio

of the

dates

21st

and

for Boccaccio.

model

know

(4) Giovanni

Certaldo

(3) Petrarch,

1321.

of the

the second

was

(6) Petrarch
a

was

months

(10) The

Dante,

was

died.

Dante

(7) Petrarch
five

than

the third

was

13th of September,

the

on

younger

Boccaccio
in

Ravenna

at

239

the

does

birth

of

five-hundredth

know

them.

Dante

was

will

be
(11)
anniversary
1865.
Bernardi
Dante
lectures on
celebrated in 1965. (12) Professor
on
and
nine
Let
and1
from
to
ten.
us
(13)
Saturdays
Wednesdays
go
I
should
like
to
but
him
hear
to-morrow.
(14)
unfortunately
go,
Let
I
cannot.
this
us
I have
a
so
(1
5)
afternoon, then, to
lesson,
go
of the Uffizi Palace.
in the court
the statue of Dante
see
(16) Thank
hour
shall I expect you?
pleasure! At what
you, I will go with
to four.
(18) Well, then,
(17) At half-pastthree or twenty minutes
2
good-byl

celebrated

in

Translate

"

to ".

Arrivederla.

XLI.

EXERCISE

una
passeggiata. Che ne dite,
Com'" bfl tempo 9ggi! Facciamo
Andremo
in campagna,
li tutto il giorno.
miei ?
e staremo
figliupli
Andiamo!
Siete pronti?
io a
Sta
bfne, vado
Si, si, mamma!
quel mantellino
pr^ndere il cappfllo. Dammi1
per piacere. E
Si va un
in cammino.
adesso mettiamoci2
po'a vedere ci9 che vie,n3
nel campo
alia strada ?
vicino
coltivato
come
Queste sono
rape:
la carne
di b9ve 0 col riso,rifscono5
con
C9tte4 insieme
son
bu9ne!
di
molto
date
e
saporite; qui da noi se ne fa un gran consumo,
loro una
in tanto
alle vacche, procurano
tanto
grande abbondanza
il latte per il caff" della mattina.
Ci danno
di latte.
Ma
fa caldo
mamma?
Ecco una
bella qu^rcia. Andiamo
a
riposarci
nevvero,
Stemmo
li s9tto.
Come
si sta bene qui!
qui, sotto questa qufrcia
n'
fa.
ne
V9lta,
|, Carlino?
Si, me
gia una
ric9rdo, "ra un anno
bel giu9co con
Feci qui un
Giovannino.
in collfgioadesso
Vanno
lui e Andrea, non
stanno
phi con n9i. Me ne andrg in coll^gio
anch' io,mamma
?" Si,pensava
di fartici entrare
anche
quest' anno,
stavi
bene
al
ma
di pensarvi, non
momento
poich$ n9n
1' I19
fatto.
Stiamo
cosi
insieme, mamma
sempre
mia, far" tutto per
"

"

"

"

"

"

ITALIAN

240

imparare b"ne,
anch' io, mamma?

GRAMMAR.

il parroco

dara

mi

le

lezione.

cos!

far

Posso

"

fateci
tutt' e due, non
possibile
andar via!
Ebbe,ne, ne parleremo un' altra volta,vi si"te riposati,
ancora
un
facciamo
p9 di passeggiata.
il

Faremo

"

Cf

99

From

2
See mtetere,
(b).
c(u)9cere,99.

61.

From

venire,

From

riuscire,130.

132.

XLII.

EXERCISE
beautiful weather

yesterday. (2) Did you take1 a


and
I.
walk ?
(4) We
(3) Yes, we took a walk together,Andrew
ber
went1 into the country and stayed there all day.
(5) Do you rememto Fifsoletogether ?
that day, two years ago, when
you and I went
and Charles and I.
You
(6) Yes, we all remember
that,I am sure,
it always.
we
are
and shall remember
(7) Now
going to school
ing
(8) Our parents were
thinking of entertogether, all three of us.
(1) It

two

us

The

(9)
to

rector

time

also

walk

stayed

a
1

in

take

to

all that

school

walk

walk

very

we

"

go

at home.

="

yet

often

into the country


under
the trees
and

rested

rested

were

is under

the

with

Da.

and
had

little

one4

has

me

troubled?

so

you
house.1

I cannot

(6) Yes,

me;

Future.

reallycould
3

Cf. 82.

Use

future.

to have

="

had."

XLIII.

are

friend's

sick

(4)

bear

the

I have

but

not

:i

have

4"it."

(3) Because

I must

finish

to

gone
5

there

go

thought

"

go

after

trees

few minutes.
a
(8) I ought
(7) I can2 do
I
could
do
so4 because
not
yesterday, but
my
5
and
had
I
him
the whole
to amuse
slightly-ill
well.
We
in ten
will wait.
can
(10) Very
go
I am
Now
not?
ready.6 (12) I am
(11) Yes.

on4

walked

we

it in

can

enough
(11) We
proud of
sons?
long les-

went

little."

(2) Why

other, although

with

be

may

they give you

possible."

(1) Sit down.


going to my

you

Do

well

was

then.

Omit.

or

he

parents

our

well

not

was

long lessons last year, but we


day. (14) It does one good to

EXERCISE

am

could

(12)

pleasant it

(17) How

he

that

so

every

when

then

Preterite.

did

day. (15) We
all day.
(16) We

games,

farther.5
had

until

home

at

every

there

beautiful

lessons

Charles

but

ago,

we
go3 home.
glad when
(13) Yes, they gave us

and

take

half

he

But

best

our

him

gave

(10)

will all do

had

and

years

away.

go

us

very

was

of it.

have3

to

time
some-

(5) Can

letter

my

first.

written

little brother
afternoon,

was

(q)

minutes, can
so
glad that

alone.

Cf. 166.

"

Use

it

" ceo.

we

you

EXERCISES.

241

EXERCISE
il cammello

Anche

qui in Europa

sa

quelliche
come

di certi

tore
a

curiosita.

nb

Perp

da'

non

sabbipsi,che

raggi

le lpro merci

ne

da

filo d'

un

all'

paese

un

que' piani desolati;guai

lpro perp

si suole

pensarvi

pffrono al ppvero

non

erba, ne

asilo

un

i mercanti

Ma

altro,debbon
non

se

che

abbiamo

non

piu utili agli abitanti


bfstie per
queste ppvere

fatte

del sole.

cocenti

Noi

si

te-npn

tan

or

serragli,e

animali

sono

im

e.

ne'

Paiono

d' acqua,

sorso

diffnderlo

portare

fatti vedere

deserti

un

molto

important

"

i camelli.

che

paesi

animale

un

come'

ci vengon

vasti

quei

"

XLIV.

viaggiache

che

valga

d^bbono

traversarli

pure

i cammelli!

avessero

ne
questi sopportar la sete molti giorni e non
dpgliono
i
cavalli.
di
dorrfbbero per es^mpio
viaggio
Dopo un giorno

Ppssono
come

faticosissimo

P"jrtanocon
dosso.

giacciono
movimento

un

Si pup

la notte

tutta

che

chimarli, e

dovremmo

sapere

Esauriti

finalmente

che

con

anche
cadono

elemento

che

una

vplta

sabbia

piace a molti
ragipne, le

persone

navi

del

sabbia

quella
naufragate che
crudeli, battute,
era

per

dolersene.

senza

le

fanno

queste navi
su

migliano a quelle altre navi


pericolpsie sulle piagge

sulla

lpro solo

alle

sedute

deserto.

dove

si vedono

un

Ma

vplte naufragio.

cocente

rasso-

sugli scpgli
coperte

mezzo

sul

cammino

dall'

sptto i

piedi.
EXERCISE

(1) We1
(4)
(5)
the camel

Europeans
(2)
is.

do

not

know

XLV.
(1)
how

(3)

important

an2

animal2

of the horse
the most
wont
to think
are
as
(2) We
useful
animal.
camels
see
(3) We
only in menageries; neverthelesss we
curiosities.
ought not to think of them as mere
(4) Many
travelers
would
be3 lost in the great sandy deserts
where
no
poor
could
horse
it not that these
beasts
made
for
seem
live,were
pocr
countries.
such
of a dry, sandy
(5) A merchant, an inhabitant
land, told me that his camel did not suffer from thirst during many
those
over
days of most wearisome
travel,and that it bore his wares
desolate
motion
of the
plains without
complaining. (6) The
camel
also very
was
agreeable to him, as to many
people. (7) By
day he traveled seated on his camel's back, and by night he lay on
the sand
which
could
defend
trees
no
by its side.
(S) There were
him
from
the scorching rays of the sun, and
his4 head
ached
times
somefrom
the heat,
(y) But it mattered
nothing to the camel;

ITALIAN

242

seemed

it

is

is

happens

shipwreck.
and

sand

were

(14)

water.

am3

(15)

If

camel

as

(17)

am

hear

about

my
not

Noialtri.
Use

badare.

to

and

at

see

the

they
the

cross

shall

generally

we

Omit.
6

="to."

last

be

not

them

desert
silent

(19)

shall

We

and

concerning2

its
it

virtues.

please

Use
7

rimanere.

Preterite.

Repeat

Use

sapere.

you
more

do.8

so.

faithful

know

to

now

called

choose

ought

the

by

be

Did

are

those

as

desert,

reason

by

last

conquered

(18)

now.

sand

the

hot

reefs
at

"

of

with

the

and

the

fall,

make

upon
cruel

desert

is,

ships

can

animals?

these
than

to

concerning2

silent

about
them

and

ship,

that

times
some-

ships

on

the

to

the

it

yet

fallen

seen

belong
"

sea

know

obliged

ever

am

wrecks

element

wished7

have

content.

(16)

to

ships

the

to

the

had

desert
that

And

interesting

which

some

The

know

not

(n)

and

like

proper

belong

ships

other

their

by

seen

there

(10)

do

safely,

curious

These

(13)

conquered

have

lying

seashore.

the

(12)

who

it

cross

can

heat.

the

Europeans

these

that

notice5

not

in6

which

ship

did

fear

inspire

to

wont

camel

he

though

as

GRAMMAR.

glL

ABBREVIATIONS.

verbs

Irregular
Where

m.,

follow

the

by

second

asterisk.

an

of

two

nouns

both

are

of

are

active

the

gender.

same

Where
or

/.,

preceded

are

neuter

dash

va.,
as

vn.,

follow

the

of

second

two

verbs

both

indicated.

indicates

the

repetition

of

the

subject-

word.

244

VOCABULARY.

ITALIAN-ENGLISH

allpra, adv., then


a,

a' =ai,

cf. art. il,40,

abbassare,

9cchi, to

to

cast

down

gli

"

the

adv. and

aborrire,

accomodare,
to

to

va.,

in

put

amore,

date,
accommo-

order,

to

to

accom-

range
ar-

va.,

acqua,

obtain,

acquistare, va., to

to

gain

addietro, adv., behind


adesso, adv.,

adv., still,yet

adoperare,

va.,

use,

to

make

of

use

*andare,

affanno,

grief
adv., with

affannosamente,

courage,

take

courage

annunziare,

culty
diffi-

anulare,
ape,

affetuoso,

mind,

adj.,affectionate

va.,

in.,

[culty

adv., scarcely,with

*aprire, va.,

end

va.,

to

sharpen

/.,wing

allentare,

va., to

to

dirfi-

learn

open

arditezza, /.,boldness
aria, /.,air, look, mien

that

aguzzare,

ala,

to, to the

uneasy
old

ring-finger

affidare, va.,

affinche, adv., in order

announce

adj.,ancient,

*appr"ndere,

entrust

to

adj.,anxious,

affezione, /.,affection
to

anniversary

m.,

/.,bee

appena,

heart;

year

m.,

antico,

amphitheatre

m.,

to

-,

go

anecdote

m.,

m.,
"

ansioso,
m.,

to

vn.,

animo,

anno,
to

to

vn.,

analogo, adj.,analogous
anche, adv., also

anniversario,

now

tame;

love, affection

m.,

fare

adatto, adj.,suitable

to

va.,

anfiteatro,

/.,water

fall ill

to

vn.,

an^ddoto,

pany

like

mild

ancora,

accompagnare,

to

friend

m.,

become
leave

love,

va., to

are,

ammansire,

va., to take

accomiatare,

else

ammalare,

abhor

to

va.,

am

amico,

inhabitant

m.,

adj.,other, different, any

thing

enough,

n.,

altro,

eyes

sufficiently
abbondanza,
/.,abundance
abitante,

least

Alpe, /. pi.,the Alps

43

lower;

va.,

abbastanza,

adv., at

almeno,

prep., at, to

va.,

allontanarsi,

arrestarsi, v. ref.,to stay,


arrichirsi,

to

va.,

go

to
ref.,

grow

rest

rich

arrivare,r;z.,to reach, to arrive

loosen
to

v.

to

away

arrivo,

;;;., arrival
245

at

ITALIAN

246
ascoltare,

breve, adj.,brief,short
brillare,vn., to shine

listen

to

va.,

GRAMMAR.

asylum, refuge
va., to assign
assegnare,
/.,absence
assenza,
asilo, m.,

assicurare,

va.,

assistente,

in.,

to

bruno, adj.,brown,
bue,

di

carne

beef

"

buono, adj.,good, kind

assure

who

one

in., ox;

dark

assists,

buttare, va.,

to

throw, fling

*cadere, vn.,

to

fall

attendant

an

*assistere, va.,

to

assist

assoluto, adj.,absolute

assopimento,

drowsiness,

m.,

caff",in., coffee

coma

attaccare, va., to attach,

unite

*avere,

have;

to

va.,

sonno,

"

sleepy

Avignon
re].,to approach

n.,

v.

/.,room,

camerone,

m.

room,

bambino,

baby,

m.,

cammino,

notice

to

aug.

ward

cammello,
B

badare, vn.,

inkstand

m.,

hot

calzoni,in. pi.,trowsers
cambiare, va., to change
camera,

Avignone, pr.
avvicinarsi,

calamaio,

caldo, adj.,warm,

autore, in., author


avanti, adv., before

to be

caduta, /.,fall

chamber
of camera,

big

(ofa hospital)

in., camel
in., road

f.,country
campagnuolo, m. and adj.,rustic
campagna,

child

banca, /.,bench
ban dire, va., to banish

Campid9glio, m.,the
Rome)

barbaro, adj.,barbarous
battere, va.,

to

beat, strike

Capitol (at

in., field

campo,

bfllo,adj.,beautiful
benchfc,adv.,although
be,ne,adv.,well
*bere
(bevere),va., to drink

capire,va., to understand
capp"llo,m., hat

bfstia,/.,beast

carattere,

bianco, adj.,white

carezza,

bibliotjca,/.,library
bicchi"re,m., tumbler,

carezzevole, adj.,caressing
Carlo, pr. n., Charles

glass

in., infant

canarino,

in.,

cane,

dog

in.,

canary-bird

in., character

/.,caress

bocca, /.,mouth

/.,meat
adj.,dear
caro,
carrozza,
/.,carriage
carta, /.,paper
casa, /.,house

braccio,

cavallo, m., horse

bimbo,

biscotto, m.,

bisognare, vn., must,

m.,

carne,

biscuit
to be

sary
neces-

arm

ter
adj., brave, skillful; inj.,expressive cf approval

bravo,

cercare,

va., to

search, seek

certo, adj.,certain

ITALIAN-ENGLISH
and

che, rcl.

he

which,

that, how

interrog.pron., who,

and

keep

to

va.,

consumo,

us

ciascuno, adj. and

pron.,

vise
counsel, ad-

to

m.,

each,
continuare,

one

five

num.,

that;

C19, pron.,

continue,

to

va.,

", that

"

is to

contrariare,

to

va.,

vex

/.,conversation

conversazione,

circa, prep., about, concerning

coperta, /.,cover

citta,/.,city

*coprire, va.,

/.,class
clemente, adj.,clement, mild

coraggio,m., courage
/.,crown
corona,

classe,

pr. n., Clement

Clemente,

corso,

m.,

corte,

C9cere (cu9cere),va., to cook


m., college,school
collfgio,

col9nia,/.,colony

thread

course,

/., conscience,

coscienza,

sciousness
con-

colonist

coltivare, va.,

to

cultivate

cosi,adv., so, thus,

colui,dem. pron., he, he who


adv., as, as if,like,how
come,

credere,

cominciare,

cui, rel.pron.

va.,

to

commence,

cousin

va.,

da, prep., by, with,


hend,
compre-

understand

at

the

conduct, take,

guide

give
davvero, adv., indeed,
truly
denaro,

confess, avow,

owe

confronto, m.t comparison


confuso, adj.,confused

confusamente, adv.,confusedly

to,

among,

of

house

*dare, va.,

prep., with

confessare,va., to

whom,

curiosita, /.,curiosity,rarity

to move,

va., to

of

whom,

to
,

whose

(commu9vere),

agitate
va., to buy
comprare,
*compr"ndere, va., to

such

believe

to

va.,

cugino, m.,

begin
comm^dia, /.,comedy

*condurre,

cover.

affair

C9II0,m., neck

*comm9vere

to

/. court, court-yard
corto, adj.,short
C9sa, /.,thing, matter,
object,

*cocente, adj.,burning, hot

m.,

go

on

say

con,

the

consumption, use
isfied
contento, adj.,content, glad,sat-

ci, adv., here, there

col9no,

(by

adj.,noisy

chiassone,

cinque,

conservare,

consigliare,va.,

ci, pron.,

know

va., to

senses)

who

each

247

ter]'., *condscere,
interrog. pron., in-

who,
chi, rcl.

VOCABULARY.

to

in

truth,

"n., money

tooth

dente, in.,
desfrto, m.,

desert

desiderare,va.,
desolato,

adj.

to

and

desire,long for
pp.

of

lare, desolate, afflicted

deso-

248

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

destra,/.,right hand

*dovere,

va.,

must,

ought

di, prep., of
di, m.,

day

dubitare, vn.,

eighteen

diciotto,num.,
dieci,num.,

due,

*diffndere,
va., to

duke

num.,

two

defend, protect

difficile,
adj.,difficult

dugfnto, num., two hundred


durante, adj. and prep., during

dimenticanza., /.,forgetfulness
dimenticare, va., to forget^^
dimorare,

live,dwell

to

vn.,

necessary,

doubt, fear

to

m.,

duca,

ten

be

to

E
e,

conj.,and

dimostrare, va.,
show, prove
dintprno, m., environs

eccezione, /.,exception

dipendfnza,/.,dependence

e,ceo,

to

*dire,va.,

to

ebbene, inter j.,very

tell,relate

say,

is,behold

rector'sEgiziano, adj.and
di-

office

elemento,

right

emigrate
emisfero, m., hemisphere
Enrico, pr. n., Henry

discourse, sermon

to

*divenire, vn.,

to

become

entrare,

*dividere,

to

divide

frba, /.,herb, grass

dolce,adj.,sweet,

soft

erre,

vn.,

/.,the

to

*esaurire, va.,

dolcezza, /.,sweetness,

esclamare,

suffer;

to

mildness
"

dolersi,
of

ref.,to lament, complain


domando,
/.,demand, question
domandare,
"

di, to

domani,
"

va.t to

ask

demand,

dominare,

/. Sunday
dominate,

esercitare,

mand
com-

/.,domination

dove, adv., where

to

low
exercise, fol-

business, filloffice

esitare, vn.,

hesitate

to

/. expression
espressione,
,

pers. pron., she

*"ssere,vn.,

to

be

being

esso, pers. pron., he

wards
adv., after,after-

estr^mo,

m.,

extreme,

extremity

/.,age.
Etrusco, adj. and w., Etruscan
Eurppa, /.pr. n., Europe
eta,

dqsso, di., back

for

"

estremita, /.,extremity

dgnna, /.,woman
dopo, prep, and

va.,

some

e"ssere,m.,
dominazione,

exclaim

instance

essa,

va., to

va., to

exhaust

esortare, va., to exhort

adv., to-morrow;

1' altro,day after to-morrow

Domenica,

to

"r"

esfmpio, m., example; per

ask;

for, ask after

enter

letter

dolcemente, adv., softly,gently


*dolere, vn.,

Egyptian

m.,

element

w.,

emigrare, vn.,

dito, m., finger

va.,

is,

building

direzione, /., management,

discorso,m.,

interj here

edificazione, /.. edification,

direttrice,
/.,directress

diritto,m.,

and

there

director

direttore,m.,

adv.

well

ENGLISH

ITALIAN

VOCABULARY

249

francese,adj.and

pr. n., French

famiglia,/.,family

Francia, /. pr.

France

famigliare,";"., familiar, intimate

franco,adj.and
frate,m.,

friend

fanciullo,

m.,

*fare, va.,

to

to

put

do, make;
male

"

entrare,

"

t ;

passeggiata,to take

walk;

three

fa,

mesi

to

vento,

"

blow;

months

ago;

pp. of fare,

plete,
com-

favorite

m.,

to

stop; fermarsi

da,

adv., until,as far

a,

from

Thursday
giovedi,m
giocare (giuocare),
va.,
.

fiore, tit., flower

giupco, m.,
n.

and

entine
adj.,Flor-

fpndo,

m.,

river

m.,

depth, bottom,

to

play

sport

swear

grandezza, /., greatness,

ness
large-

heart,

end

adj.,heavy,
grazia, /. grace
grave,

/.,form, manner,
adj.,strong
f"?rte,

way

fra, prep., within, among,

to

forma,

game,

giurare,va.,

to

grammatico, m., grammarian


grande, adj.,great, big, wide

Firenze, pr. n., Florence


fiume,

young

man,

young

f.,

woman

finish

pr.

lie down

to

ginpcchio,m., knee
/.,joy, mirth
gigia,
giorno,m., day

youth,

/.,window
*fingere,va., to feign

finestra,

Fiorentino.

Ghi-

pr. n.,

gipvane (giovine),adj.,young
and
giovane (giovine), w.

finalmente, adv., finally

to

and

giardino,m., garden

finale, adj.,final

finire, va.,

throw

bellinc

*giacere,vn.,

filo,vi., thread, blade

"

to

m., son,
figlio,
/.,daughter, child
figlia,
little son
m., son,
figliuolo,

fin, fino, fino

/. courtesy, kindness
gentilezza,
Germania, /.,pr. n., Germany

giacchetta,/. jacket

child

genitpre,m., parent
gfnte, /.,nation, people, race

gia,adv., already

stop, pause

festa, /.,holiday, festival

as

gamba, /.,!ci
'6

ghibellino,adj.

va., to

outside

fuQri,prep., without,

gettare, va.,

fede, /.,faith

ref

brother

fratello,
in.,

finished

fermare,

nice

fact

fatto, adj and


favorito,

(in

gentile,adj., gentle, courteous,

hard
in.,

brother

monk,

tre

ing,
faticoso, adj.,laborious, fatigufatto,

Frank

n.,

become

farsi,ref.,to

pr.

religiousorder)

injure hur

to
,

una

"

child, little boy

;/.,

serious
;

thanks

Gr"cia,/.pr.

n., Greece

pi. grazie,

ITALIAN

25"

grosso,

adj.,big, full

guai, inter j.,woe!

interessante, adj.,interesting

beware!

interrogare,va.,

look

at

guardare, va.,
guardia,/.,guard
guidare,va., to guide
guizzare, vn., to glide,slide
satisfaction,

taste,

gusto, m.,

*interrompere,va.,
intitolare,va.,

to

invaghire,va.

and

love

to

interrupt

entitle

ref.,to fall in

with

invasore, m., invader


involto,

pleasure

interrogate,

to

examine

ask,

guancia, /.,cheek
to

GRAMMAR.

bundle, packet

m.,

inzuppare, va.,

soak

to

io, pers. pron., I


eri,adv., yesterday;

1' altro,

"

day before yesterday


1,def.art., cf.40, 43
llustre,adj.,illustrious,famous
mmagine, /.,picture,image
mmortale, adj.,immortal
learn

va., to

mparare,

mperatore,

emperor

m.,

mportante, adj.,important
mprestare,

lend

to

va.,

adv.,
mprovvisamente,
suddenly
n, prep.,

pectedly,
unex-

in, into

nchiostro,

m.,

ate,
adj., inconsider-

to

soil with

lei

del

"

-,

to

("you")

letto,m.,
mud

attendant

nurse,

m.,

nfermo, adj.,infirm, ill

ngfnuo, adj.,ingenuous
nglese,adj.and pr. n., English
innimico, m. and adj.,enemy,
[imical
niziativa, /.,initiative
va.,

lavagna, /.,blackboard
*l^ggere,va., to read
leggifro,adj.,light
use

in

the

(you);

pronoun

addressing one

to

to

bed

lettura,/.,reading
levare, va.,

to rise,
lift;v. ref.,

to

arise; "., rising


lezione,/. lesson
,

li,adv.,there
liberare,va.,

to

liberate,set free

libero,adj.,free
libro,m., book

teach

nsetto, m., insect


nsifme, adv. and prep.,

*int"ndere, va.,
intend, mean

Leo

n.,

/.,letter
lfttera,

ndice, m., index- finger

nsegnare,

latte,m., milk

Leone, pr.

meet

to

ndi, adv.,afterwards

nfermifre,

m.,

leone, m., lion

va.,

nfangare, va.,

lip
lamentarsi, v. ref.,to lament
lapis,m., pencil
lasciare,
va., to leave, let

dare

foolish
ncontrare,

labbro,

lei, pers. pron., her, she

ink

nconsiderato,

adj.,irregular
irregolare,
Italia,/. pr. n., Italy

Lidia, /.pr.

together

understand,

Lydia
lingua,/.,tongue, language
lo,def.art. and pers. pron., him,
it,the

n.,

ITALIAN

252

naufragio,m., shipwreck
/.,ship
nave,
pers. pron., us, to us, some,
of it,for it; adv., thence

con].,neither, nor
adv., neither,
nemmeno,
ne,

nor-

even

adv.,neither,nor-either
adj. and indef. pron.,
nessuno,
nobody
no, none,
contr. of non
nevvero,
" vero
nifnte, m., nothing
nippte,m., nephew
nQ, adv.,no, not
noi, pers. pron., we, us
nominare, va., to name
che, only
adv.,no, not;
npnno, m., grandfather
npn,

"

ours

our,

notice

notizia,/.,news,
nptte, /.,night

novella, /.,story, tale


and

adv.,nothing
nulladimeno, adv.,nevertheless
ad].,new
nuovo,
nulla, in.

O
oh!
inter].,
occhiata, /.,glance

o,

pcchio, m.,

eye

occidentale, adj., occidental,


western

offer

to

dim.

ospedale,m., hospital
osservazione, /.,observation
eight
ptto, num.,
pvest,

west

m.,

package; dim., pacchetto


pace, /.,peace
padre, w., father
pacco,

country

paese, m.,

pagina, /.,page
paio, m., pair
palazzo,m., palace
pallido,adj.,pale
in., cloth; pi.,clothes
panno,
papa,

papa,

in.,

father

parfcchi,adj. pi.,several
*parere,vn., to seem, appear
parlare,vn., to speak, talk
parpla,/.,word
parte, /..part
adj.,particular
particulare,
partire, vn., to go away,
from, proceed from

come

party

vn.,

to

pass,

go
turn

of upmo,

young

patronato,

m.,

patronage;

"

cco-

lastico,protection, assistance

little man

onorabile, adj.,honorable

pavimento, m., pavement,

in., honor

(Jpera,/.,work, piece
literaryproduction
operaio,m., workman

dare

to

vn.,

passeggiata,/. walk, drive,


passeggio,m., walk

ogni, adj.,every

onore,

horror

m.,

passare,

9ggi, adv.,to-day

man,

orrore,

partito,m.,

*ofrrire,va.,

omino,

osare,

neppure,

npstro, poss.,

/.,hour; adv., now


ordinario,adj.,ordinary, usual
ordiniariamente, adv., ordinarily
origine,/. origin
pro, m., gold
ora,

ne,

either,not

GRAMMAR.

paved

floor
of

work,

pellegrino,m.,
penna, /.,pen
pensare,

pilgrim, stranger

va., to think

ITALIAN-ENGLISH

VOCABULARY

253

pensiero, ;//., thought

poeta,

adj.,thoughtful,pensive
pensieroso,

poi,adv., then

ref.,to repent
pentirsi,.?'.
per, prep., for, by, through, to,
in order

to

perche, adv., why, because


*perdere, va.,
perdonare,

lose

to

poiche,adv.,since, because
politico,m., politician
police,m., thumb
polso,in., pulse
p9polo, ;;/., people, nation, race
portare,

pardon,

to

va.,

/;/., poet

give
for-

pQvero,

to be able ; m.

adj., poor;

pr. n., Petrarch

m.,

bit, short

*piacere,vn.
per

to
"

ure;
please; m. pleasplease,kindly
strand

piaggia,/.,shore,
*piangere (piagnere)vn. to weep
piano, m. and adj.,plain
mar/.,small square,
piazzetta,
ket-piace
[one
picchiare,va., to knock
little
small;
m.,
piccino,adj.,
little
adj.,
piccolo,
piede,m., foot
piegare,va., to bend, bow
pieta,/.,piety,pity
pietra,/.,stone
pietruzza,/.,dim. of pietra
,

pigliare,va.,

to

take;

"

in pr$s-

tito, to borrow

pregare,

va.,

to

*prfndere, va.,
va.,

to

preparare,

presentare,

not

piii,
ple
peo-

adv., little,few,

much

poesia,

beg

pray,
to

take
prepare
to

va.,

present;

/.,poetry, poem

v.

ref.,presentarsi,to appear
prfstito,
Di., borrowing
adv.,
quickly
presto,
prezioso,adj.,precious
prima, adv., before, at first
primo, adj., first

principio,m.,
procurare,

beginning

va., to

procure,

help

give
adj.,ready,
pronto,
prompt
f.,
proniinzia, pronunciation
pr9prio, adj., proper,
peculiar;
to,

cause

to

proseguire, va.,
prossimamente,

to

pursue

adv
,

soon,

shortly
pr9ssimo, adj.,near,

adj. and

poverino,

adv., really

piovoso,adj.,rainy
piu, adv. and m., more;
majority, the most, most
poco,

power

time
,

precisamente,adv., exactly; preciso, adj.,precise


predicatore,;"., preacher
vorite
prediletto,adj., preferred, fa-

periodo,m., period
perQ, conj.,therefore, but
persona, /.,person
pezzo,

dear

dim., poor,

Petrarca,

"

best

vn.
*pote"re,

gerous
pericoloso,adj., perilous,dan-

carry

adj.,possible;il mio
possibile,
my

perfino,adv., even

to

va.,

next

punta, /.,point, end

pupilla,/.,pupil of
pure,

conj.,yet,

the

eye

still also

GRAMMAR.

ITALIAN

254

Q
qualche, adj., some,

few;

any,

quale, adj. and

pron.,

who,

adj., how
all;

many,

how

much,

day of

what

mese,

n.,

del

the

month

riconfortarsi,

*riconoscere,

*rincrescere,

ragazzo,

m.,

to

boy

tremble, shake,
one's
joice,
re-

/.,turnip
rassomigliare,vn., to resemble
re, m., king
va., to bring, give
recare,
rapa,

adv., recently

a
regalare,va., to present, make
present of
regno, m., kingdom
rfgola,/.,rule
*r"ndere, va., to render, give

to

to

stay

return

to

senses.

rice

riso, m.,

rispettpso,adj.,respectful

*rispondere,vn., to answer
ritratto,m., picture,portrait
*riuscire,
to

out

succeed,

to

vn.,

turn

be, become

rivelare, va.,

to

reveal

rivere,nza, /.,reverence,

respect,

salute

riverire,

va.,

to

revere,

salute

pr. "., Rome

Roma,
rosso,

adj.,red

back, make
restio,adj.frestive

take

resume,

recall

restare, vn., to remain,

fly for

riportare,va., to bring back


riposarsi,v. ref.,to rest
*risc9tere (riscuptere) va.,

tell,relate

raggio,m., ray, beam


ragione,/.,reason
rallegrare,vn. and ref.,to
be glad
ber,
v.
rammentarsi,
ref.,to remem-

recentemente,

resort,

to

va.,
ripigliare,
again

adj.,fifth

va.,

renounce,

shelter

fifteen

raccontare,

sorry

to

to

to

thank

to

va.,

give up
riparare, vn.,

qufrcia,/.,oak
qui,adv.,here

di,

"

be

to

vn.,

ringraziare,va.,
rinunziare,

num.

laugh;

to

four
quattro,num.,
quello,adj.and dem. pron., that,
one

recognize

to

va.,

vn.,

laugh at
rigo,m., line

quinto,

take

ricordarsi, v. ref.,to remember

adj.,fourth
quarto, num.
quasi,adv., almost

quindici,num.,

ref., to

v.

riconoscenza, /.,gratitude

*ridere,

is it?

that

receive

to

va.,

Richard

riconoscfnte, adj.,grateful

abbiamo

"

Ricciardo, pr.

re-open

courage

which, what
quando, adv., when
quanto,

to

ricevere,

volta, sometimes

"

*riaprire,va.,

sabato,

m.,

Saturday

sabbia, /.,sand

honor,

ITALIAN-ENGLISH

VOCABULARY.

sabbioso, ad j.,,
sandy

sentire, va.,

saggio,adj.,wise

senza,

saltare, vn.,
salutare,

jump

to

to

va.,

morning

255
feci hca:

to

prep., without

/.,evening
s^rie,/..scries
sera.

good-

greet, say

serraglio,m.,

to

ness
salvatichezza, /.,wildness, rude-

enclosure,

menag

eric

servire, va.,

to

serve

sete, /..thirst

santita, /.,holiness

saporito, adj.,savory

sftte,

savio, adj.,wise, sage


sbaciuccare, va., to kiss

/.,week
s^ttimo, adj.,seventh
sfortunato, adj.,unfortunate

sbarcare,

edly
repeat-

disembark

to

va.,

*scegliere(scerre)
,

si pron.,

choose,

va., to

select

scellerato, adj.,wicked
schermire,

ward

to

vn.,

off;

schermirsi, rej.to defend

one's

self

sci9cco, adj.,stupid
scolare, m., scholar,

pupil

longing
scolastico, adj., scholastic, beto the
scorso,

adj. and

past,

Mrs.

signore, ;;?., gentleman,

sir,Mr.

signoria,/.,rule, government
simpatico, adj., sympathetic,
singhiozzare,vn.,
singolare, adj. and
sinistro,adj.,left
solamente,

scuola, /.,school, schoolroom

sole, m.,

conj.,if;

s"colo, m.,

"

non

century,

*sedere,

che, except

to

sit,to

seat

to

one's

to

seem,

sleep;

m..

aver

to

"

sleepy
va.,

sopra, prep.,

to

support,

on,

upon,

sorflla,/.,sister
appear

ually
contin-

be

bear

semiaperto, adj.,half-open

adv., always,

accustomed,

sonnet

sopportare,

vn.,

be

adj.and adv., alone, only

sonno,

sfdia,/.,seat
segno, m., sign
*seguire,va., to follow

s"mpre,

penny
sun

sonetto, m.,

self

sembrare,

soldier

wont

solo.

age

num.

vn.,

m.,

singular

adv.,only

m..

*sol|re,vn.,

excuse

adj.,second
secpndo, adv.,according to
secondo,

m.,

pp. of scorrere,

soldo,

se,

sob

to

soggetto. m., subject


soldato,

to

certain

schools

last

va.,

people, they

signora, /.,lady, madam,

scrittore,m., writer

scusare,

self,one,

si,adv., yes
sicuro, adj.,sure,

congenial

rock, reef

sepglio,Di.,

seven

num.,

settimana.

sorriso
sorso,

smile

m.,

gulp, drink

m.,

sptto, prep
sovente,

under
,

adv.,often

over

fer,
suf-

256

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

Spagna, /. pr. n., Spain


ish
spagnuolo, adj.and pr. n., Spanspalla,/.,shoulder
specialmente,adv., especially
/.,hope
speranza,
sperare, va., to hope
spesa, /.,cost, expense

testa,

and

m.

/.,head

Tevere, pr.

"., Tiber

timore,

fear, apprehension

m.,

toccare,

touch

to

va.,

*t9gliere (torre),va.,

explain
to detach, leave
staccarsi, v. ref.,
stanco, adj. tired, fatigued
*stare,vn.,to stand, to be
stile,m., style
to bind,
va.
*stringere(strignere)
draw together
studiare, va., to study
studio, w., study
at
subito, adv., suddenly, soon,
to

tornare,

take,

to

vn.,

return,

come

back

/.pr. n., Tuscany


toscano, adj. and pr. n., Tuscan
tossire,vn., to cough
traccia, /.,trace
trag^dia,/.,tragedy
/.,tranquillity
tranquillita,
tranquillo,adj.,tranquil,quiet
Toscana,

trasferire,
va.,
all at

sublime

to

away

tratto, m.,

once

sublime, adj.

contention.

scolding

take

adj.,third

num.

tiratina, /.,debate,

spesso, adv., often

spiegare, va.,

t?rzo,

transfer

to

time;

turn,

ad

un

"

once

suo,

pass., his, her,

hers

traversare,

/.,sister,
superiore, adj.,superior, upper
svoltata, /., turn, corner
(of
street)
suora,

tremare,
a

such

tastare,

va.,

tristo,adj.,sad, bad
m.,

triumvir
find

to

va.,

tuo, pass., thy, thine


so

Torino, pr.
tutto,

to

thirty

trenta, num.,

trovare,

many,

tremble

to

vn.,

triumviro,

tagliare,
va., to cut
tanto, adj.and adv.,so much,

n., Turin

adj.,all

touch, feel

father, daddy
word)

tata, m.,

tine
(infanuccfllo,m.,

bird

tivola, /.,table

ufficio,m.,

te, pers. pron., thee, thou

ultimo, adj.,last

tedesco, adj.and

umano,

tsmperino,

m.,

pr.

n.,

German

penknife

t?mpo, in., time, weather


*tenere, va., to have, hold

/.,earth
terreno, in., ground, land

t"rra,

cross

three

tre, num.,

nun

va., to

office,charge

adj.,human

Umberto,

pr. n., Humbert

unghia, /.,nail
uno,

ind.

art.

one

uomo,

m.,

man

and

num.,

a,

an,

ITALIAN-ENGLISH

/.,

usanza.

*uscire.

out,

go

out

come

viaggio.
take

to

*valere,

/.,
/

prep.,

next

near,

violence

visit
,

have

suffice,

the

viso,

adj.,
/.,

vista,

vast

face

;;z.,

vispo,

worth

adj.,

vasto.

and

adj.

visita,

to

be

power,

"

trip

violenza,

vague

vn.,

un

useful

adj.,

fare

journey

;;/.,

vicino,

vago.

traveler

ui
,

to

adj.,

utile,

257

viaggiatore,

custom

use,

vu.,

VOCABULARY

lively

merry,

sight;

prima

at
"

Vaticano,

pr.

vfcchio,

adj.,

*vedere,

va.,

veleno,

venti,

adj.,

vestire,

to

va.,

adv.,

real

at

more,

away

viaggiare,

vn.t

to

pass.,

road
much

more,

m.t

vgstro,

travel,

journey

zia.

/.,

zio,

m.t

willingly,
time;

alle

sometimes

times,

volume,

dress

way,

/., turn,

volta,

desire

adv.,

volenti^ri,

be)

towards

/., street,

via,

(to

voice

/., will,

vgglia,

come

true,

prep.,

verso,

/.,

voce,

twenty

num.,

vero,

via,

to

/., vivacity

vivacita,

see

Friday

vn.,

sight

/.. life

vita,

poison

m.,

venire,

(first)

Vatican

ancient

old,
to

m.,

venerdi,

the

n.,

aunt

uncle

volume

your,

yours

gladly
v9lte,

ENGLISH-ITALIAN

VOCABULARY.

abhor,

va.,

be

able, to

approach, avvicinarsi,v. ref.


braccio, in.
arm,

aborrire
"

(= weapons)
arrival, arrivo, m.

potere

vn.,

about, prep., circa di


absence,

/.

assemza,

absolute, adj.

arrive, arrivare,

assoluto

as,

ache, dolere,
afraid, to

"

temere,

va.,

aver

after, prep., dopo


afternoon, dopopranzo, in.
afterwards, adv., indi, piu tardi
an

hour

un'

"

ora

fa

how

do)
in.

divertire, trattenere,

va.

ancient, adj. antico

altro

ref.

vn.

va.;

come

you

to

ten

"

di"ci anni;

aver

(=

how

do

you

sta

bear, portare, sopportare, va.


beast, b"stia,/.
beat
to give blows), battere;
(
=

altro,

un

because, conj.,perch^
become, *farsi,v. ref.
bed, l"tto,in.
bee,

/.

are

fame,

aver

and, conj.,e
anecdote, an"ddoto, m.
anniversary, anniversario, m.

apply, applicar,

hungry,

to conquer) vincere, va.


(
beautiful, bello,adj.

n.,

old,

years

prep., da

*parere,

in.

sete, caldo, freddo;

voce

amphitheater, anfiteatro,

appear,

thirsty,hot, cold,

Alps, pr. n., le Alpe


also, conj.,anche
always, adv., s"mpre

anxiety, pena,

m.

"

alone, adj.,solo
aloud, adv., ad alta

another, adj. and

author, autore,

back, dosso, m.
bank, sponda, riva, /.
to
be, *" ssere,
vn.;

all,adj.,tutto
almost, adv., quasi

amuse,

assicurare, va.

assure,

baby, bambino,

air,aria, /.

among,

adv., siccome

aunt, zia,/.

paura

aofo,

vn.

*ascendere, *salire,va.
ask, domandare, va.

vn.

be

armi, /.pi.

ascend,

accompagnare

va.,

accompany,

le

arms

ape,

/.

begin, cominciare,
si a, v. ref.

*metter-

va.;

applicarsi, being, gssere, ;;;.


belong, *appartenere,vn.
258

26o

ITALIAN

demand,

/.;to

domanda,

mandare,

GRAMMAR.

do-

"

excellence, eccellenza, /

exception, eccezione, /.

va.

departure, partfnza, /.
dependence, dipendenza, /.

exclaim, esclamare,

deserve, meritare,

explain, spiegare,va.
eye, 9cchio, m.

excuse,

va.

desolate, adj.,deserto

scusare,

va.

va.

destroy, *distruggere,va.
die, *morire, vn.
difficult,
adj.,difficile
difficolta,/./ with
difficulty,

affannosamente,

"

"

face, faccia,/.; viso, m

fact,fatto,m.

adv.

director, direttore,m.

faith,fede, /.

directress,direttrice,/.

faithful,adj.,fedele
fall,*cadere, vn.; caduta, /.
familiar, adj. and n., familiare

do, *fare, va.


doctor, mfdico,

dog,

cane,

m.

family, famiglia,/.
far,adj. and adv.,lontano; adv.,
lunge
fast, adv., prfsto, sollecitamente
father, padre, m.

in.

door, p"?rta,/.

dry, adj.,arido
duke, duca,

in.

during, prep., durante,


dwell, dimorare,

per

feel,sentire,tastare,

vn.

each, pron., ciascuno


edifice,edificazione, /.

Egyptian, adj. and

pr.

n.,

egi-

ziano

either, conj.;

nor

"

neppure,

nemmeno

empire, imp"ro,
end, fondo,

flight(ofstairs) branco,
floor,pavimento, m.
,

nemico, inimico,
enough, adv., abbastanza
enrich, arrichire,va.
enemy,

m.

Florence, Firenze, pr.


Florentine, adj. and

Etruscan, adj.and pr.

n., etrusco

every,

ognuno,

ciascuno

pr.

n.,

pron.,

follow, *seguire,seguitare, va.


foolish,adj.,inconsiderato

n.

foot, piede, m.
for,prep., per;

adv., mai
and

n.

flower, fj.ore,
m.

Europe, Eur9pa, /. pr.


evening, sera, /.
adj.

m.

fiorentino

vn.

entitle,intitolare,va.

ever,

feign,*fingere,vn.
few, adj.and n., qualche; p9chi,
m., pQche, /.
find,trovare, va.
finger,dito,m.
finish,finire,va.
first,adj.,primo; adv., prima
five,cinque, num.

fixedly,adv., fissamente

m.

in.

enter, entrare,

va.

ogni,

conj.,pdich^
formerly, adv., altre vQlte,/.pi.
fortunate,adj.,fortunato

ENGLISH-ITALIAN

found, fon dare,


fourth,

va.

adj.,quarto

half, adj.,mezzo

free, liberare, va.


French, adj.and pr.
friend, amico,

261

VOCABULARY.

hand,
francese

n.,

m.

happen, *accadere,
happy, adj.,felice
hat, cappfllo,m.
have,

/.

mano,

*avere,

head, capo,

gain,acquistare,va.
giu9co,m.
game,
gate, pprta. /.
at, guardare, va.
gaze, to
generally,adv.,generalmente
gentleman, signore, w.
German,
adj.and pr. n., tedesco
Germany, Germania, /. pr. n.
girl,ragazza, /.
give,*dare, va.
glad, adj.,contento
gladly,adv., volentieri
"

go, *andare, vn.;


to
darsene, ref.;

to
"

"

gold, Qro,
golden, adj.,d'Qro,m.
good, adj., bu"?no, dabbene
(placed after noun) ;
day,
bugn giorno;
by, addio; to
"

"

governor,

to, far bene

heart, cu9re,
heat, calore,

m.

heel, tacco,

m.

hemisphere, emisfero,
Henry, Enrico, pr. n.
here, adv., qui, qua;
his, pass.,

va.

m.
m.

is, ecco

"

suo

history,st9ria,
/.
home, casa, /.
honorable, adj., onorabile,

ono-

revole

hot, adj.,caldo
house, casa, /.; at the

/.

of, da,

"

prep.

how, adv., come,


quanto
however, adv., bench^, pen)
human, adj.,umano
I

m.

grazia,/.
father,
grand, adj., grande;
son,
nipote,m.
m.;
n9nno,
grass, erba, /.
gratitude,riconoscenza, /.
great, adj., grande; greater,
maggiore; very great, sommo
greatness, grandezza, /.
Greece, Grfcia, /.pr. n.
green, adj.,verde
grace,

"

ground, terreno, m.
guide,guidare,va.

sentire,

governatore,

"

m.

hear, *udire,

away,
hope, sperare, va.; speranza,
out,*uscire, horse, cavallo, m.

m.

"

va.

an-

vn.

do

vn.

if,conj.,se;

as

"

ill,adj.,malato;

come

dim

se

somewhat
.,

ill,sickly,malatuccio

indeed, adv. and


index

inter j.,davvero

indice, m.
(finger),

inhabitant,

abitante,

ink-well, calamdio,

m.

w.

insect, insftto,m.

inspire,inspirare,va.
instinct, istinto,

m.

interesting,
adj.,interessante
interrogate,interrogare, va.

262

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

like,adv., come

intimate, adj.,intimo
invader,

invasore,

like

m.

love),

to

amare,

va.;

piacere,

irregular,adj.,irregolare
Italy,Italia,/. pr. n.

vn.

lion,leone,

m.

lip,labbro, m.
J
John, Giovanni, pr.
journey, viaggio,m.
jump, saltare,vn.

literature,letteratura,/.

little,
adj.,piccolo,piccino; adv.
and adj. poco
lively,adj.,vispo
long, adj.,lungo
look,
at, guardare, va.; to

n.

"

"

va.
keep, conservare,
kindly, adj.,buono
king, re, m.
kingdom, regno, m.
kiss, baciare;
repeatedly,

for, cercare,

loosen, allentare, va.

lordship,signoria,/.
lose, *p|rdere,va.

"

sbacciuccare,

va.

knock, picchiare,va.
know,
by the senses,
"

re;

va.

love,

amore,

m.

love,

amare,

va.

va.

Lydia, Lidia, /. pr.

recognize, *riconoscere;
mind, *sapere
by

n.

adj., matto

mad,
make,
lack,

lower, abbassare,
*conosce-

the

"

vn.

mancare,

*fare, va.
m.

upmo,

man,

lady, signpra,/.

manage,

fare in modo

land, terreno,

manner,

modo,

m.

language, lingua,/.
last, adj., ultimo, scorso;

m.

adj. and n., molti, m.;


tanti, e
molte, /.; so many,
master,
maestro, padrone, m.
impormatter, cgsa, /.; to
many,

at

"

"

adv., finalmente

laugh, *ridere, vn.


lay, *porre,va.
learn, imparare, va.
leave, lasciare, va.;

di

"

tare,

maggio,

may,
to

take

"

accomiatarsi, ref.
lecture, fare un discorso,parlare,

vn.

m.

mi

pers. pron., me,

me,

*intfndere,

mean,

medicine,

va.

medicina,

/., medici-

nale, in.

vn.

left,adj.,sinistro

meet,

leg, gamba, /.
lesson, lezione,/.

menagerie, serraglio,m.
merchant,

letter,l"ttera,/.

mere,

adj.,puro,

mild,

to

lie,
"

down,

life,vita,/.

*giacere, vn.

incontrare,

ref.

va.

mercante,

grow

m.

semplice
ammansirsi.

"

v.

ENGLISH-ITALIAN

north, nprd,

military,adj.,militare
mind,

animo,

minute,

minuto,

notice,

misfortune, disgrazia,/.
denaro,

month,

mese,

m.

va., badare

osservare,

infermiere,

nurse,

m.

111.

111.

m.
(people),i piii,
mother,
madre, /.

object,cpsa, /.
oblige,obbligare, va.

pi

most

motion,

movimento.

observe,

/.

ocean,

movimento,

movement,

old, adj., v^cchio; to be


difci anni
years
", aver

m.

"

quan-

(=

to

be

obliged),*dovere,

vn.

myself, pers. pron.,

stesso

me

me,

nominare,

va.;

npme,

va.

narrare,

naturally, adv., naturalmente


necessity,bisogno, m.
neck, C9II0,m.
,

"

bisogno,"/.

mai,

in faccia

to, affinche

"

ordinarily,adv.,ordinariamente
origin,origine,/.
other, adj. and pron., altro
ought (expressing duty), *doveie,

need, necessitl, /.

adv., non

-aprire,va.

"

order, in

never,

to

opposite, prep.,
or, con].,0, pd

(finger-nail)unghia, /.

narrate,

uno
-a;
indef.art. and num.,
ad
uno
one
una
vplta
by one,
solamente
adv.,
only,
adj. and
aperto ;
pp.,
open,

one,

name,

prep., su, sppra

on,

how

tanto

"

over,

vn.

prep., per

mai

nevertheless, adv., nondimeno

adj.,nu9vo
night, nptte, /.
adv.,np, non;
no,
nobody, nessuno,

new,

nessun

altro

pron.,

ten

"

much, adj.,molto;
so

m.

often, adv.,spesso

Mr., signor(e)
Mrs., signora
to;

mare,

of, prep., di

*mpversi, v. ref.

move,

va.

osservare,

occidental, adj.,occidentale

m.

mountain, montagna,
mouth, bpeca, /.

none,

(sl),

adv., pra. adesso

now,

adv., piu

more,

nail

;;/.

frate, m.

monk,

must

America,

vn.

m.

monarca,

money,

quaderno,

nothing, niente,

m.

misery, mis^ria, /.
monarch,

book,

note

mio

North

in.;

del Nprd

America

;;/.

mine, poss., il

263

VOCABULARY.

nessuno

adj.,nessuno
m.;

"

painfully,adv.,affannosamente
pair, paio, 111.
pale, adj. pallido
palpitate,palpitare,vn.
carta, /.
paper,
,

else,

parent, genitpre,m.

264

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

part, parte, /.
pass,

vn.

passare,

/.
pen, penna, /.
pencil,lapis,m., matita, /.
people, pppolo,m., gente, /.
period,periodo,m.
picture, pittura,/.,ritratto,
immagine, f.
piety,pieta,/.
plain,pianura,/.
play, giocare (giuocare),va.
fare bene
pleasant,to be
please,*piacere,vn.
pleasing,adj.,piacevole
pace,

peace,

"r"

(letterof the alphabet),erre,

race,

g"nte, /.

ragged, adj.,stracclato
raise, levare,
m.,

"

range,

va.

v.
ref.
allungarsi,

rascal, briccone, furfante,

raggio,m.
read, *lfggere,va.
reading, lettura, /.
ready, adj. pronto
really,adv., davvero
ragione,/.
reason,
ray,

pleasure,piacere,m.
plump, adj.,grassotto

recall,ricordarsi,v. ref.
recently,adv., recentemente

poet, pofta, m.
poison, veleno, m.

recognize,*riconoscere,
rector, parroco,

politician,politico,
poor, adj.,pQvero
m.

potere,

praise,lodare,

relate, raccontare,

va.

preacher,predicatore,

precious,adj.,prezioso
to
regalo, dono, m.;
present,
fare un
make
regalo,un
a
"

dono

present, presentare, va.


va.
*stringere,
profound, adj.,profondo
pronunciation,pronuncia, /.
proper, adj.,pr9prio
proud, adj.,superbo, contento
province, provincia,/.

press,

pulse, polso,m.

pupil,scolare,m.
Q
regina,/.
queen,
quickly,adv., stibito
quiet adj. tranquillo
,

m.

va.
regain,riacquistare,

in.

m.

va.

red, adj.,rosso
m.
reef, sc(?glio,

ritratto,m.
portrait,
power,

m.

va.

relieve,levar (uno) di pena


remain, *stare, restare, vn.
remark,

osservare,

remember,

va.

ricordarsi, vn.

va.
repeat, ripftere,

reply,*rispondere,vn.
republic,repubblica,/.
adj.,rispettoso
respectful,
v.
ref.
rest, riposarsi,
restive,adj.,restio
va.
ripigliare,
resume,
right,diritto,m.
right,adj.,destro; adv., a destra
dito anulare, anulare,
ring-finger,
m.

rise,levarsi, v. ref.

river,fiume,

m.

road, strada, via, /.


rcsy,

adj.,rgseo

ENGLISH-ITALIAN

fila,f.

row,

/.;("=dominion)

r"gola,

rule,

*cprrere;

singular,singolare,w.
sink, *imm^rgersi, v. rcf.
sister, sorella; =nun,

signona. /.
run

scappare,

away,

"

sit

same,

adj.,stesso

sand,

sabbia, /.

/.

sleep,spnno, "u.
aver
sleepy,to be
spnno
slowly,adv.,lentemente
small, adj.,piccolo
that, affinch^
so, adv., cosi;

safely,adv., sicuramente
salute, salutare,

"

va.

"

sob, singhiozzare, vn.


soldier,soldato, m.

sandy, adj.,sabbipso
Saturday, sabato, m.
*dire, va.

some,

pron., alcuni

school, scupla, /.

something, qualche

scolding,tiratina, /.
scorching,adj.,cocente

sometime,

seat, s" dia, /.


second, adj.,secondo

*vedere,

seek,

sorry,

va.

*parere, sembrare,

seem,

September, settembre,

vn.

the

head, crollare il capo

*rincrescere,vn.

"

Spanish, adj.
pr. n.,
gnuplo
speak, parlare,vn.
spite,in
malgrado
/.
sponge,
spugna,
=park,
piazza, /.
square,
stair, scala, f.
balbettare,vn.

stammer,

she, pron.,

ess,a

stare, guardar fisso

ship,nave,

/.

staring,adj., fisso
statue, statua, f.

make

gare,

shoe,

naufra-

"

statute,

vn.

/.
spalla,/.

show,

mostrare,

sick,adj.and

res

stick, bastpne,
stone,

in.

tare,

vn.

m.

pietra,/.
stop, fermarsi, v. ref.

va.

m.,

statuto,

stay, *stare,

Scarpa,

shoulder,

malato

sasso,

/;/.,

ruscello, in.

side, lato, m.

stream,

sigh,sospiro, m.
sight,vista, /.

street, strada,

/.

street-corner,

svo^tata,

silent, to be
Simon,

"

*tacere,

pr. n., Simone

since, conj.,poiche

spa-

"

sharp, adj.,acuto

shipwreck, to

giprno

m.

series, sfrie,
/.
shake

be

to

and

va.

cercare,

/.

sometimes, adv., qualche vplta


adv., subito
soon,

seashore, spiaggia, /.

see,

cpsa,

other, un

or

"

p V altro

m.

mare,

sea,

v.

/.
ref.

sej

slate, lavagna,

sad, adj.,triste

supra,

(down), accomodarsi,

six, num.,

vn.

say,

265

VOCABULARY.

vn.

/.

strong, adj.,fprte

study, studiare, va.t studio, m.


stupid, adj.,scipeco

266

ITALIAN

GRAMMAR.

throw,

style,stile, m.
subject,soggetto,m.
sublime, adj.,sublime
such, adj. and adv., tanto

thumb,

del

sole

m.

time, tempo, m., vglta, f.


tired, adj.,stanco
to-morrow, adv., domani
too, adv., anche

superior,adj.,superiore
giurare,vn.
swear,
swell, gonfiare,vn.
swollen, adj.,gpnfio

toss, agitare,va.

towards, prep., verso


trace, traccia,/.

table, tavola, /.
take, *pr"ndere, *t9gliere,va.;
to
walk, fare una
a
pas"

tragedy, trag^dia,/.
tranquillity,
tranquillita,/.
travel, viaggiare,vn., viaggio,m.
traveller,viaggiatore,m.
tree, albero, m.

trio,trio,m.

seggiata
teach, insegnare,
teacher, maestro,

va.

m.,

lagrima, /.;

tears, scoppiare

maestra,
burst

to

in

/.

into

lagrime

tell,raccontare, narrare,
than, adv., di, che

and

dem.

quello,quel tale;

triumvir, tritimviro,m.
trouble, *affliggere,
affannare,va.
true, adj.,vero

truly,adv., davvero
Turin, pr.

va.

n., Torino

*v9lgere,va.
Tuscan, adj. and pr.

turn,

va.
thank, ringraziare,
thanks, grazie, /.pi.

that, pr.

si

Tiber, Tevere,

"

va.

m.
pgllice,

thus, adv., co

suffer,*soffrire,va., patire,vn.
rise,il levare
sole,m.;
sun,

tear,

gettare, buttare,

two,

num.,

n.,

toscano

due

adj., quel,
"

is,cio"

that, rel.,che

understand, capire,va.

their,poss., loro
then, adv., allora, ppi; conj.,

unexpectedly, improvvisamente
unfortunate,
adj., sfortunato;

dunque

ly,adv.,sfortunatamente

"

there, adv., la, li;

"

is,

"

are,

unite, unire,

va.

", vi sono
thin, adj.,magro

until, prep., fino

thing, cosa, /.

usually,adv.,ordinariamente

vi

think,

pensare,

us,

vn.;

credere,

va.

third, adj.,terzo

thirst,sete, /.

verse,

this,dem., questo

very,

thought, pensi^ro,m.

vex,

three, num.,

Victor

tre

through, prep., per

pron. pers., noi

verso,

m.

adv., molto;
contrariare,

Emanuel,

Emmanuele

adj.,stesso
va.

pr.

n.,

Vittprio

INDEX.
Heavy-faced figures refer to paragraphs.

(4); by di, 212

2ii

da,

pi.,p. 38,11.1 ;
feminines
in, 50, 56; pi. of
o nouns,
63, 64; sign of
masc.
feminine
sing.,42, 50; use of

a, masculine

noun

36 (a), p.

n.

123,

bupno

sere

abstract

accent,

31,

of,in irr. vbs.

role

accentuation,
which

n.

acute

ad

of

conj.

176;

249

addpsso,

n.

p.

pounded
com-

ai in

n.

be

to

translated,

2.

n.,

forms

109,

Rem.

Rem.

2;

adv.

from,

118;
131,

of,
1

in
p.

109;

used

as

1 1

157,

n.

3.;

irr.,

place of, 58, 129, 130,


preceded by a,
132;

gree
de122,

and

238,

237,

n.

1,

239;

and

superlative,p.
of, 163,

1.

dates, p. 168,
magno,
n.

n.

1.

(2),

44

ex.

1.

(1), Rem.

51

altri added

to

altrimenti,

237

ambiguity

of

noi, voi, 92

(b).

(6).
possessiveavoided,

138.

analytical

and

synthetic

parison,
com-

120.

aspron.,ioc,

-lie, formation

121,

modification

3;

Alessandro

of,

adjective,44 (6) ; agreement

of

243;

affirmation

absolute
n.

Alpe,

33.

36 (a).
not

124,

of,

use

Oi

-frrimo adj.,
(a); adj. sometimes, 128;

form

p.

of

-issimo

92,

pron.,

240;

comparison,

244;

(c) and

accent,

108;

to

112,

forms

verbal

from

n.

17,
words
1

242,

manner,

ing
fall-

2.

for a,

p.

p.

added, p.

with

76,

30;

suffix
of

4;

35;

of irr. verb,

stem

on

(b),

of
34,

239,

ner,
man-

negation, 245, 246; of time,


247;
comparison of, 248, 249;
positionof, 250 ; formation
of,

333,

32,

241,

and

"s-

(1), 51

44

(1); 50 (3).n-

place,
125,

by

238,

237,

64, Rem.

a, p.

nouns,

15S, n. 1.
adverbs, classes of,236; of

3.

ability,idea of, rendered

adv., 238(a),

as

p.

a, ad,

of, 5;

value

prep., 211;

used

213;

(3); by

an

dare

used

to

express

sive
progres-

action, 81 (1/)(1);

duty.
andarsene,

81

(1), (2).

107.

269

to

press
ex-

INDEX.

270
-ando, pres. part, in,

part, in, in;

-ante, pres.
for -ando
n.

112.

in pres.

-ante

part., p.

49,

comes
; -ante, -ente, part, in, bep. 146,

noun,

antimeridiano,

n.

1.

{ante

a.m.

diem),
meri-

256 (b).
in,

apposition,nouns

(2).

49

arci-, 164.

def., omitted

in exclamation,
with

omitted

cejnto,

cal
(c); in numeri-

mille, etc., 251

3.
44,

n.

augmentative suffixes,167.
auxiliary verbs, 74; tables
57-

PP-

58;

of" 76, 77;

use

76, 77,
synopsis,

77

78, 79, 80; modal

(a)and (b),
dovere,

aux.,

potere, volere, fare, sapere,

82, 83; lasciare


as

avere,

74;

vb., 235
in

83; modal

auxiliary

214;

auxs.,

as,

as,

(a).

description,44 (7);

lish
(a), 80; translating Eng"to
be", in idioms, 84;
avere
da, 84 (6); irr. of, 180
79

(3); past part, with,


p. 84,

n.

; to denote

of

113
age,

(6),
258.

255

Carlo

magno,

n-

of

(2),Ex.

44

(c) and

1.

c"nto, without

(/).
(4), 251

art., 49

(0vbs.

in, 70 (1).

of, 16.

vbs.
n.

vowels

67, 68, p. 51,

of

n.

2;

reg.
p. 52,

1.

che, rel., 145,

146;

146 (a) ; as noun,


in
inter., 154;

(fr),p.94,
to

127;

neuter,

as

p. 104,

che

1;

p.

non,

question
170,

n.

2.

148; chi-chi, 148

(a); inter.,153.
-chiare vbs., 69 (3).
and
place of, 242,
ci, adv. use
243-ciare

251

(e),

vbs., 69 (2).

ci9,140.

4-

bravo,interj.,asadj.,p.
170,

n.

4.

and

accent,

use

of, 34.

of ch in learned

1,

comparison,

n.

introduce

chi, rel.,145,

n.

words,

19(c); exception, p. 11.


close e, 5, 8; representing Latin

rendering of,

P- I09.

days

(c).

for cento, 251

cl instead

b, value of, 12.


back vowels, 6.

254.

ployed
em-

ending in, 69 (1).

circumflex
B

"both",

speaking

implying doubt,

compounding with, 78,

verbs

251;

-care,

126

oned
reck-

15,
171

116

characteristic

of,

suffix. 124.

numerals,

vbs.

ch, value

2.

cc,

in

month.

-cere,

audacie, p.

(a),16;

(2); masculines
in, 59; feminines in, 60.
capitals,use of, 37.

c"n

2
assimilation,p. 25, Rem.
(c).
-astro,with adj. of color, p. 112,

n.

(a).
-ca, adj. in,

n.

titles,257.

14. 15

before

def.,

(a); in-

superlative,122

157;

Rem.;

cardinal

article,repetition of, 46;


with

of,

c, value

8; rules for, 9.

close 0, 5, 8; representing Latin


6 and u, 8; rules for, io, n.

INDEX.

masculines

-co,

in, 62;

116, p. 44, n.
collectives, 254.

of, 119,
of

3.

degrees
equality, 121;

120;

and

by

123,

of

che, 126;

125;

(2),p.

119;

of

superiority,122,
di

correspondence bet
and English, 38.

comparison

124;

cotesto,

of, 139

use

3.

of, 1 42.

use

crossingof two

constructions, p.

riority,
infe-

95, n. 1.
of inflected cui, 145, 147, p. 105,

of adv., 248,

vbs., 127;

n.

102,

Italian

wren

costui, contemptuous

of ad

comparison

adj. in,

27

n.

n.

p. 106,

2;

1.

249.

compound

[180(4).
irregularityof,

77vbs.

compound
compounds, syllabicationof, 29
(0,Ex.
53, 66.

nouns,

with

compounded

da

(b);

116,

175, p.

63,

n.

from

n.

6;

inf.,

of, 230,

use

for

anterior

(b).
conjunctions, simple,

simple

tense, 230

217;

ondary,
sec-

followed

218;

subj.,219,
conjunctive

by

233.

220,

place of, 99,

pron.,

of, 96, 98,

pp.

76, 77;

table

99;

and

replacing poss.,
change of
(b), 101;
ment
agree-

art.

(8), 137
form
of, 99
44

(2);

of

past part, with, 113


(b),114; p. 85, n. 2.
classification of, 1
consonants,
(6); tables of, pp. 2, 3; value
of, 12

seq.

cided
contraction, 36; of inf.,174; de-

by

ear,

past part., p.

pi.fut., p.

50,

p.

of, 213;

n.

of

week, gender of 51 (1).


defective vbs., 181, p. 54, n. 3.
,

definite article,forms

or

139;

pron.,

(1), (2),
141,

140;

142,

forms

of,

remarks

143,

with

139
on,

pounded
com-

144;

art., 43;

art.

with, 45 (3).
di, before
preceded
pcrs. pron.
by prep., 183; prep, followed

by, 185, 186. 187 (a);

2;

of

3d

after

vbs.,

of articles

after

adj.,212

prepositions,43.

Madama,

used
Madamigella, p. 31,
2;
distributively, 44
(1); in
in expressions of
dates, 255;
time, 256; replacing poss., 44
(8), 137 (1), (2); with che,
146 (a) and n. 1.
dei takes gli,p. 27, n. 3.
demonstratives
either adj.
are

n.

2;

use

n.

of

n.

of, 40;

with

45;

1;

ofunonot

by, 187;
215 (6).

(e).

n.

3;

da, 84

avere

="to",

118

30,

49,

indicated, p. 28,
with

prep,

of, 44,

3.

conditional

(3);

followed

dare, irr. of, 178 (6),180 (1),(2).

pronouns,

formed

13.

"as",49

days

conditional

of,

dabbene,

92.

p.

d, value

use

compound
con

of vb., 75, 76,

tenses

omitted,

212;

47,

212

use

of,

(1) (a);

ception
(2), p. 32, Ex(b); ="on",
45 (7);

48,

212

212

(3); of partitive,
(4) ; of comparison,

INDEX.

272
126
in

95, Rem.,

(a), p.
adv.

(5);
(7).

212

expression,
diacritic signs,35.
-dico, adj. in, 124 (a).

212

diminutives,

refl.vbs., 78, 103,

with,

duration

45

(2), Rem.
suffixes,166.

diphthongs,

83, Rem.

28.

(1), (3).

180

ble
disjunctivepers. pron, 85; taof, 86; use of, 85, 87, 88,

90,

91,

92,

where

used

objects,98 (5).

two

doubling of
pron.,

99

initial

cons,

(b) and

n.

of vowel, 99

dropping

irr.

114;

of,

in

conj.

(a);

fore
be-

suffixes,171.

time,

259;

time

of

in

day,

1;

(a),114;
(p. 60); vbs. compounding
used

vbs.

with, 78, 79, 80;

stead
in-

of, 81.

junctive esso, essa,


dis-

95;

93,

forms

of

aux.

past part, with,


use
of, 77, Rem.

113

dire,irr.of, 178(6),

89,

of

expressions of

diminutive

as

ing
173, 178 (b),179, 180; denot-

used

art.

-"rrimo,adj. in, 124.


fssere, conj. of, 74;

of both

used

persons
2; used

and

things, p. 67, n.
redundantly with meco, etc.,
92 (a).
euphony in placing adj.,131 ; in
suffixes,171 (b).
-evole, adj. in, 124 (a).

dapppco, 118 (e).


E

f, value
e, value

of, 5,

9;

and

for ph in words

12;

of Greek

before,

of,

origin,p. 26,

Rem.

(a)" (b); gender of nouns


3(b).
of
a
ending in, 51; pi.
(fern.) fare, conj.pron. with, 99 (p.77),
Rem.
nouns
in, 56; sign of fem. pi.,
(d); irr. of, 180 (1),(2),
J5

42,

of

50;

ed for e,

pi.,63, 64.

masc.

36 (a).

Italian, p. 66,
elision,36, p. 73,
n.

Ella,Lei
elleno

n.

anche,

neppure,

"
=

you",

seldom

in

suffixes

-ente, for end}


1;

with

in pres.

da, and

a,

in, 184

n.

fractions,252 (b).
front vowels, 6.

modern

of,

nouns

(a).

124

(d).
from

future, formed

91.

used

endearment,

n.

fino used

fu, 118

Italian, p. 66, n. 5.
emotion, subjunctive of, 232

49,

p.

2.

of,54;

ending, 30 (2) (a).

-fico,adj. in,
and

3 ; of

in

masc.

denoting

of time, 259.

feminine, formation

5.

n.

nemmeno,

142,

of, 82, 83;

use

duration

ei=egli,p. 66, n. 3.
egli,ella used of both persons
and things,p. 67, n. 2.
used
in modern
eglino seldom

che,

(3);

116,

n.

6;

inf.,175,

p.

of, 229.

use

(2).

168.

part., p.
in,
in.
pres. part,

g,

value

of,

doubled,
suffix, 124,

14,

15,
171

15

Rem.;

(a).

(b), 16;
before

INDKX.

-ga,

7J

infinitive,conj. pron.

adj.in, 116 (2).

with,

(pp. 76, 77);


tive
negapendent,
n.
imperative,p. 51,
4; depreceded by a, 211
out
(2),(3); by di, 212 (1); with-

II

of,p. 26,

h, omission
in

and

-care

Rem.

-gare

("i)
;

vbs.,

69;

of, 16, 21, 27, 59.


hundreds, higher numbers
value

counted

by,

251

99,

for

Rem.

prep.,
not

art.

(d).

214;

used

44

(9);

with,

rendered

as

noun,

English,
(e);232

by subj.,
(1); rendering Eng. past part.,
221

I
223.

i,c before,15 (a); for y in words


of Greek
origin,p. 26, Rem.

insieme

used

with

con

with

and

(a).

a, 184

261.
interjections,
(6); gender
of nouns
interrogatives, forms
of, 152;
ending in, 51;
used
in exclamations, 157.
pi. of nouns
ending in, 57;
interrogativevb., 72.
prefixed before impure s, p.
-ire vbs., taking either termination,
n.
4;
sign of masculine
123,
do
plural,42, 50; to indicate pro71 (6), 71 (c); that
nunciation,
not take -isco forms, 71(a).
61, 69 (2), 70;
value of, 5, 22.
-io,plural of nouns
in, 55, Rem.
-iare vbs., 69 (4).
2, p. 44, n. 1 ; of adj. in, 117.
il for lo,p. 72, n. 1.
of, 173;
irregular verbs, stem
forms from, p. 102, n. 3.
models
struction
of, 177 (a), (6); conille,
il quale,145; distinguished from
of, 179.
-isco endings, 71.
cui, 147 (a).
-issimo, adj. in, 124.
impari, 118 (a).
iste, forms pron., p. 102, n. 3.
imperative, force of future, 229
it," translation
(3); irr.,180 (3); use of, 231.
of, 94 and n.
imperfect tense, 73; imperf. ind.
3

(a); g before, 15

'

for conditional,

230 (a).
vbs., 181;
conj.
with, 99, Rem.
(a) (p.

impersonal
pron.

76).

j, semi-consonant,
6,

n.

n.

1.

1;

value

in, p. 32, Ex. (a); denoting end


of motion,
(2) and
n.;
204
with

credere, p. 142,
inchoatives, Latin, p.
indefinite

syntax

n.

50,

article, forms

table

of,

p. 2,

23,

pronunciation of

6.

n.

of,

44,

k, not occurringin Italian

1.

p.

p.

bets;
alpha,

(a).

41;

of, 49.

indefinites,158, 159, 160,


162;
as,
phrases used
subjunctive with, p. 1 10,

of, 12.

161,

1, value

160:

lasciare,

n.

2.

Rem.

conj. pron.
(e)(p. 77).

with,

99,

INDEX.

274
Latin

gender,

retain

nouns

week, def.

p.

(6);

38,11.1.
letters of

alphabet, 3.

ne

li for il in dates, p. 27,

168,

n.

n.

2,

p.

of months,

for ci,p. 72,

n.

44

(12).
of, 45 (2).

relatives,names

near

n.

junctional,
con-

218.

n9 for non,

(11)

44

2.

neuters-, Latin, p. 38, n.


ng, value of, 17.

1.

lo,neuter, p. 73,
5.
adverbial,
248;'
locutions,

with,

art.

1.

246 (a).

"nobody," rendering of 161.


non, place of, 246 (b); without
negative value, 127, 246 (c).
,

loro,

n.

p. 72,

(a);

with, 135

art.

conj.,

4.

non

vero,

nosco,

p. 70,

69, n.

p.

n.

3.

2.

"nothing," rendering of 161.


nouns
preceded by a, 211
(5);
by di, 212
(a); in apposition
preceded by di, 212 (6).
,

"3f,12.

value

m,

madama,

p. 31,

n.

2.

madamig^lla, p. 31; n. 2.
(1).
pi. of, p. 45, Rem.
mago,
and
in comparison, 125
manco
n.

1.

(1).
(2), (a),55, Rem.
Ex.
(c)
Vergine, 44 (2),
50

mano,

Maria

and

n.

Lat.,

meco,

feminine

nouns

ending,
p.

developments of,

two

mfglio,p.

n.

n.

; as

adj. noun,

nouns

of, 251

(6).
(10),251-261.

numerals,

44

numerical

idioms, 260.
O

suffix,237.

o,

5, 8;

and

au,

open

Latin

art., 49 (4),251 (c).

molto, 128.

monosyllables,by contraction,
3;

of, 5, 8; diphthongized
forms, 69 (5),70 (3);
in
dropped
questo and cotesto,
141 ; for a in imperf.,p. 50, n.

o, value

4;

1.

adv.

mille without

n.

60, 61, 62,

56, 57, 58,


63, 64, 65;

in verbal

1.

91,

as

p. 6,

55,

59,

in

92.

-mente

42,

(2) (6).

50

65, n.

p. 162,

39,

2.

masculine

me,

number,

1 1

representing
8;

sign

in
of

syllables,
monoline
mascu-

singular,42, 50.
jective,
objective forms used for sub-

pi. of, 57.

95.

253.
multiplicatives,

od for 0,

36 (a).

ogni, 118 (a), 162.


onde, 145,

107,
n,

of, 12, 17.


of cities,of continents, of

value

names

countries, of lakes, of rivers,


of seas,

44

(5); of

days of

n.

149;

derivation

1.

-one,

167, 172 (a).

-one,

-oni

open

0.

order

of, p.

as

adv.

suffix, 239.

5, 8.

of two

conj. pron..

100.

276

INDEX.

provincia,p.

n.

44,

2.

pseudonimo,takes lo, p.
purity
n.

n.

27,

vowels,

of Italian

p.

3.
4,

impure, 36 (6).p.
adj. before, 115 (b).

s, 19;

1.

santo, forms

of, 12,

q, value

sc, value

p. 8,

n.

2, 162.

n.

qualcgsa,gender of, 50 (2) (b).


quale, 155.
quanto,

seco,

quello,inflection of, 141


qaesti

'

'the

mer",
for-

questo, use

",

",

of,

use

former
latter

Rem.;

with,

114;

5-1 51;

in

92

(a),

249

to

form

used

sovra-,

164.

always

pressed
ex-

express

81

(a).

with,

104.

of

n.

1,

(1), (2); used

progressive action,

per, 81

(a),p.

reg.

141,11.

1.

of

vbs., 68;

irr.

178, p. 116, n. 2;
stressed stem, 176, 178 (d).

stra-, 164.

strong vbs., p. 116,


182

su,

(6); followed

(b).
subj. imperf.

lative,
super-

of

n.

1.

by

per,

command,

187
231

(a), 232.

subj. pres.
n.

for

imperative, p.

51,

5.

subj.,use

(c).
instead

235.

vbs., 173,

past part,

to form

to

stem,

with

Italian, 150*

repetitionof adv.
rimanere

164.

stare

possessive with,
I37 (2); synopsis of, 102, 106.
relative, indefinite, subj. after,
(4) (a).
232
relative clause, rendered
by inf.,
subj. in, 232 (4).
224;
relatives, 14

234,

for siano, p. 57,

sopra-,

past

(a), 98.
vbs., compound
114;

167,

105

reflexive

78, 103,

of tenses,

spia, 50 (1),Exc.
stare, irr. of, 180
103,

"ssere,

collective, p.

constructions

143.

part, with, 114.


recluta, 50 (1), Exc.
redundant
construction,
95

not

sequence

143.

reciprocal yds.,

99,

3.

si,

143.

with,

(e)(p. 77).

sestina

sieno

of, 142,

n.

sentinella, 50 (1), Exc.

143.

"the

and

92

n.

21.

se, 93-

Rem.

quasimente, 237 (b).


quegli,139 (1),0); -"the

142;

of, 20,

sentire, conj.. pron.

128, 156.

121,

178 (6),180 (3).

-sciare,vbs., 69 (2).

3.

qualche,118 (b),p. 89,

1;

of, 115.

irr. of,

sapere,

n.

27,

subordinate

of, 232,

233.

clause, subj. in,

232

(1).
of

passive, 81 (c).

"ssere

suffixes, 163,

meaning

165-172;

in, 170;

with

loss

of

adv.,

INDEX.

163,

n.

p. in,

(a) and

249

1,

277

(b).

superlative,subj. after,
for su, 36 (a).
sur

ofimperf.dropped, p.

12;

v,

n.

(3).

44

surnames,

(3).

232

5.

conj. pron.

vedere,

syllabication,
29.
forms,
synthetic

123,

Rem.

124.

used

form

of,

t, value

instead

99,

of "ssere

to

passive,81 (6).

verbal

222.

221,

noun,

verbs, reg. conjugation of, 67;


table of, p. 49; of second
conj.,

13.

128.

tanto,

with,

(e) (p. 77).

venire

50,

p. 54,
vi, adv.

teco, 92.

n.

and

2.

place and

of,

use

242,

is", rendering of, 83,

there

243-

Rem.

2.

titles,44
"

vocative,

(2), 135 (b).


of

", rendering

to

(1), 214,

215.

tocco, fori'

256 (a),

una,

voiced

consonants,

voiced

s,

voiceless

troppo, 128.

forms

two

Rem.

26,

p.

(4).

25, Rem.

vowel,
n.

su

accented,

vowel,

p.

10,

(3).

2.

end

nouns

followed
n.

by

(1),p. 39, n. 5.
before, 36 (a), p.

p.

123,

ble,
ta-

2.

nantal,
conso-

1;

in,

5.

p.
5;

1.

vowels, classification of,

u,

n.

Italian

vowel,

word,

same

p.

s, 19.

p. 69,

vosco,

of, 91.

1.

19.

volere, irr. of, 180

truncation, 36.
use

p.

voiceless consonants,

triphthongs, 28.

tu,

(a),45 (1).

of, 91.

voi, use

(2), 212

211
,

(2),Exc.

44

18; Eng. replaced by


o,

p.

Rem.

25,

(6);

nouns

ending in, 50 (3).


udire, conj. pron. with, 99, Rem.
0) (p- 77)tional,
uncertainty expressed by condi(2).
from, p.

w,

uno,

-a, 251

(a);

by

ventuno,

251

(a).

noun

occurring
2;

in

Italian

phabet,
al-

pronunciation of,

3(a).
weak
vbs., p. 116, n. 1.
rendering of, 151,
"what",

154

(a).

230

unde, form

not

107,

n.

r.

modified

trentuno,

etc.,

x,

not

occurring
2;

in

Italian

phabet,
al-

pronunciation of,

278

INDEX.

Eng.

(a);

Rem.

25,

or

replaces,

"you",

p.

(a).

(2)

rendering

of,

p.

n.

50,

2,

91.

Y
z
.

not

y,

2;

in

occurring

Italian

pronunciation

phabet,
al-

of,

z,

zz,

fore"

(o).

i
1

value

P-

of,
27,

n.

26;
3.

il

or

lo

be-