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Osmosis & Diffusion - Lab 1

Introduction:
All molecules have kinetic energy and are constantly in motion. This
motion causes the molecules to bump into each other and move in different
directions. The result is diffusion. Diffusion is the random movement of
molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low
concentration. This will continue until dynamic equilibrium is reached; no net
movement will occur. Osmosis is a special kind of diffusion. It is the
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. A selectively
permeable membrane means that the membrane will only allow certain
molecules through such as water, small solutes, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and
glucose, because no additional ATP is required. The membrane will not let
ions, nonpolar molecules, or large molecules through because extra ATP is
needed for them to travel across the membrane. Active transport is how
molecules (such as ions) move against the concentration gradient. Additional
ATP is required to perform this process.
Water will travel from an area of high water potential to an area of
low water potential. Water potential is the measure of free energy of water
in a certain solution. It is measured by using the Greek letter psi (). The
formula for figuring water potential is:

+ s

Water Potential = Pressure Potential + Solute Potential


Water potential is affected by 2 different factors. They are the
addition of a solute and the pressure potential. If a solute is added to the
water, then the water potential is lowered. If more pressure is placed on
the water, then the potential is raised. The addition of a solute and water
potential are inversely proportional. Pressure being placed onto the water
and the potential of the water are directly proportional.
Solutions can have three relationships with each other; isotonic,
hypertonic, or hypotonic. When the solutions have the same concentration
of solutes, they are isotonic. There is no net change in the amount of water
on each side of the membrane. If the solutions differ in their solute

concentrations, the solution that has the most solute is hypertonic to the
other solution. The solution with the smaller amount of solute is hypotonic
to the other solution. The net movement of water will be from the
hypertonic solution to the hypotonic solution. Net movement will occur until
dynamic equilibrium is reached, then there will be no net movement of water.
Hypothesis:
In this lab, osmosis and diffusion will occur between the solutions of
different concentration until dynamic equilibrium is reached and there is no
net movement of water.
Materials:
Exercise 1A:
The materials used include a 30cm piece of 2.5cm dialysis tubing, string,
scissors, 15mL of 15% glucose/1% starch solution, 250mL beaker, distilled
water, and 4mL of Lugols solution (Iodine Potassium-Iodine or IKI).
Exercise 1B:
This exercise required six 30cm strips of presoaked dialysis tuning, six
250mL cups or beakers, string, scissors, a balance, and 25mL of these
solutions: distilled water, 0.2M sucrose, 0.4M sucrose, 0.6M sucrose, 0.8M
sucrose, and 1.0M sucrose.
Exercise 1C:
The materials that were required include 100mL of these solutions: distilled
water, 0.2M sucrose, 0.4M sucrose, 0.6M sucrose, 0.8M sucrose, and 1.0M
sucrose, six 250mL beakers or cups, a potato, a cork borer, a balance, paper
towel, and plastic wrap.
Exercise 1D:
The materials used include a calculator, and a pencil.
Procedure:

Exercise 1A:
Soak the dialysis tubing in water. Tie off one end of the tubing to
form a bag. Open the bag and place the glucose/starch solution in it. Tie
off the other end of the bag, leaving enough room for expansion of the
contents in the bag. Record the color of the solution in Table 1.1. Next,
test the glucose/starch solution for the presence of glucose. Record the
results in Table 1.1. Fill a 250mL beaker or cup with 2/3 full with distilled
water. Add 4mL of Lugols solution to the distilled water and record the
color of the solution in Table 1.1. Test the solution for glucose and record
the results in Table 1.1. Immerse the bag in the beaker of solution. Allow
the beaker and bag to stand for approximately 30 minutes or until you see a
distinct color change in the bag and the beaker. Record the final color of
the solution in the bag, and the solution in the beaker, in Table 1.1. Test the
liquid in the beaker and in the bag for the presence of glucose. Record the
results in Table 1.1.
Exercise 1B:
Obtain the six strips of presoaked dialysis tubing and create a bag out
of each one by tying off one end. Pour 25mL of the 6 solutions into separate
bags. Tie off the other end of the 6 bags. Rinse each bag gently with
distilled water and blot dry. Determine the mass of each bag and record it
in Table 1.2. Immerse each bag in one beaker filled will distilled water and
label the beaker to indicate the molarity of the solution in the bag. Let the
setups stand for 30 minutes. Remove the bags from the water. Carefully
blot them dry and determine their masses. Record them in Table 1.2.
Obtain the other lab groups data to complete Table 1.3.
Exercise 1C:
Pour 100mL of the solutions into a labeled 250mL beaker. Use a cork
borer to cut potato cylinders. You need 4 cylinders for each cup. Determine
the mass of the 4 cylinders together and record the amount in Table 1.4.
Place the cylinders into the beaker of sucrose solution. Cover the beaker
with plastic wrap to prevent evaporation. Let it stand overnight. Remove
the cores from the beaker and blot them gently on a paper towel and
determine their total mass. Record the results in Table 1.4. Calculate the

percentage change. Do this for the individual and class data. Graph the
class average percentage change in mass.
Exercise 1D:
Determine the solute, pressure, and water potential of the sucrose
solution. Then, graph the information that is given about the zucchini cores.

Results:
Exercise 1A:
Table 1.1

Bag
Beaker

Initial
Contents

Initial
Color

Final
Color

15% glucose
& 1% starch
Water &
IKI

Cloudy
White
Brown

Purple
Orange

Initial
Presence of
Glucose

Final
Presence of
Glucose

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

1. Which substances are entering the bag and which are leaving the
bag? What evidence supports the answer? Distilled water and IKI
are leaving and entering. Glucose is able to leave the bag.
2. Explain the results that were obtained. Include the concentration
differences and membrane pore size in the discussion. Glucose
and small molecules were able to move through the pores. Water and
IKI moved from high to low concentration.
3. How could this experiment be modified so that quantitative data
could be collected to show that water diffused into the dialysis
bag? You could mass the bag before and after it was placed into the
solution.
4. Based on your observations, rank the following by relative size,
beginning with the smallest: glucose molecules, water molecules,

IKI molecules, membrane pores, and starch molecules. Water


molecules, IKI molecules, Glucose molecules, Membrane pores, and
Starch molecules
5. What results would you expect if the experiment started with a
glucose and IKI solution inside the bag and only starch and water
outside? The glucose and IKI would move out of the bag and turn the
starch and water solution purple/blue. The starch couldnt move
inside the bag because its molecules are too big to pass through the
membrane of the tubing.
Exercise 1B:

Table 1.2: Dialysis Bag Results: Individual Data

Contents in
dialysis bag
Distilled Water
0.2M
0.4M
0.6M
0.8M
1.0M

Initial
mass
(g)
24.7
26.7
27.4
25.9
29

Final
mass (g)

% Change in
mass

23.7
27.4
29
29
32.6

Mass
difference
(g)
1
.7
1.6
3.1
3.6

28

33.7

5.7

20.4

4.1
2.62
5.84
12
12.41

Table 1.3: Dialysis Bag Results: Class Data

Group
1
Distilled
Water

4.1%

Group
.7%

Group
1.6%

Total
3
6.4%

Class
Average
2.13%

0.2M
0.4M
0.6M
0.8M
1.0M

2.62%
5.84%
12%
12.41%
20.4%

6.4%
9.9%
13.4%
14.6%
19.7%

4.1%
9.5%
9.3%
15.2%
15.9%

13.12%
25.24%
34.37%
42.21%
56%

4.37%
8.41%
11.57%
14.07%
18.67%

1. Explain the relationship between the change in mass and the


molarity of sucrose within the dialysis bags. The solute is
hypertonic and water will move into the bag. As the molarity
increases the water moves into the bag.
2. Predict what would happen to the mass of each bag in this
experiment if all the bags were placed in a 0.4M sucrose solution
instead of distilled water. Explain. With the 0.2M bag, the water
would move out. With the 0.4M bag, there will be no net movement of
water because the solutions reach dynamic equilibrium. With the
0.6M-1M bags, the water would move into the bag.
3. Why did you calculate the percent change in mass rather than
simply using the change in mass? This was calculated because each
group began with different initial masses and we would have different
data. All the groups needed consistent data.
4. A dialysis bag is filled with distilled water and then places in a
sucrose solution. The bags initial mass is 20g and its final mass is

18g. Calculate the percent change of mass, showing your


calculations. ((18-20)/20) x 100 = 10%
5. The sucrose solution in the beaker would have been hypotonic to
the distilled water in the bag.
Exercise 1C

Table 1.4: Potato Core: Individual Data

Contents of
Beaker
Distilled
Water
0.2M
0.4M
0.6M
0.8M
1.0M

Initial
Mass (g)
2.8

Final
Mass (g)
3.7

Differenc
e in Mass
.9

% Change
in Mass
32.14

2.9
2.5
2.3
2.5
2.3

3.1
2.2
1.9
1.9
1.8

.2
.3
.4
.6
.5

7
12
17.39
24
21.74

Table 1.5: Potato Core: Class Data

Distilled Water
0.2M
0.4M
0.6M
0.8M
1.0M

Group 1

Group 2

Total

32.14%
7%
-12%
-17.39%
-24%
-21.74%

21.1%
6.7%
-6.5%
-15.2%
-20%
-19%

53.24%
13.7%
-18.5%
-32.59%
-44%
-40.74%

Class
Average
26.62%
6.85%
-9.25%
-16.30%
-22%
-20.37%

Determine the molar concentration of the potato core. 0.3M


Exercise 1D

What is the molar concentration of the zucchini cores? .35M

1. If a potato core is allowed to dehydrate by sitting in the open


air, would the water potential of the potato cells decrease or
increase? Why? It would decrease because the water would leave
the cells and cause the water potential to go down.
2. If a plant cell has a lower water potential than its surrounding
environment and if pressure is equal to zero, is the cell hypertonic
or hypotonic to its environment? Will the cell gain water or lose
water? It is hypotonic and it will gain water.
3. The beaker is open to the atmosphere. What is the pressure
potential of the system? The pressure potential is zero.
4. Where is the greatest water potential? In the dialysis bag.
5. Water will diffuse out of the bag. Why? It is because the water
moves from and area of high water potential to an area of lower water
potential.
6. What effect does adding solute have on the solute potential
component of that solution? Why? It makes is more negative.
7. Consider what would happen to a red blood cell placed in distilled
water: a) Which would have the higher concentration of water
molecules? Distilled Water b) Which would have the higher water
potential? Distilled Water c) What would happen to the red
blood cell? Why? It would lyce, because it would take on too much
water.
Error Analysis:
Possible errors that could have affected the results of the lab include
incorrectly mixing the solutions, ineffectively tying the dialysis tubing,
inaccurately measuring , and inaccurately calculating.
Conclusion:
During Exercise 1A the data that was collected help determine which
molecules can and can not move across a cell membrane. Obviously, because
of the color change in the bag, the IKI was able to move across the
membrane. It is small enough to fit through the pores in the selectively
permeable membrane, along with water. Starch was too large to move across
the membrane. Glucose, as the Benedicts test proves, was able to move
freely along with the water and IKI solution.

In Exercise 1B, it was proven that water moves faster across the cell
membrane than sucrose. The water moved to help reach dynamic equilibrium
between the 2 solutions. The sucrose molecules are too big to move across
the membrane as fast as water can.
The data in Exercise 1C showed that the potatoes contained sucrose.
The sucrose in the potato raised the solute potential, which lowered the
water potential. The beaker of distilled water had a high water potential.
Water moves down the concentration gradient, causing the potato cores to
take on water.
Exercise 1D helped better understand the lab with simple algebra
equations. It proved that the data that was collected was correct through
mathematics.