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TRAINING NOTES ON

1. AEROPLANE DYNAMICS
&
STRUCTURE
2. AEROPLANE SYSTEM

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

uk

engineering

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Contents
1 MODULE 11 (AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS, STRUCTURES AND
SYSTEMS) .......................................................................................... 1-2
1.1

1.2

AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT CONTROLS ..................... 1-2


1.1.1
Fixed Aerofoils .............................................................. 1-2
1.1.2
Moveable Control Surfaces ........................................... 1-6
1.1.3
High Lift Devices ........................................................... 1-13
1.1.4
Drag Inducing Devices .................................................. 1-14
1.1.5
Airflow Control Devices Wing Fences......................... 1-17
1.1.6
Boundary Layer Control ................................................ 1-18
1.1.7
Trim Tabs ...................................................................... 1-21
1.1.8
Mass Balance ............................................................... 1-24
1.1.9
Control Surface Bias ..................................................... 1-26
1.1.10 Aerodynamic Balance Horn Balance .......................... 1-26
1.1.11 Aerodynamic Balance Inset Hinge.............................. 1-27
HIGH SPEED FLIGHT ..................................................................... 1-28
1.2.1
Speed of Sound ............................................................ 1-28
1.2.2
Subsonic Flight ............................................................. 1-29
1.2.3
Transonic Flight ............................................................ 1-30
1.2.4
Supersonic Flight .......................................................... 1-32
1.2.5
Aerodynamic Heating .................................................... 1-39
1.2.6
Area Rule ...................................................................... 1-40
1.2.7
Factors Affecting Airflow in Engine Intakes of High Speed Aircraft
1-41
1.2.8
Effects of Sweepback on Critical Mach Number ............ 1-43

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1

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

MODULE 11 (AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS, STRUCTURES


AND SYSTEMS)

The principles of Aircraft Theory of Flight are covered in JAR 66 Module 8.

1.1 AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT CONTROLS

An aircraft is equipped with fixed and moveable surfaces, or aerofoils, which


provide stability and control. Each item is designed for a specific function during
the operation of the aircraft.

Typical Aircraft Flight Controls


Figure 1
1.1.1 FIXED AEROFOILS

The fixed aerofoils are the wings or mainplanes, the horizontal stabiliser or
tailplane and vertical stabiliser or fin. The function of the wings is to provide
enough lift to support the complete aircraft. The tail section of a conventional
aircraft, including the stabilisers, elevators and rudder, is occasionally known as
the empennage.

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1.1.1.1

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Horizontal Stabiliser

The horizontal stabiliser is used to provide longitudinal pitch stability and is


usually attached to the aft portion of the fuselage. It may be mounted either on
top of the vertical stabiliser, at some mid-point, or below it.
Conventional horizontal stabilisers are placed aft of the wing and normally set at
a slightly smaller or negative angle of incidence with respect to the wing chord
line.
This configuration gives a small downward force on the tail with a value
dependent on the size of the stabiliser and its distance from the Centre of Gravity
(CG).

Horizontal Stabiliser
Figure 2

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1.1.1.2

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

T-Tail Arrangement

The T-Tail Arrangement places the complete stabiliser/tailplane and elevator


assembly on top of the vertical stabiliser. This ensures that pitch control is not
affected by turbulent air from the wing. It also makes the vertical stabiliser and
rudder control more effective, due to the so-called end plate effect.
However a T-Tail (and rear engine) configuration, would be dangerous if the
aircraft entered what is termed a deep stall. At a very high angle of attack (i.e.:
stalling angle), airflow could make pitch control non-effective (and may cause the
engines to flame out). To prevent this, T-Tailed aircraft will have a stick push
system, in order to automatically recover them safely from excessive angles of
attack.
The T-Tail has another disadvantage in that the empennage structure will be
heavier than normal, due to the strengthening required to combat greater bending
loads. However since the pitch moment arm is increased, the stabiliser and
elevators can be made smaller and therefore lighter than conventional designs.
Often, the complete stabiliser can be moved to provide longitudinal trim, negating
the use of trim tabs (later in Module 11.09).

TTail Arrangement
Figure 3
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1.1.1.3

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Vertical Stabiliser

The vertical stabiliser for an aircraft is the aerofoils forward of the rudder and is
used to provide directional stability.
A problem encountered on single-engined propeller driven aircraft is that the
propeller causes the airflow to rotate as it travels rearward. This strikes one side
of the vertical stabiliser more than the other, resulting in a yawing moment. These
aircraft may have the leading edge of the stabiliser offset slightly, thereby causing
the airflow to pass around it in such a manner to counter the yaw.

Off-Set Vertical Stabiliser


Figure 4

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

1.1.2 MOVEABLE CONTROL SURFACES

Moveable control surfaces are normally divided into Primary and Secondary
controls.
The primary control surfaces include the elevators, rudder, ailerons and roll
spoilers. The secondary control surfaces consist of trim controls (tabs), high lift
devices (flaps and slats), speed brakes and lift dumpers (additional spoilers).
Note: Traditionally, spoilers have not been included as primary controls, but those
which operate in conjunction with the ailerons during roll, are considered to be
primary in the JAR 66 syllabus, so this is how these notes will define them.
The primary control surfaces are used to make the aircraft follow the correct flight
path and to execute certain manoeuvres.
The secondary controls are used to change the lift and drag characteristics of the
aircraft or to provide assistance to the primary controls.

Moveable Control Surfaces


Figure 5

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1.1.2.1

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Roll Control - Ailerons

These primary controls provide lateral (roll) control of the aircraft, that is,
movement about the longitudinal axis. They are normally attached to hinges at
the trailing edge of the wing, near the wing tip. They move in opposite directions,
so that the up-going aileron reduces lift on that side, causing the wing to go down,
whilst the down-going surface increases the lift on the opposite side, raising the
wing.
Large aircraft often use two sets of aileron surfaces on each wing, one in the
conventional position near the wing tip and the other set at mid-span or outboard
of the flaps. The inboard set is referred to as high speed ailerons. The outboard
surfaces, or sometimes both sets, work at low speeds to give maximum control
during take off and landing, for example when large movements may be required.
At high cruising speed the outer ailerons are isolated and only the inboard set
operate. If the outer ailerons were permitted to operate at high speed, the stress
produced at the wing tips may twist the wing and produce aileron reversal. This
is particularly likely with modern highly flexible thin wings, where the possibility of
structural damage may result if the outboard surfaces were too powerful.
The ailerons are operated by a control wheel, a control column or a side-stick.
Movement of any of these inputs away from neutral towards one side, will result
in the aircraft rolling to that side. Returning the control to neutral at this stage will
leave the aircraft in a banked condition and a similar but opposite movement will
be required to bring the aircraft level once more.

Aileron Controls
Figure 6

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

The ailerons are usually operated in conjunction with the rudder and/or elevator
during a turn and are rarely used on their own. A co-ordinated turn is one that
occurs without slip or skid. Too little bank will cause the aircraft to skid outwards,
too much bank will cause the aircraft to slip downwards.

1.1.2.2

Roll Control - Spoilers

The use of spoilers as a primary control, will be to operate asymmetrically in


conjunction with aileron movement and are normally referred to as Roll Spoilers.
Roll spoilers are mounted on the top of the wing just inboard of the outboard set
of ailerons.

Roll Spoiler Controls


Figure 7
Movement of the aileron control wheel on the flight deck will deploy each spoiler
progressively upwards with the up-going aileron, whilst on the side of the downgoing aileron, the spoiler will remain flush with the upper wing camber.
.This is achieved by the control system being routed via a spoiler/aileron mixer
unit. The up-going spoiler will effectively spoil the lift on the down-going wing and
augment the similar effect of the up-going aileron.
Alternatively, on some aircraft the spoilers will replace the ailerons completely to
provide the sole means of roll control.
Note: Other spoiler functions are covered later under Secondary Controls.

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1.1.2.3

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Pitch Control - Elevators

The elevators are the control surfaces which govern the movement of the aircraft
in pitch about its lateral axis. They are normally attached to the hinges on the rear
spar of the horizontal stabiliser.
When the control column of the aircraft is pushed forward, the elevators move
down..
The resultant force of the airflow generated lift', acting upwards, raises
the tail and lowers the nose of the aircraft. The reverse action takes place when
the control is pulled back.

1.1.2.4

Pitch Control Stabilators

A special type of pitch control surface that combines the functions of the elevator
and the horizontal stabiliser is the stabilator, often referred to as a slab or allflying tailplane . The stabilator is a complete all-moving horizontal stabiliser which
can change its angle of attack when the control column is moved and thereby
alter the total amount of lift generated by the tail.

Elevator Controls
Figure 8

Stabilator Controls
Figure 9

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1.1.2.5

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Pitch Control Variable Incidence Stabilisers

Incorporating a conventional elevator control system, the variable incidence


horizontal stabiliser is often used for pitch trim. Normally a powerful electric motor
is used to vary its angle of attack when trim switches on the flight deck are
operated.

Variable Incidence stabiliser


Figure 10
1.1.2.6

Canards

Some earliest powered aircraft, such as the Wright Flyer, had horizontal surfaces
located ahead of the wings. This configuration, with the forward surface usually
referred to as a canard or foreplane, has been used on occasions, up to the
present day.
Conventional aircraft have the tailplane located at the rear of the fuselage which
provides a small, stabilising down force. This means that the wing has to produce
slightly more lift to balance this down force. As we have seen, in order for a wing
to produce lift it must also generate drag.
With the tailplane located at the front of the aircraft, the stabilising force is
directed upwards. This contributes to the total lift of the aircraft, thereby reducing
drag from the lift producing wing.

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

A fundamental feature of a canard design is that the angle of attack of the


foreplane, (in front of the CG of the aircraft) is set at a greater angle than the
main wing. This feature will ensure that the foreplane reaches the stalling angle
first, resulting in a predictable dropping of the nose and a certain recovery.
Additionally, stall sensing systems (later), can be triggered just before the
foreplane reaches its critical angle of attack, leaving the main wing safely below
the stalling angle and still producing adequate lift.

Canard Design Beech Starship


Figure 11
1.1.2.7

Yaw Control - Rudder

The rudder is a vertical control surface that is hinged at the rear of the fin and is
designed to apply yawing moments. The rudder rotates the aircraft about its
vertical axis and is controlled by rudder pedals that are operated by the pilots
feet. Pushing on one pedal, the right for example, causes the rudder to move to
the right also. This causes the rudder to generate a 'lifting' force sideways to the
left which turns the nose of the aircraft to the right.
Because of the power of some rudder systems, particularly assisted systems,
they may have their range reduced at high speed by means of a speed-sensitive
range limiting system.(later).
The rudder is normally a single structural unit but on large transport aircraft it may
comprise two or more operational segments, moved by different operating
systems to provide a level of redundancy.
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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Rudder controls
Figure 12

1.1.2.8

Combined-Function Controls Elevons and Ruddervators

An example of combined-function controls is found on delta-wing aircraft, where


control surfaces for pitch and roll must be fitted on the trailing edge of the wing.
Controls with a dual-function (elevators and ailerons) called elevons, provide
both pitch and roll, by moving symmetrically in pitch or asymmetrically in roll via a
mixer unit, when the control column or control wheel are operated on the flight
deck..

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Another example are ruddervators normally used on aircraft fitted with a 'V' or
Butterfly tail. These surfaces serve the purposes of both rudder and elevator.

Ruddervator Controls
Figure 13
1.1.3 HIGH LIFT DEVICES

Aerodynamic lift is determined by the shape and size of the main lifting surfaces
of the aircraft. In order to produce the outstanding performance achieved by a
large modern, swept wing, passenger jet such as the Boeing 777, the wing is
designed to give optimum lift to support the aircraft whilst in cruise (typically
Mach 0.87).
This has meant, that to be able to control and land the aircraft weighing around
200-tonne on runways of reasonable length, the landing speed needs to be
slower than the clean stalling speed of the aircraft. In order to achieve this, more
lift is required and this is obtained from so-called high lift devices.
These are divided generally into leading edge devices, namely slots, slats and
Krueger flaps and trailing edge devices including plain, slotted and fowler flaps.
They will increase lift and as a result, reduce the stalling speed. Consequently the
landing speed, (about 1.3 times the stalling speed), will also be reduced, since
drag is also increased with large angles of trailing edge flap deployment.

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Flaps and Slats


Figure 14
Additionally, some aircraft incorporate ailerons, both of which are designed to
move downwards together whenever the trailing edge flaps are extended to the
landing position. These will act as additional plain flaps and provide extra drag
(and lift), but will still provide roll control if required.
These surfaces are referred to as Droop Ailerons or Flaperons.

Droop Aileron
Figure 15
1.1.4 DRAG INDUCING DEVICES

There are several situations where the aircraft must slow down fairly quickly. With
slower, high drag, light aircraft, simply closing the throttle allows the high drag of
the airframe and the idling propeller to slow the aircraft down, to gliding speed
prior to landing approach, for example.

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

As previously stated, a modern airliner is an extremely smooth, low drag design


which, if only the throttles are retarded, will continue in level flight for many miles
before slowing down. Furthermore, if the nose were lowered more than a degree
or so, the aircraft will begin to accelerate again.
In order to overcome the problems of low drag on large aircraft with high
momentum, the designers have introduced a variety of drag inducing devices.
These include spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes and in unusual circumstances,
lowering the landing gear and operating in-flight thrust reversers.

1.1.4.1

Spoilers and Lift Dumpers.

Spoilers and Lift Dumpers are usually hinged panels located about mid-chord
position on the upper surface of the wing. Hydraulically operated, they produce a
large amount of turbulence and drag when deployed, resulting in a reduction of
lift.

Lift Dump Spoilers


Figure 16
Spoilers, have a variety of uses, all of which involve spoiling the lift of the wing.
Some of the following facilities can be combined, so that one set of panels can
have more than one job.
Firstly, they can be the primary roll control of the aircraft as described previously.
Secondly, the spoilers can be used in a symmetrical, part-deployed position,
allowing the aircraft to slow down quickly in the cruise, or descend at a much
steeper rate without accelerating. On some aircraft, the deployment angle of the
spoiler panels can be varied by changing the position of the control lever in the
flight compartment.

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Lift dumpers are, as their name describes, are spoiler panels incorporated solely
to dump lift. They are normally deployed after landing, destroying the lift of the
wing and producing high drag, to assist in stopping the aircraft efficiently and
thereby allowing the wheel brakes to be operated more effectively.

1.1.4.2

Speed Brakes

Whilst it is true that the in-flight use of spoilers may be referred to as selecting the
'speed brakes', the term more accurately describes devices which are solely for
the production of drag without any change of trim. The rear fuselage mounted
'clamshell-type doors which open up on the BAe 146 and Fokker 70/100 aircraft
are true speed brakes (or air brakes) and have the following major advantage
over the use of spoilers for producing drag.
When the wing mounted spoilers are deployed, vibration or rumble is often felt in
the passenger cabin, which some people may find disturbing. The aft mounted
speed brakes not only produce high drag at any airspeed, but their selection is
virtually vibration free. Also, lift will be completely unaffected, thus permitting their
deployment on approach and making a go-around much safer. (This will be
covered later in powerplants).

Speed Brake Installation


Figure 17

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

1.1.5 AIRFLOW CONTROL DEVICES WING FENCES

These devices are usually fitted to aircraft with swept wings. Total airflow over a
swept wing, splits into two components, one moving across the wing chord
parallel to the airflow and the other flowing spanwise towards the wing tip.
The fences are fitted about mid-span, on the leading edge of the wing and
extending rearwards. They are designed to control the spanwise flow of the
boundary layer air over the top of the wing. Also they will straighten the airflow
over the ailerons, improving their effectiveness and straighten the air nearer the
wing tip, resulting in less 'spillage' of air from beneath the wing to the top, thereby
producing less drag. (See Winglets later).

Wing Fences
Figure 18
1.1.5.1

Airflow Control Devices Saw Tooth Leading Edges

This form of airflow control is more common on military aircraft than modern
commercial airliners. The saw tooth or notch is simply a small increase in wing
chord on the outer portion of the wing. The step where the change occurs, tends
to form an invisible 'wall' of high velocity air, which flows over the wing and
straightens the spanwise flow. It functions in much the same way as the wing
fence but removes the extra drag and weight penalty.

Leading Edge Notch


Figure 19
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1.1.5.2

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Airflow Control - Winglets

These can be seen on a variety of the later generation airliners and business jets.
The outboard part of the wing are upswept to an extreme dihedral angle. These
winglets work best at higher speeds and, by clever aerodynamic design, will give
better airflow control and reduce the drag produced by the wing. It does this by
using the up-flow from below the wing to produce a forward thrust from the
winglet, rather like a yacht sail. The winglets add weight to the aircraft as well as
increasing parasitic drag, but the large reduction in induced drag at the wingtip,
results in a significant fuel saving.

Winglets
Figure 20
1.1.6 BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL

The boundary layer is that layer of air adjacent to the aerofoil surface (the
boundary between metal and air). If measured, the air velocity in the layer will
vary from zero directly on the surface, to the relevant velocity of the free stream
at the outer extremity of the boundary layer.
Normally, at the leading edge of the wing the boundary layer will be laminar, (in
smooth thin sheets close to the surface), but as the air moves over the wing
towards the trailing edge, the boundary layer becomes thicker and turbulent. The
region where the flow changes from laminar to turbulent is called the transition
point. .As airspeed increases, the transition point tends to move forward, so the
designer tries to prevent this thus maintaining laminar flow, over the top of the
wing for as far back as possible. Methods of boundary layer control are as
follows:

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1.1.6.1

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Boundary Layer Control - Vortex Generators

One way of stimulating the boundary layer and stopping the airflow becoming
increasingly sluggish towards the trailing edge is the use of vortex generators.
Vortex generators are small plates or wedges projecting up from the surface of an
aerofoil about 25mm.(about 3 times the typical boundary layer thickness), into the
free stream air. Their purpose is to shed small but lively vortices from their tip,
which act as scavengers to direct and mix the high energy free stream air into the
sluggish boundary layer air and invigorate it. This action pushes the transition
point backwards towards the trailing edge .
In this way,the small amount of drag created by the vortices is far more than
compensated by the considerable boundary layer drag which they save. They
also weaken the shock wave at high speed and reduce shock drag also. (later).

Vortex Generators
Figure 21

1.1.6.2

Boundary Layer Control - Stall Wedges

We have seen previously that washout on a wing permits the root of the wing to
stall first, allowing the pilot to retain roll control during the stall. Even with a
degree of washout, the aircraft will drop a wing on occasions due to adverse
boundary layer air causing the outer part of the wing to stall first. This can be
overcome with the use of stall wedges, or stall strips, as they are sometimes
known.

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Stall Wedges are small, wedge-shaped strips mounted on the leading edge of the
wings at about one third span. The are designed to disrupt the boundary layer
airflow, at large angles of attack approaching the stall, thus ensuring the airflow
breaks away,(stalls), at the root end of the wing first.
Additionally they produce a similar effect to a wing fence at smaller angles of
attack resulting in a smoother airflow over the ailerons, thus retaining optimum
roll control.

Stall Wedges
Figure 22
1.1.6.3

Boundary Layer Control - Leading edge Devices

Other devices to prevent laminar separation at the low speed end of the range
and thus control boundary layer air are leading edge droop flaps and Kreuger
flaps. They can be a droop snoot or permanent droop type, or can be adjusted
during flight.

Krueger (left) and Drooped (right) Leading Edge Flaps


Figure 23

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

1.1.7 TRIM TABS

During a flight an aircraft will develop a tendency to deviate from a straight and
level hands-off attitude. This may be due to changes in fuel state, speed, load
position or flap/landing gear selection and could be countered by applying a
continuous correcting force to the primary controls. This would be fatiguing for the
crew and difficult to maintain for long periods, so trim tabs are used for this
purpose instead.
Trim tabs move the primary control surface aerodynamically in the opposite
direction to the movement of the tab. To correct an aircraft nose down out of trim
condition, the elevator tab is moved down, resulting in the elevator moving up, the
tail of the aircraft moving down, so that the nose comes up, correcting the fault.

1.1.7.1

Fixed Trim Tabs

A fixed trim tab may be a simple section of sheet metal attached to the trailing
edge of a control surface. It is adjusted on the ground by simply bending it up or
down, to a position resulting in zero control forces during cruise. Alternatively, the
tab is connected to the primary control by a ground-adjustable connecting rod.
Finding the correct position for both types is by trial and error.

Fixed Trim Tab


Figure 24

1.1.7.2

Controllable Trim Tabs

A controllable trim tab is adjusted from the flight deck, with its position being
transmitted back to a flight deck indicator showing trim units, left and right of
neutral.

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MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Flight deck controls are trim-wheel, lever, switch, etc., with the actuation of the
tab by mechanical, electrical or hydraulic means. Trim facilities are normally
provided on all three axes.

Controllable Trim Tab


Figure 25
Note: Aircraft with hydraulic fully powered controls do not have trim tabs. Since
fully powered controls are termed irreversible, trim tabs if fitted, would be
aerodynamically ineffective. With these systems, trimming is achieved by moving
the primary control surface to a new neutral datum.(later).
1.1.7.3

Servo Tabs

Sometimes referred to as the flight tabs, servo tabs are positioned on the trailing
edge of the primary control surface and connected directly to the flight deck
control inputs. They act as a form of power booster, since pilot effort is only
required to deflect the relatively small area of the servo tab into the air stream.
Movement of the flight deck control input moves the tab up or down and the
aerodynamic force created on the tab, moves the primary control, until the
aerodynamic load on the control surface balances that on the tab. Moving the tab
down will cause the primary control to move up and vice-versa.

Servo Tab
Figure 26

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1.1.7.4

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Balance Tabs

Balance tabs assist the pilot in moving the primary control surface. The flight deck
controls are connected to the primary control surface whereas the balance tab,
hinged to the trailing edge of the primary surface, is connected to the fixed
aerofoil. For example, the elevator balance tab, will be connected by an
adjustable rod to the horizontal stabiliser and is so arranged, that it tends to
maintain the tab at the same relative angle to the stabiliser when the pilot moves
the elevator.
Aerodynamically, therefore, the tab is moving in the opposite direction to the
control surface and assists its movement. Adjusting the length of the connecting
rod will alter the displacement of the effective range of the tab about the mid-point
datum.
Some types of balance tab have more than one point of attachment and it is
possible with these so called geared balance tabs, to alter the range of tab
deflection.
The function of a balance tab can also be combined with that of a trim tab, by
adjusting the length of the balance tab connecting rod from the flight deck. This is
usually achieved by installing a form of linear actuator in the rod and is termed a
trim/balance tab (Geared balance and trim/balance tabs will be covered later in
the notes).

Balance Tab
Figure 27
1.1.7.5

Anti-Balance Tabs

Anti-balance tabs operate in a similar way aerodynamically as balance tabs but


with a reverse effect. The difference is in the way it is connected to the fixed
aerofoil. It is routed so that the tab moves, relative to and in the same direction
as, the primary control surface. The effect is to add a loading to the pilot effort,
making it slightly heavier and thus providing feel, to prevent the possibility of
over-stressing the airframe structure.

Anti-Balance Tab
Figure 28
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1.1.7.6

MODULE 11.01
Theory of Flight

Spring Tabs

At high speed, control surfaces operated directly from the flight deck, become
increasingly difficult to deflect from neutral, due to the force of the aerodynamic
loads caused by the airstream around them.
The spring tab is progressive in its operation and provides increasing
aerodynamic assistance in moving the control surface, with an increase in aircraft
forward speed. The flight deck controls are connected to the spring tab in a
similar manner to the servo tab previously described, except the linkage is routed
via a torque rod assembly (or spring box) attached to the primary control surface.
When the aircraft is stationary or flying at low airspeed the airloads are nonexistent or very small. If the flight deck controls are deflected from neutral, the
rigidity of the torque tube (or spring force) causes the primary control to be
deflected together with the spring tab. The tab will remain in the same relative
position with the primary control and consequently provides no additional
aerodynamic assistance.
As the aircraft flies faster, the increased force produced by the airflow, opposes
the movement of the primary control surface from its neutral position. Deflection
of the
flight deck controls in this case causes the torque tube to twist (or the spring to
compress), resulting in a deflection of the spring tab.
The tab deflection provides an added aerodynamic load which assists the flight
deck effort. The faster the aircraft flies, the greater the airflow force and therefore
the greater the spring tab deflection, resulting in a progressively increasing
assistance in moving the primary control.

Spring Tab
Figure 29
1.1.8 MASS BALANCE

All aircraft structures are distorted when loads are applied. If the structure is
elastic, as all good structures are, it will tend to spring back when the load is
removed, or its point of application is changed.
Since a control surface is hinged near its leading edge, the centre of gravity (C of
G) will be behind the hinge and as a consequence, there will be more weight aft
of the hinge line than in front of it .
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In the case of an aileron for example, should the air load distort the wing
upwards, it is likely that the aileron will lag behind and distort downwards. This
effectively produces an extra upward aerodynamic force which pushes the wing
up even further.
Due to its elasticity, the wing will spring back and the aileron will lag again but this
time upwards, aerodynamically forcing the wing down further than it would
normally go due to elastic recoil alone. Now the cycle is repeated and a high
speed oscillation will result. This unwanted phenomenon is referred to as flutter.
Flutter can be prevented if the C of G of the control surface is moved in line with,
or slightly in front of, the hinge line. The normal way of achieving this is to add a
number of high density weights, either within the leading edge of the surface itself
or externally, ahead of the hinge line. The addition of these weights, normally
made from lead or depleted uranium, is closely controlled and calculated to
ensure that the exact balance is obtained.
This procedure of adding weights is referred to as mass balancing of the controls.

External Mass Weights


Figure 30

Integral Mass Weights


Figure 31
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1.1.9 CONTROL SURFACE BIAS

When a control surface is set so it is not in the true neutral position it is referred to
as having a bias. There are many reasons for not having the controls in a true
central position, including compensating for design features. As an example, a
single propeller aircraft may have a tendency to roll in the opposite direction to
the engines torque, to counteract this moment the ailerons could be offset with
one slightly up and the other down. Once the aircraft is flying level with the bias
set the trim gauge in the cabin would then be set to read zero.
1.1.10 AERODYNAMIC BALANCE HORN BALANCE

In order to overcome the high stick forces on larger aircraft at higher speeds, the
surfaces themselves are used to lighten the forces.
This is referred to as Aerodynamic Balancing and the three principal ways of
achieving it are: horn balance, inset hinge and pressure balancing.
This method, a small part of the primary control surface ahead of the hinge will
project into the airflow when the control is deflected from neutral. The airflow on
this side assists the movement of the control in the desired direction and will
attempt to move the control further away from the neutral position.
Air loads on the control side, aft of the hinge, try to push the surface back towards
neutral. (This is the force that would normally make the controls heavy).
If the proportion of balance area forward of the hinge and control area aft of the
hinge is correct, the pilot will feel that his control loads are more manageable,
making the aircraft easier to fly.

Horn Balance
Figure 32
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1.1.11 AERODYNAMIC BALANCE INSET HINGE

This method is similar to and has the same effect as the horn balance. Instead of
having a forward projection at one or both ends of the control surface, the hinges
are set back so that the area forward of the hinge line, which projects into the air
flow when the control surface is moved from neutral, is spread evenly along its
whole length.

Inset Hinge Balance


Figure 33
1.1.11.1

Aerodynamic Balance Balance Panels

A device fitted to a few aircraft is the aerodynamic balance panel. Often used in
the aileron system, the panel is fitted between the leading edge of the aileron,
ahead of the hinge and the rear face of the wing. When the aileron is deflected
upwards (downwards) from neutral, the high velocity, low pressure air passing
over the lower (upper) gap decreases the air pressure under (above) the balance
panel and pulls it down (up). The force on the balance panel is proportional to
airspeed and control surface deflection and assists the pilot in moving the
controls accordingly.

Aerodynamic Balance Panel


Figure 34

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1.2 HIGH SPEED FLIGHT


Advancement in modern aircraft and engine design has produced very large
airliners capable of cruising at 87% of the speed of sound. Typically at an altitude
of 11,000 metres (approximately 36,000feet), this will amount to an airspeed of
about 575 miles per hour.
Earlier in the course the effects of subsonic air were considered. As airspeed
increases, the aerodynamic effects of airflow passing over an aircraft, go through
a series of changes, which will now be considered.

1.2.1 SPEED OF SOUND

One of the most important measurements in high speed aerodynamics is based


on the speed of sound and so called mach number.
Mach number is named after the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach (1838-1916) and
is the ratio of true airspeed of an aircraft to the local speed of sound at that
altitude. (This will be covered in more detail later).
Sound waves, like those produced by a stationary object vibrating at certain
frequencies, will cause a continuous series of pulses or pressure waves, to
radiate outwards equally in all directions from the point of origin and travel in
exactly the same manner as the ripples on a pond.

Pressure Waves Stationary Object


Figure 35
The actual speed at which the waves radiate, depends on the type and density of
the material in which they are travelling. Air and Water are both fluids but water is
more dense than air, so sound waves will travel faster (about 4 times) in water
than in air.

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Additionally, in any one of the fluids, speed will vary with a change in
temperature. As temperature increases, the speed of sound will increase and
vice-versa, so that in Air on a standard day at sea level (15oC approx), the waves
will travel at 761mph (661.7 knots), whereas at 11,000 metres altitude, the speed
will fall to 661mph, since the temperature has dropped to -56oC at this altitude.
Note: At altitudes above 11,000 metres and up to about 27,000 metres, the
temperature and hence the speed of sound, will remain constant.

1.2.2 SUBSONIC FLIGHT

The propagation of the pressure waves from a stationary object has been
discussed above.
When an aircraft begins to move through the air at subsonic speeds, (a speed
less than pressure wave propagation speed) the waves still travel forward and it
is as if a message is sent ahead of the aircraft to warn of its approach.
On receipt of this message, the air streams begin to divide to make way for the
aircraft but there is very little, if any change in the density of the air as it flows
over the aircraft. This warning message can be detected perhaps 100metres in
front of the aircraft.
Consequently, anyone standing ahead of the aircraft, would hear it coming and
be able to detect the change in the nature of the pressure waves as the aircraft
passed by. It would be similar to the change in the pitch of the siren of a passing
emergency road vehicle.
This is often referred to as Doppler shift or Doppler effect.

Pressure waves Subsonic Flight


Figure 36

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1.2.3 TRANSONIC FLIGHT

At subsonic speeds, the study of aerodynamics is simplified by the fact that air
passing over a wing experiences only very small changes in pressure and
density. The airflow is termed incompressible as, when it passes through a
venturi, the pressure changes without the density changing
At higher speeds, the change in air pressure and density becomes significant and
is called the compressibility effect. When air enters a venturi at supersonic
speeds, the airflow slows down and must compress in order to pass through its
throat. Once a fluid compresses, its pressure and density will both increase.

Subsonic Airflow
Figure 37

Supersonic Airflow
Figure 38

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The transonic flight range encompasses sound wave velocity and consequently is
the most difficult realm of flight since some of the air flowing over the aircraft,
particularly the wings, is subsonic and some is supersonic. As the aircraft
approaches the speed of sound, the pressure waves ahead of it will be travelling
at the same speed as the aircraft and are therefore relatively stationary. They
accumulate to form a continuous pressure wave and consequently will result in
the removal of any advance warning of the approach of the aircraft.

Transonic Flight Pressure Waves


Figure 39
At these speeds other pressure waves, or shock waves form wherever the airflow
reaches the speed of sound. These waves will upset the aerodynamic balance of
the wing and this phenomenon will be covered later in the notes.

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1.2.4 SUPERSONIC FLIGHT

Once the aircraft is supersonic, all parts of it are considered to be above the
speed of sound and therefore travelling faster than the rate of propagation of the
pressure waves. An infinite number of pressure waves are produced and form a
cone, the inclination of which will change as the aircraft speed changes.

Mach Cone
Figure 40
1.2.4.1

Mach Number

As previously mentioned, Mach number is the ratio of the true airspeed of the
aircraft and the local speed of sound at that altitude. An aircraft travelling at
exactly the speed of sound is said to be travelling at Mach 1.
It follows therefore that an aircraft travelling at twice the speed of sound would be
travelling at Mach 2 and at half the speed of sound, Mach 0.5, etc,.
The following definitions regarding airflow and mach number apply:
Subsonic Flow Mach Numbers below Mach 0.75
Transonic Flow Mach Numbers between Mach 0.75 and Mach 1.2
Supersonic Flow

Mach Numbers between Mach 1.2 and 5.0

Hypersonic Flow

Mach Numbers above

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Critical Mach Number

At any constant aircraft forward speed, the speed of the airflow will vary over the
curves and cambers on the different areas of the airframe. The behaviour of the
airflow over the wing will be particularly significant, since this is the major lift
provider for the aircraft.
As air flows over the camber on the upper surface of the wing, its speed will
increase as it flows rearwards from the leading edge, reaching a maximum at the
thickest part of the wing chord. This means that although the aircraft itself may be
travelling at an airspeed well below Mach 1, the airflow over the thickest part of
the wing chord, may have already reached Mach 1
As will be discussed later, many unwanted effects occur when the wing
approaches and reaches Mach 1. Therefore, the designers may either
incorporate features that will lessen the unwanted effects, or limit the aircraft to a
predetermined maximum airspeed, that will ensure the wing speed remains below
Mach 1 and thus avoids the unwanted effects altogether.
For each aircraft type therefore, a unique maximum aircraft forward speed will be
calculated, corresponding to a wing speed of Mach 1. This aircraft speed (always
be less than Mach 1) is called the Critical Mach Number or M.crit and nonsupersonic aircraft flying in the transonic flight range, will normally be limited to a
maximum speed set below the Critical Mach number.

Critical Mach Number


Figure 41
A thick wing will cause the airflow to speed up over the camber and reach Mach 1
more quickly than a thin wing of similar chord length. Consequently, the Critical
Mach number for the thinner wing will be a higher value than the thicker wing.
This in turn will mean that the aircraft with a thin wing, will be able to fly faster in
the transonic flight range than the one with the thicker wing, before the unwanted
effects caused by the wing reaching Mach 1 ensue.
Conversely, less lift will be produced by a thin wing, than a thick wing of similar
chord length, but this can be overcome by the so called Supercritical wing chord.

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In this design, the total amount of lift lost by the shallower camber of the thin wing
is restored by making the chord longer. This is perfect for transonic cruise
conditions, but at low airspeeds, lift on a clean wing will be insufficient and so
extensive use of high lift devices (slots, slats and flaps) is necessary

Supercritical Wing
Figure 42
1.2.4.3

Adverse Transonic Effects

Even though the onset of compressibility is gradual, it begins to have a significant


effect as the Critical Mach number is approached. Unwanted adverse effects
including, buffeting, shock waves, increase in drag, decrease in lift and
movement of the centre of pressure occur.
If uncontrolled, these effects could result in the aircraft becoming difficult to fly
and to behave in a similar manner to a low speed high incidence stall, even
though the aircraft is at high speed and low angle of incidence.

1.2.4.4

Compressibility Buffet

Previously discussed has been the build up of the pressure wave in front of the
aircraft as it approaches Mach 1, including the fact that other parts of the
airframe, in particular the wing, are likely to reach Mach 1 well before the
complete aircraft does.
When this occurs the smoothness of the airflow over the wing is severely
affected. This region, as well as those on the flying control aerofoils, experience
violent vibration and so-called compressibility buffeting of the airframe. If allowed
to continue, control loss or possible structural damage can occur.
1.2.4.5

Shock Wave

Previously in the notes, the build up of pressure waves and the change from
incompressible to compressible flow as the aircraft or an aerofoil surface
approaches the speed of sound, has been discussed. Transonic flight presents
major design problems for the aerofoil in particular, because only a portion of the
airflow passing over the wing becomes supersonic.

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When an aerofoil moves through the air at a speed below its critical Mach
number, all of the airflow is subsonic and the pressure distribution is
predictable.The first indication of a change in the nature of the flow will be a
breakaway of the airflow from the aerofoil surface as described previously in
boundary layer control. Any turbulence resulting from the separation will cause an
increase in drag and a corresponding reduction in the amount of lift. As speed
begins to increase, the point of separation moves forward, extending the turbulent
wake.

Subsonic Flow Over all the Surface


Figure 43
However, as flight speed reaches and exceeds the critical Mach number, the
airflow over the top of the wing speeds up to supersonic velocity and a shock
wave starts to form.

The First Sonic Flow is encountered


Figure 44

A Normal Shock Wave Begins to Form


Figure 45

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Note: If the aerofoil is symmetrical and set at zero degrees angle of attack, the
incipient shock wave as it is called, would form equally on the upper and lower
surfaces. However, because the wing is usually set to an angle of incidence of
about 3 degrees, even a symmetrical aerofoil section would produce the incipient
wave on the top surface first.
The wave extends outwards more or less at right angles to the aerofoil surface
and is referred to as a normal (perpendicular) shock wave This normal shock
wave forms a boundary between supersonic and subsonic airflow.
As we have seen the high velocity airflow over the top of a wing creates an area
of low pressure. The shock wave causes it to decelerate to subsonic speed,
resulting in a rapid rise in pressure. The separation point and turbulent wake will
now start from this point, resulting in a sudden and considerable increase in drag
(about 10 times) and therefore a large loss of lift. Severe buffeting is likely, which
could even lead to a shock stall and the centre of pressure will be altered,
affecting the pitching moment.
This extra drag, so called Shock Drag, will be made up of two components,
namely Wave Drag, resistance caused by the wave itself and Boundary Layer
Drag, due to the increased turbulent region over the surface of the wing.
Furthermore, this shock-induced separation is likely to reduce flying control
effectiveness
The velocity of the air leaving the shock wave remains supersonic, so both the
static pressure and the density of the air increase adding to the high drag/ low lift
condition. Additionally, some of the energy in the airstream will be dissipated in
the form of heat.
As the aircraft speed continues to increase, the wave will extend outwards and
begin to move aft towards the trailing edge of the wing. A second wave begins to
form on the lower surface, as the airflow here also speeds up to supersonic
velocity

Shock Induced Separation Occurs


Figure 46

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As the airspeed reaches the upper end of the transonic range, both shock waves
move aft, become stronger and will eventually attach to the wing's trailing edge.

Almost all Flow is Supersonic, Some Shock Induced Separation


Figure 47
Further increases in forward speed will now result in the characteristic normal
shock wave forming ahead of the aerofoil. This continuous wave, known as a
Bow wave, will move towards and subsequently attach itself, to the leading edge
of the wing. Once attached, all airflow over the wing will be supersonic and many
of the unwanted transonic effects are eliminated.

The Bow Wave is starting to Form


Figure 48

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As can be seen in figure 49, the transonic region has a great affect on the lift and
drag. Both values rise until Mach 0.81, when shock induced separation drastically
reduces the coefficient of lift. As speed approaches Mach 0.99, a bow wave is
forming and airflow over the wing is slowed to subsonic speeds, resulting in an
increase in lift coefficient and a reduction of drag.

Lift / Drag Comparison at 2 Angle of Attack


Figure 49

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1.2.5 AERODYNAMIC HEATING

One of the biggest problems of sustained supersonic flight is aerodynamic


heating of the aircraft structure. An extreme example of aerodynamic heating
might be a shooting star, when its material overheats to the point of destruction,
from the heat generated by friction heating with the earth's atmosphere.
In the commercial world, Concorde was probably the only airliner where
aerodynamic heating presents a significant problem. When the aircraft was flown
at Mach 2, the friction of the air passing around the aircraft heats the skin
considerably even at altitudes in excess of 17,000 metres. The point of maximum
heating is on the nose where the rise in temperature could reach 175 0C.
As a precaution, a probe on the nose of the aircraft monitors the temperature
during flight. When a reading of 1270C is reached, the flight deck is directed to
reduce the speed to about Mach 1.8, to bring the temperature back within limits.
Concorde used conventional aluminium alloys in its construction. If future aircraft
were required to travel within the atmosphere at even higher Mach numbers,
other materials such as titanium alloy or stainless steel would need to be
considered.

Concord Skin Temperature


Figure 50

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1.2.6 AREA RULE

Area rule is an aerodynamic technique used in the design of high-speed aircraft.


If drag is to be kept to a minimum at transonic speeds, aircraft must be slim,
smooth and streamlined. In general terms it means that the wings, fuselage,
empennage and other appendages have to be considered together when working
out the total streamlining. This is necessary so that the cross-sectional area of
successive slices of the aircraft from nose to tail, conform to those of a simple
body of streamline shape.
Area rule is defined as: For the minimum drag at the connections,
(wing/fuselage), the variation of the aircrafts total cross-sectional area along its
length, should approximate that of an ideal shape having minimum wave drag.
Without area rule, the greatest frontal cross-sectional area of the fuselage would
occur where the wings are attached to the fuselage. Therefore, one method of
achieving area rule in this situation is to reduce the cross-sectional area of the
fuselage, thereby cancelling out the increase caused by the wings.
Alternatively, the fuselage cross-section could be increased with the use of
enlarged sections behind and in front of the wings to eliminate sudden changes in
the cross-sectional area and achieve the same result.

Area Rule
Figure 51
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1.2.7 FACTORS AFFECTING AIRFLOW IN ENGINE INTAKES OF HIGH SPEED


AIRCRAFT

Engine intakes on aircraft that operate in the subsonic flight range only can be of
almost any form.
The main criteria are that the airflow reaching the compressor stage of the engine
during cruise ideally does not exceed Mach 0.5. This is normally achieved by the
careful design of the intake ducts.
Obviously, if the aircraft never exceeds Mach 0.5, a parallel intake duct could be
employed, but if the aircraft is to cruise at airspeeds in excess of this, yet below
Mach 1, a divergent duct must be utilised to slow the airflow at the compressor
down to Mach 0.5.
If the aircraft is designed to cruise above Mach 1, the air entering the intakes will
be supersonic and will behave in accordance with the rules of supersonic flow. In
this case a convergent duct would be necessary to slow down the airflow to the
compressor.
However the aircraft must fly through the transonic range in order to reach
supersonic speed so both types of duct will be necessary.
One way to overcome the problem is to have moveable doors that change the
intake duct shape from divergent to convergent cross-section as the aircraft
passes through Mach 1. See figure 52. This technique can be found on the
intakes of Concorde.
Other methods to control airflow reaching the compressor is to make use of the
fact that air passing through a shock wave slows down to a lower speed. This
type of intake design is usually characterised by the bullet fairing, which on
some aircraft can translate in and out of the intake to reposition the shock wave
during low or high supersonic flight speeds. See Figure 53

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Intake Moveable doors


Figure 52

Bullet Fairing Intake


Figure 53

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1.2.8 EFFECTS OF SWEEPBACK ON CRITICAL MACH NUMBER

In order to fly at high speed in the transonic range without encountering the
problems caused by the production of shock waves, the Critical Mach number
needs to be as high as possible. As has already been shown, one way is to have
as thin a wing as possible. This of course is an acceptable solution in theory, but
in practice there will be structural integrity problems, such as wing loading,
strength and flexibility.
Another way of raising the Critical Mach number without the structural limitations
is by the use of swept wings. Sweepback not only delays the production of the
shock wave, but reduces the severity of the shock stall should it occur. The
theory behind this is that it is only the component of velocity over the wing chord
that is responsible for the pressure distribution and so for causing the shock wave
to develop. The other velocity component that travels spanwise causes only
frictional drag and has no effect on shock wave production.
This theory is borne out by the fact that when it does appear, the shock wave lies
parallel to the span of the wing. Therefore only that part of the velocity
perpendicular to the shock wave, i.e. across the chord, is reduced by the shock
wave to subsonic speeds.
The greater the sweepback, the smaller will be the component of velocity
affected, resulting in a higher Critical Mach number and a reduction in drag at all
transonic speeds. Additionally sweepback results in a thinner mean aerodynamic
chord, which raises the Critical Mach number even more.

Effects of Sweepback
Figure 54
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MODULE 11.02
AIRFRAME
STRUCTURES
CONTENTS

AIRFRAME STRUCTURES GENERAL CONCEPTS................ 2-1


2.1
AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL STRENGTH ..... 2-1
2.1.1 STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION ...................................................... 2-1
2.1.2
Primary structure ........................................................... 2-2
2.1.3
Secondary Structure ..................................................... 2-4
2.1.4
Tertiary Structure .......................................................... 2-4
2.2
FAIL SAFE, SAFE LIFE AND DAMAGE TOLERANT CONCEPTS ............ 2-4
2.2.1
Fail Safe........................................................................ 2-4
2.2.2
Safe Life........................................................................ 2-4
2.2.3
Damage Tolerance........................................................ 2-5
2.3
ZONAL AND STATION IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM................................ 2-7
2.3.1
Zonal System ................................................................ 2-7
2.3.2
Station Identification System ......................................... 2-8
2.4
LOADS FOUND W ITHIN THE STRUCTURE STRESS AND STRAIN ...... 2-9
2.4.1
Compression ................................................................. 2-10
2.4.2
Tension ......................................................................... 2-10
2.4.3
Bending......................................................................... 2-11
2.4.4
Torsion .......................................................................... 2-12
2.4.5
Shear ............................................................................ 2-12
2.4.6
Hoop Stress .................................................................. 2-13
2.4.7
Metal Fatigue ................................................................ 2-13
2.5
DRAINAGE AND VENTILATION PROVISIONS ..................................... 2-16
2.5.1
External Drains ............................................................. 2-16
2.5.2
Internal Drains............................................................... 2-18
2.5.3
Ventilation ..................................................................... 2-18
2.6
LIGHTNING STRIKE PROVISION ...................................................... 2-19
2.7
CONSTRUCTION METHODS ............................................................ 2-20
2.7.1
Stressed Skin Fuselage ................................................ 2-20
2.6.1
Frames and Formers..................................................... 2-21
2.6.2
Bulkheads ..................................................................... 2-21
2.6.3
Longerons and Stringers ............................................... 2-22
2.6.4
Doublers and Reinforcement ......................................... 2-23
2.6.5
Struts and Ties .............................................................. 2-23
2.6.6
Beams and Floor Structures .......................................... 2-24
2.6.7
Methods of Skinning...................................................... 2-24
2.6.8
Anti-Corrosive Protection .............................................. 2-26
2.6.9
Construction Methods Wing ....................................... 2-27
2.6.10 Construction Methods Empennage ............................ 2-28
2.6.11 Construction Methods Engine Attachments ................ 2-29
2.6.12 Structural Assembly Techniques ................................... 2-31
2.6.13 Solid Shank Rivets ........................................................ 2-31
2.6.14 Special and Blind Fasteners. ......................................... 2-33
2.6.15 Bolts and Nuts............................................................... 2-38
2.6.16 Adhesive Bonded Structures ......................................... 2-43
2.6.17 Methods of Surface Protection ...................................... 2-45
2.6.18 Exterior Finish Maintenance .......................................... 2-47

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STRUCTURES

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MODULE 11.02
AIRFRAME
STRUCTURES

AIRFRAME STRUCTURES GENERAL CONCEPTS

2.1
AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
STRENGTH
Airworthiness requirements are necessary with respect to aircraft structures,
because established standards of strength, control, maintainability, etc. will
ensure that all aircraft will be constructed to the safest possible standard.
Requirements for aircraft above 5700kg MTWA (maximum total weight
authorised) are listed in Joint Airworthiness Requirement 25 (EASA-25) and for
aircraft below 5700kg MTWA, in EASA-23. These publications cover not only the
basic requirements, like maximum and minimum 'g' loading, but a vast range of
other requirements with respect to the structure such as:

Control Loads

Door Operation

Effect of Tabs

Factor of Safety

Fatigue

High Lift Devices

Stability & Stalling

Ventilation

Weights

The list is all-embracing and provides a useful means of searching for specific
structural details.

2.1.1 STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION

For the purpose of assessing damage and the type of repairs to be carried out,
the structure of all aircraft is divided into three significant categories:

Primary structure

Secondary structure

Tertiary structure

Diagrams are prepared by each manufacturer to denote how the various


structural members fall into these three categories.

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STRUCTURES

In the manuals of older aircraft the use of colour may be found to identify the
three categories. Primary Structure is shown in Red, Secondary in Yellow and
Tertiary in Green.
Note: This system has been discontinued for many years, but with some aircraft
having a life of 30 or more years and still being operated, it may still be possible
to find the old system in use.

2.1.2 PRIMARY STRUCTURE

This structure includes all portions of aircraft, the failure of which in flight or on the
ground, would be likely to cause:

Catastrophic structural collapse

Inability to operate a service

Injury to occupants

Loss of control

Unintentional operation of a service

Power unit failure

Examples of some types of primary structure are as follows:

Engine Mountings

Fuselage Frames

Main Floor members

Main Spars

Primary Structure Engine mountings


Figure 1
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Primary Structure :Wing Spars


Figure 2

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2.1.3 SECONDARY STRUCTURE

This structure includes all portions of the aircraft which would normally be
regarded as primary structure, but which unavoidably have such a reserve of
strength over design requirements that appreciable weakening may be permitted,
without risk of failure. It also includes structure which, if damaged, would not
impair the safety of the aircraft as described earlier. Examples of secondary
structure include:

Ribs and parts of skin in the wings.

Skin and stringers in the fuselage

2.1.4 TERTIARY STRUCTURE

This type of structure includes all portions of the structure in which the stresses
are low, but which, for various reasons, cannot be omitted from the aircraft.
Typical examples include fairings, fillets and brackets which support items in the
fuselage and adjacent areas.

2.2 FAIL SAFE, SAFE LIFE AND DAMAGE TOLERANT CONCEPTS

2.2.1 FAIL SAFE

A fail safe structure is one which retains, after initiation of a fracture or crack,
sufficient strength for the operation of the aircraft with an acceptable standard of
safety, until such failure is detected on a normal scheduled inspection.
This is achieved by part and full scale airframe testing and fatigue analysis by
usually by the aircraft manufacturer and by subsequent in-service experience.

2.2.2 SAFE LIFE

Safe life structure and components are granted a period of time during which it is
considered, that failure is extremely unlikely. When deciding its duration, the
effects of wear, fatigue and corrosion must be considered. For example, if tests
show that fatigue will cause a failure in 12,000 flying hours, then one sixth of this
might be quoted as the safe life.(2000 hours then scrapped) If wear or corrosion
prove to be the likely cause of failure before 12,000 hours, then one of these will
be the deciding factor.
The safe life time period may be expressed in flying hours, elapsed time, number
of flights or number of applications of load, ie; pressurisation cycles.

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2.2.3 DAMAGE TOLERANCE

The fail safe method has proven to be somewhat unreliable following some
accidents that proved that the concept was not 100% guaranteed. It was also a
severe limitation that the addition of extra structural members to protect the
integrity of the structure considerably increased the weight of the aircraft..
The damage tolerant concept, has eliminated much of the extra weight, by
distributing the loads on a particular structure over a larger area. This requires an
evaluation of the structure, to provide multiple load paths to carry the loading. The
main advantage is that even with a crack present, the structure will retain its
integrity and that during scheduled maintenance programmes, the crack will be
found before it can become critical.
For example, a wing attachment to the fuselage, which in the past would have
been designed with one or two large pintle bolts, will now have a larger number of
smaller bolts in the fitting. The single or dual bolt attachment had to be heavily
reinforced to take the wing loading, adding more weight, whereas the multiple
load path can be constructed in a lighter manner, whilst still maintaining its
strength.

Single Pin Attachment


Figure 3

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Multiple Pin Attachment


Figure 4

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2.3 ZONAL AND STATION IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

2.3.1 ZONAL SYSTEM

During many different maintenance operations including component changes,


structural repairs and trouble shooting, it is necessary to indicate to the engineer
where, within the structure, the correct location is to be found for the work to be
carried out.
When attempting to establish a specific location or identifying components, some
manufacturers make use of two systems, a zonal system and a frame/station
method.
The zonal system divides the airframe into a number of zones, (usually less than
10), to give engineers and others a rough idea of where they need to look. The
zonal system may also be used in component labelling and work card area
identification.
In the illustration below, an engineer might have for example a work card
numbered 500376, indicating it was Job 376 located on the left wing (Zone 500).

Zonal Identification
Figure 5
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2.3.2 STATION IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

Most manufacturers use a system of station marking where, for example, the
aircraft nose is designated Station 0 and other station designations are located at
measured distances aft of this point. Component and other locations within the
wings, tailplane, fin and nacelles are established from separate dedicated
stations zero.
Fuselage Locations
A particular fuselage station (or frame) would be identified, for example, as
Station 5050. This means that if the metric system of measurement is employed,
the frame is located at 5.05 metres (5050mm) aft of station zero.

Frame Stations
Figure 6
Lateral Locations
To locate structures to the right or left of the aircraft, many manufacturers
consider the fuselage centre line as a station zero. With such a system, the wing
or tailplane ribs could be identified as being a particular number of millimetres (or
inches) to the right or the left of the centre line.
Vertical Locations
These are usually measured above or below a water line, which is a
predetermined reference line passing along the side of the fuselage, usually,
somewhere between the floor level and the window line.

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2.4 LOADS FOUND WITHIN THE STRUCTURE STRESS AND STRAIN


Aircraft structural members are designed to carry a load or to resist stress and a
single member may be subjected to a combination of stresses during flight.
When an external force acts on a body, it is opposed by a force within the body.
This force is called Stress. If the body is distorted by the stress, it is said to be
subject to Strain.
Stress and strain can be defined as follows:
Stress is load or force per unit area acting on a body. Stress = Load or Force
Cross Sectional Area
Strain is the distortion per unit length of a body.

Strain = Distortion
Original Length

There are five major stresses and all will be found somewhere within an aircraft
structure. In the design stage, the stresses will have been assessed by the
designer and the structure made strong enough to carry them adequately.
Furthermore, a reserve of strength will also have been included for safety. The
five types of stress are:
1. Compression
2. Tension
3. Bending (a combination of compression and tension)
4. Twisting/Torsion
5. Shear

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2.4.1 COMPRESSION

Compression is regarded as a primary stress and is the resistance to any


external force which tends to push the body together. Compressive stresses
applied to rivets for example, expand the shank as they are driven in, completely
filling the hole and forming the head to hold sheet metal skins together.

Compression
Figure 7
2.4.2 TENSION

Tension is the primary stress that tends to pull an object apart. A flexible steel
cable used in flying control systems is an excellent example of a component
designed to withstand tension loads only. It is easily bent, has little opposition to
compression, torsion or shear loads, but has an exceptional strength/weight ratio
when subjected to a purely tension load.

Tension
Figure 8
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2.4.3 BENDING

Bending, when applied to a beam, tends to try to pull one side apart while at the
same time squeezing the other side together. When a person stands on a diving
board, the top of the board is under tension while the bottom is under
compression.
Wing spars of cantilever wings are subject to bending stresses. In flight, the top of
the spar is being compressed and the bottom is under tension while on the
ground, the reverse occurs, the top is in tension and the bottom is under
compression. If the wing is supported, the strut will be in tension in flight and in
compression on the ground.

Bending
Figure 9

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2.4.4 TORSION

A torsional stress is one that is put into a material when it is twisted. When we
twist a structural member, a tensile stress acts diagonally across the member and
a compressive stress acts at right angles to the tension. A good example is a
crankshaft of an aircraft piston engine which is under a torsional load when the
engine is driving the propeller.

Torsion
Figure 10
2.4.5 SHEAR

A shear stress is one that resists the tendency to slice a body apart. For example
a clevis bolt in a flying control system is designed to take shear loads only. It is
normally a high strength steel bolt with a thin head and a fat shank. These bolts
secure the flexible steel cables to the control surfaces and allow the cable to
move with the control surface without bending. The airload on the control surface
attempts to slice the bolt apart or shear it.

Rivet Joint in Shear


Figure 11
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2.4.6 HOOP STRESS

An aircraft which has its fuselage pressurised inside to allow the carriage of
passengers at altitude, will have other stresses acting on the fuselage skin. The
circumferential load about the fuselage is known as hoop stress and resisted by
the fuselage frames and tension in the so called stressed skin. The longitudinal
(axial) load along the fuselage is also resisted by tension in the skin and by the
longerons and stringers.

Hoop stress
Figure 12
2.4.7 METAL FATIGUE

The phenomenon of metal fatigue has long been known, but has become of
greater concern in recent years with aircraft which remain in service long after
their original expected fatigue life has expired.
It is relatively easy to design a structure to withstand a steady load, but aircraft
are subjected to widely varying loads in flight and many components experience
load reversals, an example being the wings, where the aerodynamic forces
during flight manoeuvres cause tension and compression loads to alternate
continually. Unfortunately, any metal part subjected to a wide variation or reversal
of even a relatively small load is gradually and progressively weakened.
The subject was vividly highlighted in 1954, with another type of load reversal,
that of pressurisation cycles of the passenger cabin. which resulted in a number
of disastrous accidents with the De-Havilland Comet airliner. Small fatigue cracks
in the fuselage skin accumulated around the corners of the square shaped
windows and hatches and led to a fatal explosive decompression of the cabin.
Following the incidents the most extensive research to this hitherto unwarranted
menace was undertaken, and led to fatigue loading being included into future
design considerations.
Metal fatigue refers to the loss of strength, or resistance to load, experienced by a
component or structure as the number of load cycles or load reversals increases.
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Load reversals refer to a material being continually loaded and unloaded and as
long as the elastic limit is not exceeded, the material should be unaffected and
return to its original state.
In reality, however, the load application may result in minute, seemingly
inconsequential cracks, which, as the cycles continue, get larger and join up with
other, newer cracks. Eventually, after many cycles, the cumulative effect will be
such that the strength of the metal will be compromised and could result in
catastrophic failure.
The fatigue strength of a metal can be found by experimentation on full scale
fatigue rigs, which can be subjected to a programme of load reversals, 24 hours a
day, 365 days a year, to accumulate information and a fatigue life, years ahead of
the oldest aircraft of the particular type in the fleet.
How the in-service aircraft subsequently consumes this fatigue index, depends on
its operating theatre. For example, the number of times the pressurisation cycles
are applied to aircraft on long or short haul flights, steep or conventional take off
and landing etc., are taken into account to calculate fatigue life consumed.
Stress amplitude can be plotted against endurance for one particular value of
mean stress, the so-called S/N Curve. Using a chart such as this, it can be
determined at what point, in cycles, the metal has reached its minimum
acceptable strength. This will be the ultimate fatigue life and is normally allotted a
fatigue index of 100.

Fatigue Graph
Figure 13
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Even when the fatigue index of 100 is eventually reached on each individual
aircraft, the designers can extend it beyond 100, by examining, as previously
mentioned, how the fatigue was consumed and recommending specific structural
inspection and possibly strengthening or replacement of fittings and components.
Fatigue is a natural phenomenon and cannot be prevented. The ability to
correctly predict its effects and take the necessary action is the problem faced by
the aircraft design and maintenance personnel. Different metals have different
fatigue characteristics and the way parts are designed, also affects their fatigue
life. Fastener holes, sharp changes in thickness and small seemingly insignificant
cracks for example, can directly affect the fatigue life of a part.
Fatigue cracking can also accelerate the onset of corrosion, by exposing
unprotected metal to the elements. The crack growth and the consequential
increase in corrosion, can cause serious structural problems over a relatively
short period. With the ageing of the airliner fleet, a number of extra inspections,
including non-destructive testing and structural sampling techniques have been
introduced. The maintenance technician must carefully monitor the aircraft
structure, paying particular attention to the integrity of surface finish and general
corrosion.

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2.5 DRAINAGE AND VENTILATION PROVISIONS

Drainage
The aircraft structure requires many different types of drain holes and paths to
prevent water and other fluids such as fuel, hydraulic oil etc., from collecting
within the structure. These could become both a corrosion and fire hazard.
The forms of drainage can be divided into two areas.
1. External drains
2. Internal drains

2.5.1 EXTERNAL DRAINS

These ports are located on exterior surfaces of the fuselage, wing and
empennage to ensure fluids are dumped overboard. In small unpressurised
aircraft and unpressurised areas of larger airliners, these drains may be
permanently open. However, in pressurised aircraft, the cabin air would leak
uncontrollably through the drains and so it is necessary to use drain valves to
prevent loss of cabin pressure.
There are a number basic types of drain valve used for this purpose.
Two similar types rely upon pressurised air in the cabin to keep the valve closed.
One valve has a rubber flapper seal and the other a spring loaded valve seal.
Normally located on the keel of the fuselage, both are open when the aircraft is
unpressurised on the ground, allowing the fluids to drain overboard. During flight,
the increased air pressure in the cabin closes the valves, thus preventing any
pressurisation losses. These valves are shown below, where it can also be seen
that a levelling compound has been used in areas which might become fluid
traps. This compound is usually a rubberised sealant which fills the cavity,
bringing the level up to the lip of the drain hole.

Fuselage Drains
Figure 14

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Another similar type of drain valve also uses the cabin air pressure to close off
the drain path, this time by moving the plunger down to seal the drain. This valve
will also be open when cabin pressure is removed.

Fuselage Drains
Figure 15
Fluids from some places, such as galleys and wash basins, require more than
simple drain holes. The temperature at cruising altitude can fall to -60C and
water draining overboard could freeze and cause blockage problems.
The method used in these cases are drain masts, which are like small aerofoils
projecting from the bottom of the aircraft skin, on the centre line, through which
the water is discharged. The drain masts are heated to prevent icing and also
discharge the liquids well away from the aircraft's skin.

Boeing 747 Drain Masts


Figure 16
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2.5.2 INTERNAL DRAINS

To enable the external drains to function as designed, means must be provided


within the various locations of the airframe and powerplant installation, to ensure
that all fluids are directed towards the site of the external drain points. This is
achieved by using internal drain paths and drain holes.
The internal structure is provided with tubes, channels, dams and drain holes, to
direct the flow of fluid towards the external drain points. All structural members
are designed so that they do not trap fluids by ensuring, for example, that all
lightening holes and ribs face downwards, allowing fluids to run off them.

2.5.3 VENTILATION

It is essential that the internal cavities within the structure are properly vented to
prevent the build up of flammable vapour from the drain lines and to allow any
other moisture residue to properly evaporate.
Consequently sumps, tanks and cavities will all be provided with vent pipes and
in some cases, such as engine cowlings, ram air inlets and outlets are utilised to
ensure all zones where fluids are contained are adequately ventilated.
System Installation Provisions
The installation of various systems within the airframe, require adaptations from
the perfect drawing-board design. When systems like the air conditioning and
pressurisation, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, avionics and others are designed,
there must be facilities incorporated in the plans, to provide a location for all the
system components, their associated lines and cables.
It must also be borne in mind that many components have to be either serviced
in-situ, or will be a line replaceable unit (LRU), both of which requires easy
access for the maintenance engineers.
To this end, on modern aircraft, there are normally compartments allocated to
each of the major systems where the majority of components will be installed.
Thus, it can be possible to find dedicated Avionics bays, Hydraulic bays, Air
conditioning bays, etc., all of which allow access for the easier replacement of
'black boxes' (LRUs) and mechanical components like control units, valves, filters
etc,.
Older aircraft will still have components scattered throughout the airframe, with
difficult access in some places through small panels, all of which will obviously
make maintenance on these systems much more difficult.

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2.6 LIGHTNING STRIKE PROVISION


When aircraft are flying in cloud or in close proximity to storms, there is always
the risk of the aircraft being struck by lightning. Whilst this is a rare occurrence,
there are many protection devices installed in the aircraft to ensure that a strike
does as little damage as possible when it does happen. A lightning strike on an
aircraft can have a peak current of up to 100,000 amperes, so precautions must
be taken to ensure that the least damage is done to the aircraft, its systems and
components as the charge passes through.
Most important is the electrical bonding of all the major components of the
airframe. Bonding is achieved by electrically connecting all the components of an
aircraft structure together. These precautions will ensure all components are at
the same electrical potential by providing a return path through the airframe,
since modern aircraft utilise an earth return system. This means that current from
the lightning strike cannot build up on one part of the structure and create a
voltage high enough to allow it to jump to another part, that might be electrically
separated, such as flying control surfaces.
Note: Electrical bonding also protects equipment from the build up of static
electricity, which is produced as the aircraft collects ions from the atmosphere as
it passes through. Bonding cables are referred to as secondary conductors.
As well as electrical bonding, dedicated lightning protection systems are
employed to cater for the high current and these are usually known as primary
conductors. They can be found, connecting system earth returns, as mentioned
earlier, connecting power-plants to the airframe and ensuring that all major
structural items, (which are often manufactured in different factories in different
countries), are properly connected together after final assembly. Occupants of the
aircraft are also protected from electrical shock in this way by the surrounding
aircraft structure with what is referred to as a Faraday Cage.

Electrical Bonding
Figure 17
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CONSTRUCTION METHODS

2.7.1 STRESSED SKIN FUSELAGE

As previously described, a variety of loads act on the airframe during flight. If a


proportion of these loads can be carried by the skin covering, the underlying
framework can be made lighter without loss of overall strength.
In early aircraft, all loads were taken by the framework and the covering of fabric,
doped to pull it taught or of thin sheets of wood achieved streamlining, but
contributed little or nothing to the strength of the airframe. As aircraft design
evolved, the fabric and wood was replaced with aluminium alloy sheet. Because
of its extra strength, a large part of the load can be borne by this skin, reducing
the weight of underlying structure. This is called Stressed Skin construction and
this method also provides a very smooth surface, because the skin is stiff enough
not to be distorted by the airflow. With the advent of pressurised cabins the
usefulness of a strong skin is evident when considering pressurisation loads.
A method of construction where the skin carries all the loads without supporting
structure is called pure monocoque construction. A good example of a pure
monocoque construction is a chickens egg, since it has no internal support, only
the egg shell carries the load. In practice, this construction is difficult to achieve,
as the skin would have to be so thick, that the extra weight penalty incurred,
would severely impair the ability to fly. However, the principle is sometimes used
in the construction of composite material external fuel tanks, mainly for military
aircraft and even here some internal strengthening is necessary.

Monocoque Construction
Figure 18
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In a stressed skin fuselage construction, about half the loads are carried by the
skin and half by the supporting structure. This type of construction is called semi
monocoque and its advantage is that the space within the structure is
unobstructed and is used for passengers and freight.

Semi-Monocoque Construction
Figure 19
2.6.1 FRAMES AND FORMERS

Frames and formers provide the basic fuselage shape, with the frames, being of
more robust construction, providing strong points for attachment of other fittings
such as the wings and tailplane.

2.6.2 BULKHEADS

Where extra support is required within a fuselage for mounting of components


such as wings and landing gear, bulkheads are to transfer the loads to the
fuselage structure without producing stress raising points.
Bulkheads can be either a complete or a partial circular frame, which usually
reinforces a fuselage frame. Other examples are solid pressurisation bulkheads
which are normally found at the front of the fuselage ahead of the flight deck and
at the rear of the pressure cabin, or an engine firewall on the nacelles.
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2.6.3 LONGERONS AND STRINGERS

Longerons are used in fuselage construction, where either an aperture such as a


door or window requires greater support, or where a number of structural high
load points such as floors, landing gear attachments, etc. need to be
interconnected. They are usually of much heavier construction than stringers and
can be solid extrusions or fabricated multiple part construction.
Stringers provide longitudinal shape and support to the fuselage skin. They are
also the spanwise members of the mainplanes, vertical and horizontal stabilisers
and flying control surfaces. Often stringers are attached to frames with fillets or
gussets.

Longerons and Stringers


Figure 20

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2.6.4 DOUBLERS AND REINFORCEMENT

Where the skin requires extra strengthening, at the junction of plates or around
small apertures, a second layer of skin is attached over the original to reinforce it.
This extra plate is known as a doubler or a doubler plate.
Where loads are concentrated within the structure, it can be strengthened at
these places by either making the material thicker, or by the addition of a number
of layers of similar material. The actual amount of reinforcement being dictated by
the amount of stress carried in each area.

Doubler Plate
Figure 21
2.6.5 STRUTS AND TIES

Any structural item that is designed solely to take a compressive load is called a
strut. Whereas an item that only takes a tensile load is called a tie. They can be
found throughout a modern aircraft structure, although an ideal example would be
a high performance biplane. In this type of aircraft often used for aerobatics, the
struts which separate the pairs of wings, in compression and the interconnecting
flying wires, in tension, take all the loads produced by the wing.

Struts and Wires


Figure 22
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2.6.6 BEAMS AND FLOOR STRUCTURES

Beams are often used laterally and longitudinally along the fuselage to support
the flight deck and passenger cabin floors. Additionally they provide strong point
attachments for the crew and passenger seats and as such, constitute primary
structure. Modern cabin flooring is usually made up from a number of removable
composite honeycomb core panels, examples of which are shown below,
whereas the flight deck is often made from metal panels supported on beams.

Floor Structures
Figure 23
2.6.7 METHODS OF SKINNING

Skins for light aircraft are usually simple, thin sheets of aluminium alloy, wrapped
around and riveted to the internal structure.
Larger aircraft, developed since the 1950s have their skins manufactured from
heavier material with the additional use of even thicker sections in certain places
where more strength is required.
As the aircraft designs became more complex, the excess weight of thicker skins
in places where they are not necessarily required, became too big a penalty. To
overcome this problem, the skins were rolled individually to produce a variety of
differing thickness across each sheet, to cater for variations in stress.

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The latest methods are to machine or mill each skin panel individually from a
solid billet, to include all stringers and risers and to provide a varying thickness all
over the sheet. In this way, the skin panel is exactly the right thickness at each
location, with no excess material and hence no extra weight. This method results
in what is termed milled skin or machined skin. Milled wing skins give maximum
strength and rigidity with minimum weight.
Panels containing areas of different thickness can also be produced from a
chemical etching process where areas which have been treated, will be removed
to about half their thickness by the chemical etch. The nature of the etching
process ensures that no stress raisers are introduced into the material. So called
waffle plates can be produced in this way and are shown in Fig 24.

Skinning Methods
Figure 24

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2.6.8 ANTI-CORROSIVE PROTECTION

Materials used in aircraft construction are selected primarily for their strength and
tenacity. Unfortunately, many may readily suffer serious damage from corrosion
unless effectively protected and the rate of corrosion attack can be extremely
rapid in certain environments. One of the main considerations in the design of
aircraft structure therefore, are measures for the control and prevention of
corrosion.
During manufacture and assembly, a range of surface treatments are applied.
Materials are heat treated to refine grain structure, sacrificial coatings in the form
of plating and cladding are employed, to retard the onset of corrosion. Epoxy
primers, special paint finishes, wet-assembly techniques and the use of barrier
sealants to prevent the ingress of dirt and moisture between component parts, all
help to reduce the risk of corrosion. Additionally, drain holes, drainage paths and
attention to good corrosion resistant design techniques for each component part,
ensure that aircraft newly off the production line are protected as much as
possible, before entering airline service.
Aircraft are required to operate in widely varying, often highly corrosive
environments throughout the world and despite the high standard of protective
treatments applied during manufacture, corrosion will still occur.
Corrosive attack may extend over an entire metal surface, may penetrate locally
to form deep pits or may follow the grain boundaries within the metal. The
weakening effect of corrosive attack may be aggravated by stresses in the metal
and result in premature failure of the component. These stresses may be due to
externally applied loads or may be internal stresses locked into the metal
structure during manufacturing processes, despite the care taken to keep the risk
to a minimum.
Whatever the cause and type of corrosive attack, unless preventative
maintenance is carried out, damage may become so severe, it could present a
serious hazard to the airworthiness of the aircraft. Rectification of advanced
corrosion damage is time consuming and much of the corrosion during service
can be prevented or contained by simple corrosion prevention measures
Corrosion seldom occurs on a clean dry aircraft especially if the protective
coatings are completely in tact. Since aircraft have to operate outside throughout
their lives, they are difficult to keep dry, but keeping the protective coatings free
from scratches, dents and scores, ensuring drains which might allow water to
accumulate are kept clear and keeping the aircraft clean and free of dirt are all
within the scope of a good maintenance engineer.
In addition, the engineer should clear up spills from the galleys and toilets and
remove deposits from engine exhausts as these are also very corrosive if left on
the skin for too long.

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2.6.9 CONSTRUCTION METHODS WING

The basic requirement for wing construction, particularly with cantilever types is
for a spanwise member of great strength, usually in the form of a spar.
Conventionally, there are three general designs, monospar, two-spar or
multispar.
Most modern commercial airliners, have a wing comprising top and bottom skins
complete with spanwise stringers, front and rear spars and a set of wing ribs
running chordwise across the wing between the spars. This forms a box-like
shape which is very robust and the addition of nose ribs and trailing edge fittings
produce the characteristic aerofoil shape.
Wing structures carry some of the heaviest loads found in aircraft structure.
Fittings and joints must be carefully proportioned so they can pick up loads in a
gradual and progressive manner and redistribute them to other parts of the
structure in a similar manner. Special attention must be paid to minimising stress
concentrations, by avoiding too rapid a change in cross section and to provide
ample material to handle any concentration in stress or shock loading that cannot
be avoided, such as landing loads.

Typical Wing Construction


Figure 25

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2.6.10 CONSTRUCTION METHODS EMPENNAGE

The vertical and horizontal stabilisers, elevators and rudder are constructed in a
manner similar to the wings but on a smaller scale. The main structural members
are the spars, with the stringers, ribs and stressed skin completing the basic
design.

Typical Stabilizer Construction


Figure 26

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2.6.11 CONSTRUCTION METHODS ENGINE ATTACHMENTS

Engine mountings consist of the structure that transmits the thrust provided by
either the propeller or turbojet, to the airframe. The mounts can be constructed
from welded alloy steel tubing, formed sheet metal, forged alloy fittings or a
combination of all three. Some typical examples are shown in Figures 27 to 29.
All engine mounts are required to absorb not only the forward thrust during
normal flight, but the reduced force of reverse thrust and the vibrations produced
by the particular engine/propeller combination..

Fabricated Piston Engine Mounting


Figure 27

Tubular Turbopropeller Mounting


Figure 28
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Machined Turbojet Side Mounting


Figure 29

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2.6.12 STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY TECHNIQUES

The integrity of an aircraft joint depends on the way the parts are attached
together. The most common method of attachment is by the use of rivets or more
sophisticated types of rivets, known as fasteners. However, where high strength
is required, nuts and bolts are used whilst other structural assembly is achieved
by the use of adhesive bonding techniques.
Although aluminium alloy is the most common material for aircraft construction,
more and more structural components and in some cases, complete aircraft, are
being manufactured from composite materials like glass or carbon fibre.
Riveting is generally divided into two types: (1) solid shank rivets and (2) special
fasteners. The special fastener category being sub-divided further into special
and blind fasteners.
2.6.13 SOLID SHANK RIVETS

The vast majority of aircraft structure is held together with solid rivets. As will be
explained later, many of the more modern designs use special fasteners and
some bonded construction, but the majority are still solid rivets.
Head Shapes
In the past there have been a large number of rivet head shapes used in aircraft,
but in recent years these have been reduced and standardised to four main
types:
The Universal Head, sometimes known as AN70 or MS20470, is most popular
and may be used to replace any protruding-head rivet. It is streamlined on top but
thick enough to provide strength without protruding too much into the airflow.
A Round Head rivet, AN430, is used on internal structure where the thicker head
is more suitable for automatic riveting equipment.
In internal locations where a flat head rivet can be driven more easily than either
a round or universal head rivet, the AN442 Flat Head rivet may be used.
Where a smooth skin is important, flush rivets such as AN426 or MS20426, with a
100 countersink head are used. Additionally, rivets with a different countersink
angle, such as 90 and 120 degrees can be found.

Rivet Head Types


Figure 30
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Types of Alloy used for Solid Shank Rivets


The identification marks on rivet heads serve two important functions. Firstly, the
marks are used to identify the rivet alloy required for a special installation area
and, secondly, the head markings are necessary when trying to identify which
kind of rivets are being removed from an aircraft during disassembly or repair.
The alloy identifying marks are made on rivet heads at the time they are being
stamped out during manufacture.
Generally, solid rivets are manufactured in five different materials:

Solid Rivet Identification


Figure 31
For non-structural applications, rivets made from pure aluminium, sometimes
known as 'A' rivets, may be used.
A very popular rivet is the 'AD' rivet, which has copper and magnesium added to
the aluminium base metal. This rivet is heat treated during manufacture to make it
strong, whilst still being soft enough to be formed easily.
When much more strength than the 'AD' rivets is required, there are two stronger
rivets available. These are 'D' and 'DD' rivets but they must be heat treated to
make them softer before they can be formed. The 'D' types are of 2017 alloy and
the 'DD' types are manufactured from 2024 alloy. Both of these rivet types, after
heat treatment, must be formed within a specific period of time (one hour for 'D'
and ten minutes for 'DD' types) or they may be put into a refrigerator to maintain
the softening effect. Once refrigerated they will remain useable for about 10 days.

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When riveting magnesium alloy sheets, there must be no copper in the rivet alloy,
or dissimilar metal corrosion will set in. Therefore, a 'B' rivet, manufactured from
5056 alloy is used. This contains a large amount of magnesium with a little
manganese and chromium but no copper.
Dimensions
Aircraft rivet dimensions are categorised by the diameter of the shank, D, and
the length, L, measured from the end of the shank to the portion of the head that
will be flush with the surface of the metal. This means that a countersink rivet is
measured from the top of its head, whilst the remainder are measured from under
the head.

Rivet Dimensioning
Figure 32
Identification
The complete identification of a rivet includes its head style, its material, its
diameter and its length. The identification code shows the diameter as a number
of 1/32ths of an inch and the length as a number of 1/16ths of an inch.
For example, An MS20470AD4-4 has a universal head (MS20470), is made from
alloy 2117 (AD), is 1/8" diameter (4 x 1/32) and 1/4" long (4 x 1/16).

2.6.14 SPECIAL AND BLIND FASTENERS.

When solid shank rivets become impractical to use, then special fasteners are
used. These, you will remember, are of two types; special and blind fasteners.
The term Special Fasteners refers first to their job requirement and second to
the tooling needed for the installation. In certain locations, aircraft require strength
that cannot be produced by a solid shank rivet, so a special high strength
fastener is used. For example, if high shear strength is required, then special
High Shear rivets are used. These are usually installed with special tools and will
be discussed later in this chapter.

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Blind Fasteners
There are several different types of blind fasteners which can be hollow or selfsealing. They include the following types, all of which can be installed from one
side of the work.

Chobert

Avdel

Tucker/Pop

Cherry

Note: It is most important that the correct tools are always used with the types of
rivets mentioned above.
Chobert Rivets
These are available with a snap (round) head or a countersink head and are
closed by forcibly pulling a mandrel through the bore of the rivet. This closes the
'tail' and expands the rivet tightly into the hole. To seal Chobert rivets, a separate
sealing pin is driven into the hollow bore of the rivet.

Chobert Rivet
Figure 33

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Tucker or 'Pop' Rivets


Tucker/'Pop' rivets are manufactured with either domed or countersunk heads
and are supplied on individual mandrels. The rivets can be either break head or
break stem and when closed, can be sealed or open depending upon their
application. Break head rivets are rarely used due to the 'foreign object' risk from
the broken off heads lying within the internal aircraft structure.
Break stem rivets are be divided into two groups, short and long break mandrels.
Long break types leaves the stem in place, greatly increasing the shear strength
of the rivet.

Tucker Pop Rivet


Figure 34
Cherry Rivets
These rivets, of American manufacture, are similar to Avdel rivets, except that the
stem is positively locked in the rivet bore. During final forming, a locking collar is
forced into a groove in the stem, preventing further movement. After the closing
operation, the remainder of the stem is milled flush with the skin.
There are many different types of Cherry rivets, two of the most popular being the
Cherry Lock and the Cherry Max. The Cherry Lock, however, requires a range of
closing tools for different sized rivets, whilst the Cherry Max series can all be
closed with a single tool.
Cherry Lock rivets are manufactured from 2017 or 5056 alloys, Monel metal or
Stainless Steel, whereas Cherry Max are made from 5056 alloy, Monel or Inconel
750. They are all available with either universal or countersink heads and due to
their positive locking method, can be installed in place of solid shank rivets.

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Cherry Lock Rivet


Figure 35

Cherry Max Rivet


Figure 36
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Avdel Rivets
These are similar to Chobert rivets, but each is fitted with its own stem (mandrel).
The stem is pulled through the rivet body to close the rivet and at a
predetermined load, breaks off proud of the manufactured head. This leaves part
of the stem inside the body which seals the rivet. The excess stem is then
removed by nipping it off and carefully milling it until flush with the surface of the
aircraft skin.
The shear strength of an Avdel rivet is greater than a Chobert rivet of equivalent
material and size and similar to a solid rivet.

Avdel Rivet
Figure 37
Special Fasteners
These can include Hi-Shear, Avdelock, Jo-Bolts, and Rivnuts. The first three are
all formed by means of a collar which is swaged into the grooves in fastener
shank or expanded over the shank to form a blind head. Rivnuts are formed using
a similar method to cherry locks, but with a threaded mandrel screwed into the
Rivnut. The advantage of Rivnuts, (see Fig 38), is that after closing, a fixed nut is
left behind which may be used for the attachment of de-icing boots, floor
coverings and other non-structural parts.

Rivnuts After Installation


Figure 38

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2.6.15 BOLTS AND NUTS

Bolts
A bolt is designed to hold two or more parts together. It may be loaded in shear,
in tension, or both. Bolts are designed to be used with nuts and have a portion of
the shank that is not threaded, called the grip, whereas Machine screws and Cap
screws have the entire length of the shank threaded.
The dimensions required to identify a bolt are expressed in terms of the diameter
of the shank and the length from the bottom of the head to the end of the bolt.
The grip length should be the same as the thickness of the material being held
together. This measurement can be found by reference to the applicable charts.
Bolt heads are made in a variety of shapes, with hexagonal being the most
common.

Bolt Terminology
Figure 39
General Purpose Bolts
All-purpose structural bolts used for both tension and shear loading is made
under 'AN' standards from 3 to 20, the bolt diameter is specified by the AN
number in 1/16"; for example:
AN3 = 3/16" diameter
AN11 = 11/16" diameter
The range is from AN3 to AN20 which have hexagon heads, are made from alloy
steel and have UNF (fine) threads.
The length of the bolt is expressed as a dash number. Bolts increase in length by
1/8" and the dash number(s) will show the length.

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For example:
AN3-7 = 7/8" long
AN3-15 = 1 5/8" long
Other markings will identify whether the bolt has a drilled shank, a drilled head for
locking and indicate what material the bolt is made from.
Clevis Bolts
These bolts (AN21 to 36) are designed for pure shear load applications such as
control cables. The slotted, domed head results in this bolt often being mistaken
for a machine screw.
A clevis bolt has only a short portion of the shank threaded with a small notch
between the threads and the plain portion of the shank, which allows the bolt to
rotate more freely in its hole.
Because the length of this bolt is more critical than normal bolts, its length is
given in 1/16" increments.

Clevis Bolt Identification


Figure 40

Nuts
All nuts used on aircraft must have some sort of locking device to prevent them
from loosening and falling off. Many nuts are held in place on a bolt, by passing a
split pin through a hole in the bolt shank and through slots, or castellations, in the
nut. Others have some form of locking insert that grips the bolt's thread, whilst
others rely on the tension of a spring-type lock-washer to hold the nut tight
enough against the threads to prevent them from vibrating loose.
Sometimes, nuts that are plain with no locking devices are used and prevented
from coming undone, once they have been tightened, by the use of locking wire
attached to an adjacent nut or to the aircraft structure.

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There are two basic types of nuts, self-locking and non self-locking. As the name
implies, a self-locking nut locks onto a bolt with no external help, whilst a non selflocking nut relies on either a split pin, lock-nut, locking washer or locking wire, to
stop it from undoing.

Standard Nuts
Figure 41
Another type of nut in general use is the Anchor nut. These are permanently
mounted on nut plates that enable inspection panels and access doors to be
easily removed and installed, without access being required on the reverse side
of the work. To make fitment of the panel easier when there is a large number of
screws, the nuts are often mounted 'floating' on their mounts, which allows for
small differences in the position of the attaching screws.
Although rarely used on large commercial airliners, Tinnerman nuts are
manufactured from sheet steel and are used mainly on light aircraft, for the fitting
of instruments into the flight deck panels, the attachment of inspection panels,
etc. Some light aircraft engine cowlings have U-type tinnerman nuts fitted over
the inner edge of the cowling frame. When the retaining screws are tightened,
spring action holds them tightly and safely in place.

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Examples of self-locking nuts, anchor nuts and U-type tinnerman nuts are shown
in figures 42 and 43 below.

Self Locking and Anchor Nuts


Figure 42

U-Type Tinnerman Nut


Figure 43

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2.6.16 ADHESIVE BONDED STRUCTURES

Adhesive Bonding is the technique of joining materials using special adhesives.


In the past a common type of adhesive widely used in metal to metal joints was
the Redux epoxy resin system. Redux is the trade name for a range of
adhesives produced by the Ciba-Geigy company and the epoxy bonding
procedure in general, refers to a hot-melt, hot-cure adhesive, which is available in
partly cured strips or sheets.
Note: This type of epoxy resin is also used to provide the reinforcement for fibre
composite construction and has already been covered as a separate topic in
Module 6.
In metal to metal bonding, the sheets of partly cured adhesive, which at this stage
resemble strips of chewing gum, are cut to exact size. With the backing paper
peeled away, they are carefully placed between each of the components being
joined together and the joint securely clamped. The complete assembly, which for
example might consist of a wing skin with all its stringers and ribs in place, is then
loaded into an autoclave (pressure cooker) to complete the curing process. The
adhesive melts and flows evenly into the narrow gaps between the component
parts and cures to produce a very strong bond.
In the autoclave the temperature limits are strictly controlled, (typically not above
100-150C, depending on type of adhesive used), and subjected to a constant
clamping force (usually by a vacuum process), resulting in perfect bonded joints
which are as strong as, or stronger than, equivalent riveted joints. For composite
repairs, figure 45, a portable Autoclave process is employed.
There are a number of aircraft, in which the majority of the primary metal
structure is joined together entirely with adhesive bonding, with very few rivets
being used. The Fokker 50/70/100 and BAe 146/RJ are good examples of aircraft
employing this technique extensively. In fact British Aerospace claims that by
using adhesive bonding techniques on the BAe 146/RJ airframe, over 10,000
rivets are not required. This means the weight of the rivets, the work that would
be expended in closing them and the risk of subsequent in-service cracks (see
Figure 44) emanating from rivet holes, are all saved on each airframe.
A further important advantage of using adhesively bonded structures, is improved
sealing of integral fuel tanks, eliminating the leakage problems that are typical of
riveted assemblies.

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Comparison between Machined and Bonded Structure Failure Rates


Figure 44

Autoclave Curing Process During Composite Repair


Figure 45
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2.6.17 METHODS OF SURFACE PROTECTION

As mentioned in an earlier chapter, there are many different types of surface


protection added to the basic structural materials and hardware.
Anodising
A method of protecting aluminium based alloys from corrosion, especially when
cladding is impractical, is by a process called Anodising. This is an electrolytic
treatment which coats the host metal with a film of oxide. This film is hard,
waterproof, air-tight and to aid in identification of some parts, will permanently
accept a coloured dye. The film also acts as an insulator, so when bonding leads
are to be attached to an anodised part, the surface treatment must be carefully
removed before the bonding lead is attached. Finally, anodising a part also
provides an excellent base for the addition of an organic finish and bonding
adhesives.
There are a number of different organic finishes applied to aircraft to protect the
surfaces:
Synthetic Enamel.- An older finish which cures by the process of oxidation It has
a good surface finish, but is poor when it comes to its resistance to chemicals or
wear.
Acrylic Lacquer.- A popular finish in the mass production market, easy to apply
and has a fairly good resistance to chemical attack and weather.
Polyurethane.- One of the most durable finishes which has high resistance to
wear, fading and chemicals. It also has a 'wet look'.
Chromating
Chromate coatings are used to protect Magnesium-based alloys, as well as zinc
and its alloys. Components are immersed in a bath containing potassium
bichromate and results in a yellowish coating on magnesium alloys. The coating
can be restored locally with Alocrom 1200 treatment.
Cladding
There are two metals most commonly alloyed with aluminium, to produce high
strength skin and component parts for aircraft manufacture. These are, Copper
and Zinc. These alloys suffer extensively from the effects of corrosion, so a
cladding technique is used as a form of corrosion protection. Alclad as it is
termed is a soft, highly corrosion-resistant, pure aluminium skin, rolled onto the
face of each base alloy sheet, effectively sandwiching the alloy.

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Surface Cleaning
Most aircraft will be cleaned before starting on large inspections, but it is common
sense to keep an aircraft clean all of the time. Dirt can cover up cracked or
damaged components as well as trap moisture and solvents which can lead to
corrosion.
Note: Materials mentioned in this chapter are only used as an example, each
aircraft type will have a list of suitable and prohibited materials in its maintenance
manuals (AMM).
Exterior Cleaning
Exterior cleaning is an important facet of corrosion control, but there are a
number of points which must first be protected from cleaning materials and high
pressure water sprays. The pitot tubes and static vents must be properly blanked
off to prevent water ingress and the wheels, tyres and brake assemblies need to
be covered to keep them free of aggressive cleaning agents.
Only cleaning agents and chemicals recommended by the manufacturer are to
used. for the job in hand or the risk of serious contamination may result. One of
the unseen effects of using non-approved cleaning agents is hydrogen
embrittlement. This is caused by hydrogen from the agent being absorbed into
the metal, causing minute cracks and will lead to stress corrosion failure.
Aircraft should ideally be washed on a proper platform with suitable drains. It is
better if the outside air temperature is not too high, so the cleaning agent does
not evaporate. Typically, a mix of water and an emulsion-type cleaner, to a ratio
of between 3:1 and 5:1 is applied, allowed to soak for a few minutes and then
rinsed off with a high pressure stream of water.
Engine cowlings and wheel well areas usually have grease, oil or brake dust
deposits that require special treatment. These require stronger mixtures ratios
and scrubbing with a soft bristle brush to loosen the dirt before rinsing off with a
high pressure water jet. It must be borne in mind however, that oil and grease
could be accidentally removed from places where they are meant to be, for
example in wheel bearings etc. These will often require re-lubrication after
washing has been completed.
Exhaust residue from both piston and jet engines is very corrosive and must be
removed on a regular basis. These deposits usually require a special proprietary
solvent to mix with the water. Sometimes a simple emulsified mix of kerosene
and water may be approved. Dry-cleaning solvent or naptha is sometimes used
for oil and grease removal. Some naptha compounds are harmless to rubber or
acrylic items, whilst others will attack these same materials, so only approved
specifications are to be used.

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2.6.18 EXTERIOR FINISH MAINTENANCE

All materials used on the exterior of an aircraft must be approved by the


manufacturer of that aircraft to ensure no abrasives or solvents are applied where
they can do damage.
Non-Metallic Cleaning
Non-metallic components sometimes require different cleaning techniques from
metal parts. For example, the slightest amount of dust on plastic or acrylic panels
will scratch and severely reduce the optical quality if rubbed with a dry cloth. This
can also build up a static charge and attract more dust so the correct procedure
in this situation is to wash down, rinse with water without rubbing with a cloth. Oil
and hydraulic fluid also attack rubber components such as tyres, so any spillages
must be cleaned up immediately. Neoprene rubber leading-edge de-icer boots
and composite structures are other examples of parts that need special cleaning
procedures, all of which will be detailed in the AMM.
Engine Cleaning
Apart from external cleaning carried out on the engine cowlings, with the
associated protection of electrical components; gas turbine engines are regularly
washed internally to remove the deposits of dust, sand and salt, that tend to
accumulate on internal parts of the engine.
This coating if not removed, can have a serious effect on the engine's
performance. Indeed, the output of the engine could fall below the manufacturers
minimum figures, resulting in an unscheduled and expensive engine change
Alignment and Symmetry
Aircraft can have abnormal occurrences during their life, when for example, a
very heavy landing could occur, some accidental external damage or the need to
replace a major component, etc. All of these instances will require special checks
to be carried out to guarantee that the aircraft is perfectly symmetrical and
aligned before its next flight.
The checks consist of measuring very accurately from a number of datum points
on the airframe, such as from wing tips, the nose, the horizontal stabiliser and the
top of the vertical stabiliser. The checks vary, depending on the aircraft
manufacturers requirements, but all ensure that measurements taken on the lefthand side of the aircraft are within a minimum tolerance of the measurements
from the right-hand side. These checks are usually taken with the aircraft on
jacks and in the rigging position, ie: a nominally level in flight attitude.
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On light aircraft, these measurements are usually taken using a surveyors tape
measure. (It is a check of comparison, not of outright measurement). As the
aircraft get larger, optical theodolite style methods are used. These can be a
microscopic level with the use of sighting rods or even a laser ranging alignment
device.
Deeper checks that are carried out after any of the above mentioned situations,
as well as on a routine basis, include checks on the wing, tail and control
surfaces to ensure that they are set at the correct angles. These checks are
usually known as 'rigging checks' and are carried out using purpose built levelling
boards and an accurate measuring device known as a Clinometer.

Rigging Checks - Older Aircraft


Figure 46

Symmetry Checks Modern Aircraft


Figure 47

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MODULE 11.03
AEROPLANE
STRUCTURES

Contents
3

AIRFRAME STRUCTURES - AEROPLANES .............................. 3-3


3.1

3.2

3.3
3.4
3.5

FUSELAGE ................................................................................... 3-3


3.1.1
Truss Fuselage Construction ........................................ 3-3
3.1.2
Truss Fuselage - Warren Truss ..................................... 3-3
3.1.3
Stressed Skin Structure................................................. 3-4
3.1.4
Pressurised Structure .................................................... 3-5
3.1.5
Attachments .................................................................. 3-6
3.1.6
Passengers and Cargo ................................................. 3-9
3.1.7
Doors ............................................................................ 3-10
3.1.8
Windows and Windscreens ........................................... 3-12
WINGS ......................................................................................... 3-14
3.2.1
Construction .................................................................. 3-14
3.2.2
Fuel Storage ................................................................. 3-16
3.2.3
Landing Gear ................................................................ 3-18
3.2.4
Pylons ........................................................................... 3-19
3.2.5
Control Surface and High Lift/Drag Attachments ........... 3-20
STABILISERS ................................................................................ 3-21
FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES ........................................................ 3-22
NACELLES AND PYLONS ................................................................ 3-23

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AIRFRAME STRUCTURES - AEROPLANES

3.1 FUSELAGE
The fuselage of a light aircraft is the body of the aircraft, to which the wings, tail,
landing gear and engines may be attached. Larger aircraft can have their main
landing gear attached to the wings and, on multiple engined aircraft, a number of
the power-plants can be wing mounted also.
The loads produced either on the ground or in flight, will at some time, have to
pass through the fuselage. In order to absorb these tremendous loads imposed
upon the structure, the fuselage must have maximum strength, but this must be
combined with the other constraint, that of minimum weight.
There are two types of construction found in the majority of modern aircraft
fuselage design, the truss and the stressed skin type.

3.1.1 TRUSS FUSELAGE CONSTRUCTION

By definition, a truss is a form of construction in which a number of members (or


struts), are joined to form a rigid structure normally covered with non-load
carrying material such as cloth, fabric or thin sheets of wood.
Very early aircraft used a method of construction referred to as a Pratt Truss,
where struts were held in compression, and wires, which ran diagonally between
the struts, were in tension.

Truss Fuselage The Pratt Truss


Figure 1
3.1.2 TRUSS FUSELAGE - WARREN TRUSS

When fuselages were subsequently made from welded tubes, the Warren Truss
became popular. In this arrangement, shown overleaf, the longerons are
separated by diagonal members which carry both compressive and tensile loads.

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Warren Truss
Figure 2
3.1.3 STRESSED SKIN STRUCTURE

The neccessity of having to build a non-load-carrying covering over a structural


truss led to designers to develop the stressed skin form of construction. In this
method, a proportion of the load is carried by the outside skin, which can be also
be formed into a much smoother and more efficient shape.
The commonest form of a stressed skin structure is a chicken egg (pure
monocoque). The seemingly fragile shell can resist high loads, as long as they
are applied in a proper direction.
Pure-Monocoque Structure
This form of stressed skin construction is rarely seen in its purest form, because it
is normal to add some form of light internal structure to help support the skin.
However, there are some aircraft (normally gliders and sailplanes) made from
glass reinforced plastic (GRP), which are constructed as a pure monocoque
structure. In this design, the GRP skin is quite thick, often with a core of some
other lightweight material such as balsa wood or composite honeycomb, so there
is no need for any internal, supporting structure.
Semi-Monocoque Structure
This form of construction has a skin carrying a large amount of the loads, but with
an internal structure of frames and stringers to keep the skin to its correct shape,
where it can best carry the loads. Some have longerons which are more
substantial than stringers and carry most of the longitudinal structural loads, with
the frames carrying the radial loads.

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3.1.4 PRESSURISED STRUCTURE

High altitude flight places the occupants in a hostile environment in which life
cannot be sustained without oxygen. To avoid the need to wear oxygen masks,
the pressure in the cabin is raised higher than it is outside, which provides
sufficient oxygen in the air for the passengers to breathe normally.
In the 1950s, piston-engined aircraft, had a pressure differential across the cabin
wall about two pounds per square inch (psi) maximum. Modern aircraft cabins
can sustain a pressure differential between 8 and 10 psi, so there must not be
any part of the structure containing 'stress raisers' which would concentrate
stress to an unacceptable level. Much of the structure of modern aircraft has
been built to the 'fail safe' philosophy, in which the structure is built with multiple
load paths for the major stresses to pass through, to cater for the unlikely failure
of a single structural item.
Pressurisation Sealing
All joints in the structure, as well as openings such as doors, panels, emergency
exits, etc. must be completely airtight during flight, to prevent the cabin pressure
leaking below its required level. Joints are constructed with an interface of sealing
compound, whereas windows and doors employ pre-formed rubber seals around
their edges. The points where control tubes and cables pass in and out of the
pressure hull, utilise some form of flexible bellows which are leak proof but move
with the controls.

Pressurisation Sealing
Figure 3

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3.1.5 ATTACHMENTS

The fuselage can, as mentioned earlier, carry most of the major loads, both on
the ground and in flight. To this end, most of the other airframe components such
as the wing, stabilisers, pylon and undercarriage, can be fitted to the fuselage.
The wings can be mounted above or below the passenger compartment. As
already mentioned, wings are usually attached to the fuselage with multiple
attachments, although light aircraft may still have wings attached with as few as
two bolts.

Early High Stress Attachment


Figure 4

Multiple Fastener Wing Attachment


Figure 5
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The horizontal and vertical stabilisers can be fitted to the fuselage in numerous
different ways. When the horizontal stabiliser is fitted part-way up or on the top of
the vertical stabiliser, there will be only one strong attachment point. Otherwise,
there will be separate attachments for the fin and for the left and right tailplane
sections.
Where a moving horizontal stabiliser is employed, the attachment will consist of
left and right rear pivot fittings and a single forward attachment to a trim actuator.
On rare occasions, the rear fuselage is manufactured, together with the
stabilisers, as one integral unit. Because the loads generated by the empennage,
it is usual to find that the rear fuselage structure has stronger frames around the
stabiliser attachment points. These frames transmit the loads along the fuselage
and away from the tail.
The same technique is used when the engines are attached to wing or to rear
fuselage mounted pylons The Fokker 70/100, for example, has oblique frames to
connect the vertical stabiliser to the top mounted tailplane and to the fuselage,
plus two heavy frames to transmit all the engine thrust loads into the fuselage.

Strengthened Frames
Figure 6

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As previously mentioned, the landing gear can be attached either to the fuselage,
the wings, or within wing mounted engine nacelles. Because of the need for cabin
space, fuselage mounted landing gear on passenger and freight-carrying aircraft,
often have the main landing gears mounted in fairings or nacelles beneath the
fuselage as in the ATR-72, detailed below.

Faired ATR 72 landing Gear


Figure 7
The landing gear, as for the other attachments, is mounted on to strong fuselage
frames which in this case, are also used to mount the wings, attached above the
fuselage. The loads that these frames carry, both in flight and on the ground, are
transmitted into the fuselage by means of longitudinal stringers and longerons.

Fuselage Strong Points


Figure 8
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3.1.6 PASSENGERS AND CARGO

Aircraft that carry passengers as well as crew, all have to have seats that comply
with crashworthiness regulations. These regulations dictate that the seats with a
person correctly strapped in place, must be able to survive a sudden stop of over
20 times the force of gravity, (20g), without the floor mountings (to which the seat
is attached) failing, or the seat itself collapsing.
Although aircraft seats appear to resemble normal domestic seats, the tubular
framework and floor attachment 'feet' are very strong, yet are light in weight and
can be disconnected from the floor if necessary, by releasing a few quick-release
fasteners.
Passenger compartment floors of modern aircraft are often panels of the
composite material Fibrelam, which are strong enough to carry most of the
general loads created by passengers and galley equipment. The panels are
themselves supported by lateral and longitudinal beams, which are primary
structure, into which the panels fit. Lateral beams are attached to the lower
portion of the (usually) circular fuselage frames and longitudinal beams supported
by the lateral beams, are those upon which the seats are fitted.

Seat Track Fittings


Figure 9
The top of each longitudinal beam is fitted with location holes which are a
standard size and into which all seats are slotted. Additionally, the galleys and
bulkhead partitions can also be attached to them. The frequent and equal spacing
of the seat track attachment holes, allows the seats to be fitted at a variable
increment, or pitch, to cater for different classes of cabin (economy or first class).
On some aircraft, such as the Fokker 100, there are five longitudinal seat tracks
in the cabin floor which allow a five abreast seating to be installed (3+2 or 2+3),
with the off-set aisle on whichever side the customer wishes.

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Cargo Loading Systems


Aircraft which are used for carrying all or part freight loads have to have the floor
modified to allow the movement of pallets or containers.
Usually this will consist of substantial reinforcement of the flooring with tracks,
guides and rollers fitted, to allow safe and easy motorised movement up and
down the freight bay. In the entrance door area, a ball-mat is installed to allow
the freight to be easily loaded, rotated and man-handled on to the rollers.

3.1.7 DOORS

This topic covers most methods of entry and exit from the fuselage, including
those for passengers, crew, refreshments and meals, baggage and major
maintenance access. In addition, some doors are dedicated to emergencies only
and will therefore remain unused during normal operations.
If the aircraft has a cabin pressurisation system, the doors have to be more
substantial than for a non-pressurised type and be fitted with safety devices to
prevent accidental opening. One method to prevent this happening is allow the
door to open inwards so that the door 'plugs' the aperture when closed and is
held in place by the cabin pressure in addition to the door frame locating bolts.
Any door on pressurised aircraft that does open outwards, must have additional
devices and protection mechanisms fitted to prevent accidental opening and a
flight deck warning system to inform the crew if it is not properly closed and
secured.
Non-pressurised aircraft doors still have to be safe, with a system of handles and
latches that operate in a specific order or after the application of a certain force.
Doors on most aircraft are constructed in a similar way to the fuselage with an
inner and an outer skin and vertical and horizontal members. The sometimes
complex locking and latching mechanisms, plus the indicating and warning
electrical wiring systems are all contained within this structure.
Most fuselage doors are operated manually, but much larger freight/cargo doors
are either electrically or hydraulically operated. Another requirement on all cabin
doors, (normal exit/entry and emergency type) is the need for efficient emergency
egress in the event of a mishap on the ground. They must be operable by a
single handle whose operation shall be rapid and obvious. Most doors have
decals and large red arrows, to clearly indicate the way in which the handles are
to be rotated or moved to open the door.
Dedicated emergency exits are almost always 'plug' type and, therefore, cannot
be opened in flight due to the cabin pressure acting on door opening mechanism
(usually an over-centre type a cam arrangement) thus preventing handle rotation.

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Door Mechanism
Figure 10

Door Structure and Sealing


Figure 11

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To prevent leakage of the cabin pressure, all doors have to have a substantial
seal around their edges to keep the aperture between door and surrounding
fuselage frame airtight. Some seals just compress and fill the space when the
door is closed, others use cabin air to inflate and therefore expand the seal to
achieve the same result. Fig 11 shows a typical door seal arrangement.
3.1.8 WINDOWS AND WINDSCREENS

All the transparencies on non-pressurised aircraft are normally made from acrylic
or some other clear plastic material. On pressurised aircraft, flight deck
windscreens have to comply with very strict bird-strike regulations and are made
from a toughened sandwich of glass/plastic/glass The passenger cabin windows
are manufactured from acrylic, mylar or other plastics.
It must be considered that an aircraft travelling at 400 knots which collides with a
bird weighing 3kg, could suffer severe structural damage, engine failure and more
importantly, if the bird struck a windscreen and broke through, it could cause
serious injury. Furthermore, rapid decompression of the pressure cabin would
result. The regulations state that during testing, when a dead bird is fired at it
from a large air gun, the screen must be able to survive the impact.
Consequently, the glass/plastic/glass sandwich is fitted with a heating element
between the interface of the front glass panel and the plastic core. Not only does
the heater provide anti-icing protection, but helps absorb impact since it makes
the plastic core more pliable and shock absorbent. The section through a typical
windscreen below shows how the lamination of glass and plastic layers is
arranged.

Windscreen Construction
Figure 12

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Passenger cabin windows are almost always made from acrylic plastic. This
saves quite a lot of weight as well as cost. For added safety, the acrylic cabin
windows are actually two layers with a space in between, so that if one fails the
other will carry the pressurisation loads, a typical case of fail safe. In addition,
some cabin window assemblies have a third, pane of acrylic fitted to help reduce
the engine noise in the cabin from the power-plants outside.

Passenger Cabin Window


Figure 13
Most aircraft require one or more flight deck windows that can be opened for
signalling to the ground-crew, for fresh air ventilation if the air conditioning is 'off'
on the ground and to be able to see out in emergency situations, for example, the
windscreen becoming obliterated. To achieve this, aircraft are usually fitted with a
pair of opening front corner or side windows, sometimes called Direct Vision
windows. If the cabin is pressurised, they will be unable to be opened due to the
provision of a similar pressure on safety lock system as the cabin doors.

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3.2 WINGS
3.2.1 CONSTRUCTION

The methods by which the wings produce lift were covered in Module 8, so this
module will concentrate on wing construction and their attachments.
To classify the many types of wing it is best to break them down into different
groups. The first sub-division is either those that are externally braced or those
that are of cantilever construction. (no external bracing). In the early days the
majority of aircraft were constructed with the whole aircraft, including the wings,
being braced by wires and struts. These produced very high drag, although the
overall structural weight could be kept down.
As materials and the wing construction became stronger, the number of wires
were progressively reduced, until in the mid-1930's the first genuine fully
cantilever wings with no external bracing, were put into production. This does not
mean the bracing has been eliminated, it just means that all bracing is included
within the wing structure and made much stronger. Fig 14 below, shows how the
external bracing of a biplane has been replaced with more efficient internal
bracing on a cantilever wing.

Biplane and Cantilever Wing Bracing


Figure 14
To illustrate how complex the inside of even a small aircraft wing can be, the
following two pictures show the internal structure of both a wood and a metal
wing.

Internal Wing Structures Wood and Metal


Figure 15
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The heart of a wing is the spar (or spars), to which are attached the ribs stringers
and other structural items. The number of spars is decided by the designer or
design team, but modern airliners normally have two. It is usual to attach landing
gears, primary flying controls, leading and trailing edge devices, to one or other of
the spars within the wing on larger aircraft.
Simpler wings on, for example, a light aircraft, will have only one main spar but
some aircraft can have up to five, which has a measure of 'fail safe' philosophy. If
military aircraft are considered, some modern fighters can have more than 15
spars as part of the damage tolerant design application.
Wing planforms can show an infinite number of different shapes, that are purpose
built and satisfactory for providing lift. These could be generally grouped into
straight, swept, delta and combination wings. Straight wings include those with a
slightly swept leading edge, trailing edge or both.
Swept wings are usually categorised as those with both leading and trailing
edges swept back, at a variety of different angles, whilst the delta-winged shape
(from the Greek for triangle) is self-explanatory.
Under the cover-all title of 'Combination', the selection of silhouettes below should
give an idea of the wide range of wings that can be found on modern day aircraft,
in addition to the more conventional planforms mentioned above.

Wing Planforms
Figure16

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3.2.2 FUEL STORAGE

Rigid Tanks
Because of their shape, wings are often designed to be used for fuel storage.
They can either contain separate fuel tanks within the wing structure, or use the
wing structure itself, suitably sealed, to make integral tanks.
Separate internal tanks are usually manufactured from either light alloy or from
flexible, rubberised fabric. Rigid light alloy tanks are first riveted, then welded to
make them fuel tight and are securely clamped into the wing structure by straps
or tie bars. They will often have baffles inside, to prevent fuel surge from one end
of the tank to the other.

Rigid Fuel tank


Figure 17

Flexible Fuel tank


Figure 18

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Flexible Tanks
Flexible tanks, (Fig 18), also referred to as 'bladder' tanks, have to be located
snugly into the tank bay within the wing, because the sides of the bay provide
support to the relatively weak tank skin. Older types of flexible tanks were made
from rubber- covered fabric. These days the fabric is replaced by man-made
fibres, impregnated with neoprene or some similar fuel tight material.
Integral Tanks
Integral fuel tanks are found on most, if not all, modern commercial aircraft.
During manufacture, practically the entire wing structure becomes a box,
comprising front and rear spars, top and bottom wing skins, inboard and outboard
sealed ribs, into which are installed pumps, drains, filler caps and vents.
The main advantage of the integral tank, is that it provides maximum fuel capacity
for the minimum amount of weight and the only sealing required, is that applied to
the seams after construction is completed.

Boeing 737 Integral Fuel Tank capacities


Figure19

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3.2.3 LANDING GEAR

As mentioned earlier, the attachments for major components can often be strong
points on the wing spars, or even a separate spar built specifically for that
purpose.. One such component that falls into this category is the main landing
gear, otherwise known as the undercarriage. On some very large aircraft, like the
Boeing 747 or Airbus A340, additional body gears, as well as conventional wing
gears are to be found. These have to have reinforcements built into the lower
fuselage structure to absorb the extreme loads at touch down.

Landing Gear Attachments


Figure 20
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3.2.4 PYLONS

Many aircraft have engines mounted on pylons attached to the wing. With this so
called podded engine configuration, the pylons have to take very large thrust
forces from the engines and transfer it to the airframe. This is normally achieved
by attaching the engine to strong points on the pylon and attaching the pylon to
the wing spars. Thrust links are then fixed to the engine frame and the wing spars
to transfer the engine thrust efficiently. Pylons must be positioned low enough so
that the engine exhaust doesnt strike the wing structure, but not too close to the
ground to risk a runway scrape. The Boeing 737-600 is a fine example of this
compromise.

Pylon Engine mounting


Figure 21

Turbo-Propeller Mounting
Figure 22
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Boeing 737-600 Engine Pylon Mountings


Figure 23

3.2.5 CONTROL SURFACE AND HIGH LIFT/DRAG ATTACHMENTS

SR
99

All of the flying controls on the wing will be attached to strong points on either the
front or rear spars. This includes high and low speed ailerons, leading and trailing
edge flaps, slats, roll spoilers, speed brakes and lift dumpers. The wing structure
must therefore be made strong enough not only to carry the lift forces in flight but
the additional loads of pilot control inputs, additional drag devices, etc.
Consequently, the spars, are always the strongest part of the wing structure.

Control Surface mountings - Wings


Figure24

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3.3 STABILISERS
The vertical stabiliser (fin) produces directional or lateral stability, whilst the
horizontal stabiliser (tailplane) produces longitudinal stability. As was mentioned
in the aerodynamics section, these surfaces are of similar construction to the
wings with spars, ribs, stringers etc,. They have to resist the twisting forces from
the control surfaces mounted on the trailing edges. In many cases, the fin is
similar to one half of the tailplane and on a number of light aircraft, it is actually
constructed in this way, thereby simplifying production and component parts.
Light aircraft have stabilisers manufactured from welded tube or fabricated from
thin aluminium sheet of simple construction. As the aircraft size and weight
increases, the surfaces will be made from stronger milled or machined skins and
forged spars. Below can be seen examples of the empennage of light aircraft,
Piper Cub and Cherokee and Cessna 150, showing their simple construction.

Empennage Construction
Figure 25

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3.4 FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES


The construction of most flight control surfaces is critical, since the designer
wants to make them as light as possible. The control surfaces in the early years
of aviation were a light, tubular frame covered with fabric and in later years when
light alloy was adopted the quest for lightness continued. Today, metallic
structures with honeycomb cores or epoxy reinforced composite construction are
utilised for most control surfaces. The control surfaces are attached to the wing,
fin or stabiliser by hinges, the spars being reinforced where these attachments
are located.
The cutaway below shows an elevator from a Fokker 100 and it can be seen that
the construction is very similar to other main surfaces. The only difference is that
the rear half of the surface has no internal framework but instead, a core of
shaped aluminium honeycomb with the skin adhesively-bonded to it.

Elevator Structure
Figure 26
To prevent the risk of flutter, as previously described, the ailerons, elevator and
rudder, are all constructed so that the part of the surface behind the hinge line, is
as light as possible and a number of calibrated weights are added to the leading
edge of the surface. These weights are known as mass balance weights, (see
cutaway above) and the procedure is known as mass balancing.
In addition to mass balancing, surfaces that do not have the benefit of hydraulic
power assistance, (see later) and are difficult to move when the aircraft is at high
speed, have the benefit of aerodynamic balancing. To achieve this simply and as
previously discussed, the hinge of the control is inset, so that part of the surface
in front of the hinge line projects into the airstream, when the control is deflected
from neutral.
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3.5 NACELLES AND PYLONS


It has been mentioned previously, how the nacelles and pylons are attached to
the wings, generally and to other parts of the airframe on selected aircraft. The
main purpose of all these engine fairings is to keep the engines outside of the
airframe itself. There are several reasons for this, but the major reasons are that
it is safer, in the event of a fire or explosion, if it isolated from the fuselage or the
wings by firewalls. Also, it is much easier for routine maintenance and engine
changes, if the engine is externally mounted.
Most nacelles are simply fairings which cover the power-plant in a streamlined
manner, although, they usually also serve as the intake for jet and turbo-propeller
engines. Most are covered by large, easy-to-open doors and panels, which allow
quick and easy access. On some designs there can be smaller, quick release
panels fitted into the larger ones, which allow access for maintenance, such as oil
level quantity indicators, which need to be checked every time the engines are
shut down.
On light aircraft, engine nacelles are usually fairly simple GRP fairings which are
split into two parts and removed by releasing a few screws or quick release
fasteners. These also contain a small intake for the air to reach the carburettor of
the piston engine.
On many larger aircraft, particularly those with fan bypass engines, are fitted with
thrust reversers as part of the cowlings. These are usually doors which translate
rearwards and open up panels containing cascade vanes, which re-direct the
exhaust thrust in a forward direction, when reverse thrust is selected after
landing. These will be covered later in the power-plants chapter.
Although they are much more efficient that the older designs, modern jet engines
produce harmful high frequency noise. One way that the noise may be kept below
the safe and legal minimum, is by making the cowlings out of honeycomb
sandwich, which as well as being very light in weight is excellent at absorbing
sound. The honeycomb can be manufactured from glass or carbon fibre and
covered with composite or light alloy skin facing panels.
The pylons which support the engines fitted on to the wings or the rear fuselage
all have one main purpose, which is to transmit the full thrust of the engines into
the airframe. They must be extremely strong and yet flexible, as the wing mounts
especially have to move with the flexing of the wings.
On many large aircraft, the space within the pylons is utilised to fit such
components as heat exchangers, (radiators); air valves; fuel valves; pipes
containing air, oil and fuel and electric cabling.
All engines must be isolated from the rest of the aircraft, so that a fire can be
completely contained within the nacelle and extinguished if the aircraft is
equipped a fire extinguishing system. To this end, there will be a sealed bulkhead
or divider between the engine and the airframe made of a fire resistant material
such as titanium or stainless steel.
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All engines are subject to vibration that can be sensed inside the aircraft. To
reduce this, the engine mounts are designed not only to hold the engine securely
and to transmit the thrust, but the mounts themselves are fabricated with a shock
absorbing material. This is usually an elastomeric or metallic woven block and will
absorb a large proportion of the vibration providing the passengers and crew with
a smooth flight.

Typical Fan Engine Cowlings


Figure 27

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Cowling and Pylon Fairing Installation


Figure 28

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MODULE 11.04
AIR CONDITIONING AND
CABIN PRESSURISATION

CONTENTS
4

AIR CONDITIONING AND CABIN PRESSURISATION ............... 4-1


4.1
4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5
4.6

4.7

4.8
4.9

4.10

4.11
4.12

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 4-1


AIR SUPPLY ................................................................................. 4-1
4.2.1
Engine Bleed Air (compression) .................................... 4-1
4.2.2
Air Compressors or Blowers .......................................... 4-2
4.2.3
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) ........................................... 4-2
4.2.4
Ram Air ......................................................................... 4-3
4.2.5
Ground Cart .................................................................. 4-3
COOLING ..................................................................................... 4-4
4.3.1
Air Cycle Cooling........................................................... 4-4
4.3.2
Vapour Cycle Cooling ................................................... 4-9
HEATING ...................................................................................... 4-11
4.4.1
Exhaust Heating Systems ............................................. 4-11
4.4.2
Combustion Heating Systems ....................................... 4-12
TEMPERATURE CONTROL ............................................................. 4-12
HUMIDITY CONTROL ..................................................................... 4-14
4.6.1
Water Separation Water Extractor .............................. 4-14
4.6.2
Water Infiltration ............................................................ 4-17
MASS FLOW CONTROL ................................................................. 4-18
4.7.1
Mass Flow Controller .................................................... 4-18
4.7.2
Spill Valve Flow Controller ............................................ 4-19
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS ............................................................... 4-20
4.8.1
Re-circulation Air System .............................................. 4-23
PRESSURISATION SYSTEMS .......................................................... 4-23
4.9.1
Control And Indication ................................................... 4-26
4.9.2
The Un-Pressurised Mode ............................................ 4-26
4.9.3
The Isobaric Mode ........................................................ 4-27
4.9.4
The Constant-Differential Pressure Mode ..................... 4-27
4.9.5
Cabin Air Pressure Regulator ........................................ 4-27
4.9.6
Isobaric Control System ................................................ 4-28
4.9.7
Differential Control System ............................................ 4-29
4.9.8
Safety Valves ................................................................ 4-31
ELECTRONIC PRESSURISATION CONTROL ...................................... 4-31
4.10.1 Flight Deck Control Panel.............................................. 4-32
4.10.2 Automatic Pressure Controller....................................... 4-33
4.10.3 Outflow Valve ................................................................ 4-33
4.10.4 Inward and Outward Safety Relief Valves ..................... 4-34
CABIN PRESSURE INDICATION ....................................................... 4-35
SAFETY AND WARNING DEVICES .................................................. 4-36
4.12.1 Overheating .................................................................. 4-36
4.12.2 Duct Hot Air Leakage .................................................... 4-37
4.12.3 Excess Cabin Altitude ................................................... 4-37
4.12.4 Smoke Detection ........................................................... 4-37

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4 AIR CONDITIONING AND CABIN PRESSURISATION


4.1 INTRODUCTION
The atmosphere above10,000ft is too thin and cold for normal breathing.
Passenger carrying aircraft, operating above this height need an air conditioning
and pressurisation system. The temperature of the air passing through the
passenger cabin, flight deck and other compartments must be strictly controlled,
as well as flow rate and level of humidity.
Cabin temperature will normally be maintained between 15 and 30 degrees
Celsius. Additionally, a controlled amount of pressurisation is necessary, so that
the air pressure in the passenger cabin and adjacent areas does not exceed the
equivalent of the ambient air pressure at 8000ft.
Air conditioning is also essential for un-pressurised aircraft types.
A typical air conditioning and pressurisation system comprises eight principle
sub-systems:

Air Supplies (Pneumatics ATA 36)


Cooling
Heating
Temperature Control
Humidity Control
Mass Flow Control
Distribution
Pressurisation

4.2 AIR SUPPLY


The source of fresh air supply and arrangement of essential components will vary
between aircraft type and each air conditioning system, but in general one of the
following methods described in the following paragraphs will be adopted:
4.2.1 Engine Bleed Air (compression)
This method is the most common and is installed on the majority of modern
aircraft types. Very hot air is tapped from the main engine compressor stages and
supplied to the cabin, flight deck and other areas. Before the air enters the cabin,
it is passed through a temperature control system, which reduces its temperature
and pressure. Additionally, a means of flow control is utilised and in some aircraft,
humidity control forms part of the system. (See Fig 1)
In pressurised aircraft, the discharge of the conditioned air is regulated to
maintain the cabin pressure at the selected pressure altitude.

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AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

NON RETURN VALVE

SHUT OFF VALVES


FLOW CONTROLLER

ECU
TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVE

NRV
SECONDARY HEAT
EXCHANGER

RAM AIR

TO
CABIN

MIXER UNIT
PRIMARY HEAT
EXCHANGER

NRV

WATER SEPARATOR
COUPLED COMPRESSOR TURBINE

Typical (Compression) Bleed Air System


Figure 1

4.2.2 Air Compressors or Blowers


This method is used on turbo-prop, piston engine or even turbo-jet aircraft where
main engine compressor bleed is unavailable or unsuitable.
Normally the compressor or blower will be mechanically driven from the
accessory gearbox of the main engine and its air supply routed via a temperature
control system, in a similar manner to the engine bleed method.
4.2.3 Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
The APU is a small gas turbine engine, which can be connected into the main air
supply system and provide an independent means of air conditioning and
pressurisation, either on the ground or in flight, when the main engines cannot
supply. It will utilise the engine bleed air principle outlined above.

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4.2.4 Ram Air

This method is normally found as the primary ventilation system on unpressurised aircraft. A ram air scoop placed directly into the airflow, will provide
the means of air supply as the aircraft moves forward.
Since the air at altitude will be cold, the temperature control system through
which it passes before entering the cabin, will normally be a form of heater.
A self-contained combustion type heater will be employed, or the some form of
exhaust gas heater. The air conditioning ducting will be routed around the
combustion heater casing or around engine exhaust duct to obtain convection
heating.
On pressurised aircraft, a ram air system can be used as a means of emergency
ventilation, following a complete loss of the main system.
RAM AIR

COLD AIR OUTLETS

DEMISTER

WARM AIR OUTLETS

EXHAUST

COMBUSTION CHAMBER
FLOW CONTROL VALVE
FUEL SOLENOID VALVE

ENGINE DRIVEN AIR BLOWER


AIR SUPPLY

FUEL SUPPLY
OFF

ON

Typical Combustion Heater System


Figure 2

COMBUSTION HEATING AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


4.2.5 Ground Cart
This will be an independent means of heating or cooling the passenger cabin on
the ground. It can be used on aircraft that do not have an APU. The trolley will be
connected externally to the aircraft, via a purpose built inlet into the air
conditioning system and normally employs a combustion type heater and the
means to control the output of the air temperature from a control panel the cart.

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4.3 COOLING
When bleed air is used as the air supply, the air tapped off the engine
compressor can reach a temperature in excess of 300 degrees Celsius.
This is obviously far too hot to be fed directly into the air-conditioned areas, so it
must first be cooled down to around 20 degrees Celsius.
There are two main methods of cooling;
Air Cycle and Vapour Cycle cooling systems.
4.3.1 Air Cycle Cooling
Air cycle cooling relies on three basic principles; surface heat exchange,
expansion and energy conversion.
Surface heat exchange, provides cooling by passing the air tapped from the
engine compressor (charge air) across some form of heat exchanger. The charge
air is subjected to the effect of a colder cross flow, normally ambient air, scooped
by an intake and passed across the heat exchanger as the aircraft moves forward
(ram air). Although 90% of heat is given up in this way, the charge air
temperature can never be reduced below the ram air temperature by this method
alone.
Expansion, provides cooling when the pressure of the charge air is reduced by
increasing its velocity and expanding it across the turbine of a so-called Air Cycle
Machine (ACM) or Cold Air Unit (CAU). In this way, the temperature of the charge
air can be rapidly lowered to zero degrees Celsius, irrespective of the ram air
temperature
Energy Conversion, cools by making the hot air do work. This is achieved by
using the charge air to drive a turbine, which is connected by a shaft to the
compressor or fan within the cold air unit, thus converting heat energy into kinetic
energy. This method will also help to reduce the charge air to zero degrees
Celsius.

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HOT AIR INLET
PRIMARY
HEAT
EXCHANGER

SECONDARY HEAT EXCHANGER

RAM AIR

TEMPERATURE
CONTROL VALVE
WATER SEPARATOR
TO
CABIN
MIXER UNIT
COMPRESSOR

TURBINE

Turbo Compressor
Figure 3
4.3.1.1

HEAT EXCHANGERS

These are components within the air conditioning system that transfer heat from
one gas stream to another. Ram air is used as the cooling medium to cool the
very hot charge air ducted from the engine compressor or the gearbox mounted
air compressor or blower.
Depending on where they are placed within the air conditioning system, heat
exchangers are often described as;

A Pre-cooler or Primary Heat Exchanger

An Inter-cooler or Secondary Heat Exchanger


The basic construction is a sealed unit containing a series of cooling passages;
through which the charge air flows and over which the ram air is directed.
Between these passages are thin corrugated strips, that also serve to dissipate
heat as the ram air passes over them.

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4.3.1.2

AIR CYCLE MACHINE (ACM) OR COLD AIR UNIT (CAU)

The ACM/CAU is the primary component in an air cycle cooling system. A


number of different types can be found including;
The turbo-compressor, the brake turbine and the turbo-fan.
All three use the charge air to drive the turbine and the major differences between
each type, relates to the overall weight for a given mass flow, the size and
method of dissipating the power output of the turbine.
TO
DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM

DIFFUSER

FROM
INTERCOOLER

NOZZLE BLADES

BLEED AIR

COMPRESSOR

TO INTERCOOLER

TURBO COMPRESSOR
Turbo Compressor Cold Air Unit
Figure 4

The turbo-compressor type consists of a turbine driving a centrifugal compressor


and operating in conjunction with an inter-cooler connected between the
compressor and turbine stages.
Its basic construction consists of two main casings, the turbine volute and
compressor volute casings. The two casings are connected together and enclose
a bearing housing with two bearing assemblies, supporting a shaft upon which
the turbine and compressor wheels are mounted.
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The turbine wheel revolves within a nozzle ring and the compressor wheel rotates
within a diffuser ring. The very hot charge air from the engine compressor bleed
and routed via the pre-cooler, enters the eye of the ACM/CAU compressor. It
becomes compressed on passing through the diffuser ring, increasing its
temperature and energy.
From the compressor, the hot air is directed across the inter-cooler matrix over
which ram air passes and is then directed into the turbine volute nozzle ring,
where it drives the turbine. The resultant expansion and energy conversion,
rapidly lowers the air pressure and temperature.
It is then directed towards the passenger cabin. (See Fig 3)
The ACM/CAU compressor and turbine wheels rotate at extremely high speeds,
often in excess of 80,000 rpm, so efficient bearing lubrication is essential to
ensure smooth and trouble-free running.
Two lubrication methods are used; Integral wet sump arrangements, or
pressurised air bearings that need no oil lubrication.
The wet sump type normally has a sump containing oil and a means of metering
it to the bearings usually by the use of integral wicks or with an oil slinger that
pumps an optimum oil/air mix to the bearings. This ensures the correct amount of
oil at the bearings at all times. Oil replenishment is critical however, as too much
oil will lead to the charge air being oil contaminated and too little oil, may result in
a premature seizure of the rotating shaft.
The air bearing type uses a pressurised air supply to support the shaft in a similar
manner to the hovercraft principal. As the rotor floats on a thin layer of air, it is
essential that this type is kept clean and dry and completely free from oil and
grease.
AMBIENT AIR OUTLET

TURBINE

COMPRESSOR

TO
CABIN

AMBIENT AIR INLET

HEAT EXCHANGER

MIXER
UNIT

BLEED
AIR

CONTROL VALVE
RAM AIR

Brake Turbine Cold Air Unit


Figure 5
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The brake-turbine type of ACM/CAU, has its charge air routed directly from the
pre-cooler to drive the turbine. The air expands across the turbine as before,
resulting in a large temperature and pressure drop. Since this layout dispenses
with the need for an inter-cooler, it results in a greater efficiency due to weight
saving. To safeguard against the turbine rotating too fast, it is coupled with a
compressor, which rotates in ambient air and consequently acts as a braking
medium. Additionally, the slower rotation of the shaft further improves turbine
output efficiency. (See Fig 5)
BLEED AIR

RAM AIR OUTLET

TURBINE

RAM
AIR

TO CABIN
MIXER UNIT
LARGE FAN

HEAT
EXCHANGER

CONTROL VALVE

Turbo Fan Cold Air Unit


Figure
6
TURBO FAN
COLD
AIR

UNIT

The turbo-fan type is mechanically similar to the brake-turbine arrangement. In


this case however, the turbine drives a large centrifugal fan instead of a normal
compressor. The fan is draws a large quantity of ambient air over the pre-cooler,
which cools the incoming charge air.
The major advantage of this type over the other two, is that with the fan-induced
airflow over the pre-cooler, it can be used with the aircraft stationary on the
ground with the aircraft engines running. It does not need to rely solely on ram air
as the cooling medium for the pre-cooler.

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4.3.2 Vapour Cycle Cooling


The vapour cycle cooling system can be used as an alternative to the air cycle
cooling system. Although not commonly used these days for air conditioning
systems, the system may be used as the means to remove heat from electrical
and electronic equipment.
The system relies on the principle of the ability of a refrigerant to absorb heat
when changing from a liquid to a gas, through the process of vaporisation or
expansion.
For example, if you were to put a drop of a highly volatile liquid such as
methylated spirits or petrol on the back of you hand, it will feel cold. This is
because the liquid starts to evaporate and draws the heat necessary for
evaporation from your hand. Liquids with a low boiling point have a stronger
tendency to evaporate at normal temperatures than those with a high boiling
point.
Furthermore, the amount of pressure acting on a liquid substance will affect its
state. A sufficient reduction in pressure will cause any liquid to change state into
a vapour or a gas. Conversely, a corresponding increase in pressure will reverse
the process.

CONDENSER
RAM AIR
RECIEVER DRYER

THERMOSTATIC
EXPANSION VALVE

AIR SUPPLY

CAPILLARY TUBE
TURBO COMPRESSOR

EVAPORATOR

TEMPERATURE SENSOR

TEMPERATURE
CONTROL VALVES

AIR DISTRIBUTION

Schematic Vapour Cycle System


Figure 7
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The major components of a typical system are a liquid receiver, a thermostatic


expansion valve, an evaporator, a turbo-compressor, a condenser and a
condenser fan. Often these components are mounted close together to form a
line-replaceable refrigeration pack or vapour cycle cooling pack.
The liquid receiver acts as a reservoir and provides storage for the refrigerant,
normally a highly volatile chemical such as Freon. The refrigerant will pass from
the liquid receiver to a thermostatic expansion valve where it is metered and
released into the evaporator. The very hot charge air from the main engine bleed
flows across the evaporator, releases heat that vaporises the liquid refrigerant
and passes into the passenger cabin at a much lower temperature.
Meanwhile, the now vaporised refrigerant gas is directed towards the turbocompressor. It is drawn into the compressor wheel, the coupled turbine of which
is driven by the main engine bleed air. (Note: In some cases, an independent
means instead of a turbo-compressor may be used to compress the refrigerant
gas, such as an electric motor, as in a domestic refrigerator).
The refrigerant gas leaves the compressor at a high pressure and temperature
and passes across the matrix of the condenser. The gas is cooled by the ram air,
flowing across the matrix and so condenses back into a liquid once again. It then
returns to the liquid receiver to repeat the refrigeration cycle once again.
The condenser fan is used to induce air across the condenser matrix when the
aircraft is stationary on the ground and no ram air is available.

Typical Vapour Cycle System


Figure 8
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4.4 HEATING
Un-pressurised aircraft use a ram-air system for ventilation. At altitude, the ramair passing through the cabin would be very cold, so a heating system is required.
Heating systems can be generally divided into two types:
Exhaust heating systems
Combustion heating systems
4.4.1 Exhaust Heating Systems
In its simplest form, this type of heating system employs a heater muff that
surrounds the exhaust pipes coming from a piston engine, or the jet pipe of a
turbo-jet. A ram air scoop at the forward end of the heater muff allows some of
the cold air to go to directly to a mixing valve.
The remainder, enters the muff and surrounds the exhaust/jet pipes. Heat from
the pipes is transferred into the ram air and carried to the mixing valve. The
heated air joins the cold air at the mixing valve and the combined flow is directed
into the passenger cabin.
Some form of control lever, operated from within the aircraft and connected to the
mixing valve, allows the proportion of hot and cold air to be modulated in order to
suit the cabin heating requirements.
To cater for the possibility of the ventilation air becoming contaminated from the
exhaust pipes, some aircraft will be fitted with carbon monoxide detectors within
the cabin area. These are indicators filled with brightly coloured crystals, which
turn black if exposed to dangerous levels of carbon monoxide.

Exhaust System Heater


Figure 9
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4.4.2 Combustion Heating Systems


This system uses a purpose built combustion chamber heater assembly to
provide the heat source, rather than the previously described exhaust heating
method. Fuel is directed from the aircraft fuel system, through a pressure
regulating and shut off valve that ensures the fuel is at the correct pressure for
atomisation. Other components include a fuel filter, a fuel pump and spray nozzle,
where it is atomised and ignited with an igniter plug. The combustion chamber
assembly heats up the ram air that passes around it.

Typical Combustion Heater System


Figure 10
4.5 TEMPERATURE CONTROL
In order to operate the aircraft in an infinite number of climatic and operating
conditions, the temperature in the passenger cabin, flight compartment and other
areas needs to be regulated for comfort.
Temperature regulation for the majority of aircraft that employ the engine bleed
air method is usually accomplished by controlling the proportion of hot and cold
air coming from the air supply system. An electric motor driving a double butterfly
type air mixing valve, regulates the cabin temperature, by allowing a controlled
amount of hot air to by-pass the air cycle system. This air is then recombined in
proper proportions with the cold air that has been directed through the air cycle
system at a down stream mix chamber. The position of the air-mixing valve is
determined by signals from the temperature control system.
The temperature control system is normally operated automatically or as a
manual system, if the automatic temperature controller should fail.
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During automatic operation, the temperature controller continually monitors cabin


temperatures and repositions the air mixing valve if necessary to keep the
temperature at the selected level.
In order to achieve this, the controller receives signals from temperature selector
on the flight deck (the temperature requested) and from temperature sensors in
the passenger cabin, flight compartment and supply ducts (the actual
temperature). If a difference between the requested and actual temperatures
occurs, the controller will send an output signal, to re-position the air mixing valve
until parity exists once more.
During manual operation, the temperature control circuit bypasses the controller
and connects the temperature selector on the flight deck, directly to the air-mixing
valve. Other sensors in the system transmit compartment temperatures to
indicators on the flight deck overhead panel, so that the actual temperatures and
the position of the air-mixing valve can be monitored.

Temperature Control
Figure 11

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4.6 HUMIDITY CONTROL


Humidity control is the means to ensure that the correct amount of water moisture
content is in the air conditioning air within the aircraft cabin. This is necessary to
ensure occupants do not suffer from low humidity levels that are experienced with
high altitude flight.
Humidity control can be achieved two ways;
Water Separation
Water Infiltration
Water separation is the removal of excessive moisture from the charge air,
normally by a water extractor or separator.
Water infiltration is the addition of moisture into the conditioned air as it enters the
cabin using a water pump and spray nozzle.
4.6.1 Water Separation Water Extractor
Water can be introduced into the air conditioning system due to the compression
and expansion of the air in the ACM/CAU and other areas of the air cycle
process.
There are three types of water separator in general use; the coalescer/diffuser
type, the coalescer/bag type and the swirl vane type.
4.6.1.1

COALESCER/DIFFUSER TYPE

This type consists of a coalescer constructed from layers of monel metal gauze
and glass fibre cloth sandwiched between layers of stainless steel gauze. It is
supported by the diffuser cone and held in place by a relief valve housing. As the
air leaves the diffuser and passes over the coalescer, moisture in the air is
converted into water droplets. The droplets enter the collector shell and are
deposited into collector tubes where they drain down to a collector box from
where the water is ejected overboard.
COALESCER

COLLECTOR SHELL

DIFFUSER

PRESSURE RELIEF
VALVE

CONDENSER
TUBES

DRAIN

COALESCER WATER EXTRACTOR


FIGURE 12
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4.6.1.2

COALESCER/BAG TYPE

A porous bag, supported by a shell is fitted within the extractor to convert


moisture into water droplets. A swirl is imparted into the conditioned air and the
centrifugal effect forces the droplets to the outlet shell where it collects and drains
from the component. A bag visual indicator operated by back pressure, will show
when the coalescer bag becomes dirty or blocked. In this case, a relief valve will
open to ensure flow is still available.

BLOCKAGE INDICATOR
OUTLET SHELL
BAG

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE


WATER DRAIN

Bag Type Water Extractor


Figure 13

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4.6.1.3

SWIRL VANE TYPE

This type uses centrifugal force to spin the moisture-laden air outwards against
the exit shell. The swirl vane, either fixed or rotating imparts the swirl by rotating
the airflow at high speed. The action, separates the heavier water droplets in the
moisture and collects them in a sump, to be drained away.

SEPARATOR SHELL

SWIRL VANE

WATER SUMP
DRAIN
Swirl Vane Type Water Separator
Figure 14

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4.6.2 Water Infiltration

Humidity control can also include the addition of water into the air conditioning
system. As an aircraft climbs to high altitude, the moisture level in the air reduces
to a much lower amount than at lower levels of altitude. The reduction in moisture
may cause discomfort to the aircraft occupants. To counteract this, moisture is
added into the conditioned air, by pumping water from a tank to a spray nozzle
positioned at the cabin air inlet. Humidity sensors will detect low humidity
conditions and automatically turn on the controller water pump to restore the
humidity to acceptable levels.

WATER SEPARATOR
DRAIN

COLLECTOR TANK
CABIN HUMIDITY SENSOR

SPRAY NOZZLE

OVERFILL DRAIN

WATER PUMP AND


CONTROLLER
TO CABIN

Typical Humidity Control System


Figure 15

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4.7 MASS FLOW CONTROL


Legislation requires that a minimum amount of fresh air be supplied to
passengers and crew. In addition stale air must be removed and odours
eliminated. Most pressurisation systems rely on the fact that air is delivered at a
constant rate under all conditions of flight in order to function correctly.
Mass flow control systems constantly monitor the velocity and density of the air
supply by either increasing or decreasing the demand upon the source of supply,
or by spilling excess supply air overboard.
The mass of air must be controlled at a constant value regardless of aircraft
altitude or cabin pressure. It must also adjust for changes in main engine
compressor speed in bleed air systems, or changes in rotor speed when a
separate air supply from an accessory gearbox driven blower is incorporated.
4.7.1 Mass Flow Controller
This type automatically caters for changes in air density, cabin back pressure and
engine compressor supply pressure. At ground level and during take off and the
early stages of flight, the pressure available from the main engine compressor
outlet is high. As altitude increases or when the engines are set to cruising
speeds, the supply pressure drops.
The amount of pressure from the engine compressor bleed acting on an altitudecompensated piston valve, determines the position the valve will adopt when
opposed by a spring and back pressure from the cabin. The pressure drop across
the valve, will vary the size of outlet ports and will thus determine the valves
degree of opening and closing. This will result in a constant mass flow
downstream of the valve at all times.

Mass Flow Control


Figure 16
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4.7.2 Spill Valve Flow Controller


This type receives the charge air supply through a metering duct, which senses
variations in the velocity and density of the air. The metering duct on sensing
these variations, transmits the information to a mass flow controller, which
converts the air pressure signals into electrical signals. The electrical signals in
turn control the position of spill valves. They will move towards a more open or
closed position, to vary the amount of air spilled overboard, thereby ensuring a
constant flow rate into the cabin.
At sea level, with the engines at low power, the absolute capsule D will be
compressed by atmospheric pressure. The contacts A, B and C will be in the
position shown and the spill valve will be towards closed.
With the main engines at take off power, the air velocity through the venture
increases, causing a pressure differential across the controller diaphragm. This
will cause contact B to move towards contact C and when they touch, the spill
valves will be driven towards the open As the aircraft climbs, the static pressure
in the metering duct and controller will decrease. The absolute capsule will now
expand and the position of contacts A and C, will be adjusted in relation to
contact B. When contact B is touched, the spill valves will move towards closed
once more and once again the mass flow to the cabin will remain constant.

Mass Flow Controller Operations


Figure 17

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4.8 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

The air distribution system on most aircraft takes cold air from the air conditioning
packs and hot air bleed from the engines and mixes the 2 in a mixer unit to the
required temperature. The air is then distributed to side wall and overhead cabin
vents. On some aircraft the cabin air is then drawn back into the mixing unit by recirculating fans where it is mixed with new air and then re-distributed.
All major components are usually located together in a designated bay for ease of
maintenance. ( Figure 14).
A gasper fan provides cold air to the individual overhead air outlets for the aircrew
and passengers. This air can be drawn direct from outside or from the cooling
packs. Each passenger or crew can control the amount of air received by
controlling the position of the air outlet. This outlet could be a rotary nozzle or a
louvre.
TO SIDEWALL DUCTS
TO GASPER
OUTLETS

GASPER FAN
MIXER VALVES
MANIFOLD RELIEF VALVE

TO COCKPIT
TO SIDEWALL
DUCTS

CONTROL VALVES
WATER SEPARATOR

TO OVERHEAD
DUCTS

CONTROL VALVE
SELECTOR LINKAGE

Air Conditioning Distribution Manifold


Figure 18
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Conditioned air systems dispense temperature controlled air evenly throughout


the cabin and crew areas. One duct system supplies the cockpit (Figure 17) while
another supplies the cabin. The cabin ducting is then divided into 2 systems, the
overhead (Figure 15) and the sidewall systems (Figure 16). The overhead system
releases air into the cabin from outlets in ducting running fore and aft in the cabin
ceiling. The sidewall duct system takes air through ducting between the sidewall
and cabin interior linings and releases it through cove light grills and louvres.
A cockpit controlled selector valve located on the main distribution manifold
allows all overhead, side wall or any combination of the two systems to be used
and varies the flow between the two.

DUCTING

FLOOR EXHAUST DUCT

ADJUSTABLE AIR OUTLETS

GASPER FAN

Overhead Panel
Figure 19
Duct sections throughout both the cabin and cockpit are joined together with
clamps or clips. Means of equalising the duct pressures and balancing the air
flows are designed into each system. The systems are protected from excess
pressures by use of a spring loaded pressure relief valve usually located in the
main distribution manifold. The main manifold is located immediately downstream
from the mixing units in the air conditioning bay.
On large aircraft a cockpit controlled dual selector valves divides the air between
cockpit and cabin areas. These butterfly valves are interlinked. When one is fully
open the other is fully closed and vice versa.

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Air is exhausted from the passenger cabin through grills and outflow valves in the
sidewalls above the floor. This air can then be directed around the cargo
compartment walls where it assists in compartment temperature control. Some air
then flows to the cargo heat distribution duct under the compartment floor and is
then discharged overboard through the outflow valves.

DISTRIBUTION BOXES

WALL FEEDER DUCTS

WINDOW DEMISTER

FLOOR EXHAUST VENTS

DISTRIBUTION DUCT

Sidewall Ducting
Figure 20
Below each floor air exhaust outlet is a flotation check valve. This valve is a
plastic ball held in a cage. If the cargo compartments become flooded the balls
float up the cage and seals off the floor to help prevent water from entering the
cabin.
CABIN TEMPERATURE SENSOR

AIR VENT

FLIGHT DECK
TEMPERATURE SENSOR

SILENCER

FAN ASSY
COOLING FANS
FAN ASSY PRESSURE SWITCH

Cockpit Air Distribution


Figure 21
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Aircraft may be separated into zones each with its own air conditioning system
and controls for that zone located in a distribution bay. Some areas may have a
remote heat exchanger and fan assembly in the vapour cycle system, to allow
cooling to specific areas such as avionics bays, fed from one of the zone packs.
4.8.1 Re-circulation Air System
To improve cabin ventilation and supplement airflow the cabin air is recirculated
back to the main distribution manifold where it is mixed with conditioned air form
the cooling packs. The use of re-circulated air improves airflow and offloads the
air supply system. This off loading of the air conditioning packs is converted into a
fuel saving.
The re-circulation fan will draw air from the cabin area, through a check valve and
filter assembly to remove any smoke and noxious odours before passing it to the
mixer unit for re-distribution. The check valve prevents any reverse flow through
the fan and ducting when the fan is not in use.
4.9 PRESSURISATION SYSTEMS
As aircraft became capable of obtaining altitudes above that at which flight crews
could operate efficiently, a need developed for complete environmental systems
to allow these aircraft to carry passengers. Air conditioning could provide the
proper temperature and supplemental oxygen could provide sufficient breathable
air.
The problem was that not enough atmospheric pressure exists at high altitude to
aid breathing in and even at lower altitudes the body must work harder to absorb
sufficient oxygen, through the lungs, to operate at the same level of efficiency as
at sea level. This problem is overcome by pressurising the cockpit/ cabin area.
Cabin pressurisation is a means of adding pressure to the cabin of an aircraft to
create an artificial atmosphere that when flying at high altitudes it provides gives
an environment equivalent to that below 10000 feet. The minimum quantity of
fresh air supplied to each person on board must be at least 0.5lb/ minute.
Aircraft are pressurised by sealing off a strengthened portion of the fuselage. This
is usually called the pressure vessel and will normally include cabin, cockpit and
possibly cargo areas. Air is pumped into this pressure vessel and is controlled by
an outflow valve located at the rear of the vessel.
Sealing of the pressure vessel is accomplished by the use of seals around tubing,
ducting, bolts, rivets, and other hardware that pass through or pierce the pressure
tight area. All panels and large structural components are assembled with sealing
compounds. Access and removable doors and hatches have integral seals. Some
have inflatable seals.

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Pressurisation systems do not have to move large volume of air. Their function is
to raise the pressure inside the vessel. Small reciprocating engine powered
aircraft receive their pressurisation air from the compressor of a coupled
turbocharger. Larger reciprocating engine powered aircraft receive air from
engine driven compressors and turbine powered aircraft use compressor bleed
air
Small Reciprocating Engine Powered Aircraft
Turbochargers are driven by the engine exhaust gases flowing through a turbine.
A centrifugal compressor is coupled to the turbine. The compressors output is fed
to the engine inlet manifold to increase manifold pressure which allows the
engine to develop its power at altitude. Part of this compressed air is tapped off
after the compressor and is used to pressurise the cabin. The air passes through
a flow limiter (or sonic venturi) and then through an inter-cooler before being fed
into the cabin. A typical system is shown at Figure 22.

Sonic Venturi

A sonic venturi is fitted in line between the engine and the pressurisation system.
When the air flowing across the venturi reaches the speed of sound a shock
wave is formed which limits the flow of air to the pressurisation system
RAM AIR
HEATING AIR
PRESSURISED AIR

RAM AIR SHUT


OFF VALVE

EXHAUST GASES

COUPLED TURBO
COMPRESSOR

COMBUSTION HEATER

SONIC VENTURI
INTERCOOLER

OUTFLOW VALVE

SAFETY VALVE

Small Reciprocating Engine Aircraft Pressurisation System


Figure 22
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Large Reciprocating Engine Powered Aircraft


These aircraft use engine driven compressors driven through an accessory drive
or by an electric or hydraulic motor. Multi engine aircraft have more than one air
compressor. These are interconnected through ducting but each have a check
valve or isolation valve to prevent pressure loss when one system is out of action.
Turbine Powered Aircraft
The air supplied from a gas turbine engine compressor is contamination free and
can be suitably used for cabin pressurisation (Figure 23). Some aircraft use an
independent compressor driven by the engine bleed air. The bleed air drives the
coupled compressor which pressurises the air and feeds it into the cabin

FLUSH AIR INTAKE

TURBO COMPRESSOR

PRESSURE VESSEL
(CABIN/COCKPIT)

BLEED AIR

OUTFLOW VALVE

ENGINE

Turbo Compressor
Figure 23
Some aircraft use a jet pump to increase the amount of air taken into the cabin
(Figure 24). The jet pump is a venturi nozzle located in the flush air intake
ducting. High velocity air from the engine flows through this nozzle. This produces
a low pressure area around the venturi which sucks in outside air. This outside air
is mixed with the high velocity air and is then passed into the cabin

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FLUSH AIR INTAKE

PRESSURE VESSEL
(CABIN/COCKPIT)
JET PUMP
BLEED AIR
OUTFLOW VALVE
ENGINE

Jet Pump
Figure 24
4.9.1 Control And Indication
There are 3 modes of pressurisation, un-pressurised, the isobaric mode and the
constantdifferential pressure mode. In the un-pressurised mode the cabin
altitude remains the same as the flight altitude. In the isobaric mode the cabin
altitude remains constant as the flight altitude changes and in the constantdifferential pressure mode, the cabin pressure is maintained at a constant amount
above the outside ambient air pressure.
The amount of differential pressure is determined by the structural strength of the
aircraft. The stronger the aircraft structure the higher the differential pressure and
the higher is the aircrafts operating ceiling.
4.9.2 The Un-Pressurised Mode
In this mode the outflow valve remains open and the cabin pressure is the same
as the outside ambient air pressure. This mode is usually from sea level up to
5000` but does vary from aircraft to aircraft.

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4.9.3 The Isobaric Mode

In this mode the cabin pressure is maintained at a specific cabin altitude as flight
altitude changes. The cabin pressure controller begins to close the outflow valve
as the aircraft climbs to a chosen cabin altitude. The outflow valve then opens or
closes (modulates) to maintain the selected cabin altitude as the flight altitude
changes up or down. The controller will then maintain the selected cabin altitude
up to the flight altitude that produces the maximum differential pressure for which
the aircraft structure is rated. At this point the constant differential mode takes
control.
4.9.4 The Constant-Differential Pressure Mode
Cabin pressurisation puts the aircraft structure under a tensile stress as the cabin
pressure expands the pressure vessel. The cabin differential pressure is the ratio
between the internal and external air pressures. At maximum constant-differential
pressure as the aircraft increases in altitude the cabin altitude will increase but
the internal/external pressure ratio will be maintained. There will be a maximum
cabin altitude allowed and this will determine the ceiling at which the aircraft can
operate.
4.9.5 Cabin Air Pressure Regulator
The pressure regulator maintains cabin altitude at a selected level in the isobaric
range and limits cabin pressure to a pre-set pressure differential in the differential
range by regulating the position of the outflow valve. Normal operation of the
regulator requires only the selection of the desired cabin altitude and cabin rate of
climb the adjustment of the barometric control.
STATIC ATMOSHERE CONNECTION
ADJUSTER
CONTROL

ISOBARIC METERING VALVE


ADJUSTER CONTROL

DIAPHRAGM

BAROMETRIC CAPSULE

RESTRICTOR

DIFFERENTIAL
METERING VALVE
HEAD

SOLENOID
DUMP VALVE

REFERENCE
CHAMBER
PILOT

BASE

ACTUATOR
DIAPHRAGM
OUTFLOW VALVE
BAFFLE PLATE

Cabin Pressure Regulator


Figure 25
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The regulator shown in Figure 25 is a typical differential pressure type regulator


that is built into the normally closed air operated outflow valve. It uses cabin
altitude for its isobaric control and barometric pressure for the differential control.
A cabin rate of climb controller controls the pressure change inside the cabin.
There are 2 main sections to the regulator, the head and reference chamber and
the base with the outflow valve and diaphragm. The balance diaphragm extends
outward from the baffle plate to the outflow valve creating an air chamber
between the baffle plate and the outer face of the outflow valve. Cabin air flowing
into this chamber through holes in the side of the outflow valve exerts a force
against the outer face of the valve which tries to open it. This force is opposed by
the force of the spring around the valve pilot which tries to hold the valve closed.
The actuator diaphragm extends outward from the outflow valve to the head
assembly creating an air chamber between the head and the inner face of the
outflow valve. Air from the head and reference chamber exert a force against the
inner face of the outflow valve helping the spring to hold the valve closed.
The position of the outflow valve controls the amount of cabin air that is allowed
to flow from the pressure vessel and this controls the cabin pressure. The
position of the outflow valve is determined by the amount of reference chamber
air pressure that presses on the inner face of the outflow valve.
4.9.6 Isobaric Control System
The isobaric control system of the pressure regulator shown in Figure 26
incorporates an evacuated capsule, a rocker arm, valve spring and a ball type
metering valve. One end of the rocker arm is connected to the valve head by the
evacuated capsule and the other end of the arm holds the metering valve in a
closed position. A valve spring located on the metering valve body tries to move
the metering valve away from its seat as far as the rocker arm allows.
When the cabin air pressure increases enough for the reference chamber air
pressure to compress the evacuated capsule the rocker arm pivots around its
fulcrum and allows the metering valve to move away from its seat an amount
proportional to the compression of the capsule. When the metering valve opens
reference pressure air flows form the regulator to atmosphere through the
atmospheric chamber.

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ISOBARIC METERING VALVE


EVACUATED BELLOWS

OUTFLOW VALVE

Isobaric Control Operation


Figure 26
When the regulator is operating in the isobaric range, cabin pressure is held
constant by reducing the flow of reference chamber air through the metering
valve. This prevents a further decrease in reference pressure.
The isobaric control responds to slight changes in reference pressure by
modulating to maintain a constant pressure in the chamber throughout the
isobaric range of operation. Whenever there is an increase in cabin pressure the
isobaric metering valve opens which decreases the reference pressure and
causes the outflow valve to open which then decreases the cabin pressure.
4.9.7 Differential Control System
The differential control system of the pressure regulator (Figure 27) incorporates
a diaphragm a rocker arm, a valve spring and a ball type metering valve. One end
of the rocker arm is attached to the head by the diaphragm which forma a
pressure sensitive face between the reference chamber and the atmospheric
chamber.

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ATMOSPHERIC CHAMBER

METERING VALVE
DIAPHRAGM

OUTFLOW VALVE

Differential Pressure Mode


Figure 27
Atmospheric pressure acts on one side of the diaphragm and reference chamber
pressure acts on the other. The opposite end of the rocker arm holds the
metering valve in a closed position. A valve spring located on the metering valve
body tries to move the metering valve away from its seat as far as the rocker arm
allows.
When reference chamber pressure increases to the system differential pressure
limit set above the decreasing atmospheric pressure it collapses the diaphragm
which is set at differential pressure and opens the metering valve. Air flows from
the reference chamber to atmosphere through the atmospheric chamber, which
causes a reduction in the reference pressure. This reduction in reference
pressure causes the outflow valve to open to reduce the cabin pressure to
maintain the system pressure differential.

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4.9.8 Safety Valves


Cabin Air Pressure Safety Valve
The pressure relief valve prevents cabin pressure from exceeding the
predetermined cabin to ambient pressure differential. A negative pressure relief
valve and pressure dump valve may also be incorporated into this valve
assembly.
Negative Pressure Relief Valve
A pressurised aircraft is designed to operate with the cabin pressure higher than
the outside air pressure. If the cabin pressure were to become lower than the
outside air pressure the cabin structure could fail. Outside air is allowed to enter
the cabin to ensure that this does not happen. It is basically an inward pressure
relief valve.
Dump Valve
This valve is normally solenoid actuated by a cockpit switch. When the solenoid is
energised the valve opens dumping cabin air to atmosphere. Cabin pressure will
decrease rapidly until it is the same as the outside air pressure and cabin altitude
will increase until it is the same as the flight altitude.
Ditching valve
If any of the cabin control valves were situated below the water level and the
aircraft ditch in the water, the cabin would quickly flood. To prevent this
happening, either a mechanical or electrical ditching selection, can be made by
the crew to seal off all pressurisation valves and inlets.
4.10

ELECTRONIC PRESSURISATION CONTROL

Most modern airliners have the means to electronically control the cabin pressure
automatically for the entire flight, from settings made by the flight crew before
take off.
The pressure control system consists:

a flight deck control panel


an automatic pressure controller with pressure sensing inputs and outputs to
monitoring indicators
an electrically-driven gate-type outflow valve
inward and outward safety relief valves

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4.10.1 Flight Deck Control Panel


This provides a means for the flight crew to control the cabin pressure by
positioning the outflow valve. There are three mode selections available; Auto,
Standby or Manual.

Figure 28
The desired mode will normally be Auto, where all settings such as intended
cruise (flight) altitude and destination airfield (landing) altitude are made before
flight. This will allow automatic control of cabin pressure for the whole of that
flight.
This is called the fully automatic mode.
Alternatively, Standby or back up mode can be selected, where a cabin altitude
setting must be made for each desired cabin pressure change. The input setting
is then controlled automatically as before.
This is called the semi-automatic mode.
If neither the fully or semi-automatic modes are available, (i.e.: the pressure
controller fails), the outflow valve can be positioned directly from the flight deck by
operating the electric torque motors to drive the valve.
This is called the manual mode and a choice of an ac or dc electrical supply is
available.

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4.10.2 Automatic Pressure Controller


The pressure controller provides output control signals to the outflow valves ac or
dc torque motors. The motors position and modulate the valve to establish and
control actual cabin pressure in accordance with the controllers pre-programmed
climb, cruise or descent schedules. This will ensure that for every aircraft altitude
there will be a particular cabin altitude.
Input signals to the controller are from the flight deck control panel, cabin and
ambient pressure sensors, barometric correction and air/ground sensing.

Auto Mode Flight Profile


Figure 29
4.10.3 Outflow Valve
The valve has a moving gate designed to cover or uncover an aperture in the
fuselage skin. An increase in the aperture size will cause cabin pressure to fall
(cabin altitude to ascend), whereas a decrease in the aperture size results in an
increase in cabin pressure (cabin altitude to descend). The gate is driven by one
of two electrically driven motors, the choice of ac or dc motor being determined
by flight crew input.
Motor input signals come from the controller when in the auto or standby modes,
or directly from a control panel switch when in the manual mode.

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Outflow Valve
Figure 30
4.10.4 Inward and Outward Safety Relief Valves
Fuselage frames are designed to accept tensile loads associated with and
outward force from within the pressure cell. Their ability to withstand compression
loads that would occur if the pressure outside the aircraft were higher than within
the pressure cell is poor. Therefore an inward relief valve will open and equalise
the pressure if the inward or negative differential exceeds about 0.5 psid.
Two outward relief valves are fitted to prevent the maximum outward differential
pressure from exceeding the structural limit. This will typically be around 8.5psid.
Even though the main pressure control is electronic, the safety relief valves are
mechanical operated and are completely independent of any automatic control
system.

Pressurisation System Valves


Figure 31
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CABIN PRESSURE INDICATION

Most pressurisation systems have three basic cockpit indicators cabin altitude,
cabin rate of climb and the pressure differential indicator. The cabin altitude
gauge measures the actual cabin altitude.

Cabin Altitude Gauge


Figure 32

The cabin rate of climb indicator tells the pilot the rate that the cabin is either
climbing or descending. (I.e. the rate at which the cabin loses or gains pressure)
A typical maximum climb rate is 500ft per minute and the maximum descent rate
is 300ft per minute. The control can be automatic or manual depending on aircraft
type.

Cabin Rate of Climb


Figure 33

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The differential pressure gauge (Figure 34) reads the difference between the
cabin and the outside air pressures. This differential pressure is normally
controlled and maintained to a structural limitation around 7psid. This depends on
the aircraft type and the operating ceiling of the aircraft. The differential pressure
gauge may be combined with the cabin altitude (Figure 35).

0
10

1
2

DIFF PX PSI

4
7

Differential Pressure Gauge


Figure 34
4.12

Dual Gauge
Figure 35

SAFETY AND WARNING DEVICES

To ground test the pressurisation system with the engines running, at least three
men are required inside the aircraft for safety reasons.
Both air conditioning and pressurisation systems use safety and warning devices
to protect the aircraft from possible catastrophic failures. Some of the protection
devices may be inhibited in certain stages of flight; landing or take off where the
extra distractions caused by such warnings may be too much for the crews to
deal with safely.
With the air conditioning system the main concerns are with overheating of the air
conditioning packs and extraction and ventilation fans, as well as hot air leaks
from ducting which could damage surrounding structure or components.
4.12.1 Overheating
Most packs systems are protected from overheating by a thermal switch
downstream of the pack outlet. If the outlet temperature reaches a pre
determined figure the switch will operate causing the pack valves to shut,
preventing air from getting to the packs, as well as sending a warning signal to
the cockpit central warning panel with associated caution/warning lights and aural
chimes and to illuminate a fault light on the pack selector switch.
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Once the system has cooled down sufficiently the crew may have an option to
reselect the overheated system. The overheat may have been caused by a fault
in the automatic temperature control system in which case the pilot may be able
to control the system manually via a manual selector switch on the cockpit
controller.
Extraction or ventilation fans will be protected in much the same way. An
overheat will signal the central warning panel with associated caution/warning
lights and aural chimes. The fan may be isolated automatically or manually. Once
the fan has cooled down it may be possible to re-select if required. Fans may also
be protected from over or under speeding, which will also have an effect on the
system temperatures. Speed sensors on the fan will indicate a fault when over or
under speed limits are reached and a warning signal is sent to the cockpit central
warning panel with associated caution/warning lights and aural chimes.
4.12.2 Duct Hot Air Leakage
Any ducting that includes joints is liable to leak under abnormal conditions. A duct
protection system will include fire-wire elements around the hot zones such as
engine air bleeds, air conditioning packs and auxiliary power units if fitted.
The sensing elements will be the thermistor type. As the temperature around the
wire increases the resistance decreases until an electrical circuit is made. When
the circuit is made a warning signal is sent to the cockpit central warning panel
with associated caution/warning lights and aural chimes. The leaking duct may be
isolated automatically or may require the pilot to take action to close off the air
valves. The faulty system will then remain out of use.
4.12.3 Excess Cabin Altitude
If the cabin altitude was allowed to increase unchecked the crew and passengers
could unknowingly suffer the effects of hypoxia. This dangerous condition is
obviously undesirable especially for the aircrew. Most aircraft give a warning on
the CWP with associated audio and visual warnings when the cabin altitude
reaches 10000`.
4.12.4 Smoke Detection
Smoke detectors may be fitted within the cabin; avionics bay and cargo areas to
monitor systems, which if become faulty may generate smoke on overheating, or
are may be liable to catch fire. These detectors will send a signal to the CWP with
associated lights and audio warnings. They may also automatically switch on
extractor fans, which will remove the smoke overboard and away form the cabin
and cockpit areas. In this event, the pilot may have a switch or control lever to
operate a valve to isolate the cockpit air conditioning ducting from the rest of the
aircraft to prevent any smoke from getting to the cockpit.
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MODULE 11.07
EQUIPMENT AND
FURNISHINGS

CONTENTS
7

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS .............................................. 7-3


7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9

EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS ..................................... 7-3


SEAT, HARNESSES AND BELTS ..................................................... 7-4
CABIN LAYOUTS ........................................................................... 7-6
CABIN FURNISHINGS..................................................................... 7-7
CABIN ENTERTAINMENT ................................................................ 7-8
GALLEY INSTALLATIONS ............................................................... 7-8
CARGO HANDLING AND RETENTION EQUIPMENT ............................ 7-9
CARGO RETENTION EQUIPMENT .................................................... 7-14
AIRSTAIRS ................................................................................... 7-15

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EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

7.1 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS


On every aircraft, there can be found some form of emergency equipment. This
can vary from a simple seat belt and a fire extinguisher on a micro-light aircraft, to
a large list of equipment fitted to a commercial airliner. For example, a medium
sized aircraft like the Fokker 50 carries over thirty different types of safety
equipment. The list of equipment fitted in a 450+ seater Boeing 747-400, will
include items such as seat belts, lifejackets, first-aid kits, fire extinguishers,
oxygen sets, torches etc.
The types of safety equipment that must be carried on any specific flight, are laid
down in the Air Navigation Order, (ANO), schedule No.4. This list covers a wide
range of safety equipment, from mooring equipment for seaplanes to cookers and
snow shovels for arctic operation.
JAR 25 - Large Aeroplanes, details amongst others, the requirements for the
design and performance of safety and other equipment, ranging from size of
access doors and emergency exits and the numbers required for each size of
aircraft, width of cabin aisles, number of seats abreast. The list is endless, but the
JAR 25 regulations are an excellent source of information.
Some of the items of equipment carried may seem to be of little use, but each
has a specific purpose in some emergency or other. For example the large axe
carried on passenger aircraft is to enable any trapped passengers and crew to
cut their own way out of the cabin. Smoke hoods are to permit the cabin staff to
help passengers leave the aircraft, even if the cabin is full of smoke. Portable
oxygen is used in the cases of passengers feeling ill, in addition to the 'drop-out'
masks, which activated if the cabin pressurisation has failed.
Life jackets use a co2 cylinder to give rapid inflation once the passenger is outside
the aircraft. The buoyancy of the jacket is then controlled by use of a mouthpiece
to further inflate the jacket. The jackets are inspected at 6 monthly intervals for
condition and inadvertent operation. The water-activated light is checked for
insulation resistance by measuring across the terminals, which should be of at
least 1 Megohm. Inadvertent operation of the light is checked by signs of
chemical reaction and the co2 bottle is checked by weighing it on a laboratory
scales.

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7.2 SEAT, HARNESSES AND BELTS


All seat belts have to restrain the passenger (or crew) in their seat, even during a
crash landing. The seat to which the belt is attached, has to hold securely in the
seat rails, even during the high 'g' loadings experienced in an emergency landing.
The seat rails are a continuous extrusion with circular cut-outs, which allow the
seats to be attached and locked at different seat spacing, (pitch). The pitch is
usually in, one inch or 25mm increments.

Seat Tracks
Figure 1
Aircraft seats can be divided into three main groups; passenger seats, flight
attendant seats and flight deck crew seats. Passenger seats are usually part of
multiple units, although in first class and executive seating, some individual seat
units can be found. Most passenger seats are manufactured from aluminium
alloy tube, which is riveted and welded to form the frame with supporting legs and
braces, individual reclining seat backs and integral tables. The seats and rails are
all classed as primary structure.
Flight Attendant seats are usually more utilitarian than passenger seats and can
be mounted on seat tracks, the aircraft wall structure or, as in the ATR-72, to a
sliding assembly that stows away without taking up passenger space, as shown
below. They will all normally be fitted with a full harness seat belt, compared with
the 'lap strap' assemblies for the passengers. The harnesses should only be
cleaned with acid free soap and water.
Inertia reel system will lock the harness if a rapid de-acceleration of the aircraft
occurs. In the locked position, backward motion is still possible but forward
motion is prevented.

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Attendant Seat
Figure 2
The seats in the flight deck have to be the most comfortable on the aircraft,
because it is laid down in many airline regulations that there must be a full crew in
the cockpit, at all times. The crew must be as 'sharp' and attentive during the
landing as they were at take-off many hours ago.
Flight deck seats will have many different axes of movement such as height,
reach, backrest tilt, lumbar support, arm rest height, etc. Most of the larger seats
will have some of these movements powered by electrical actuators. These seats
will also have at least a four point harness assembly and, in many cases these
days, five point harnesses, with a lower crotch strap

Crew Seat
Figure 3

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7.3 CABIN LAYOUTS


The layout of the cabin is a compromise between the builder/designer, who would
like it to contain as many paying passengers as possible, and the airworthiness
authorities, who wish to limit the maximum number of passengers. This maximum
has to be the number that can be evacuated from inside the cabin, through 50%
of available exits, in 90 seconds.
This ruling dictates the number and size of the exits, the width of the aisles and,
most importantly, the number of seats. As can be seen from the diagrams below,
the position of the exits varies with the design of the aircraft.

Seating And Emergency Exits


Figure 4
The majority of passenger aircraft have seats in pairs or triple units with one or
two aisles. The wide body Boeing 747 usually has two aisles with triple units
outboard and a pair of double units between the two aisles, giving 10 abreast
seating, the normal maximum.

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The remainder of passenger cabins are fairly standard with overhead stowages.
Passenger service units (PSU) are located on the bottom of the overhead
stowage lockers and normally contain reading lights, call buttons, seat belt and
NO SMOKING warnings and, on aircraft that are equipped with them, drop-out
oxygen masks.
Galleys can be found in a variety of places in the cabin, at the front the rear, and
occasionally, centrally, where they can be used to divide the different classes of
passenger. They have their own power supply for heating, lighting and ventilation.
For maintenance the galley units are removable, as are all other dividing
partitions as well as the overhead units and PSUs.
Galleys are also supplied with their own water supplies to permit the making of
hot drinks, washing-up etc. This means they require connections to both fresh
(potable) water and grey (waste) water from the aircrafts own systems. Some
galleys are fitted in the under floor areas of larger aircraft, which necessitates the
installation of lifts between floors.
7.4 CABIN FURNISHINGS
As with galleys, all furnishings have to be easily removable, not only to allow the
engineers access during deep maintenance, but also to permit various items to
be changed at irregular intervals due to "fair wear and tear". This can include
worn carpets, torn seat covers, cracked plastic cabin wall skins, ceiling panels
and damaged overhead bin doors. All of the previous items are attached by
'quick release' fittings of varying types. Shown below are examples of an
overhead bin, a wall panel and a ceiling panel.

Cabin Furnishings
Figure 5

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7.5 CABIN ENTERTAINMENT


Cabin entertainment varies greatly depending upon the aircraft type, (and age),
as well as the airline operating the aircraft. It can vary from little more than 'music'
played over the cabin P.A. system on smaller aircraft, through to the most
common installations of films, navigation information and cabin safety briefings
displayed on multiple television monitors located throughout the cabin. To reduce
weight entertainment systems can utilise multiplexing to allow the different media
to be transmitted down a single cable.
Some modern aircraft have, fitted to their higher class seats, a complete
'entertainment experience', which can consist of individual viewing screens either
attached to the seat back of the unit in front, or individually seat arm located.
These screens can offer a multiple and individual video selection; computer
games; musical videos with stereo sound on headphones and, in business class,
access to a satellite telephone and other business tools.
7.6 GALLEY INSTALLATIONS
Galleys, as has been mentioned earlier, have to be modular units so that they
can be removed for maintenance. In the case of technical problems, it mayl also
be necessary, some times to remove the units. Most galley units will have a
supply of electricity and potable water and facilities for the disposal of 'grey' water
overboard.
As most modern catering operations use pre-prepared food, the standard sized
food trolleys and containers are given stowage space in the galley units, which
can then keep warm, heat up and chill both food and drinks as required. The
illustrations show two typical galleys, with a selection of full and half sized trolley
stowages, coffee makers and most of the facilities to provide a cabin meal and
refreshment service.

Galley Installations
Figure 6
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7.7 CARGO HANDLING AND RETENTION EQUIPMENT


In the majority of commercial aircraft, cargo is carried below the cabin floor, in
dedicated fire resistant compartments that can be air conditioned if animals are
being carried. There are a number of different variations to the above, dependent
on the size of the aircraft, the type of passenger, the routes flown, etc. In the
Fokker 100, for example, most of the underfloor space is for baggage, excluding
the extreme front, which is for avionic equipment.

Under Floor Baggage Holds


Figure 7
Smaller aircraft such as the Dornier 227 and the Fokker 50 have their cargo
carried within the cabin space, the underfloor space being limited. Aircraft at the
other end of the size spectrum, known as 'wide body' aircraft, can be produced as
dedicated freighters such as certain Boeing 747 models.
A more popular layout these days is the 'Combi freighter' which can carry both
extra freight and passengers in the cabin, whilst still carrying cargo in the
underfloor space. This type of aircraft is much more flexible on routes where the
cargo/passenger ratios can vary through the week, the month or year. At times,
there might be only 50 - 100 passengers on board whilst the remainder of the
aircraft is carrying cargo.
Containers are typically boxes shaped to the contour of the aircraft fuselage to
maximise the capacity of the freight bay. They can be made from, alloy
honeycomb of fibreglass.
LD2

LD3

LD8

Baggage Containers Figure 8


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Most containers are sized by a code established by an international agreement


enabling aircraft manufacturers to build the freight bays to a common size. The
width of the cargo bay determines the size of the containers that can be loaded,
but by setting the position of the various guides on the cargo bay floor, more than
one size of container can be carried.
Typical container sizes commonly used are shown above in various
configurations. The identifying code letters indicate where the container has been
designed to be loaded. Thus LD2 is a container of a standard size, designed for
the lower deck (LD). Other sizes range from LD3 to LD8.
Automatic Cargo Loading Systems
Automatic cargo loading systems represent a major advance in the speed and
efficiency that airfreight can turned round. Aircraft are designed to carry farepaying passengers above the cabin floor and a vast amount of cargo underneath.
With the use of an automatic loading system, one man can load many tons of
equipment, usually stored in purpose built containers, in the time it takes to refuel
the aircraft and board the passengers.
The Electro-mechanical loading system mechanism is normally built into the
aircraft during manufacture. It consists of driver and sorter devices to load, store
and manoeuvre the containers into the freight bay. The method of moving the
containers is with the use of rubber-tyred rollers. These are in contact with the
base of the containers and are motor-powered from the aircraft electrical system.
Various guide rollers are used to steer the containers to the required location in
the bay.
Loading and unloading
The containers are normally raised to the cargo bay floor level by a hydraulically
operated deck, whose load area is covered with free running rollers or balls. The
containers are then manually pushed into the door area, where they enter the
freight bay of the aircraft and are supported by a ball mat or ball transfer panel.
The ball mats/panels are low friction devices, which permit easy container
movement. Each individual ball unit consists of a self-lubricated spring-loaded
steel ball which itself rides on a series of smaller ball bearings in a cup-shaped
housing. A wiper ring surrounding the ball prevents the ingress of dirt into the
mechanism.

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Roller Ball Guide


Figure 9
Once the load begins to enter the bay, the lateral rubber-covered drive rollers can
be rotated to drive the containers fully into the bay. Lateral guides keep the
container square and prevent the container from running off the edge of the
transfer panel, as it is driven into the bay. Guide rollers around the doorframe
ensure centralisation of the container and prevent doorframe damage.
Sill rollers are mounted to the lower doorframe (sill) to provide a rolling surface
into and out of the door area. With the container fully into the bay, longitudinal
rollers can be rotated to propel the container down the length of the bay, once the
relevant lateral retaining guides have been lowered. Roller trays are mounted
down the entire length of the cargo bay, to continue on the similar low friction
surface as the ball mats, for moving the containers. Centre or auxiliary guides
ensure the container travels longitudinally and squarely, down to the extremities
of the bay.

Freight Floors Figure 10


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During unloading, the roll-out-stops are locked down to permit free passage of the
container out of the bay. This is done electrically or by pressing a foot pedal on
each roll out stop if electrical power is not available. The Power Drive Units (PDU)
consist of an electric motor driving a rubber-tyred roller. When commanded to
rotate from the control panel, the roller is raised approximately 12mm from the
floor level by a cam. Only when the roller is raised, will it begin to rotate and apply
a moving friction force to the base of the container to propel it over the balls and
rollers.
Control Panel
Each cargo bay will have a control panel with switches for; system power on/off,
cargo bay lights, raising and lowering of the various lateral and longitudinal
guides. A joystick control with eight positions and centre-off is provided for power
drive unit operation.

A Typical Control Panel


Figure 11

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Cargo Loading Operations


The sequence for loading LD2 containers into the cargo compartment is as
follows:
1.

Door fully open.

2.

Power switch ON.

3.

Select LD2 on panel.

4.

Set roll out stops to load position.

5.

Set lateral guides to NORMAL.

6.

PDU switch to A-B ON.

7.

PDU switch on the on the other panel to FWD ON.

8.

Switch the lights on if required.

9.

Place the container level with the doorframe of the compartment.

The joystick is then used to control the PDUs and move the container into the
desired bay. As the container clears each roller they spring up to prevent it rolling
back out of the bay. At the end of the containers travel it contacts the fixed
loading stops and with all the containers loaded the roll out stops are positioned
into the locked up position, holding the load firmly.
Unloading.
Essentially unloading is the reverse of the loading procedure, with the exception
of locking the roll out stops to their retracted position and positioning all of the
centre/auxiliary guides to the down position.
If any guide has been manually locked down, ensure they are unlocked before
electric power is applied to prevent damage to the motors. At the first sign of any
container stopping or failing to move release the joy stick to the centre/off position
and investigate the cause of the jam.
Only approved personnel, who have received proper training in the particular
installation or layout, should carry out the operation of automatic loading systems.

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Dangerous Goods
Dangerous goods are those which possess potentially hazardous characteristics.
However, as long as suitable precautions are taken these goods are not
necessarily prohibited from air travel. They include obvious items such as; acids,
explosives and radio-active materials and also some unlikely items such as
magnets, breathing apparatus and other gas cylinders and instruments that
contain mercury.
7.8 CARGO RETENTION EQUIPMENT
Once cargo is loaded into the aircraft, it must be restrained to prevent movement,
during take- off, in turbulent flight and landing, (especially hard braking). The LD
containers have positive latches, which attach the containers directly to the
aircraft structure. 'Loose' baggage in cargo holds are usually restrained by nets,
which can be locked into the floor or the walls of the bay.
This system can also be used on pallets, where cases and bags are, again, preloaded and then covered by waterproof sheet and restraint netting. Once loaded,
the pallets are clamped down on to the cargo bay floor.

Baggage Hold-Down
Figure 12

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7.9 AIRSTAIRS
The term airstairs is usually used to describe passenger steps that are integral to
the aircraft structure, meaning that it is independent of normal passenger steps
and of jetways at large airports. They are often fitted to aircraft that will be
operated into poorly equipped airports on a normal, day-to-day operation.
Airstairs can be manually or power operated and can be as simple as a set of
stairs set into the back of the entrance door or on larger aircraft, a fully powered,
folding set of steps that are extended and retracted by the operation of push
buttons.

Airstairs
Figure 13

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The first example shown is from the ATR-72 turbo-propeller aircraft. This unit is
mechanically operated and counterbalanced by a pair of large springs. As can be
seen from the drawing, there are handrails, one of which can be folded, if
required.
The second example, (lower left), is an electrically powered airstair fitted to the
new Boeing 717-200. This aircraft can also be fitted with a second airstair at the
rear of the cabin, (lower right), which will allow the passengers to embark and
disembark through two doors simultaneously. This will speed up the turn around
maintenance.

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CONTENTS
8

FIRE PROTECTION...................................................................... 8-1


8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

FIRE/OVERHEAT DETECTION AND WARNING .................................. 8-1


8.1.1
Unit (Spot) Type ............................................................ 8-2
8.1.2
Continuous Loop (Fire Wire) Detectors ......................... 8-3
8.1.3
Dual Loop System ......................................................... 8-4
8.1.4
Pressure-Type Sensor .................................................. 8-5
FIRE ZONES ................................................................................. 8-5
8.2.1
Hot And Cool Zones ...................................................... 8-5
8.2.2
Fireproof Bulkheads ...................................................... 8-6
8.2.3
Engine Fire Prevention .................................................. 8-6
8.2.4
Cockpit and Cabin Interiors. .......................................... 8-7
SMOKE DETECTION ...................................................................... 8-7
8.3.1
Carbon Monoxide Detectors .......................................... 8-7
8.3.2
Photoelectric Smoke Detectors. .................................... 8-7
8.3.3
Ionisation Type Smoke Detector. .................................. 8-8
FIRE EXTINGUISHING .................................................................... 8-9
8.4.1
Extinguishing System .................................................... 8-10
8.4.2
Directional Flow Control Valves (2 Way Valves) ............ 8-12
8.4.3
Fire Extinguishant Container ......................................... 8-12
8.4.4
Toilet Compartment Systems ........................................ 8-13
8.4.5
Warnings And Indications.............................................. 8-13
8.4.6
Hand Held (Portable) Fire Extinguishers ....................... 8-14
SYSTEM TESTS ............................................................................ 8-14
8.5.1
Fire System Test Switch................................................ 8-15
8.5.2
Fire Wire Loop Test....................................................... 8-15
8.5.3
Squib-Test..................................................................... 8-15

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FIRE PROTECTION

Fire is the most dangerous threat to the safety of an aircraft and is associated
with external areas near the main engines and the APU.
Other external hot spots are landing gear bays, where heat from brake units
could affect the surrounding equipment and wiring, when the gears are retracted.
Overheating of the structure, equipment and wiring from very hot air, leaking
engine compressor bleed air pipes, must also be catered for.
Fire from internal areas such as the passenger, flight deck and toilet
compartments as well as cargo, air-conditioning and electrical/electronic
equipment bays require protection too.
Indeed any source on an aircraft that the manufacturer or operator considers a
likely hazard will be protected.
Ideally, a fire protection system will include as many as possible of the following
features:
Rapid warning of fire/overheat and its accurate location
Must not cause false warnings
Continuous warning for duration of fire/overheat
Confirmation that the fire has been extinguishing
Indication that the fire has re-ignited
A means of testing the system from the flight deck
Detectors that are proof against oil, water, vibration and high temperatures
Detectors that are easily accessible throughout the aircraft
Detectors and extinguishers hot wired electrically or powered from emergency
electrical buses
Adequate visual and aural indication on the flight deck and vital areas on the
aircraft
Separate warnings for each engine and specific areas as determined by the
aircraft manufacturers
Therefore, the Fire (and Overheat) Protection system will normally be split into
two main subsystems:
Fire/Overheat Detection and Warning
Fire Extinguishing
8.1 FIRE/OVERHEAT DETECTION AND WARNING
Fire/Overheat detectors can be divided into two main groups:

Unit or Spot Type


Continuous Loop (Firewire) Type

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8.1.1

Unit (Spot) Type

This type is fitted at various strategic points within the fire/overheat zone and
takes the form of a thermally activated switch.
They are electrically connected in parallel with each other and in series with the
audio/visual warning system. This arrangement allows any switch to operate the
warning, even if other switches have failed in the remainder of the system.
Some Unit detectors may have a pair of BI-metallic contacts, that close when
heated and open when they are cooled down, to make or break the electrical
warning circuit.
However, the majority has a thin casing that surrounds two conventional electrical
contacts that are normally set apart from each other. When subjected to heat, the
casing expands and pulls the two contacts together, completing the warning
circuit in a similar manner to the BI-metallic type.
The main advantage of this so-called High Speed Resetting Switch (HSRS), is
its sensitivity and fast reaction time, to initiate the warning and cancel it once the
heat is removed.
Spot Detectors are used mainly to detect high temperature leaks from bleed air
ducts and are normally positioned at pipe to pipe connections.

Thermoswitch Type Fire Detection System


Figure 1

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Thermoswitch Spot Detector


Figure 2

8.1.2 Continuous Loop (Fire Wire) Detectors


This method permits more complete coverage of a fire hazard area than any type
of spot-type of temperature detectors. The continuous loop uses the principle of
capacitance and resistance to indicate a rise in temperature at any point along
the length of the detector loop. The commonest type has a stainless steel or
Inconel outer tube, an inner pure nickel wire surrounded by ceramic beads wetted
by eutectic salt. The effect of this design is that a rise in temperature causes a
sharp fall in electrical resistance, as well as a rise in capacitance.
Once the detection unit senses this effect, anywhere along the wire, it will cause
an overheat warning to be generated. This continuous loop system is often
referred to as a 'firewire' system. The advantage of a firewire system is that a
loop can cover the complete powerplant, (Figure 3) within its cowling so that an
overheat or fire will be detected quickly no matter where it starts. The firewire will
also re-set the control box to remove the warning when the temperature falls
below the limit temperature.

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Fire Wire Layout


Figure 3
Firewire elements are attached to the airframe structure with quick release clips
approximately 6 apart and 4 from the end fittings. The element is supported in
clips with a rubber grommet to prevent rubbing and to help damp out vibrations.
(Figure 4). Care is taken to eliminate strain on the element as excessive bending
could result in work hardening of the capillary.

Fire Wire Clips and Connections


Figure 4
8.1.3 Dual Loop System
Most aircraft use the dual loop system of indication. Each sensing circuit has dual
sensing loops. Each Loop A and Loop B is independent of each other. When the
loop selector switch is set to BOTH, both loops must detect a fire condition before
the warning system is activated. If only one loop detects a fire, the associated
loop fault light will illuminate.

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If the selector is switched to a single loop (A or B) full fire warnings will activate if
the selected loop senses a fire condition.
Pressing the loop test button simulates a fire condition on the respective loop.
This is done by earthing the inner electrode of the loop that functionally checks
the system and checks the continuity of the loop.
8.1.4 Pressure-Type Sensor
The pressure type detection system uses a continuous loop for the detection
element. This loop is made from sealed stainless steel tube that contains an
element that absorbs gas when it is cold but releases the gas when it is heated.
This tube is connected to a pressure switch that will close when the pressure
reaches a pre-determined level.
The commonest make of this type of system is the Systron-Donner system which
uses a centre titanium centre wire and the expansion of both helium and
hydrogen gas to give the two-stage warnings.
Whilst the firewire system actuates when any part of the loop reaches the limit
temperature, the pressure type system will actuate in two different ways. If a
localised fire occurs, the hydrogen gas is released and its pressure closes the
pressure switch which will set off the warning system, however, if the temperature
over a larger area rises to a lower level than a fire warning the helium expands
and closes the pressure switch to activate the system warning.
8.2 FIRE ZONES
On light aircraft, the only protection against fire is a stainless steel or titanium
bulkhead (firewall), dividing the engine bay from the cabin and the rest of the
aircraft. Larger aircraft have the complete engine cowlings isolated from the
airframe/wing assemblies and, in addition, aircraft cowlings can be divided into a
number of 'fire zones', each one usually having its own warning and extinguishing
system.
The types of zone dictate what type of protection that they receive, for example,
light aircraft have piston engines and hence, due to the high flow of air through
the bay, have no fire protection and depend on isolating the engine of fuel to put
out any fire. The example has four zones around the engine that only two have
firewires and extinguishing.
8.2.1 Hot And Cool Zones
Engines are usually split into hot and cool zones (Figure 5). The hot zone
comprises the combustion chamber turbines and exhaust areas, the cool zone
comprises the intake, compressors and accessory drives.

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Engine Fire Zones


Figure 5
8.2.2 Fireproof Bulkheads
These prevent fire from spreading to other areas. Auxiliary power units and tail
mounted engines are normally contained within such bulkhead compartments
separating them from the rest of the airframe. The engine pylons also contain a
firewall to separate the engine from the wing. These are made from titanium or
stainless steel and all joints are sealed with fireproof sealants
8.2.3 Engine Fire Prevention
There are a number of techniques used to help prevent a fire occurring around
engines. These are, the use of flameproof or flame resistant materials, use of
bonding strips to prevent arcing, drainage of spilt fuel/oil and efficient cooling.
All pipes which carry fuel, oil or hydraulic fluids are made fire resistant and all
electrical components and connections are made flame proof.
It is essential that a fire staring in any zone is contained within that zone and is
not allowed to spread to any other part of the aircraft. The engine cowlings form a
natural container but they are usually made from light alloy and would not contain
a ground fire for long. In flight however cooling airflows through the cowlings,
provide sufficient cooling to render the cowlings fireproof. The fireproof bulkheads
and any cowling that has no cooling airflow are usually made from titanium or
stainless steel.

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8.2.4

Cockpit and Cabin Interiors.

All wool, cotton and synthetic fabrics used in interior trim are treated to render
them flame resistant. Tests conducted have shown that whilst the foam used in
seat cushions is flammable, if covered with a flame-resistant fabric, there is little
danger of fire from accidental contact with a cigarette, for example.
Fire protection for the aircraft interior is usually provided by hand-held
extinguishers. Various types are available including, Water, CO 2 and Dry
Powder. Each type is best used on one kind of fire but may be used on other
kinds. It is best to be sure which is safe to use on which type of fire.
8.3 SMOKE DETECTION
A smoke detection system monitors certain areas of the aircraft for the presence
of smoke, which is could be indicative of a fire condition. These may include
cargo and baggage compartments and the toilets of transport category aircraft.
A smoke detection system is used where the type of fire anticipated is expected
to generate a substantial amount of smoke before temperature changes are
sufficient to actuate a heat/fire detection system.
8.3.1 Carbon Monoxide Detectors
The presence of Carbon Monoxide (CO), or Nitrous Oxides (N2O), is dangerous
to flight crew and passengers alike and may indicate a fire condition as it is a byproduct of combustion. Detection of the presence of either or both of these gases
could be the earliest warning of a possible dangerous situation.
Carbon Monoxide is very dangerous, firstly due to the minute amount required to
cause loss of attention and headaches; (this is approximately 2 parts in 10,000).
It is colourless, odourless, tasteless and a non-irritant. Carbon Monoxide
detectors are usually used in cabin and cockpit areas.
The detector is usually a small card with a transparent pocket containing silica gel
crystals that have been treated with a chemical, which changes colour to green or
black when they are exposed to carbon monoxide.

8.3.2 Photoelectric Smoke Detectors.


Air from the monitored compartment is drawn through the detector chamber and
a light beam is shone on it. A photoelectric cell installed in the chamber senses
the light that is refracted by the smoke particles. The photocell is installed in a
bridge circuit that measures any changes, in the amount of current that it
conducts. Figure 6 shows a typical photoelectric smoke detector.

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Air inlet
Light beam

Light source

Photoelectric cell
Light reflected from
smoke into photocell
Air outlet

Photo Electric Smoke Detector


Figure 6
When there is no smoke in the chamber air, no light is refracted and the photocell
produces a reference current. When smoke is in the chamber air, some of the
light is refracted and sensed by the photocell. Its conductivity changes, changing
the amount of current. These changes in current are amplified and used to initiate
a smoke warning signal.
8.3.3 Ionisation Type Smoke Detector.
A small amount of radioactive material is mounted on the side of the detector
chamber. This material bombards the oxygen and nitrogen molecules in the air
flowing through the chamber and ionises it to the extent that a reference current
can flow across the chamber through the ionised gas to an external circuit.

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Ionzing beam

Radioactive material

Air inlet

Air outlet

+
Target
Ionisation Type Smoke Detector
Figure 7
Smoke flowing through the chamber changes the level of ionisation and
decreases the current. When the current reduces to a specific level the external
circuit initiates a smoke warning signal. Figure 7 shows a typical ionisation smoke
detector.

Flame Detectors

This system uses a photoelectric cell to detect a sharp rise in light, such as that
from a flame in a closed bay.
8.4 FIRE EXTINGUISHING
There are a variety of aircraft and ramp extinguishing agents. Their use depends
upon several variables such as location, proximity to personnel, environment,
possible sources of fire, etc. There are integral extinguishing systems on board
the aircraft as well as hand held extinguishers

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8.4.1 Extinguishing System


Aircraft that have an integral fire extinguisher system have a system similar to the
arrangement shown in Figure 8. There are a number of pressurised bottles with
extinguishant inside and each bottle has two explosive cartridges, (squibs), which
can be fired from the flight deck. Each bottle can feed either the port or starboard
engines through a crossfeed. The extinguishant is fed through a series of
pipelines and valves to the outlet nozzles and tubes.
In some aircraft, fixed systems may also be provided for the protection of landing
gear wheel bays and baggage compartments. These systems may be
independent of each other. They may be fully automatic or require the aircrew to
initiate them when a fire is indicated.

Basic Aircraft Extinguishing System


Figure 8
On multi-engine aircraft there may be one extinguisher bottle provided for each
engine or one bottle may feed 2 engines (Figure 9). There is always usually a
facility for cross feeding to another engine should the need arise.

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Dual Container System


Figure 9
Two bottles giving either two 'shots', to a single engine or, one 'shot' each to
either engine (Figure 10). The bottle condition is indicated either through a
pressure gauge on each bottle, or a red/green sectioned gauge showing red
when the bottle is empty or its pressure is low as well as a discharge indication
on the associated fire control panel I the cockpit.

Typical 2 Shot System


Figure 10

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There may also be pop up indicators to indicate that the squib has been fired. A
pressure switch may also be fitted which gives an electrical indication to the
cockpit control panel when the pressure drops to a pre-determined level.
Each bottle will have protection against overpressure using a 'rupture disc', which
fails if the bottle pressure becomes excessive due to overheating.
8.4.2 Directional Flow Control Valves (2 Way Valves)
These valves are non-return valves designed for use in a crossfeed system to
allow the contents of one or several extinguishers to be directed into any one
engine (or compartment). The valves prevent the reverse flow of the
extinguishant into the other bottle or engine.
8.4.3 Fire Extinguishant Container
Figure 11 shows a typical extinguishant container. The cartridge is electrically
ignited which drives the cartridge cutter into the disc that on rupture releases the
extinguishant. The strainer prevents any of the broken disc from entering the
distribution system.

Fire Extinguisher Bottle


Figure 11

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The safety plug is connected by a pipeline to a red indicator disc on the outside of
the compartment. If the gas pressure increases due to an increase in the
compartment temperature that the bottle is located in, the fusible safety plug
melts at a pre-determined temperature and the bottle contents are discharged
overboard. As the bottle discharges overboard, it blows out the red indicator. The
gauge shows the pressure of the extinguishant in the container.
8.4.4 Toilet Compartment Systems
Small, automatic units will often be found in the toilet waste bins, where they will
discharge themselves when a heat source is sensed in the region of 75 degrees
centigrade. A fusible type plug will melt allowing the contents to discharge.
Most aircraft with this system fitted do not generate any indications to the cockpit
or attendants panel if the system was activated. Some systems have a visible
temperature strip that can be checked before each flight, or by the cabin crew in
flight.
8.4.5 Warnings And Indications
Once a fire has been detected in the engine bay (or compartment being sensed),
a signal is generated by the firewire element and this signal is sent to a control
unit. The control unit processes the signal and sends a signal to the cockpit CWP,
associated power lever handle, and the fire control panel. The CWP red Fire
warning caption light illuminates for the affected engine (or compartment) as well
as the master warning lights and audio warnings. The Affected power lever
handle and fire extinguisher handle on the overhead console also illuminate red.
To activate the extinguishant, the red fire handle is pulled to arm the system and
then the squib button is pressed to fire the bottle. If after the bottle contents have
exhausted and the fire indication remains, the second squib button is pressed to
fire the contents of the other bottle into the same affected engine (or
compartment).
Some aircraft activate the extinguishers differently. The bottle may be fired by
pressing the affected fire button on the fire panel. If the fire remains a cross feed
switch is activated which opens a crossfeed valve and the same fire button is
repressed to fire the other bottles contents into the same affected system.
Once discharged an amber DISCH caption on the fire control panel will indicate
when the corresponding bottle is empty. These captions are usually electrically
activated
Whatever the method of operation of the extinguisher system, the same basic
principle applies. The contents of each bottle can be cross fed into the affected
area that is on fire.

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8.4.6 Hand Held (Portable) Fire Extinguishers


Each aircraft must carry portable fire extinguishers for use by the cabin crew in
case of a fire. These are positioned in various places within the cabin with easy
access to the crew. The amount and location depends on the type of aircraft and
its size.
Halon extinguishers contain a gas that interrupts the chemical reaction that takes
place when fuels burn. These types of extinguishers are often used to protect
valuable electrical equipment since they leave no residue to clean up. Halon
extinguishers have a limited range, usually 4 to 6 feet. The initial application of
Halon should be made at the base of the fire, even after the flames have been
extinguished
Carbon Dioxide fire extinguishers disperses the gas quickly, these extinguishers
are only effective from 3 to 8 feet. The carbon dioxide is stored as a compressed
liquid in the extinguisher; as it expands, it cools the surrounding air. The cooling
will often cause ice to form around the horn where the gas is expelled from the
extinguisher. They are primarily used to extinguish electrical fires in the cabin and
cockpit. The CO2 can be aimed at the fire and discharged using a trigger.
A dry powder fire extinguisher use compressed nitrogen to expel a dry powder
such as sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate. They can be used on
most fires but should never be used on the flight deck, due to lack of visibility and
interference with some electrical equipment caused by the powder.
Water extinguishers are also fitted to some aircraft and should be used to put out
fires in ordinary combustibles, such as wood and paper.
The hand held extinguishers are subject to periodic maintenance. The
extinguisher is checked for its weight. This is stamped on the neck of the bottle
and indicates its charged weight. If the weight is below the set limits, it is to be
replaced.
8.5 SYSTEM TESTS
All extinguishing systems have a method of testing their serviceability. This can
vary from weighing the complete cylinder off-aircraft, (which will have the correct
'full' weight marked on it), through to the bottle having a gauge with safe and lowpressure sectors marked on it.
Figure 12 shows an engine extinguisher with a fitted gauge. Other more
sophisticated systems have internal pressure switches fitted to the bottle, which
will notify the flight deck of the loss of bottle pressure, (or discharge), via a
warning light, magnetic indicator etc.

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Regardless of the system, all bottles and squibs have a life, after which they have
to be removed and returned to the manufacturer for maintenance.

Fire Bottle With Pressure Gauge


Figure 12
8.5.1

Fire System Test Switch

A test switch is available for each system. When pressed all warning lights and
audio warnings are checked. If a light fails to illuminate it will normally indicate a
bulb filament failure.
8.5.2

Fire Wire Loop Test

A test switch on the cockpit fire panel is available to test each sensing element
loop. When selected the continuity of each circuit is checked. If the system is
serviceable, the Loop caption(s) will illuminate. If the caption(s) do not illuminate
there is a fault in the system.
8.5.3

Squib-Test.

A squib test button is available to check the continuity of the discharge heads for
each of the fire extinguisher bottles. When pressed a squib warning light or
magnetic indicator will illuminate if the system is serviceable. No illumination
means that there is a fault in the system. The current used during the squib test is
at a much lower value than that required to fire the squib.

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STRUCTURES AND
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Contents
9

FLYING CONTROLS .................................................................... 9-1


9.1

PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS ................................................... 9-1


9.1.1
Ailerons ......................................................................... 9-3
9.1.2
Elevators ....................................................................... 9-3
9.1.3
Rudders ........................................................................ 9-4
9.1.4
Spoilers ......................................................................... 9-5
TRIM CONTROLS ........................................................................... 9-7
9.2.1
Fixed and Adjustable Trim Tabs .................................... 9-7
9.2.1.2 Controllable Trim Tabs .................................................. 9-7
9.2.1.3 Servo Tabs.................................................................... 9-8
9.2.2
Balance Tabs ................................................................ 9-8
9.2.3
Anti-Balance Tabs ......................................................... 9-9
9.2.4
Spring Tabs................................................................... 9-9
FULLY POWERED FLYING CONTROL TRIM SYSTEM ........................... 9-10
9.3.1
Typical Trim System ...................................................... 9-10
9.3.2
Rudder Trim System ..................................................... 9-10
9.3.3
Aileron Trim System ...................................................... 9-10
9.3.4
Tailplane Trim System .................................................. 9-11
ACTIVE LOAD CONTROLS ............................................................... 9-15
9.4.1
Active Load Control ....................................................... 9-15
9.4.2
Active Control Technology ............................................ 9-15
9.4.3
Advantages of Active Control Technology ..................... 9-17
9.4.4
Direct Lift Force ............................................................. 9-17
9.4.5
Direct Side Force .......................................................... 9-17
HIGH LIFT DEVICES ....................................................................... 9-18
9.5.1
Flaps ............................................................................. 9-18
9.5.2
Slats .............................................................................. 9-20
9.5.3
Drooped Leading Edges................................................ 9-21
9.5.4
Krueger Flaps ............................................................... 9-21
LIFT DUMP AND SPEED BRAKES .................................................... 9-22
9.6.1
Lift Dumpers.................................................................. 9-22
9.6.2
Speed Brakes ............................................................... 9-22
SYSTEM OPERATION ..................................................................... 9-24
9.7.1
Manual Operation.......................................................... 9-24
9.7.2
Powered Flight Controls (P.F.C.Us).............................. 9-24
9.7.3
Proportionality ............................................................... 9-25
9.7.4
Redundancy of hydraulic Supplies ................................ 9-25
9.7.5
Tandem PFCU .............................................................. 9-25
9.7.6
Dual Assembly PFCUs ................................................. 9-27
9.7.7
Duplicate/Triplicate PFCU's........................................... 9-28
9.7.8
Duplicated Control Surfaces ......................................... 9-29
9.7.8
Self Contained PFCU .................................................... 9-30
9.7.9
Input Systems ............................................................... 9-30

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

9.7

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9.7.10 High Speed Primary Controls ........................................ 9-31


TRAILING EDGE FLAP CONTROLS .................................................. 9-33
9.8.1
Flap Control Utilising Linear Hydraulic Actuators ........... 9-33
9.8.2
General ......................................................................... 9-34
9.8.3
Hydraulic Power ............................................................ 9-35
9.8.4
Control Input Circuit ...................................................... 9-35
9.8.5
System Operation ......................................................... 9-36
9.8.6
Safety Aspects .............................................................. 9-37
9.8.7
Position Indication ......................................................... 9-38
9.8.8
Flap System - Hydraulic Motors and Torque Tube Drive
9-38
9.8.9
Maintenance of Flap Systems ....................................... 9-41
LEADING EDGE FLAP CONTROLS ................................................... 9-41
9.9.1
Leading Edge Flap Pneumatic drive Unit ...................... 9-45
9.9.2
Krueger Flap Drive Components ................................... 9-48
SPEED BRAKE/GROUND SPOILER CONTROL ................................... 9-49
9.10.1 Operation ...................................................................... 9-50
MECHANICAL & ELECTRICAL FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM .................. 9-53
9.11.1 Mechanical Controls...................................................... 9-53
9.11.2 Electrical Flight Controls................................................ 9-54
Q FEEL, YAW DAMPER, MACH TRIM, RUDDER LIMITER, GUST LOCKS
9-58
9.12.1 Artificial Feel ................................................................. 9-58
9.12.2 Operation ...................................................................... 9-58
9.12.3 Hydraulic Q Feel System ............................................. 9-60
9.12.4 Mach Number Correction .............................................. 9-60
9.12.5 Operation ...................................................................... 9-60
YAW DAMPING ............................................................................. 9-62
9.13.1 Yaw Control .................................................................. 9-62
MACH TRIM .................................................................................. 9-63
9.14.1 Typical System .............................................................. 9-65
9.14.2 Controller ...................................................................... 9-65
9.14.3 Mach Trim Actuator ....................................................... 9-65
9.14.4 Operation ...................................................................... 9-65
RUDDER LIMITING ......................................................................... 9-67
9.15.1 Q Limiter ...................................................................... 9-67
GUST LOCKS ................................................................................ 9-67
9.16.1 Description .................................................................... 9-67
9.16.2 Controls locking mechanism (aileron and elevator) ....... 9-68
9.16.3 Controls locking mechanism (rudder) ............................ 9-69
9.16.4 Power Supplies ............................................................. 9-71
9.16.5 Operation ...................................................................... 9-71
RIGGING AND BALANCING CONTROLS .......................................... 9-72
9.17.1 Rigging - Introduction .................................................... 9-72
9.17.2 Checks Before Rigging ................................................. 9-72
9.17.3 Rigging Procedure ........................................................ 9-73
9.17.4 Control Surface Setting Gauges .................................... 9-75
9.17.5 Checking for Sense of Movement ................................. 9-75
9.17.6 Checking for Static and Running Friction ...................... 9-77

9.8

9.9

9.10
9.11

9.12

9.13
9.14

9.15
9.16

9.17

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9.17.7 Checks After Rigging .................................................... 9-77


9.17.8 Duplicate Checks .......................................................... 9-78
9.17.9 Primary Control Systems - Example of Rigging ............. 9-78
9.17.10 Rigging a Tube-operated Control System ..................... 9-79
9.17.11 Rigging a Powered Flying Control System .................... 9-80
9.17.12 Rigging of Trimming Tab System .................................. 9-82
STALL W ARNING AND PROTECTION ................................................ 9-83
9.18.1 Stall Warning Systems .................................................. 9-83
9.18.1.1 Pneumatic Stall Warning System .................................. 9-83
9.18.2 Stall Protection System ................................................. 9-85
9.18.3 Typical System Components ......................................... 9-85
9.18.4 Actual Stall Protection System ...................................... 9-86
9.18.5 Incidence Probes .......................................................... 9-86
9.18.6 Nitrogen System ........................................................... 9-87
9.18.7 Automatic Ignition.......................................................... 9-88
9.18.8 Stall Warning................................................................. 9-88
9.18.9 Stall Identification .......................................................... 9-89
FLY BY W IRE................................................................................ 9-92
9.19.1 Introduction ................................................................... 9-92
9.19.2 Principles of FBW.......................................................... 9-92
9.19.3 Principles of FBOW ....................................................... 9-92
9.19.4 Advantages of FBOW over FBW ................................... 9-92
9.19.5 Other Inputs to Powered Flying Control Unit ................. 9-93
9.19.6 777 Flight Controls - Introduction .................................. 9-93
9.19.7 General ......................................................................... 9-93
9.19.8 777 Primary Flight Control System ................................ 9-93
9.19.9 High Lift Control System................................................ 9-94
9.19.10 Benefits of the Fly-By-Wire System ............................... 9-94
9.19.11 Abbreviations and Acronyms ......................................... 9-94
9.19.12 Primary Flight Control System - Introduction ................. 9-96
9.19.13 PFCS General Description ......................................... 9-97
9.19.14 Manual Operation.......................................................... 9-97
9.19.15 Autopilot Operation ....................................................... 9-98
9.19.16 PFCS Modes of Operation ............................................ 9-98
9.19.17 Flight Deck Controls ...................................................... 9-98
9.19.18 Main Equipment Centre................................................. 9-99
9.19.19 PFCS Flight Controls ARINC 629 BUS Interfaces ...... 9-99

9.18

9.19

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FLYING CONTROLS

9.1 PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS


Aircraft theory of flight has already been discussed in Module 11.1. We shall now
look at how the Aircraft are equipped with moveable aerofoil surfaces that provide
control in flight. Controls are normally divided into Primary and Secondary
controls. The primary flight controls are:
Ailerons
Elevators
Rudders
Spoilers
Because of the need of aircraft to operate over extremely wide speed ranges and
weights, it is necessary to have other secondary or auxiliary controls. These
consist of:
Trim controls
High Lift Devices
Speed Brakes and Lift Dump

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Note: There is some variation of opinion as to whether spoilers are considered to


be primary controls. The EASA 66 syllabus includes them as primary controls, so
that is how these notes will define them. Both types of controls are illustrated in
the following diagram.

Typical Aircraft Flight Controls


Figure 1

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9.1.1 AILERONS

Ailerons are primary flight controls that provide lateral roll control of the aircraft.
They control aircraft movement about the longitudinal axis. Ailerons are normally
mounted on the trailing edge of the wing near to the wing tip.

Inboard and Outboard Ailerons


Figure 2
Some large turbine aircraft employ two sets of ailerons. One set are in the
conventional position near the wingtip, the other set is in the mid-wing position or
outboard of the flaps. At low speeds both sets of ailerons operate to give
maximum control. At higher speeds hydraulic isolate valves will cut power to the
outer ailerons so that only the inboard ailerons operate. If the outer ailerons are
operated at high speeds, the stress on the wing tips may twist the leading edge of
the wing downwards and produce aileron reversal.
9.1.2 ELEVATORS

Elevators are primary flight controls that control the movement of the aircraft
about the lateral axis (pitch). Elevators are normally attached to hinges on the
rear spar of the horizontal stabiliser. Fig 11.1 shows the typical location for
elevators.

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9.1.3 RUDDERS

The rudder is the flight control surface that controls aircraft movement about the
vertical or normal axis. Rudders for small aircraft are normally single structural
units operated by a single control system. Rudders for larger transport aircraft
vary in basic structural and operational design. They may comprise two or more
operational segments; each controlled by different operating systems to provide a
level of redundancy.

Rudder
Figure 3

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9.1.4 SPOILERS

Spoilers are secondary control surfaces used to reduce or spoil the lift on a wing.
They normally consist of multiple flat panels located on the upper surface of the
wings. The diagram below shows the more common configuration.

Operation of Spoilers on a Typical Aircraft


Figure 4
The spoilers lay flush with the upper surface of the wing and are hinged at the
forward edge. When the spoilers are operated, the surface raises and reduces
the lift. The spoilers may be used for different purposes.

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9.1.4.1 Flight Spoilers

Flight Spoilers are used in flight to reduce the amount of lift. If the pilot operates
the controls left or right to roll the aircraft, the spoilers on the down-going wing
move upward to aid rolling the aircraft. The movement of the spoilers is in
proportion to the rate of roll required. On some aircraft, the spoilers are the
primary flight control for rolling. If operating only as flight spoilers, only the
surfaces on one wing will be raised at any one time. The flight spoilers are
normally positioned outboard of the ground spoilers.
9.1.4.2 Ground Spoilers

Ground Spoilers are only used when the aircraft is on the ground. They operate
with the flight spoilers to greatly reduce the lift on landing. The also reduce the
drag after landing to slow down the aircraft. Ground spoilers will normally be
deflected to their maximum position to give maximum drag on landing.

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MODULE 11.09
AERODYNAMICS,
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SYSTEMS

TRIM CONTROLS

The majority of aircraft at some time during a flight develop a tendency to deviate
from a straight and level attitude. This may be caused by a fuel state change, a
speed change, a change in position of the aircraft's load, or in flap and
undercarriage positions. The pilot can counter this tendency by continuously
applying a correcting force to the controls - an operation, which, if maintained for
any length of time, would be both fatiguing and difficult to maintain. The tendency
to deviate is therefore corrected by making minor trim adjustments to the control
surfaces. Once an aircraft has been trimmed back to a 'balanced' flight condition,
no further effort is required by the pilot until further deviation develops.
9.2.1 FIXED AND ADJUSTABLE TRIM TABS
9.2.1.1

Fixed Trim Tabs

A fixed trim tab is normally a piece of sheet metal attached to the trailing
edge of a control surface. It is adjusted on the ground by bending to an
appropriate position that give zero control forces when in the cruise.
Finding the correct position is by trial and error.
9.2.1.2

CONTROLLABLE TRIM TABS

Controllable Trim Tab


Figure 5
A controllable trim tab is adjusted by mechanical means from the flight
deck, usually with an indication of its position being displayed to the pilot.
Most aircraft have trim on the pitch control and more advanced aircraft
have trim on all three axes. Whilst the controls in the cockpit are by lever,
switch etc., the actuation can be by mechanical, electrical or hydraulic
means.

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MODULE 11.09
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SYSTEMS

SERVO TABS

Servo Tab
Figure 6
Sometimes referred to as the flight tabs, the servo tabs are used primarily on
large control surfaces, often found on larger, older aircraft. This tab is operated
directly by the primary controls of the aircraft. In response to the pilot's input, only
the tab moves. The force of the airflow on the servo tab then moves the primary
control surface. This tab is used to reduce the effort required to move the
controls on a large aircraft.

9.2.2 BALANCE TABS

Balance Tab
Figure 7

A balance tab is linked to the aircraft in such a manner that a movement of the
main control surface will give an opposite movement to the tab. Thus the balance
tab will help in moving the main surface, therefore reducing the effort required.
This type of tab will normally be found fitted to aircraft where the controls are
found to be rather heavy during initial flight-testing.

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9.2.3 ANTI-BALANCE TABS

These anti-balance tabs operate in the same way, mechanically, as balance


tabs. The tab itself is connected to the operating mechanism so that it operates in
the reverse way to the balance tab. The effect this has is to add a loading to the
pilots pitch control, making it appear heavier. These tabs can often be found
fitted to stabilators, which are very powerful and need extra feel to prevent the
pilot over-stressing the airframe.
9.2.4 SPRING TABS

The spring tabs, like some servo tabs, are usually found on large aircraft that
require considerable force to move a control surface. The purpose of the spring
tab is to provide a boost, thereby aiding the movement of a control surface.
Although similar to servo tabs, spring tabs are progressive in their operation so
that there is little assistance at slow speeds but much assistance at high speeds.

Spring Tab
Figure 8

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SYSTEMS

9.3 FULLY POWERED FLYING CONTROL TRIM SYSTEM


As fully powered flying controls are irreversible, i.e. all loads (reactions) are fed
via mountings to structure; trim tabs would be ineffective.
To overcome this, electric trim struts or actuators are used within the input
system. These actuators commonly reposition the "null" position of a selfcentring spring device to hold the control-input system in a new neutral position.
Thus the main control surface will be held deflected and the aircraft trimmed.

9.3.1 TYPICAL TRIM SYSTEM

The following is a typical trim system as used on a fully powered flight control
system.

9.3.2 RUDDER TRIM SYSTEM

In a typical rudder trim system for a powered system, trim commands from the
trim switch causes an actuator to extend or retract, which rotates the feel and
centring mechanism. This provides a new zero force pedal position
corresponding to the trimmed rudder position. The trim switch is spring loaded to
return to neutral. Both positive and negative elements of the circuit are switched
to prevent a trim runaway should one set of switch contacts become shortcircuited. The trim indicator is driven electrically by a transmitter in the rudder
trim actuator. The indicator shows up to 17 units of left or right trim. Each unit
represents approximately one degree of rudder trim.

9.3.3 AILERON TRIM SYSTEM

In a typical aileron trim system for a powered system, trim commands from the
trim switches causes the actuator to extend or retract, which repositions the feel
and centring mechanism null detent. The trim switches must be operated
simultaneously to provide an electrical input to the actuator, as both positive and
negative elements of the circuit are switched to prevent a trim runaway should
one set of switch contacts become short circuited. The available aileron trim
provides 15 degrees aileron travel in both directions from neutral.

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9.3.4 TAILPLANE TRIM SYSTEM

For trimming the aircraft longitudinally (about the lateral axis) the elevators are
not trimmed. Instead the angle of incidence of the whole tailplane is altered.
Raising the leading edge of the tailplane will increase lift over the tailplane, which
imparts a nose-down attitude to the aircraft or vice versa.
This is done by mounting the forward end of the tailplane on a screw jack.
Depending on the system the screw jack is rotated by two hydraulic or electric
motors via a gearbox. Movement is induced by a lever in the flight deck, which
operates solenoid selector valves or an electric control circuit to operate the
motors. Over-travel is prevented by micro-switch.
Reasons for fitting to transport aircraft:
1. All aircraft benefit from having as large a range of useable centre of gravity as
possible. This gives flexibility in cargo loading and allows for fuel usage in a
swept wing.
2. Aircraft benefit from a wide speed range. Very simply, when an aircraft is
trimmed at a particular speed, a reduction in speed calls for "up" elevator and
an increase in speed calls for "down" elevator. This would cause extra drag.
3. The need to compensate for centre of pressure changes due to slat/flap
extension, gear extension.
4. To reduce trim drag to a minimum to give the optimum performance in cruise.

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Variable Incidence Tailplane Trim System


The tail-plane is pivoted at the rear of the centre section torsion box and attached
to an actuator forward of the centre section. Operation of the actuator raises or
lowers the leading edge of the tail-plane, altering the incidence angle.

Variable Incidence Tailplane


Figure 9
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The actuator comprises a re-circulating ball screw jack and nut assembly driven
by two hydraulic motors with separate spur gear reduction trains.

Figure 10

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Friction brakes ensure that air loads cannot back-drive the actuator when the
system is de-pressurised.
The actuator is signalled from one of three sources:
i)

Auto-pilot servo

ii)

Mach trim servo

iii)

Trim hand-wheel operation.

A cable loop runs from the pedestal in the cockpit, under the cabin floor, and
ends at a cable reduction-gearing unit at the tailplane incidence actuator.
Hydraulic Power Supply
Each hydraulic motor is powered from a separate system. In the event of a single
hydraulic system failure, a bypass valve permits that motor to "freewheel" when
the system is de-pressurised.
Position Indication Systems
Geared indicator scales inboard of the cockpit hand-wheels present the
demanded position of the tail-plane. This will be the actual tail-plane incidence
with the hydraulic system(s) pressurised.
Actual tail-plane position is continuously displayed on the pilot's instrument panel,
signalled by a position transmitter operated by the tail-plane.
External markings on the structure adjacent to the tail-plane give the approximate
position of the tail-plane.
Tail-plane in Motion Warning
Some aircraft types have a tail-plane in motion warning system to alert the pilots
of continuous motion of the tail-plane beyond a certain time period.

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ACTIVE LOAD CONTROLS

9.4.1 ACTIVE LOAD CONTROL

This system is a relatively new approach to civil aviation, although it has been in
use for some time in military aircraft. It is a complex system that senses
disturbances in the air that may cause both discomfort to passengers and crew,
whilst causing extra unnecessary loading on the airframe.
The gusts that are about to hit the aircraft are sensed either by a tiny pair of
vanes on either side of the nose or by accelerometers mounted inside the nose of
the aircraft. These instantly send a signal, 'bump coming', to the flight control
computers, which instantly send a correcting signal to the elevators that counter
the bump and give a smoother ride.
The whole system requires the quick reactions of both the computers and the
hydraulic jacks to be successful. If the aircraft senses a downdraft, the
computers instantly signal just the correct amount of 'up elevator' to counteract
the disturbance and leave the aircraft to fly smoothly on.

9.4.2 ACTIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

Active Control Technology (ACT) can be defined as the use of a multivariable


automatic flight control system to improve the manoeuvrability, dynamic flight
characteristics and the structural dynamic properties of an aircraft by
simultaneously driving an appropriate number of control surfaces and auxiliary
force or moment generators in such a fashion that either the loads which the
aircraft would have experienced as a result of motion without an ACT system are
much reduced or the aircraft produces a degree of manoeuvrability beyond the
capability of a conventional aircraft.
In essence ACT is the use of technology to make an aircraft and its control
surfaces operate in an unconventional manner to effect high manoeuvrability or to
reduce airframe stress.

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ACT is nothing new, it has been used on aircraft for many decades but it has
increased in usage with the advent of flight control computers and fly-by-wire
systems. The Tristar aircraft has a system installed that reduces the flight loads
on the wings by partially deploying the spoilers. This changes the lift profile over
the wing, bringing the lift closer to the wing root, which is much stronger (see next
fig). This means that the wing can be lighter and the wing stresses will be
reduced.

Figure 11
Numerous control surfaces, auxiliary force and moment generators can be added
to make the aircraft operate unconventionally. Fighter aircraft and some executive
jets may have a number of such devices fitted to make them more agile. These
include:

Foreplanes which can only move together to give pitch control.

Canards, these differ from foreplanes as they can also move independently
giving more response in roll.

Flaperons which are control surfaces that act as flaps and/or ailerons
depending on the pilots selection. They have the ability to move both up and
down independently for roll control, but can also move simultaneously for take
off and landing.

Thrust vectoring, mainly used on combat aircraft, but the advantages gained
with short take off and landing will mean that some form of vectoring system
will be developed for commercial aircraft in the future.

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9.4.3 ADVANTAGES OF ACTIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

The employment of Active Control Technology presents numerous advantages


both for civil and military aircraft, namely:

The aircraft is more stable in flight

The aircraft are highly agile (military only)

A more comfortable flight for passengers

Reduced fatigue on the aircraft, therefore lighter construction can be utilised

Lighter construction gives better fuel consumption

Varying lift profiles means wings can be more streamlined (less drag)

It is impossible for the aircraft to be flown beyond its design limitations under
normal conditions!

Conventional aircraft have four forces providing control and movement

Rolling moment

Pitching moment

Yawing moment

Thrust (Drag modulation)

The use of ACT can provide two more additional forces of control and movement:

Direct lift force

Direct side force

9.4.4 DIRECT LIFT FORCE

In order to change altitude a pilot must pitch the nose of the aircraft up, which
may cause him to lose sight of his destination (the runway). Using ACT, the pilot
can change altitude by causing the foreplanes and flaperons to operate together
increasing the lift on the front and rear of the aircraft simultaneously. This is
known as the direct lift force

9.4.5 DIRECT SIDE FORCE

The pilot, conventionally, must roll the aircraft to change its flight path in a
sideways plane. ACT allows the aircraft to side step during normal flight by
deploying the rudder and the canards together to pull the nose and tail of the
aircraft across in the same direction. This is known as the direct side force.
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9.5 HIGH LIFT DEVICES


9.5.1 FLAPS

These devices have two primary aims, to provide extra lift during take-off and to
provide greater lift as well as high drag during landing. The types of flap used
on different aircraft depends on the type of aircraft, the method of aircraft
operation and other variables. For example, a single engined light aircraft might
only have some form of simple trailing edge flap, whilst a large airliner like the
Boeing 777 has complex, triple slotted flaps.

Types of Flap System


Figure 12
Flaps are fitted to most aircraft and are usually one of the types shown, together
with the maximum increases of lift over the 'clean' configuration. As the
complexity increases to improve performance, there is a proportional increase in
weight, maintenance and cost.

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Whilst the term 'flaps' is used, it is taken as meaning trailing edge flaps, and the
term 'leading edge flaps 'refers to those fitted to the leading edges of the wings of
most large aircraft.
The methods of operation of flaps, are numerous. They can vary from simple,
mechanical push rods or cables actuated, via a lever in the cockpit, by the pilot,
to complicated, multiple flaps that are electrically selected on the flight deck and
hydraulically or electrically powered.
Most flap systems have a number of positions, which can be selected at various
times. As an example, five positions could be as follows;
00 - flaps up
80 - take-off, first position

250 - landing, first position


400 - landing, second position

150 - take-off, second position


These would all be selected by movement of a lever in the cockpit, which will
have 'detents' at the various positions. This movement will, as can be seen in the
illustration, be transferred to the control valve and on to the motor, which moves
the actuators.

Flap Mechanism
Figure 13

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Other high lift devices can be found on the leading edges of the wings and
include slats, drooped leading edges and Krueger flaps. All of these devices
are aimed at smoothing the airflow over the leading edges of the wings when they
are at a high angle of attack, thereby maintaining, or increasing lift when the wing
would normally be stalled.
9.5.2 SLATS

Slats are separate small aerofoils, which can be fixed or retractable. Their
purpose is to control the air passing over the top of the wing at slow speeds. On
larger aircraft, the retractable slats have their extension interconnected with the
trailing edge flaps.

This can be seen in the illustration,


which not only shows the operation
of the slats through three different
positions, 'stowed', 'active' and
'open', but their association with the
four positions of the trailing edge
flaps.
Fixed slats are usually found on
light aircraft, where the
complications of weight, cost etc,
can be balanced by the limitation of
slightly higher drag than a 'clean'
wing.

Leading and Trailing Edge Flap Settings


Figure 14

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9.5.3 DROOPED LEADING EDGES

Drooped leading edges are a different design, but are aiming at the same effect,
that of smoothing the air over the top of the wing. They operate in much the same
way as most high lift devices, by screw jack operation with the motive power for
the jacks coming from the hydraulic system.
9.5.4 KRUEGER FLAPS

Krueger flaps are, again, a different design for the same effect. These are
usually found fitted to the leading edges of the wing at the inboard sections
where the effect of 'slats' or 'drooped leading edges' are not as efficient.

Figure 15
Krueger (left) and Drooped (right) Leading Edge Flaps

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9.6 LIFT DUMP AND SPEED BRAKES


9.6.1 LIFT DUMPERS

These devices are used to spoil lift from the wing after touchdown. This ensures
that the aircraft's weight is fully on its landing gear, which enables the brakes to
work at 100% for the full landing run. If this did not happen, the aircraft would
tend to 'float' or bounce at touchdown, making the brakes inefficient and the risk
of skidding much greater.
Lift dumpers are nearly always flat, rectangular panels, hinged at their leading
edge and powered by hydraulics. They can usually be found on the top of the
wing, and located about the maximum thickness, where their deployment would
destroy the maximum lift from the wing.
To ensure that they deploy at the correct time and also without the need for the
pilot to select them, at a very busy time, there is a simple system to deploy them
automatically. A set of switches are fitted to the landing gear which 'make' and
indicate weight-on-wheels to several systems, once the aircraft is completely on
the ground. By giving the pilot a "lift dumper arming" button, he can arm the
system, in flight, and know that it will deploy the lift dumpers at the correct time.
9.6.2 SPEED BRAKES

The use of speed brakes is similar regardless of the aircraft type. If the aircraft is
a sailplane it is so streamlined that it requires high drag when descending and
landing in unprepared fields. A large 400 seat airliner needs to be able to follow
Air Traffic Control instructions to descend and maintain certain speeds and a
military jet fighter needs to have very high drag on approach, permitting the
engines to accelerate quickly if the landing is aborted.
All types of speed brake use a variation of the same principle, to put panels of
varying shapes into the airflow, to increase the drag. Some are able to modulate,
(vary the amount of drag to suit the situation), whilst others are just 'IN' or 'OUT'.
Some airliners use the same surfaces on the top of the wing to carry out more
than one operation, such as speed brakes when in flight and needing drag; roll
control to augment (or replace) ailerons; or as lift dumpers to be used after
landing.

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Light aircraft rarely need speed brakes because of their generally high drag
designs. A reduction in power will produce a satisfactory slowing down of the
aircraft. Streamlined sailplanes, however, usually have vertical panels that
project from the wing, top and bottom, which produce large amounts of drag,
enabling steep, slow and safe approaches when landing.
Military jets have a different need for drag, not only as mentioned during the
approach to landing, but during combat and other operations where fast
application of drag with a quick reduction in speed can have a life saving effect.

Speed Brake Installation


Figure 16

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SYSTEM OPERATION

9.7.1 MANUAL OPERATION


9.7.2 POWERED FLIGHT CONTROLS (P.F.C.US)

In large modern aircraft that fly at high speeds, the air loads on the flying control
surfaces far exceed the ability of the pilot to move them manually. To overcome
this problem hydraulic pressure is used to move the control surfaces, a
POWERED FLYING CONTROL UNIT or BOOSTER being used to convert
hydraulic pressure into a force exerted on the control surface.
In its simplest form, a P.F.C.U. consists of a hydraulic jack, the body of which is
fixed to the aircraft structure and the ram, via a linkage to the control surface.
To control the P.F.C.U. a servo valve (control valve) is mounted on the jack. The
servo valve, which is connected to the pilot's controls by a system of cables
and/or pushrods, called the input system, directs fluid to either side of the jack
piston and directs the fluid from the other side to return. This flow of fluid will
displace the jack ram and as this is connected to the control surface via an output
system of pushrods or cables, the control surface is moved.

Figure. 17

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9.7.3 PROPORTIONALITY

To make the controls "proportional" (i.e. the degree of movement of the jack-ram
and hence the control surface, should be proportional to the degree of movement
of the pilot's controls), a "follow-up linkage" is used. This linkage connects the
input system, through a series of levers to the output system in such a way that
the movement of the output system (jack ram) tends to cancel the input once the
desired position is reached and so output movement ceases. In effect the
movement of the jack ram is always trying to re-centre the servo valve and stop
fluid flow in the jack.

9.7.4 REDUNDANCY OF HYDRAULIC SUPPLIES

Hydraulically powered flight control units usually derive their hydraulic power from
the aircraft hydraulic system. If a PFCU obtained hydraulic power from only one
hydraulic supply, a failure of that hydraulic supply due to an engine shut down,
loss of fluid due to a leak, or failure of a hydraulic pump. The result would be loss
of powered control of the aircraft. The probability of hydraulic failure is too great
to allow a system to rely on one hydraulic supply, so redundancy must be
introduced into the flight control system.
As in the previous notes on hydraulic systems, modern large multi-engine aircraft
are arranged such that the engine driven pumps (and the other types of pumps)
supply two or more independent hydraulic power supply systems.
The following are methods that use that arrangement of hydraulic redundancy to
allow failure of one hydraulic supply and still maintain control of the aircraft.

9.7.5 TANDEM PFCU

These are similar to the arrangement shown. They consist of a single jack ram
but with two pistons. These pistons are housed in two co-axial cylinders each of
which receives pressure fluid from separate power supply circuits via their own
duplicated servo valves. The servo valves, which are controlled by the same input
system, are carefully set up in the overhaul workshop to ensure they work in
unison. This prevents the two hydraulic pistons working against each other. With
this arrangement a loss of one hydraulic supply will allow the relevant piston to
"free stroke whilst the other piston operates the control surface.

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TANDEM ACTUATOR
Figure 18

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9.7.6 DUAL ASSEMBLY PFCUS

These are similar to the tandem arrangement but two piston rams are located in
cylinders mounted side by side with the piston rams connected to a common
output lever that transmits the movement to the control surface. The
arrangement for the input system, the duplicated servo valves and hydraulic fluid
supplies are the same.

Dual Assembly PFCU


FIGURE 19
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9.7.7 DUPLICATE/TRIPLICATE PFCU'S

In this arrangement each control surface is operated by two or three separate


PFCU'S. For hydraulic redundancy, each PFCU is powered from separate
hydraulic supply circuits. If one supply system should fail, or if one PFCU should
malfunction the effected PFCU can be switched off. In this event a bypass valve
within the PFCU will open interconnecting both sides of the jack ram. Therefore,
as the pilot moves the input and operates the serviceable PFCU'S, the control
surface will move and, "drag" the unserviceable PFCU ram with it. The open
bypass valve will allow fluid to transfer from one side of the ram to the other as
the PFCU "free strokes". Thus control will be maintained by the serviceable
PFCU's driving the control surface, and a hydraulic lock in the unserviceable
PFCU is prevented.
In this arrangement each control surface (rudder is shown in the diagram) is split
into two or three independent sections. Each section is operated by its own
PFCU. For hydraulic redundancy, each PFCU is powered from separate
hydraulic supply circuits. If one supply system should fail, or if one PFCU should
malfunction the effected PFCU can be switched of. In this event the PFCU and
its control surface segment will be "blown back" to the neutral position by
aerodynamic loads and held by a lock. Thus control will be maintained by the
serviceable PFCU's driving their respective segments of control surface.
All PFCU's are controlled via a single input system to a common input lever
connected to all PFCU servo valves. Therefore if one PFCU malfunctioned it
could prevent the operation of the remaining serviceable PFCU'S. To prevent
this the input to the servo valves from the common input lever is via compressible
spring struts or spring boxes. In normal operation these spring struts/boxes resist
compression and allow full control of all PFCU'S. If a PFCU is unserviceable,
pilots input will compress the spring strut to that PFCU but the remaining spring
struts/boxes will resist compression and operate the PFCU servo valves normally.

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9.7.8

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SYSTEMS

DUPLICATED CONTROL SURFACES

9.1.4

Duplicated Control Surfaces


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Figure 20

9.7.8 SELF CONTAINED PFCU

A self contained PFCU consists of a jack-ram powered by its own dedicated


integrally mounted hydraulic generator" and hydraulic reservoir. The generator
is a radial piston pump arrangement within a slip ring assembly. The slip ring
position is control ' led by a servo valve piston arrangement. With the slip ring
held concentric with the piston bank no movement of the pistons within the
rotating piston bank is allowed and no fluid flow will result. If an input moves the
slip ring the rotating bank of pistons will be allowed to "stroke" and a flow to the
PFCU piston will occur and the PFCU ram will move. Movement of the slip ring in
the opposite direction will cause fluid flow to the other side of the piston and the
ram will move in the other direction. The piston bank is rotated by a drive from a
3-phase electric motor, which derives its supply from the aircraft electrical
system.
To maintain redundancy this type of PFCU will be duplicated and each may drive
a duplicate and independent (split) control surface as above. As its source of
power is electrical, it is independent of the aircrafts hydraulic system, therefore
even with total hydraulic failure, control can still be maintained. On malfunction of
a PFCU, or loss of electric power to that PFCU, it will lose hydraulic pressure and
"blow back" to a neutral position where an integral lock will hold it. In this event
further inputs to the servo valves are absorbed by spring-strut that allows
unhindered operation of the remaining PFCU'S.
To give redundancy of electrical power supply, each PFCU in a "set" (i.e. rudder)
gets its power supply from a different bus bar.

9.7.9 INPUT SYSTEMS

Generally the input system of the powered flying control system is mainly a cable
system with the related quadrants, pulleys and fairleads with the connections to
the control column and the PFCU input lever by push rods. To guard against loss
of control due to cable breaks the cable system is duplicated. All duplicated runs
are routed separately through the aircraft to avoid one incident damaging both
control runs. The cable systems meet at a common input lever to the PFCU'S.

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Input Systems
Figure 21
9.7.10 HIGH SPEED PRIMARY CONTROLS

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Primary controls are designed to give adequate control in all flight phases. The
flight phase at which the control surfaces are least effective is during low speeds
(landing). This is because of the reduced aerodynamic effect with low speed.
This means that the size and range of movement of each control surface must be
sufficient to maintain sufficient control authority. With the control system designed
to give efficient control at low speed, there may be a problem at high speed. This
is that at high speeds the increased air-loads on the control surfaces will cause
them to be too sensitive producing over control and possible loss of control or
over-stressing of the airframe. To prevent this two systems may possibly be
used.

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Geared Controls
In this system a single acting hydraulic jack may be fitted to an idler lever. The
control rod is attached to this jack so that the radius of operation can be altered.
Thus for a given angular movement of the idler lever, if the length of the jack is
shortened, the linear movement of the control rod is reduced. This will maintain a
constant range of movement at the pilots controls but reduce the range of
movement of the control surface. Pressure at the jack is usually controlled by a
pressure-modulating valve sensitive to a pressure transducer in the pitot system.
High Speed Control Surfaces (ailerons)
Normal, "low speed" ailerons are situated at the usual wing tips position to gain
maximum authority due to the moment arm produced. But again at high speed
their authority may be too great. In this system an additional set of "high speed"
ailerons is also fitted at the wing root. Hydraulic isolate valves are incorporated in
the control system such that at low speed the outer ailerons are functional, but at
high speed, their hydraulic power is cut off and the high speed ailerons are
powered to maintain roll control. The isolate valves are again controlled by
pressure switches in the pitot system.
9.8 TRAILING EDGE FLAP CONTROLS
On small aircraft the flaps are operated using hydraulic jacks to operate a single
flap on each mainplane. This arrangement is not suitable for use on larger
aircraft due to the size of the airframe that requires that the flaps are
manufactured and mounted in "segments" along the trailing edge.

9.8.1 FLAP CONTROL UTILISING LINEAR HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS

The following system that may be regarded as a simple system, similarly uses
linear hydraulic actuators for an aircraft that has three flap segments on each
mainplane each positioned by a separate hydraulic actuator.
Movement of each actuator is controlled by a servo valve (simiIar to that in a
primary flight control unit). Control is by flap lever/quadrant on the centre
console. This is connected to the actuator servo valves by a duplicated system of
control cables and pushrods.

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9.8.2 GENERAL

The flap surfaces are operated through linkages by hydraulic actuators. The
actuators respond simultaneously to the control-cable-relayed demands of a
selector lever mounted on the flight compartment centre console.
The piston rod end of each actuator is structurally anchored; movement being
confined to the unit body. A position control element (servo-valve) incorporated
in the body is controlled by an attached operating lever that has limited travel on
each side of the neutral position. The lever is moved towards or away from the
anchored piston rod end to retract or extend the actuator. Each actuator
incorporates internal restrictors that control the rate of response and an internal
mechanical lock that engages when the flaps are fully up. The lock is
hydraulically released when a down selection is made.
The control system consists of a duplicated input circuit, which through the
medium of a spring strut, signals all six actuators. Beyond the spring strut the
signal to the inner flap actuators is conveyed by a rod and lever system and to
the mid and outer flap actuators by interconnected signalling cables.
The purpose of the spring strut is to "store" control lever movement due to the
actuators' restricted rate of travel.
The adjacent ends of the mid and outer flap surfaces are connected by a link that
allows sufficient free movement to accommodate normal variations of relative
positions without the links being loaded. The links are incorporated as a safety
feature and take effect to prevent an asymmetric flap condition.
The flap selector lever is afforded the following gated positions - 0, 5, 15 and
30.

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9.8.3 HYDRAULIC POWER

Hydraulic power for operation of the actuators is provided by main system


pressure backed up by flap accumulator pressure, when the flight compartment
selector lever is at any position other than fully up (0). The accumulator-stored
pressure is released to the flap system when a solenoid valve is energised open
via a micro-switch operated by the selector lever. The 'back-up' pressure is
introduced downstream of a non-return valve in the main system pressure line;
thus maintenance of a selected down position is assumed, for a limited period in
the event of a main system failure.

Flap System Hydraulics


Figure 22
9.8.4 CONTROL INPUT CIRCUIT

From the flap selector lever on the centre console, the duplicated input cables are
routed aft through the roof structure to a position immediately aft of the rear spar.
At this point, the cables are directed through the roof skin terminating with a
double quadrant assembly. A double acting spring strut is connected between an
output lever on the quadrant and a series of levers and control rods. These:
Operate the position control elements (servo valves) on the inner flap
actuators and transmit actuator movement to the inner flap surfaces.
Provide an input to the left and right mid and out flap signalling circuits.
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The spring strut is incorporated to allow a selection to be made in one quick


movement - the total input motion being absorbed by the spring strut and
progressively released as all six actuators respond at their controlled rate
of travel.
Each of the left and right mid and outer flap signalling circuits consists of a pulley
drum from which cables are routed outboard to quadrant assemblies at the mid
and outer flap positions. Output levers on these quadrants are linked by control
rods to the position control element (servo-valve) operating levers in the
appropriate actuator package assemblies.
The left and right pulley drums are interconnected by two tie-rods to ensure
symmetrical operation of the left and right wing flaps.

Flap Control Input Circuit


Figure 23
9.8.5 SYSTEM OPERATION

Immediately a selection is made the total input motion is absorbed by the spring
strut and progressively released as all six actuators respond at their limited rate
of travel. When the spring strut returns to its pre-selection settled length - the rod
that connects to the position control element-operating lever on each actuator
arrests. The actuators will then marginally run on until their now restrained
element operating levers reach neutral positions. This simultaneously creates a
hydraulic lock at all six actuators and hence arrests the surfaces in alignment at
the selected position.
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9.8.6 SAFETY ASPECTS

Two main safety requirements must be met.


1. One is that a control cable break will not mean loss of control of the flaps.

System integrity is such that duplication of the input cables which allows for
functioning in the event of loss of either circuit) will maintain control.
2. The other is that an asymmetric deployment of the flaps is prevented. An

asymmetric condition could happen in several ways and the following


mechanisms are designed to prevent these.
A. Controls jamming between an actuator and surface (input systems
intact):Should this occur during a programmed selection, the input system of the
relevant actuator will arrest and in consequence will stop signalling of the
remaining actuators which will then run on marginally until their now restrained
servo valve operating levers reach neutral positions - thus arresting all six
surfaces in approximate alignment.
B.

Mechanical failure between an actuator and surface (which will not


impede surface movement):-

Should this occur at either of the inner flaps - the system will remain functional
(full asymmetry between inner flaps can be adequately countered by aileron
action).
Should this occur at a mid or outer flap - the link which interconnects the adjacent
ends of these surfaces will take effect to allow full functioning of both surfaces
from one actuator. Thus preventing an asymmetric condition that would be
beyond the ailerons ability to counter.
C. Loss of signalling (cable break) to a mid or outer flap actuator.
Should loss of signalling to a mid or outer flap actuator occur and the 'free'
actuator become hydraulically locked at any stage during a programmed
operation - the interconnecting link will arrest the adjacent functional actuator and
thus its intact signalling system. This will have the effect of simultaneously
arresting the interconnected input circuits of the remaining actuators that then run
on marginally, until their now restrained servo valve operating levers reach
neutral positions - thus arresting all six surfaces in approximate alignment. The
actuator arrested by the link will remain programmed to achieve intended travel in
opposition to the locked adjacent surface. For this reason and to prevent
excessive structural overloading - the actuators incorporate internal relief valves.
D. Loss of main system pressure

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Main system pressure is augmented by flap accumulator stored pressure via a


solenoid valve when the FLAPS selector lever on the flight compartment centre
console is at any position other than fully up (0'). The 'back up' pressure is
introduced down-stream of a non return valve in the main system pressure line;
thus maintenance of a selected down position is assured for a limited period in
the event of a main system failure.

9.8.7 POSITION INDICATION

Flap position is indicated on a twin pointer scale calibrated to 0', 5', 15' and 30'
settings. The flap position is signalled by two transmitters that are driven from the
flap hinge arms via control rods.

9.8.8 FLAP SYSTEM - HYDRAULIC MOTORS AND TORQUE TUBE DRIVE

On large aircraft it is more common for the flaps to be driven by twin hydraulic
motors, each motor deriving its hydraulic supply from a different hydraulic system.
Each motor is mounted on the same gearbox, such that drive from either or both
motors will drive the gearbox.
The gearbox is commonly located in the main gear bay. The drive is transmitted
to the flap surfaces by a system of torque tubes, gearboxes and screw jacks. The
screw jacks drive trolley assemblies along flap tracks mounted to the wing
structure via support units. The flap segments are mounted onto the trolleys.
System Description
The flap system of each side of the aircraft comprises of flap sections supported
and moved by six support/operating units. (Flap Tracks) The flaps are manually
controlled by a lever on the central console to UP (0), take off (20), approach
(35) and landing (45) positions. This manual control operates independent
Electro/hydraulic systems A and B, employed simultaneously to power the drive
unit (gearbox) and their supplies are drawn from the aircraft electric and hydraulic
systems bearing the same suffix letter.
Both systems normally operate together, but should a hydraulic system fail, or a fault
develop which necessitates selection of ISOLATE on one system, the flaps travel only at
half rate due to the design of the drive unit.

a. Drive Unit
The drive unit, comprises a gearbox and selector drum assembly, powered by two
hydraulic motors. It rotates a torque shaft system that operates screw jack and trolley
mechanisms at each support/operating unit.

The drive unit is mounted to the rear of the wing rear spar member in the left
main landing gear bay. It is powered by two hydraulic motor/lock valve
assemblies; one supplied from hydraulic system A and the other from system B.
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The motors drive a main shaft through a differential gear and a spur wheel
reduction gearing. A gear driven selector drum operates micro-switches to arrest
the flaps when they reach the selected position.
b. Flap Transmission System
Torque shafts extend outboard in each wing from either end of the drive unit main
shaft. The sections of torque shaft couple via universal joints and serrated sleeve
joints to bevel gearboxes and to intermediate bevel gearboxes. The bevel
gearboxes and intermediate gearboxes are connected by serrated sleeve joints
and universal joints to screw shaft assemblies located at each support unit. Flap
trolleys fitted to each screw shaft engage via their rollers with trolley tracks fitted
to the support units. These trolleys support the flap sections.
The flaps are hinged by pins to lugs on the flap trolleys. A torque link pivoted to
each flap section carries a forward flap trolley, the rollers of which engage with
the cam track on the support unit.
c. Hydraulic System
For redundancy the flaps are supplied by two independent hydraulic systems,
which are identical. The following therefore describes one system only.
Hydraulic pressure is supplied to the flap selector valve via a flow control valve
and isolating valve.
Movement of the flap selector lever energises the appropriate solenoid selector
valve to allow pressurised fluid to pass to the hydraulic motor through the lock
valve. Return fluid from the hydraulic motor passes through the lock valve and
flap selector valve back to the main system. The flow control valve controls the
rate at which the flaps move. A throttle valve slows down the flaps at all selected
positions.
When the flaps reach the selected position the selector valve solenoid is deenergised, through the operation of the selector drum micro switches. The
pressurised fluid is held at the selector valve and the two service lines from the
lock valve are connected together and into return. The lock valve prevents the
hydraulic motor from rotating.
d. Flap Control
Each separate flap operating hydraulic circuit is controlled by a separate 28 volt
D.C. electrical system. Each supply is derived from a separate D.C. Bus Bar.
Each system is controlled by three micro-switches operated by control lever
movement, these provide a circuit to the selector valve solenoids via six microswitches operated by the drive unit selector drum.
Cams on the outer periphery of the selector drum operate one switch at both the
normal, up and down limit positions of the flaps and two switches at the take-off
(20') and approach (35') positions.
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Flap control unit


Figure 24
e. Over-Run Protection
If the micro-switches in the drive unit selector drum should malfunction
there is a probability that structural damage may occur as the flap trolleys
reach the end of travel on their screw jacks. If a malfunction should
happen, a set of over-run micro-switches mounted on the flap support
units, will be operated to interrupt the supply to the selector valve solenoid
and prevent the trolleys bottoming on their screw jacks. These microswitches are part of the complete control circuit and are operated by
strikers on the flap support trolleys.
f. Asymmetry Protection
If a malfunction should occur in the flap transmission system causing one part to
seize, great damage could occur as the drive system attempted to drive the flaps
to their selected position. To prevent this, weak "fail safe" joints are incorporated
in various torque tubes that are designed to fail under a certain load.

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However, this will allow the damaged portion of the system to stop and the
remainder to continue travelling, so producing an asymmetric flap condition. To
prevent this an asymmetry protection circuit is incorporated in the control system.
This system uses an A.C. electrical supply and is controlled by four synchro's
which are small devices mounted on and driven by screw shafts in board and out
board of the flap systems. These are paired, and as they rotate send an
alternating signal to an asymmetry control box. If the signals become out of
phase with each other the over-travel/ asymmetry isolate relay will be energised
to lockout the system.
g. Position Indication
Flap position indication is provided by a D.C. ratio meter indicating system
comprising two transmitters, driven from the outboard end of the left and right
torque shaft systems and dual indicators positioned on the centre in the flight
deck.

9.8.9 MAINTENANCE OF FLAP SYSTEMS

Because of the exposed position of most flap system components regular


lubrication of hinge bolts, screw jacks, trolleys etc is required. When carrying out
this task all excess grease must be removed to prevent the accumulation of dirt
or grit that may enter bearings etc.
Rigging
The flap operating system is a large complex system which will only work if all
parts are in their correct relative positions at all times. To ensure this, whenever
the system is disturbed by a maintenance task it must be checked or re-rigged.
Provision is built into the system for this.
9.9 LEADING EDGE FLAP CONTROLS
The following notes describe a typical leading edge flap control system (Boeing
747). There are two modes of operation, primary and alternate. The normal
method of operation is by use of the primary mode and is initiated by use of the
flap lever to a selected detent.
On the Boeing 747 there are 28 leading edge flaps, they in turn are divided in two
categories, variable camber (22) off, Kruger (6) off.
Four pneumatic power units in each wing move the flaps up or down, (extend) or
(retract). Air is supplied to the power units from ducts in the leading edge of the
wing. The ducts also supply air to jets that spray the outboard drive units with hot
air for anti icing. Each drive unit assembly has two motors, one pneumatic and
one electrically powered. Torque developed by the drive units is supplied to rotary
actuators. The actuators move the flaps.

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Normal operation is achieved by operation of the flap control lever. Three rotary
variable differential transducers (RVDTs) sense movement and signal the Flap
Control Unit (FCU), which control the direction control motors. If pneumatic power
is not available the FCU will switch to electric drive motor operation.

Figure 25

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L/E Flap System Components


Figure 26

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Figure 27

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9.9.1 LEADING EDGE FLAP PNEUMATIC DRIVE UNIT

Purpose
Eight pneumatic drive units (PDU) power the LE flap system. Each power drive
unit has both a pneumatic and an electric drive motor. The pneumatic motor is
the primary drive source and is powered by the leading edge pneumatic manifold.
The electric motor is an additional drive source for use when the pneumatic
system is not available.
Leading Edge Flap Drive Unit- operation
a. Pneumatic Drive
The flap lever is used to command FCU operation. The flap control unit signal is
passed to the directional control motor and the shutoff valve. Pneumatic
pressure flows from the inlet duct through the alternate valve (normally open) to
the shutoff valve. The shutoff valve (normally closed) opens to pressurise the
regulator and the air Motor brake. Pneumatic pressure at the regulator opens the
butterfly valve and regulates the pressure to the control valve. Pneumatic
pressure at the air motor brake releases the brake. The direction and speed
difference between the direction control motor and the output shaft follow-up gear
is sensed by the differential. The differential uses the speed differences to
position the control valve and maintain PDU speed. Travel limits are governed by
the primary position controller. This translates the amount of distance that the nut
travels. When the translating nut reaches its travel limit it stops the direction
control motor rotation that, in turn, stops PDU operation.
b. Electric Drive
The signal to activate the electric drive motor closes the alternate solenoid valve.
The electric motor brake then releases the electric motor drive. The pneumatic
brake holds the sun gear of the planetary gearbox at the air motor output shaft.
The electric motor drives the output shaft through the ring gear of the planetary
gear reduction. When the translating nut in the alternate position controller
reaches the end of its travel it opens the electric motor limit switches. The
alternate controller position switches control the electric motor shutdown in both
primary and alternate control modes.

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Operating Times
The approximate leading edge flap extension or retraction times are:

Pneumatic operation: 9 seconds

Electric operation: 90 seconds

Electric Drive. Motor Control


Primary Mode: in the primary mode the FCU controls the LE flap operation. If the
pneumatic drive motor is not available the FCU will select the electric drive motor.
The alternate controller provides signals to the FCUs for control, monitoring, and
indication functions.
Alternate Mode: in alternate mode the electric drive motor is the only method of
moving the flaps. The alternate arming switch arms the system. Flap operation
is commanded by using the rotary alternate control switch located on P-2 in the
flight deck.

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Figure 28

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9.9.2 KRUEGER FLAP DRIVE COMPONENTS

Purpose/Location
The Krueger flaps modify the configuration of the inboard portion of the wing
leading edge to increase low speed lift. There are three Krueger type LE flaps
installed on each wing inboard of the inboard engines (flaps 11 through 16).

Figure. 29
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9.10 SPEED BRAKE/GROUND SPOILER CONTROL


Spoilers will normally be controlled by the pilot through the normal roll controls or
by the automatic flight control system (auto-pilot). They may also be operated
automatically as part of an automatic landing system. On a typical aircraft (Boeing
757) the spoilers are electrically controlled and hydraulically powered.

Figure 30
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9.10.1 OPERATION

Rotary variable differential transducers (RVDTs) convert control wheel inputs into
electrical signals. Spoiler control modules receive the signals and command the
Power Control Actuators (PCAs) to raise the spoilers. Placing the speed-brake
lever in the UP position will raise all flight spoilers.

Figure 31

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Three RVDTs are grouped together in a can-like unit, mounted on the bottom of
each control unit assembly. The RVDTs convert aileron control wheel rotation
into a signal voltage proportional to the control wheel movement.
The Spoiler Control Modules mix RVDT inputs with other inputs according to a
programmed logic. Six SCMs control the 12 spoiler surfaces.
Power Control Actuators operate the spoilers. Each spoiler has one PCA,
powered by one of three hydraulic systems. Each PCA consists of a hydraulic
actuator, an electro-hydraulic servo valve (EHSV) and a Rotary variable
differential transformer (RVDT). The PCA extends or retracts as commanded to
raise or lower the spoiler. The RVDT sends a feedback signal to the SCM
proportional to the amount of surface deflection.
Electro-hydraulic Servo valves controls the flow of hydraulic fluid in the PVA in
response to the SCM commands. The command operates a jet pipe that supplies
hydraulic fluid to the EHSV control bobbin. The EHSV is spring loaded to the
retract position, so the spoiler panel will retract if there is no command signal.

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Spoiler Electro Hydraulic Servo Valve


Figure 32

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9.11 MECHANICAL & ELECTRICAL FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM


9.11.1 MECHANICAL CONTROLS

Most aircraft use conventional mechanical controls to move the flight controls.
These will normally consist of cables, chains and control tubes. Many examples
of this type of system have been described and illustrated previously. The
ailerons and elevators on this type of system would normally be operated by a
conventional control column and control wheel. Operation of this is instinctive to
the pilot, the control wheel being rotated to the left to bank left and right to bank
right. Pushing the control column forwards causes the aircraft to dive and pulling
back causes the aircraft to climb. A typical control wheel and other cockpit
controls is illustrated.

Figure 33
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9.11.2 ELECTRICAL FLIGHT CONTROLS

Many modern aircraft use electrical inputs to the powered control units. This
eliminates the need for mechanical controls and all of the chains, pulleys,
fairleads and linkages associated with this type of system. This topic is covered
in more detail in the Fly By Wire section, but the following paragraphs illustrate a
typical Airbus system.
The electrical flight control computers are designed to ensure a high degree of
safety. This is accomplished by using a high level of redundancy which consists
of five EFCS computers installed in the aircraft, the use of dissimilar redundancy
which consists of two types of computers with each being capable of achieving
pitch and roll control along with other redundant features assuring aircraft control.
Each computer is also composed of one control unit and one monitoring unit.
Control and monitoring software are different and the control and monitoring units
are physically separated.
Monitoring
In each computer, one monitoring channel is associated to a control channel by
use of self- monitored channels. Each computer is able to detect its own failures
(microprocessor test, electrical power monitoring, input and output test). Input
monitoring by comparison of signals of the same type, but sent by different
sources, and checking of the signal coherence along with permanent cross talk
between associated control and monitoring channels, consolidate and validate
information received. This allows permanent monitoring of each channel by its
associated one. Automatic test sequences can be performed on the ground
when electric and hydraulic power is applied (no surface deflection during test).
Side-stick Controller
The side-stick controllers are used for pitch and roll manual control and are
shown below. The side-stick controllers are installed on the captains and first
officer's forward lateral consoles. An adjustable arm-rest is fitted on each seat to
facilitate the side-stick control. The side-stick controllers are electrically coupled.

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Figure 34
In the case of one pilot wanting to take control of the aircraft (priority), the
autopilot instinctive disconnect button is used to signal the priority system. A
visual indication is given to the pilots to indicate left or right side-stick priority. In
autopilot operation the side-stick controllers remain In neutral position.
The autopilot function can be overridden by the pilots and the autopilot then
disengages.
Control Laws
Normal control laws selected for A320 pitch and lateral control are manoeuvre
command laws with normal acceleration and roll rates used as basic parameters.
Inside the normal flight envelope, the main features are a neutral static stability,
short term attitude stability, along with automatic longitudinal trimming.

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The flight characteristics that can be controlled are:

the automatic elevator in a turn

lateral attitude hold in a turn

dutch roll damping

turn co-ordination

engine failure compensation.

In addition, protections are provided against extreme attitudes (pitch and roll)
excessive load factors, over-speed, and stall.
The load alleviation function (LAF) is accomplished by the electrical flight control
system (EFCS). The LAF is implemented in the elevator and aileron computer
(ELAC) and the spoiler elevator computer (SEC). The control surfaces used are
both ailerons as well as spoilers 4 and 5 (i.e. the outboard pair on both sides) for
up gusts.
There are four specific accelerometers that are installed in the forward fuselage
station to provide the electrical flight control computers with vertical acceleration
values. These sense the up gust and deploy the spoilers to smooth out the
normal result of an up gust of wind as described in the before mentioned
example.
Four hydraulic accumulators are installed to provide the extra hydraulic flow
needed to achieve the surface rates and duration of movement required for load
alleviation as illustrated below.

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9.12

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AERODYNAMICS,
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Q FEEL, YAW DAMPER, MACH TRIM, RUDDER LIMITER, GUST


LOCKS

9.12.1 ARTIFICIAL FEEL

9.12.1.1

Q Feel System Principles

'Q' feel is an artificial force felt at the control column, which increases as the
aerodynamic pressure (Q) at the control surface increases.
Aerodynamic pressure conforms to the relationship Q = pv2,. Where p is air
density, and v is the velocity of air flow.
Thus, a 'Q' feel system has to simulate the actual control surface loading lost with
the use of powered controls; preventing the pilot damaging the aircraft by pulling
excessive 'g' loads.
Artificial 'Q' feel" units have to increase the control column centralizing force, in
proportion to the square of the airspeed.
In general, 'Q' feel systems can be either mechanically or hydraulically operated.
Typical systems are explained below.

9.12.1.2

Mechanical Q Feel System

Spring feel has the disadvantage of being constant throughout the airspeed
range. However, with this system the effective force provided by the spring
cartridge is adjusted for given airspeeds. This is achieved by moving the fulcrum
point of its bell crank lever. Rather like the study of lever mechanisms, where the
given forces by distances are equal on either side. Thus, we can attain a
mechanical advantage over the spring, increasing or reducing the effective feel
force.

9.12.2 OPERATION

Refer to diagram overleaf:


The slotted bell crank lever has the control rods attached at one end, and the
spring cartridge at the other. As a control surface demand is made, this lever
pivots about the roller, which is attached to the fulcrum arm.
Relative positions of the fulcrum arm determine the amount of feel felt back at the
stick. The fulcrum arm can be repositioned by means of an electrical linear
actuator.
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Should the actuator be extended, the fulcrum arm would be lowered. This gives a
short distance from the roller to the spring, relative to the control rods. Hence,
there is a good mechanical advantage in the mechanism, making it easy to move
the spring cartridge. This would be the configuration for low airspeeds.
As the airspeed of the aircraft increases, the fulcrum arm would move up,
progressively giving more feel to the system.
The linear actuator operates from a closed loop positional servo system. Input is
by means of an airspeed sensor, which converts the pitot/static pressure
differential into an electric signal. Feedback is achieved by means of a follow-up
potentiometer attached to the fulcrum arm.

PITOT/ STATIC
SLOTTED BELLCRANK
LEVER
AIRSPEED

FOLLOW-UP POT

SENSOR
SERVO
AMP

ROLLER

+
_
FULCRUM ARM

LINEAR ELECT
ACTUATOR

SPRING
CARTRIDGE

Mechanical Q Feel System


Figure 36

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9.12.3 HYDRAULIC Q FEEL SYSTEM

NORMAL OPERATION
A hydraulic jack is attached to the control rods adjacent to the control column.
The principle of operation is that the pressure of hydraulic fluid within "this 'Q' feel simulator jack, will be proportional to the amount of force necessary at the
stick, to overcome it. Low pressure produces light feel. High pressure produces
heavy feel.
To provide this pressure differential relative to airspeed a special 'Q' feel unit is
used.
Pitot and static pressure are transmitted to the unit, but are isolated from one
another by a flexible diaphragm. As the airspeed increases the pitot pressure acts
to push the diaphragm down. This action is the resistive force acting against the
upward tendency of the servo valve piston.
Signal pressure is supplied to the 'Q feel jack at differing magnitudes, by the
servo valve. This signal pressure is proportional to the airspeed.
Different pressures are achieved by the action of the servo valve piston acting
against the force created at the diaphragm. At zero airspeed (static) the piston
will be fully up, as there is no pitot pressure resisting it. This will close the valve
pressure inlet and open the signal pressure lines to exhaust (return line). Hence,
no feel simulated.
With an increase in airspeed, there will be a greater force felt on the diaphragm
side of the piston. Therefore, a greater pressure will be required in the signal
pressure lines to close off the servo valve pressure inlet port. Hence, feel is
simulated at the control column, and this builds up in proportion to the square of
the airspeed.

9.12.4 MACH NUMBER CORRECTION

As increased Mach numbers are reached there is a reduction in the effectiveness


of the control surfaces, for a given amount of deflection.
This effect is due to the compressibility of air at supersonic speeds. Therefore, at
such Mach numbers, the feel force has to be reduced accordingly; regardless of
the aircraft speed.
9.12.5 OPERATION

On the Mach number correction side of the unit the diaphragm has differential
areas, upon which pitot and static pressure may act. This is due to the underside
of the capsule reducing the area on the pitot pressure side, but the static
pressure can affect the whole of the diaphragm under-surface.
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Hence, an increased force is felt on the underside of the diaphragm, for relative
pressures on either side. At low and moderate airspeeds this retains the capsule
in the position as shown in the diagram.
As higher Mach numbers are approached, an increase in pitot relative to static
pressure is experienced. This has the effect of pushing the diaphragm down, in
proportion to the Mach number reached. In turn, a linkage has the effect of
pushing up on the servo valve piston against the normal diaphragm. Signal
pressure is subsequently reduced, and there is less centering force at the stick.
The pilot has less feel.
Mach numbers are not always constant for a given airspeed. They change with
the aircraft altitude. To compensate for this effect the capsule is evacuated, and
operates on an aneroid principle.
MACH
CORRECTION
CAPSULE
PITOT

DIAPHRAGM
STATIC
EXHAUST

CONTROL
COLUMN

PRESSURE
INLET

INPUT TO
PFCU

Q FEEL JACK

Hydraulic Q Feel System


Figure 37

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9.13 YAW DAMPING


Yaw damping is provided on some aircraft to improve the directional stability and
turn co-ordination.
When the aircraft yaws due to side air-loads, a hydraulic yaw damper actuator
automatically compensates by generating rudder control inputs. The following
notes describe a typical yaw damper system.
9.13.1 YAW CONTROL

Yaw control is provided by a single piece rudder actuated by three independently


supplied hydraulic servo-jacks. They are signalled via interconnected pedals by
a single cable run up to a spring loaded artificial feel unit connected to the trim
screw-jacks. The commands are transmitted by a single load path linkage fitted
with a centring spring device. This holds the servo-jack inputs in the neutral
position should a disconnect occur. Rudder travel is limited as a function of air
speed (CAS).
Orders are delivered by the flight augmentation computer (FAC) controlling
electric motors coupled to a variable mechanical stop, as illustrated in the picture
below.
Yaw dampening is operative throughout the whole flight envelope. Yaw damper
commands are transmitted via a differential unit. Yaw stability augmentation
orders are delivered by the FACS.

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Artificial feel is provided by a spring rod, the zero force position of which is
controlled by an. electrical trim actuator. An automatic reset function initiated by
pressing the RESET pushbutton allows the rudder trim position to be nulled
through the FACS. Rudder trim position is displayed on an indicator adjacent to
the trim switch.

Figure 38

9.14 MACH TRIM


Modern transport aircraft are designed to cruise at high mach numbers, close to,
or at the speed where shock waves may form on the wing. This is their "critical
mach number". At this aircraft speed the formation of the shock waves causes
shock induced separation and a movement of the centre of pressure forward.
This produces a pitch up which must be countered.
The Mach Trim System is provided to automatically maintain the correct aircraft
pitch trim angle in relation to speed by varying the tail-plane trim. In achieving
this function, the system maintains the same degree of longitudinal stability
throughout the operational speed range of the aircraft.

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Tailplane Operating Mechanism


Figure 39

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9.14.1 TYPICAL SYSTEM

The mach trim system operates within the range from 0.68 IMN (Indicated Mach
Number) to 0.84 IMN when the aircraft is above 9000 ft.
The system operates in passive mode when the aircraft is flown with the autopilot engaged, but becomes active if the autopilot is disengaged.
A mach trim activity light on the pilot's instrument panel flashes intermittently to
indicate that a trimming demand exists. Illumination of the light for a sustained
period indicates a runaway or seized actuator.
A mach trim ON/OFF switch located in the cockpit permits a faulty system to be
isolated.

9.14.2 CONTROLLER

The controller is supplied with height and speed inputs from the aircraft pitot static
system. The inputs are used to generate control signals that determine the
direction and rate of rotation of the mach trim actuator. The controller also
provides the 28 volts DC output to energize the clutch and connect the mach trim
actuator to the tail-plane trim system.

9.14.3 MACH TRIM ACTUATOR

The actuator is located in the centre pedestal in the cockpit, and is connected by
a chain drive to the manual tail-plane trim hand-wheels cross-shaft. A solenoid
operated clutch connects the mach trim actuator to the drive system. The tailplane auto-trim actuator operated by the auto-pilot system is also attached to the
mach trim actuator. The control system ensures that only one actuator can be
engaged at a time.

9.14.4 OPERATION

With the system selected ON and the auto-pilot disengaged, the mach trim
actuator is clutched to the tail trim mechanism as soon as the aircraft power
supplies are switched on.
The system becomes active as soon as the aircraft flies above 9000 ft and its
speed is within the Mach number range 0.68 IMN to 0.84 IMN.
If the manual tail-plane trim hand-wheels are operated, the mach trim actuator is
declutched to permit the tail-plane incidence to be changed and the clutch reengaged when the trim hand-wheels are released.
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Typical Mach Trim System


Figure 40
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9.15 RUDDER LIMITING


At slow speeds the pilot is able to utilise the full movement of the rudder to enable
maximum control of the aircraft during landing and take-off. As airspeed
increases, the same full movement of the control surfaces would have a much
more dramatic aerodynamic effect. Structural damage could occur if the controls
were moved the same amount as at low speed.
The artificial feel systems previously discussed how feel is incorporated into the
controls. Rudder limiting restricts the maximum movement of the rudder as
airspeed increases. Two typical systems are described.

9.15.1 Q LIMITER

The rudder 'Q pot restricts movement as airspeed increases by extending the
stepped stop, which restricts movement of the clawed stop. The clawed stop is
connected by rod to one end of the inner level in the trim unit that restricts the
movement of the input lever.
The stepped stop is extended by operation of the rudder 'Q' pot. The 'Q' pot
assembly comprises a cylinder assembly, a sealed piston bolted to a springloaded piston rod. The sealed piston divides the 'Q' pot into two sealed
chambers No.1 pitot static and No.2 pitot pressure. These chambers are supplied
from the 'Q' pot pitot head located on the lower left-hand nose fuselage.
As pressure from the pitot head rises in chamber No.2, the piston moves,
compressing the spring and extending the piston rod and consequently the
stepped stop into the clawed stop.
A microswitch is mounted on the 'Q' pot and is operated by a cam on the stop in
the extended position.
9.16 GUST LOCKS
The following notes describe a typical aircraft system and refer in some cases to
specific references associated with that system.

9.16.1 DESCRIPTION

The gust lock system is employed to lock the primary control surfaces in the
neutral position for taxiing, parking or mooring the aircraft. The system consists
of forward and aft installations that are electrically connected for operation by a
single lever on the flight compartment centre console.
The forward installation caters for the locking of the aileron and elevator surfaces;
the aft installation, which includes an electrical actuator, locks the rudder.

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Each installation incorporates a weight switch controlled solenoid lock (snib); that
in the forward installation renders it impossible to select controls LOCKED in
flight. The aft snib prevents locking of the rudder should its associated gust lock
actuator be subjected to spurious electrical signals.
When ground selected LOCKED, the control lever, in addition to locking the
primary control surfaces via the mechanisms described in the following
paragraphs, also operates an interlock mechanism; this baulks engine power
lever movement to restrict engine power during taxiing.
Warning of the locked condition is provided by a warning light on panel 1P.

9.16.2 CONTROLS LOCKING MECHANISM (AILERON AND ELEVATOR)

The mechanism, shown in the following diagram, basically consists of two pivoted
locking arms, each of which is provided with an open-ended slot. The aileron and
elevator arms are connected by input springpots to levers fixed to the controls
locking lever shaft.
The controls locking lever handle has two positions:
a. UNLOCKED - forward and
b. LOCKED - aft.
The handle incorporates a spring-loaded push rod that protrudes from the upper
end of the handle as a push-button. The rod is provided with a collar at the lower
end that can engage in either of two locking holes in a structurally anchored
gated bracket on the levers shaft. The locking holes are joined by a slot that
allows the collar to be push-button displaced. The handle is then ground selected
from UNLOCKED to LOCKED and vice-versa.
When selected LOCKED the input springpots load the locking arms against pins
fitted to the aileron and elevator primary bellcranks at the positions shown; this
'arms' the mechanism such that when the associated primary circuit is brought to
its lock position the slot in the related locking arm will 'snap' engage with the lock
pin on the bellcrank. When UNLOCKED is selected, the input springpots will pull
the locking arms clear of the bellcrank - thus freeing the controls.
NOTE:
THE MECHANISM ADDITIONALLY INCORPORATES A 'FAILSAFE' SPRING ASSEMBLY AT
EACH LOCKING ARM; THESE WILL PREVENT THE ARMS FROM ENGAGING WITH THE
BELLCRANKS SHOULD A LINKAGE FAILURE OCCUR WHEN THE CONTROLS ARE SELECTED

UNLOCKED.

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9.16.3 CONTROLS LOCKING MECHANISM (RUDDER)

The rudder gust lock mechanism shown in the following diagram is located in the
upper left side of the rear fuselage.
Basically the mechanism comprises a lock strut that pivots in a limited lateral arc
about its bracket-attached forward end. The aft end of the strut is equipped with
a bayonet fitting, encompassed by a nylon guide block assembly. The bayonet
incorporates an open-ended slot to operationally engage a lock pin in the rudder
control lever assembly. The strut is positioned for lock
engagement/disengagement by a springpot interposed between the bayonet
fitting and an electrical actuator structurally anchored to the fuselage.
The linear actuator, circuit identification WM5, is a split field series wound unit
driven by a bi-directional motor and equipped with internal extend and retract limit
switches. The unit operationally retracts to 'arm' the strut for lock pin
engagement; engagement occurs when the rudder pedals are centralized.
Conversely, the actuator extends to disengage the lock. Disengagement is
assisted by a tension spring.

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Gust Lock Installation


Figure 41
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9.16.4 POWER SUPPLIES

The system power supply is derived from the 28v dc right essential services
busbar. C/B No. 192 (3A) on panel 2D caters for: rudder gust lock actuator
operation, on ground retraction of the solenoid lock snibs and controls locked
warning indication. A paralleled supply for locked warning indication is also taken
from C/B No. 178 (3A) on panel 2D; this is operationally taken via the normally
open contacts of microswitch WM4 when the rudder lock strut is engaged. The
dual supply assures warning integrity should one or other of the two circuit
breakers trip out during a locked condition.

9.16.5 OPERATION

The operation of the gust lock system is essentially as detailed in the preceding
paragraphs, however, some discussion of the electrical aspects of control is
necessary; this follows:
Solenoid locks
The two snib-type solenoid locks are flight de-energized (i.e. snibs extended) by a
weight switch in the right equipment bay of the nose fuselage. In this condition,
the forward unit will baulk a toe' on the control lever; thus preventing lever
movement from the UNLOCKED to the LOCKED position. The rear unit snib will
prevent engagement of the rudder gust lock strut.
When on the ground, 28v dc is made available through the weight switch relay to
energize both solenoids; this withdraws the snibs, thus allowing unimpeded
ground operation of the control lever from UNLOCKED to LOCKED and
engagement of the rudder lock strut.
With the aircraft on-ground and electrical power available (solenoid snibs
retracted) selection of the control lever to LOCKED will cause an adjustable cam
on the levers shaft to connect to pole A of a two-pole microswitch WM2 to the
retract field winding of the actuator. The actuator then retracts to arm the system
for rudder lock engagement; this occurs when the rudder pedals are centralized.
When fully retracted the actuator limit switches changeover in readiness for a
subsequent extend command. An UNLOCK selection similarly causes actuator
extension to disengage in the rudder lock strut.
Controls locked warning
A CONTROL LOCKS warning light (red) on Panel IP will illuminate:
a. if the controls locking lever is out of its UNLOCKED detent or
if the rudder gust lock strut is not in a fully disengaged position.
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9.17 RIGGING AND BALANCING CONTROLS


9.17.1 RIGGING - INTRODUCTION

When applied to control systems the term 'rigging' is used to describe the practice
of truing and checking the system to ensure that the flying controls operate
correctly. The objective of rigging is to have the cockpit control in neutral at the
same time as the control surface is in neutral. Rigging a control system ensures
that:

The pilot's control is in the correct relationship to the relevant control surface.

The control surface moves in the correct sense and to its designed maximum
travel position in either direction.

Friction in the system is within acceptable limits.

The rigging and adjustment of the system is carried out:


a. At specified intervals as laid down in the relevant aircraft servicing publication.
b. After disturbing any part of the control system, including the control system.
9.17.2 CHECKS BEFORE RIGGING

a. Before operating any flying control system in an aircraft, first check that there
are no obstructions that could damage the control surface when it is moved.
It is also important to display warning notices informing personnel of the
possibility of movement of the control surface. Inform personnel working in
the vicinity of a control system when you are about to operate it.
b. In rigging an aircraft control system it is sometimes necessary to level the
aircraft both laterally and longitudinally to put it into the rigging position, as
described. The appropriate aircraft maintenance manual will state on what
occasions, if any, this is necessary.
c. Before starting to rig a flying control system it is advisable to ensure that all
parts of the system and the control surfaces are serviceable. There is little
merit in rigging a control system only to discover, subsequently, that some
parts have to be replaced. Thus cables and tubes should automatically be
examined for wear and corrosion, and other components for freedom of
movement, security of attachment and so on. Replace components as
necessary before continuing.

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9.17.3 RIGGING PROCEDURE


9.17.3.1

Establishing the Neutral Setting

The first action is to set the cockpit control to neutral and to lock it in this position,
using the equipment provided for the particular system. The rest of the control
run is then adjusted to the neutral setting and locked in that position, often by
using rigging pins. Generally speaking, control surfaces are in neutral when they
are in line with the main surface to which they are attached. An exception to this
is where the trailing edge of the aileron is set a specified amount below the
mainplane trailing edge. This setting is known as aileron droop.

9.17.3.2

Rigging Pins

Rigging pins are issued in sets, the type and number depending upon the aircraft
and also upon the specific control run being rigged. The type, number and
positions of rigging pins in the aircraft's system are shown in diagrams of
appropriate aircraft maintenance manual. The first pins, called the No. I or
master pin, is fitted at the cockpit end of the control run and, in conjunction with
the cockpit control neutral setting bar, secures that end of the system in neutral.
Between these two items, there may be an adjustable link that has to be set at
the correct length. By adjusting the control cable and tubes, holes in idler gears
or levers can be made to align with corresponding holes in the airframe structure;
rigging pins are then used to join these two holes, thereby positively locating and
locking the control system in neutral. When all the rigging pins have been fitted in
this way, that particular control run has been adjusted to, and locked in, neutral.
This setting may be checked by using setting gauges.

Figure 42
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The next stage is to remove and then refit each rigging pin in turn to ensure that
this can be done without strain. This indicates that the system has been set up
satisfactorily, and that there is no backlash in the system; this is particularly
important where the system is cable operated. Finally, it is vital to check that the
complete set of rigging pins are removed from the aircraft on completion of the
work.
Note: There have been many accidents or near accidents attributed to failure to
remove rigging pins, or the use of incorrect items to lock controls in neutral.
In one particular incident, a new aircraft was taxiing out from the manufacturer for
delivery to the customer. Whilst carrying out the full and free control test prior to
take off the pilot felt a restriction in the aileron controls. When the aircraft taxied
back to the hangar, a bolt was found inserted in the captains control rigging pin
hole. Obviously someone had used this in preference to the correct rigging pin.
The correct checks had obviously not been carried out and the rigging pin/bolt
not removed. (see diagrams following).

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9.17.4 CONTROL SURFACE SETTING GAUGES

Where control surface setting gauges are provided, they are used to check the
neutral and maximum travel position of controllable aerofoil surfaces. Each
gauge is manufactured for use with one specific surface. The gauge is firmly
attached to a fixed part of the aircraft, next to the movable surface with which it is
associated. With the controls set at neutral, the trailing edge of the control
surface should coincide with the neutral mark on the gauge. Now move the
control surface to the maximum travel position, in either direction, and see if the
trailing edge of the control surface coincides with the appropriate mark on the
gauge. The control surface movement can be quickly and easily adjusted with
the gauge in position by restricting the mechanical stops.
9.17.5 CHECKING FOR SENSE OF MOVEMENT

Having established the neutral position of the control system, the next stage is to
ensure that the control run being rigged operates the control surface in the
correct sense. This is clearly vital; inadvertent cross-over of connections would
reverse the control surface movement with possible disastrous results. The
sense of operation can be readily checked by two tradesmen - one at the control
in the cockpit and the other at the control surface, if you are not sure of the
relationship between control movement and the corresponding control surface
movement.

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Mechanical StopsThe next check


is to ensure that the control surface
moves to its designed maximum
travel position, in both directions,
when moved by the cockpit control.
The maximum travel of a primary
control surface is limited in either
direction by mechanical (limit)
stops. These stops are fitted to
limit the control surface movement
due to excessive travel. In a
manual system, the limit stops are
usually located near the control
surface, and a second pair of
stops, known as 'override stops'
are fitted to limit the pilot's control
movement should the main stop
fail. Override stops are adjusted to
a specified clearance under normal
operating conditions. In powered
control systems, the mechanical
stops are-located on the input
(PFCU); usually they are located
next to the pilot's control in 'the
cockpit, thus limiting the control
system movement from that
position. During the rigging
procedure, the main mechanical
(limit) stops may need to be re-set
to ensure that the control surface
reaches, but does not exceed, its
maximum travel position. The
maximum travel position of a
control surface can be checked in a
variety of ways using the
instruments detailed later.
Figure 44
However, most modern aircraft
use control surface setting gauges for this purpose. We have now rigged the
control system and also checked that it operates in the correct sense; and we
have set the limit stops to give the maximum required travel in both directions.
The next stage is to check the system for resistance to movement from rest and
also the force required to maintain the speed of movement when the control
system is operated.

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9.17.6 CHECKING FOR STATIC AND RUNNING FRICTION

The resistance to movement of a control system may be due to lack of


lubrication, misalignment, or slight faults in bearing surfaces. This resistance can
be measured using a spring balance attached to the cockpit control; an example
of this is shown. The pull on the spring balance is in the direction that the control
would normally move. Note the reading on the spring balance when the control
starts to move from rest. This force is known as the breakout force, and
represents the amount of static friction in the system. Once the control system is
moving, the force required to keep it moving is less than the breakout force. The
spring balance indicates this reduced force, which represents the running
friction. The amount of static and running friction permissible in any given aircraft
control run must not exceed the limits laid down in the appropriate aircraft
maintenance manual. Insufficient lubrication will, of course, increase the friction
of any parts that rub together.

Figure 45
9.17.7

CHECKS AFTER RIGGING

After any adjustment to a flying control system, it is necessary to carry out a


functional test of the system and to carry out a visual check of the complete
system; start from the cockpit and finish at the control surface. The following are
typical of the checks to be carried out.
a. Carry out a functional test, ensuring that no part of the system fouls the
airframe structure when operated over the full range of movement.

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b. Check that turnbuckles, adjustable end fittings and limit stops are in safety
and locked.
c. Examine all parts of the system and supporting structure for security of
attachment and check that shackle pins and nuts are correctly split-pinned.
d. Check cable alignment around pulleys.
e. Lubricate the system as necessary in accordance with servicing instructions
for the system.
f.

Examine the control surface itself to ensure that it has not been damaged in
any way.

g. Check to ensure that no tools or other 'foreign objects' have been left within
the system to become a FOD hazard.
h. The final check is always a duplicate check - by a suitable qualified, engineer.
9.17.8 DUPLICATE CHECKS

In the interest of safety, all work on, and the functioning of, aircraft control
systems must be checked twice, each time by a suitably authorised qualified
person. Duplicate checks are divided into parts:
a.
b.
c.
d.

check for correct assembly and locking, and


function
range of movement
sense check.

The term 'control systems' applies to all engine, undercarriage, flying and
associated control systems and equipment directly affecting the safety of the
aircraft. Full regulations concerning duplicates are described in module 10.
9.17.9 PRIMARY CONTROL SYSTEMS - EXAMPLE OF RIGGING

The method of rigging and the procedures to be adopted when adjusting a


specified control run on a given aircraft will be detailed in the appropriate
maintenance manual. This must always be consulted. However, to help you,
and to give guidance on the sort of things you can expect to find, an example of a
typical rigging procedure is given in the following paragraphs.
To rig an aileron system, the procedure may be along the following lines:
a. Carry out the checks before rigging described in paragraph 8.2
b. Slacken the control cables throughout the system.
c. Lock the pilot's column in neutral and ensure that the control chains shown
are equally disposed around the top and bottom sprockets.
d. Set the aileron operating sprockets to neutral using rigging pins as necessary.

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e. Ensure that the chains are correctly positioned and then adjust the
turnbuckles evenly to tension the control cables; a tension-meter may or may
not be required to check cable tension, depending on whether or not the
system is a regulated one.
f.

Adjust the operating rods until the ailerons are in line with the trailing edge of
the main plane or as specified (or the neutral setting on the setting gauge, if
one is provided).

g. Remove the control column locking device and also the rigging pins, if fitted.
h. Operate the ailerons, checking for freedom of movement and that they move
in the correct sense relative to the control column movement.
i.

Measure the range of movement of the ailerons and adjust the limit stops until
the range is as specified in the maintenance manual. If the limit stops are not
adjustable, and the range of movement is incorrect, replace the stops.

j.

Then, using a spring balance, check the control system for static and running
friction.
k. Carry out the necessary checks after rigging.
l.

Arrange for a duplicate check to be carried out.

To rig other primary control systems (i.e. elevators and rudders) a procedure
similar to that outlined above is carried out. Remember, however, that each
system is peculiar to the aircraft in which it is installed and the need to consult the
aircraft maintenance manual should be obvious.
9.17.10

RIGGING A TUBE-OPERATED CONTROL SYSTEM

To rig a primary control system, in which light alloy tubes are used, the procedure
may be similar to that described below:
a. Carry out the checks before rigging as in paragraph 8.2.
b. Set and lock the pilot's control in the neutral position and disconnect the
control tubes.
c. Commence by attaching the forward control tube to the pilot's control.
d. Fit the appropriate (master) rigging pin.
e. Connect the tubes in sequence from the cockpit to the control surface, fitting
the rigging pins in the appropriate housings.
f.

Connect the control surface and adjust to the neutral setting.

g. Remove the cockpit control locking device and the rigging pins.
h. Operate the control, checking for freedom of movement and that it moves in
the correct sense in relation to the control surface.
i.

Measure the range of movement and, as necessary, adjust the limit stops.

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Check the system for friction.

k. Carry out the necessary checks after rigging.


l. Arrange for a duplicate check to be carried out.
9.17.11

RIGGING A POWERED FLYING CONTROL SYSTEM

As you would expect in this type of system, a power unit of some sort acts to
move, or to assist the movement of, the control surface in response to movement
of the cockpit control. A powered flying control system has other units, such as a
trim actuator, artificial feel unit and yaw damper, fitted to it. But we are not
concerned with any of these units at this time. Our concern is with rigging the
manual part of the system, and here the same principles apply as in the other
examples.
In a typical rudder powered control system. Control tubes are used from the
cockpit to the bell crank lever, to which the artificial feel unit is attached. The
remainder of the input system to the PFCU is cable-operated, apart from the yaw
damper lever group. It is convenient in rigging a powered flying control system to
split the operation up into three stages as described below.
Stage 1. This stage describes the operations required to rig the rudder controls in
the cockpit.
This part of the system uses tubes that, as we have seen, form a rigid link.
a. Disconnect all control tubes and set the pilot's control - i.e. the rudder pedals to the specified initial setting (neutral). Lock the pedals in neutral with the
tools provided.
b. Connect the forward control tube to the rudder lever, make any necessary
adjustments and insert the master rigging pin in the appropriate housings.
Continue to build up the system in the cockpit; connect the various control tubes
to their corresponding lever, adjusting as necessary; fit the subsidiary rigging pins
in their correct positions, thereby locking the levers in neutral.
Stage 2. This stage describes the operations required in that part of the control
run situated in the centre of the fuselage.
a. Set the control lever on the cable tension regulator vertical by inserting a
subsidiary rigging pin.
b. Set the artificial feel units as described in the aircraft maintenance manual.
c. Set the trim actuator to neutral and connect to the artificial feel unit.
d. Fit the control cables to the cable tension regulator, and run the cables
around their pulleys.
e. Connect the cables to the tie-rods and feed the cables around their pulleys to
the rear part of the fuselage.

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Stage 3. This final stage describes the operations required to rig the control
system up to the control surface (rudder) itself.
a. Connect the cables to the cable quadrant and to their respective tie-rods.
b. Set the cable quadrant to neutral by inserting a subsidiary rigging pin.
c. The yaw damper can now be connected into the system, control tubes
connecting this unit to the cable quadrant and to the PFCU.
d. Adjust the system, as necessary, as detailed in the aircraft maintenance
manual.
e. Connect the link rod to the rudder operating lever and adjust as necessary.
f.

After tensioning the cables as described earlier, remove and then re-insert
each rigging pin in turn to ensure that the system is correctly adjusted to the
neutral position.

g. Unlock the control circuit by removing all rigging pins and the rudder pedal
locking device.
h. Check the system for friction.
i.

Carry out the necessary checks after rigging.

j.

Arrange for a duplicate check to be carried out.

Rigging of the PFCU will be considered later.

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RIGGING OF TRIMMING TAB SYSTEM

As we saw, manually operated primary control surfaces can be trimmed so that


the aircraft flies without any load on the control column or rudder bar. Power
assisted and power operated control systems, which can be manually controlled
may also, have controllable trimming tabs fitted to the primary control surfaces.
The trimming tab may be moved by a screw jack mechanism attached to the
trimming tab-operating arm and operated from the cockpit by turning the handwheel. An indicator plate adjacent to the hand-wheel indicates the degree of trim.
Trimming tab systems may be cable, control tube or electrically operated.
These systems are trued-up in a manner similar to that of a primary control
system. To rig a cable-operated system, slacken the cables, check the handwheel over its full travel, and then set it to the mid-travel position. Check that the
graduated plate shows the correct degree of trim and then proceed as follows:
a. Set the screw jack in mid-way (neutral) position and ensure that the operating
chain is equally disposed around the sprocket.
b. Tighten the turnbuckles evenly, and obtain the correct tension.
c. With the elevator in line with the tailplane, adjust the operating rod until the
tab is in line with the elevator.
d. Operate the trimming tab, checking for freedom of operation and that it moves
in the correct sense in relation to the hand-wheel.
e. Measure the travel of the trimming tab, which must be as specified.
f.

Carry out the necessary checks after rigging.

g. Arrange for a duplicate inspection to be carried out.

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9.18 STALL WARNING AND PROTECTION


If an aircraft is flown at a high angle of attack, lift will be increased. However, if
the angle of attack is increased to too great an angle, the airflow over the wings
will separate and become turbulent. This will cause the lift to instantly fall to a
very low value and the wing (or aircraft) is said to have stalled.
The design of some aircraft will give an inherent indication of an approaching stall
condition. The airflow or wake leaving the wings will become progressively more
turbulent as the stall is approached. This turbulent wake will strike the airframe
structure or tail-plane causing a condition known as "buffet". The pilot will
normally recognise this as an indication of an impending stall and take
appropriate action to prevent it, i.e. push the control column forward to reduce the
angle of attack. Many aircraft do not have this inherent warning characteristic of
buffet; therefore these aircraft require a system to warn the pilot of an impending
stall. There are several stall-warning systems in use.

9.18.1 STALL WARNING SYSTEMS


9.18.1.1

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This system is common on light aircraft. In this system a plenum chamber is


mounted in the wing leading edge. This is covered and sealed by an adjustable
plate that acts as part of the leading edge. The plate is adjusted so that in normal
flight attitude a slot in the plate coincides with the stagnation point of the wing.
The plenum chamber is connected by tube to a horn/reed assembly in the cabin.
As the angle of attack is increased the slot in the adjustable plate effectively
moves up from the stagnation point into an area of progressively lower air
pressure. The slot is so positioned that it reaches a low-pressure area sufficient
to draw air through the horn/reed assembly, which will emit a noise and alert the
pilot to an impending stall.
9.18.1.2

Electric Stall Warning System

This is typical of a system fitted to larger aircraft. This is a simple system that
employs a micro-switch (transducer), operated by a vane. The transducer is
mounted in the wing leading edge such that the operating vane is at the
stagnation point during normal flight. Therefore no air-loads are imposed on the
vane and it is not deflected from its null position.
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As the aircraft angle of attack increases the transducer-operating vane effectively


moves up and away from the stagnation point. The air-loads on the vane will
increase until at a set angle of attack they overcome a spring pressure to deflect
the vane and close the micro-switch contacts. This completes a circuit to
illuminate a warning light and sound a warning horn. This should occur just prior
to reaching the stall.
These systems are found on relatively simple or small aircraft. Larger and more
complex aircraft generally require a more sophisticated system that will do more
than just warn of impending stall. This is termed a stall protection system.
9.18.2 STALL PROTECTION SYSTEM

9.18.2.1

System Functions

Stall Warning - As with the previous system this tells the pilot that he is
approaching a stall condition.

Stall Identification - This detects an imminent stall and automatically takes


action to prevent the stall occurring, i.e. the stick is automatically pushed
forward by the system. This may be achieved by a hydraulic or pneumatic jack
acting on the elevator control system.

Auto Ignition - In some aircraft, particularly rear engine aircraft, disturbed


airflow entering the intakes may cause the engines to flame out near or at the
stall. To prevent this an auto ignition circuit may be initiated on a stall
warning/identification condition to prevent this. Flap/Slat/Krueger Flap
Modulation - As flap, slat and Krueger flap position affect the stall angle the
stall protection system may include the monitoring of their position and delay
the initiation of stall warning.

9.18.3 TYPICAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Stall Warning Sensors - There are several designs in use. They may be
mounted on the main-planes or side of the fuselage. They are normally
duplicated, each providing a signal to a duplicated system.

Stall Warning Computer - Receives signals from the sensors and initiates
warnings or control movements.

Stick Shaker - The Main stall warning device. An electrically driven, out of
balance rotor, which shakes the control column when a stall warning
condition, is detected.

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Stick Pusher - A hydraulic or pneumatic ram which pushes the control column
forward when a stall identification condition is sensed. It may usually be overridden by higher than normal pilot force.

Ground/Flight Sensing - To prevent unwanted operation of the system on the


ground a circuit through the landing gear weight switches disarms the stall
protection system on the ground.

Test - A pre-flight test facility is built into the system.

Mach Sensing - Speeds over the aircraft critical Mach number may cause
high-speed stall or flame out. To prevent this an input to the computer from
mach switches or the air data computer may be included to give a stall
warning at high mach numbers.

9.18.4 ACTUAL STALL PROTECTION SYSTEM

The following is the description of an actual system used on a large passenger


aircraft.
The stall protection system provides the following during the various phases of
approach to the stall:
1. Automatic ignition on all four engines.
2. Stall warning by the operation of a stick shaker on each control column.
3. Stall identification by the sounding of a klaxon for each system, allowed by
operation of a ram to move the control columns forward.

9.18.5 INCIDENCE PROBES

Four slotted conical probes, are mounted, two on either side of the forward
fuselage, and project into the air stream. Each probe can rotate about its own
axis through 50 in pitch, 4 of which are above fuselage datum. The probe
detects the direction of airflow and transmits to the computer unit a voltage,
picked off from potentiometers, proportional to the angle between the airflow and
the fuselage datum.
When the aircraft angle of incidence is steady, pressure acts equally on the two
probe slots, but as the angle of incidence changes, differential pressures are set
up which, applied to the opposite sides of a paddle wheel, cause the wheel to
rotate the probe until the pressures are again equal, i.e. the direction of flow
bisects the angle between the slots.
Ice protection for the probes is provided by heaters supplied from the No 1 and
No 2 essential 28-volt dc supply. The left probe heaters are controlled by the first
pilot's pressure head heater switch and the right probe heaters by the No 2
autopilot pressure head heater switch.

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Separate ammeters on the engineers engine panel monitor the heater supplies.
When the aircraft is on the ground the current is limited by a resistor in series with
the power supply.

Ferranti Probe Stall Warning System


Figure 48

9.18.6 NITROGEN SYSTEM

Nitrogen is stored at 1,500 psi in a reservoir. Nitrogen is piped via a stop valve to
a pressure reducing valve and non-return valve to a low-pressure reservoir.
Gauges monitoring the high and low pressure are on the right sill panel and
forward roof panel respectively. A relief valve in the low-pressure line vents at 52
p.s.i. to prevent too great a pressure build-up in the system.
Low-pressure nitrogen is fed to solenoid valve A and from there through solenoid
B to a control ram, which operates on the control column linkage. A dump valve
operated from a STALL DUMP VALVE lever on the centre console is coupled to
this part of the circuit, and when the lever is set to DUMP, pressure in the line is
released and prevents further operation of the stick pusher until the lever is reset.

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9.18.7 AUTOMATIC IGNITION

Automatic ignition is signalled from the lower two of four Ferranti-type probes
located on each side of the forward fuselage. It is switched on at a predetermined
incidence, which is modified by slat position and Mach number and remains on as
long as the incidence is at or above this value. Indication of igniter operator is
shown on the engine start panel. The system is brought into operation earlier
whenever the slats are in or whenever 0.74M is exceeded. The system, which is
physically shared with, but electrically isolated from the stall identification system,
consists of two computer units, two mach switches and two angle of incidence
probes. One of the two igniters on each engine is coupled to its associated
computer, thus providing a completely duplicated and independent system.
9.18.8 STALL WARNING

The stall warning function, is provided by two duplicated systems, No 1 and No 2,


each containing a computer unit, a lift rate modifier, an angle of incidence probe,
and a stick shaker motor. Stall warning is signalled by the upper two of the four
fuselage mounted probes. One probe is dedicated to shaker system. The
warning is signalled at a predetermined incidence, which is modified by a
combination of flap position, slat position and rate of change of incidence. It
remains in operation as long as the incidence is at or above this value.
One stick shaker is mounted on each control column and is connected to
respective computer unit and lift rate modifier, thus providing duplicated and
independent indication of stall warning.

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Stick Shaker
Figure 49
9.18.9 STALL IDENTIFICATION

Stall identification is provided by two duplicated systems, No 1 and No 2, each


containing a lift rate modifier a solenoid operated valve, interlock relay and delay
unit, a warning horn and an angle of incidence probe which is shared with, but
electrically isolated from, the auto-ignition system.
Identification of a stall is signalled by the two fuselage mounted probes, which
signal auto-ignition. The signal occurs at a predetermined incidence set at a level
that is always above the stall warning value. This predetermined incidence is
modified by, a combination of flap positions, slat position and rate of change of
incidence. The stall, identification system operates only if armed by a prior stall
warning signal, and remains in operation as long as the incidence is at or above
the modified level.
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The system reverts to normal operation once the stall-warning signal is cancelled
by resuming normal flight.
When the stick shakers operate, a priority circuit receives signals from each of
the computer units of the stall warning system. The first signal received is
passed to the stall identification interlock relays to arm the solenoid valves circuit.
The signal from the stall identification probes is fed to the appropriate computer
unit, and when the signal reaches a particular value, the unit supplies a 28 volt dc
output. The value of the signal can be changed by combinations of the flap and
slat position compensation. The signal is passed through the lift rate modifier so
that a quick rate of change of the probe angle causes an advanced signal,
provided that has been preceded for 0.7 seconds by a stick shaker signal.
The computer unit output is passed through a priority circuit to the stall
identification relay in the interlock circuit. Providing the sequence is correct, this
completes the circuit to the solenoid valves that open to allow nitrogen to the
rams that extend to move the control column forward. The warning horn in each
system sounds when the respective stall warning and stall identification computer
units both signal, which is simultaneous with control column movement.
Both solenoid operated selector valves are opened by a stall identification signal.
The opening of each valve is indicated by the associated red light on the
overhead panel, and the subsequent movement of the ram is indicated by the
STALL IDENT amber light adjacent to the airspeed indicators on each pilot's
panel also coming on.
The system is pneumatically powered from a HP nitrogen bottle that feeds the
stick pusher ram through a reducing valve, an LP reservoir and the two solenoidoperated selector valves. A gauge on the forward roof panel indicates the
pressure in the low-pressure reservoir and another on the right sill panel indicates
the pressure in the HP bottle. Minimum HP pressure for flight is 500 p.s.i. When
pressure falls to 32 PSI, the LP red light on the forward roof panel comes on.

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Stall Protection System


Figure 50

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9.19 FLY BY WIRE

9.19.1 INTRODUCTION

Fly by wire is used on some aircraft to operate the controls. Instead of a


conventional mechanical link between the pilots controls to the control surfaces
or powered control servo valves, the link is by an electrical or fibre-optic cable.
The abbreviations Fly by wire (FBW) or Fly by Optical Wire (FBOW) are used.

9.19.2 PRINCIPLES OF FBW

FBW is a control system that receives inputs directly by electrical signals. The
flying control actuators are electro-hydraulic design converting electrical signals
into movement of a hydraulic ram.
Many systems on the aircraft use electrical signals to automatically control the
flight path. It is a natural development to integrate the pilots input with these
automatic controls. Correcting signals can be sent directly to the control actuator
as well as those sent by the pilot.

9.19.3 PRINCIPLES OF FBOW

An optical fibre cable consists of multiple glass fibres, each about as thick as a
human hair. The cable can carry pulses of light without amplification and without
electromagnetic interference. One fibre can carry over 9,000 simultaneous
signals.
Fibre optics transmits information using:

A light source modulated with information

A fibre optic transmission medium (cable)

An optical receiver to de-modulate the information

9.19.4 ADVANTAGES OF FBOW OVER FBW

Increased amount of information can be passed

Increased speed of transmission

Lighter in weight

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9.19.5 OTHER INPUTS TO POWERED FLYING CONTROL UNIT

The pilot is the main controller of the aircraft controls. There are, however, other
inputs as follows:

Auto-stabilisation (variable incidence tailplane)

Datum shift caused by operation of landing gear. The system can


automatically make an input to the PFCU when the gear is lowered or raised.

Mach trim will deflect the tailplane or elevators to compensate for changes in
aircraft attitude at high Mach Numbers due to rearward movement of the
centre of pressure

Autopilot will be interfaced directly with the PFCUs.

Terrain Following Radar (TFR) The system can process information on


radar or radio height to the PFCU.

Inertial Navigation System (INS)

Instrument Landing System (ILS) programmed automatic landing sequences


can be fed directly into the control system.

Airspeed The aircraft engines can also be controlled to give fully automatic
programmable airspeed.

Position of other controls, including secondary controls such as flaps and LE


flaps and slats.

9.19.6 777 FLIGHT CONTROLS - INTRODUCTION


9.19.7 GENERAL

The flight controls keep the aeroplane at the desired attitude during flight. They
consist of movable surfaces on the wing and the empennage. The flight controls
change the lift of the wing and the empennage.
There are two types of flight controls: the primary flight control system and the
high lift control system.
9.19.8 777 PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM

The primary flight control system (PFCS) uses a fly-by-wire control system with
digital and analogue electronic equipment. It receives commands from the flight
crew and the autopilot and causes the control surfaces to move.
The PFCS controls the attitude of the airplane during flight. The control surfaces
operated by the PFCS are:

One aileron on each wing

One flaperon on each wing

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Seven spoilers on each wing

One horizontal stabiliser

One elevator on each side of the horizontal stabiliser

One tabbed rudder.

9.19.9 HIGH LIFT CONTROL SYSTEM

The high lift control system (HLCS) uses a fly-by-wire control system with digital
electronic equipment. It receives commands from the flight crew and causes the
flaps and slats to move.
Operation of the HLCS increases the wing lift so the aeroplane can takeoff and
land at lower speed and higher weight. The high lift devices operated by the
HLCS are:

Seven leading edge slats on each wing

One Krueger flap on each wing

One single slotted outboard flap on each wing

One double slotted inboard flap on each wing.

Operation of the HLCS also causes the ailerons and the flaperons to move. They
droop on both wings when the high lift devices extend.
9.19.10

BENEFITS OF THE FLY-BY-WIRE SYSTEM

The fly-by-wire design of the flight controls permits:

A more efficient structure design

Increased fuel economy

A smaller vertical fin

A smaller horizontal stabiliser

Reduced weight

Improved controls and protections.

9.19.11

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ACE actuator control electronics


ACMS aeroplane condition monitoring system
ADIRS air data inertial reference system
ADIRU air data inertial reference unit
ADM air data module
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AFDC autopilot flight director computer


AFDS autopilot flight director system
AIMS aeroplane information management system
ARINC Aeronautical Radio, Inc.
BAP bank angle protection
B/D backdrive
CMCS central maintenance computing system
CPU central processing unit
EDIU engine data interface unit
EHS electro-hydraulic servo valve
EICAS engine indication and crew alerting system
FCDC flight controls direct current
FMCS flight management computer system
FSEU flap/slat electronics unit
HLCS high lift control system
LIB left inboard
LOB left outboard
LVDT linear variable differential transformer
MCP mode control panel
MFD multi functional display
PCU power control unit
PDU power drive unit
PFC primary flight computer
PFCS primary flight control system
PMG permanent magnet generator
PSA power supply assembly
PSEU proximity sensor electronic unit
RIB right inboard
ROB right outboard
RVDT rotary variable differential transformer
SAARU secondary attitude air data reference unit
SOL solenoid
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SOV shutoff valve


STCM stabiliser trim control module
TAC thrust asymmetry compensation
WEU warning electronic unit
WOW weight on wheels
9.19.12

PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM - INTRODUCTION

Purpose
The primary flight control system (PFCS) controls the aeroplane flight attitude in
relation to the three basic axes:

Longitudinal

Lateral

Vertical.

777 Primary Flight Controls


Figure 51

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Roll Control
The roll control uses the ailerons, flaperons, and spoilers to control the aeroplane
attitude about the longitudinal axis. During a bank of the aeroplane, the aileron
and flaperon on one wing move in an opposite direction from the aileron and
flaperon on the other wing. The spoilers move up only on the down wing and do
not move on the up wing.
Pitch Control
The pitch control uses the horizontal stabiliser and the elevator to control the
aeroplane attitude about the lateral axis. The stabiliser controls long term pitch
changes. The elevator supplies short term pitch control.
Yaw Control
The yaw control uses the rudder to control the aeroplane attitude about the
vertical axis. The rudder has a tab, which moves to increase the effectiveness of
the rudder.
Speedbrakes
The PFCS also includes the speedbrakes. In addition to roll control, the spoilers
also act as speedbrakes in the air and on the ground. They deploy on both wings
to increase drag and to decrease the amount of lift the wings supply.
9.19.13

PFCS GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The pilots or the autopilot commands control the PFCS. The pilots can override
the autopilot.

9.19.14

MANUAL OPERATION

Position transducers change the pilots' manual commands of the control wheel,
the control columns, the rudder pedals, and the speedbrake lever to analogue
electrical signals. These signals go to the four actuator control electronics
(ACEs). The ACEs change the signals to digital format and send them to the
three primary flight computers (PFCs).
The PFCs have interfaces with the aeroplane systems through the three flight
controls ARINC 629 buses. In addition to command signals from the ACEs, the
PFCs also receive data from:

The airplane information management system (AIMS)

The air data inertial reference unit (ADIRU)

The secondary attitude air data reference unit (SAARU).

The PFCs calculate the flight control commands based on control laws and flight
envelope protection functions. The control laws supply stability augmentation in
the pitch and yaw axes and flight envelope protections in all three axes. The
digital command signals from the PFCs go to the ACEs.
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The ACEs change these command signals to analogue format and send them to
the power control units (PCUs) and the stabiliser trim control modules (STCMs).
The ACEs and the PCUs form control loops, which control the surfaces based on
the PFCs commands.
One, two or three PCUs operate each control surface. One PCU controls each
spoiler, two PCUs control each aileron, flaperon, and elevator, and three PCUs
control the rudder. The PCUs contain a hydraulic actuator, an electrohydraulic
servo valve, and a position feedback transducer.
When commanded, the servo valve causes the hydraulic actuator to move the
control surface. The position transducer sends a position feedback signal to the
ACEs. The ACEs then stop the PCU command when the position feedback signal
equals the commanded position.
Two STCMs control hydraulic power to the motors and brakes of the horizontal
stabilizer.
9.19.15

AUTOPILOT OPERATION

The PFCs receive autopilot commands from all three autopilot flight director
computers (AFDCs). The PFCs use the autopilot commands in the same manner
as the pilots' manual commands. In addition, the PFCs supply the backdrive
signals to the backdrive actuators through the AFDCs. The backdrive actuators
move the control wheels, control columns, and rudder pedals in synchronisation
with the autopilot commands. The movement of the flight deck controls supplies
visual indications to the flight crew.
9.19.16

PFCS MODES OF OPERATION

The PFCS has three modes of operation: normal, secondary, and direct.

Normal mode operates when the necessary data are available for the PFCs
and the ACEs. All the control laws, protection functions, and the AFDCs
operate.

When the PFCS detects the loss of important air and attitude data, the PFCS
operation changes to secondary mode. The PFCs and the ACEs operate but
the PFC control laws and protection functions downgrade. The autopilot
cannot operate in secondary mode.

In direct mode, the PFCs are not used. The ACEs set the position of the
control surfaces in direct response to analog pilot control inputs.

9.19.17

FLIGHT DECK CONTROLS

The control wheel, control column, and rudder pedal position transducers are
below the flight deck floor in the forward equipment centre. The speedbrake lever
position transducers are in the control stand. The location of these transducers is
shown in other sections.
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MODULE 11.09
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES AND
SYSTEMS

MAIN EQUIPMENT CENTRE

The E1, E2, and E3 racks contain most of the electronic equipment of the PFCS.
The E1 rack contains:

The left PFC

The L1 ACE

The L2 ACE.

The E2 rack contains:

The centre PFC

The centre ACE

The SAARU.

The E3 rack contains the ADIRU.


Forward Cargo Compartment
The E16 rack, forward of the forward cargo door, contains the right PFC.
The E5 rack, aft of the forward cargo door, contains the right ACE.
Control Surfaces
Each PCU connects directly to its related control surface on the wing and the
empennage. The ballscrew actuator of the horizontal stabiliser is in the stabiliser
compartment. The location of the PCUs and the ballscrew actuator is shown in
their specified sections.
9.19.19

PFCS FLIGHT CONTROLS ARINC 629 BUS INTERFACES

a. General
ARINC 629 digital data buses supply the principal means of communication
among aeroplane systems. Three dedicated flight controls ARINC 629 buses
connect the PFCS to:

The three autopilot flight director computers (AFDC)

The two aeroplane information management system (AIMS) cabinets

The air data inertial reference unit (ADIRU)

The secondary attitude air data reference unit (SAARU).

Physical separation of the buses, and redundant LRUs, protects against multiple
failures due to one event.
b. PFCS Interface

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AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES AND
SYSTEMS

The three primary flight computers (PFCs) and the four actuator control
electronics (ACEs) have interfaces with the flight controls data buses.
The L PFC, C PFC and R PFC receive data from all three flight controls data
buses but transmit data only on their on-side data bus. (On-side means that the
relationship is with equipment of the same side. For example, the left bus is the
on-side bus for the left PFC.)
Each ACE receives data from all three PFCs through the three flight controls data
buses. Each ACE processes control data from its on-side PFC. If this data is not
valid, the ACE processes data from an alternate PFC. The ACEs process some
data from the other PFCs at all times. For example, this occurs during data
validation and voted commands. The ACEs transmit only on their on-side bus.
c. AFDS Interface
The autopilot flight director system (AFDS) interfaces with the PFCS through the
autopilot flight director computers (AFDCs). Each AFDC transmits to its on-side
flight controls data bus, but receives data from all three buses. The AFDCs
receive backdrive commands, engagement status, and other data from the PFCs.
The AFDCs transmit pitch, roll and yaw commands and engage requests to the
PFCs.
d. AIMS Interface
The two AIMS cabinets receive data from all three-flight controls data buses, but
normally transmit only to their on-side bus. During tests on the ground, the AIMS
cabinets transmit also to the centre bus.
The PFCS supplies information to the AIMS for:
The primary display system (PDS), (flight, synoptic, and EICAS displays)
The central maintenance computing system (CMCS)
The aeroplane condition monitoring system (ACMS)
The flight management computing system (FMCS)
e. ADIRS Interface
The air data inertial reference system (ADIRS) consists of the air data inertial
reference unit (ADIRU) and the secondary attitude air data reference unit
(SAARU).
The ADIRU and SAARU supply air data variables and inertial data to the PFCs.
The ADIRU receives data from all three buses and transmits data to the left and
right flight controls data buses. The SAARU also receives data on all three buses,
but transmits data only to the centre flight controls data bus.
f. Air Data Modules

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AERODYNAMICS,
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Six air data modules (ADMs) supply pitot and static air data to the ADIRU and the
SAARU. The ADMs transmit these data through the flight controls ARINC 629
buses.
Figure: PFCS - FLIGHT CONTROLS ARINC 629 BUS INTERFACES
PFCS - SYSTEMS ARINC 629 BUS INTERFACES
General
Many components of the PFCS transmit to and receive information from other
aeroplane systems. Data on the systems ARINC 629 buses goes through the
AIMS data conversion gateway function and then to the flight control ARINC 629
buses. The PFCS uses information from:
The flap/slat electronics units (FSEUs)
The proximity sensor electronics units (PSEUs)
The left and right systems card files.
The PFCS transmits information to the left and right warning electronic units
(WEUs).
The PFCS also uses radio altimeter data supplied through AIMS.
FSEU Interface
The FSEUs supply flaps and slats signal to the PFCs for the gain functions of the
control laws. These signals show the retracted or not retracted condition of the
flaps and the slats. The FSEUs also supply a signal to the ACEs.
PSEU Interface
The PSEUs supply truck tilt signals and associated fault messages to the PFCS.
The truck tilt signals are used together with the weight on wheels and radio
altimeter functions to operate the auto speedbrake.
Systems Card Files Interface
The two systems card files supply signals from the hydraulic interface module
(HYDIM) cards and the weight on wheels (WOW) cards to the PFCS.
The HYDIM cards supply hydraulic systems condition signals to the PFCS. They
also supply data about the truck tilt pressure sensors.
The WOW cards supply air/ground signals to the PFCS. These signals supply
air/ground information to the PFCS.
WEU Interface
The PFCS sends stabiliser and rudder trim position signals to the WEUs. The
WEUs supply a takeoff warning if the stabiliser is out of green band or the rudder
trim is out of normal limits.
The PFCs receive stall data from the WEUs for stall protection.
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Engine Data Interface Units


The left and right engine data interface units (EDIUs) receive the N1 speed and
calculate the thrust for each engine. The EDIUs supply these data to the AIMS
and to the PFCS for the thrust asymmetry compensation (TAC) function.
Radio Altimeter Interface
The three radio altimeters supply information to AIMS for use by the PFCS for the
flare function during manual landing. The PFCS inhibits the radio altimeter test
when ground speed is more than 40 knots and during flight.
Indications
The status message PFCS INTERFACE shows because of one of these faults:
There is a disagreement with the flap discrete signals in two or more ACEs
Only two of the four FSEU channels are available
Only two of the four digital WES channels are available
Only one of the two truck tilt pressure data sources is available
Thrust data from one of the left or right EDIU channels does not agree with the
others
Data from the two WOW cards does not agree.
These conditions cause the message to show in normal, secondary, and direct
modes.
Figure: PFCS - SYSTEMS ARINC 629 BUS INTERFACES
PFCS - ANALOG INTERFACES
General
All analogue interfaces with the PFCS go to the ACE. The primary inputs/outputs
are:
Rudder trim selector
Manual trim cancel switch
Pitch trim switches
Flight control position transducers
Flight control force transducers
FSEUs
Primary flight computers DISC/AUTO switch
Thrust asymmetry compensation switch
AIMS cabinets
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AERODYNAMICS,
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SYSTEMS

PCUs.
Rudder Trim Selector and Manual Trim Cancel Switch
The rudder trim selector and the manual trim cancel switch supply signals to the
ACEs. These signals show the pilot commands for rudder trim.
Pitch Trim Switches
The pitch trim switches supply signals to the ACEs to show the pilot pitch trim
commands.
Flight Control Position Transducers
The flight control position transducers supply electrical inputs to the ACEs. They
show the position of the:
Control wheel
Control column
Rudder pedals
Speedbrake lever.
Flight Control Force Transducers
The pitch and roll force transducers supply signals to the ACEs. The signals show
when the pilot applies a force to the control wheel or control column.
FSEUs

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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FUEL SYSTEMS

CONTENTS
10 SYSTEM LAY-OUT....................................................................... 10-1
10.1
10.2

10.3

10.4
10.5

10.6

10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10

10.11

10.12
10.13

10.14

RIGID TANKS ................................................................................ 10-1


Rigid Metal Tanks ....................................................................... 10-2
FLEXIBLE FUEL TANKS ................................................................. 10-3
10.2.1 Tank Coverings ............................................................. 10-3
10.2.2 Self-Sealing Coverings .................................................. 10-4
10.2.3 Attachments and Fittings ............................................... 10-4
INTEGRAL FUEL TANKS ................................................................ 10-5
10.3.1 Tank Numbering ........................................................... 10-5
10.3.2 Water Draining .............................................................. 10-9
10.3.3 Water Scavenge System ............................................... 10-10
SUPPLY SYSTEMS ......................................................................... 10-11
ENGINE FUEL FEED ...................................................................... 10-11
10.5.1 Design Requirements of an Aircraft Fuel Feed System . 10-11
10.5.2 Engine Fuel Feed (Multi Tank and Booster Pumps) ...... 10-12
10.5.3 Engine Fuel Feed (Collector Tanks) .............................. 10-12
10.5.4 Engine Fuel Feed (Fuel Cells) ....................................... 10-13
FUEL FEED COMPONENTS .............................................................. 10-14
10.6.1 Fuel Pumps (Booster Pumps) ....................................... 10-14
10.6.2 Jet Pumps ..................................................................... 10-16
10.6.3 Sequence Valves .......................................................... 10-18
10.6.4 Transfer Valves ............................................................. 10-18
L.P. Valve ................................................................................... 10-19
Cross Feed Valve ....................................................................... 10-19
APU FUEL FEED .......................................................................... 10-20
DUMPING, VENTING AND DRAINING................................................ 10-22
DUMPING (JETTISON).................................................................... 10-22
THE VENT SUB-SYSTEM ............................................................... 10-25
10.10.1 General ......................................................................... 10-25
10.10.2 Venting Due to Heat ...................................................... 10-25
10.10.3 Unpressurised System Venting ..................................... 10-25
10.10.4 Pressurised Fuel Tanks................................................. 10-25
10.10.5 Float Valves .................................................................. 10-28
10.10.6 Vent Pipe Drains ........................................................... 10-29
CROSS-FEED AND TRANSFER ....................................................... 10-31
10.11.1 Auto transfer .............................................................. 10-31
10.11.2 Manual transfer .......................................................... 10-32
INDICATIONS AND WARNINGS ............................................... 10-33
FUEL LEVEL SENSING................................................................... 10-36
10.13.1 High Level Sensing ....................................................... 10-36
10.13.2 Overflow Sensing .......................................................... 10-37
10.13.3 Low Level Sensing ........................................................ 10-37
10.13.4 Calibration Sensing (Fuel Trim only) ............................. 10-37
10.13.5 Under Full Level Sensing .............................................. 10-37
FUEL QUANTITY SYSTEM MEASUREMENT AND INDICATION ............. 10-37

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10.15 PRINCIPLE OF CAPACITANCE GAUGING ......................................... 10-38


10.16 FUEL QUANTITY INDICATING SYSTEM ............................................ 10-38
10.16.1 Capacitance Index Compensator .................................. 10-39
10.16.2 Measurement................................................................ 10-42
10.17 REFUELLING AND DE-FUELLING .................................................... 10-42
10.18 REFUELLING ................................................................................ 10-42
10.18.1 Pressure Refuel Functional Description ..................... 10-45
10.19 DEFUELLING ................................................................................ 10-48
10.20 LONGITUDINAL BALANCE FUEL SYSTEMS ..................................... 10-48
10.21 SUPERSONIC FLIGHT FUEL TRANSFER .......................................... 10-49

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FUEL SYSTEMS

10 SYSTEM LAY-OUT
The purpose of the fuel system is to store and deliver fuel to the engines and the
apu. An aircraft must be able to carry sufficient fuel to enable the engines to
operate over long periods. to meet this requirement there must be some way of
storing this fuel safely and supplying it to the engines in a suitable condition and
at a controlled rate.
A typical fuel system therefore will consist of a number of tanks, fuel lines,
connections and fittings, which are compatible with all types of fuel meeting
engine and apu specifications.
Often, the fuel system is subdivided into storage, refuelling, distribution, transfer,
venting and indicating subsystems.
The following example of a system layout is for a typical large commercial twin
aircraft. The number of tanks and system complexity will vary from aircraft to
aircraft. Clearly a four-engine aircraft will have more components than a twin.
The figure shows a typical fuel cell layout

Typical Fuel Cell Layout


Figure 1
NOTE: For additional range, some operators will install centre tanks, these are
offered as optional on most single isle and wide bodied aircraft.Fuel Tanks
Fuel tanks normally fall into three categories of construction:
Rigid
Flexible
Integral
10.1 RIGID TANKS
These are normally made from metal or plastic material, they are fitted internally
where space permits. Flexible fuel tanks have an advantage over rigid tanks,
because they can be shaped and fitted into odd shaped spaces where rigid tanks
cannot be fitted. In general, flexible tanks are lighter and easier to handle and
store than rigid tanks. Integral fuel tanks are of rigid construction because they
are part of the airframe structure. They are not independent items like the other
tanks.
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Whatever the construction method, fuel tanks should be shaped so that almost all
the fuel is available to the engine. Awkward pockets which prevent fuel from
leaving the tank are undesirable and are avoided if possible.
10.1.1 Rigid Metal Tanks

Typical Rigid Internal Fuel Tank


Figure 2
Fuel tanks are made in shapes and sizes to fit the spaces available in each
particular airframe and therefore the size and shape of the fuel tanks will not be
the same for all aircraft. Metal fuel tanks are constructed from aluminium alloy,
stainless steel or tinned steel and they are riveted, welded, or soldered together.
The tank is a light structure which is strengthened by the use of internal stiffeners,
angle pieces and by incorporating baffles to give strength and which are
necessary, in large tanks, to reduce the effects of fuel surge caused when the
aircraft manoeuvres. Secure attachment of a rigid tank within the airframe may
be achieved by built-in padded cradles and padded metal straps. The cradle is
shaped to match the contours of the tank and the straps secure the tank to its
cradle. Each tank will have the brackets, strap guides and fittings to match the
aircraft structure into which the tank is to be fitted.
It must be stressed that very few aircraft over 5,700 kg would utilise metal rigid
tanks, except when long range tanks are fitted in the cargo hold, i.e. commercial
IATA LD6 containers, etc.

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10.2 FLEXIBLE FUEL TANKS


Flexible fuel tanks may be constructed with thin and very flexible walls (called bag
tanks) or they may be made of thicker less flexible material. These tanks are
made in shapes to fit particular spaces in the aircraft structure and their flexibility
enables the tanks to be folded and inserted through a small aperture, which
would not allow a rigid tank of similar capacity to be fitted. Because flexible tanks
can be made in shapes to suit most of the space available, a greater fuel capacity
is made available to a particular aircraft when flexible tanks are used. Some
aircraft fuel systems are designed to include rigid, flexible and external fuel tanks
so that the greatest possible fuel load is carried.
The compartment for a flexible fuel tank is made as smooth as possible on the
inside and projecting joints are covered to prevent chafing the tank material.
Before a tank can be fitted, the compartment must be properly cleaned out and all
swarf and loose items removed.
After a flexible tank has been inserted into the tank compartment, the tank is
carefully unfolded and the various external fittings are aligned. Usually the walls
of the more flexible tanks are attached to the compartment walls by a type of
press-stud fitting. When filled with fuel, the tank expands to contact the walls of
the tank compartment so that the weight of the fuel is carried by the aircraft
structure and not by the tank. Because the load is not carried by the tank, flexing
of the aircraft structure does not impose harmful loads upon the tank material.
Flexible fuel tanks are resilient, like an inner tube and because they are resilient,
the tanks can withstand a considerable amount of distortion or shock loading. If a
flexible tank is not completely full it is unlikely to burst on a crash impact.
10.2.1 Tank Coverings
10.2.1.1 PROTECTIVE COVERING

A protective covering may be fixed to the outside of a flexible fuel tank. The
covering is not special to type and similar covering materials are used to protect
different types of tank. The protective covering usually consists of several layers
of fabric, or fabric and rubber, which are cemented to the material of the tank with
adhesives. When a tank is fitted with a protective cover it, in general, becomes
stiff enough to support its own weight and retain its shape. However, when the
various metal fittings are added, the tank will sag and it needs support when
fitted.
Some tanks, which do not have protective covers, are reinforced by nylon fabric
or net. This type of reinforcement does not stiffen the tank, which remains very
flexible and limp. This type of tank cannot support its own weight and is the type
which is sometimes called a bag tank.

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10.2.2 Self-Sealing Coverings

These coverings have been developed to reduce the magnitude of a fuel leak if,
for any reason, the fuel tank is pierced or ruptured. The self-sealing covering is
usually made from layers of cellular rubber with an overall protective cover of
glass fabric or nylon fabric on the outside. This type of rubber is a material that is
immediately affected by contact with fuel. If a tank leaks, the cellular rubber
swells on contact with the fuel and forces its way into the puncture to block the
hole and reduce or stop the leak. Unfortunately, minor leaks may remain
undiscovered for some time until the self-sealing cover begins to swell and bulge
on the outside.
10.2.3 Attachments and Fittings

To complete a flexible fuel tank, provision must be made for attaching fuel system
components and for joining each tank into the fuel system. The fuel tank is
constructed with moulded connectors and apertures of an appropriate size and
position but because of the flexible nature of the material, each aperture needs to
be reinforced before a system component can be fitted. Each aperture is
strengthened and stiffened by fitting a metal attachment ring. The attachment
rings are sometimes called stud rings or bolt rings.

Attachment Rings and Moulded Connections


Figure 3

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10.3 INTEGRAL FUEL TANKS


Primary wing structure is used for aircraft integral tanks. They are normally
located between the front and rear wing spars and between the upper and lower
wing skin. Solid tank end ribs close the ends of each tank, while all the other ribs
act as fuel baffles to minimise fuel slosh. Often a centre tank traverses the
fuselage between the two inner wing root ribs.
All fuel tanks are fuel tight. Close metal-to-metal fit of all parts forms the basic
seal, with sealing compounds and sealing fasteners on all joints to complete the
fluid tight seal. The centre tank will have a secondary external barrier coating to
prevent fuel vapour entering the pressurised section of the fuselage.
Some of the wing ribs contain a series of free-swinging, fuel-actuated baffle
check valves, to prevent fuel flow away from the electric boost pumps. Access
panels, usually on the underside of the wing, provide access to each tank. The
outer portion of the wing provides fuel overflow by means of a surge tank, which
also affords venting into the system.
The fuel tanks hold all the necessary equipment for refuelling/ de-fuelling and
engine fuel feed. Equipment used for fuel quantity indicating is also contained
within the fuel tank structure.

Integral Fuel Tanks


Figure 4
10.3.1 Tank Numbering

The majority of aircraft carry fuel only in wing and centre tanks. However, a few
extended range aircraft will have an additional integral tank in the vertical
stabiliser. Aircraft manufacturers number fuel tanks, in which case the philosophy
will be from left to right, nose to tail. Generally, fuel tanks are numbered as shown
in Fig 4.
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Tank Access Panels


Figure 5

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Baffle Check Valves


Figure 6

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FUEL SYSTEMS

Before assembly, all the structural parts that become integral fuel tanks are
cleaned to a particular specification; the clean parts are immediately coated with
a special sealant and assembled wet. It is important that the joints are finished
(rivets closed or bolts tightened) before the sealant sets. This first coating of
sealant is called the interfay and it should bond with all parts of the joint. After
the joint is tightened it is necessary to remove the surplus sealant that has been
squeezed out as the joint closed. After cleaning the work, a neat coating of
sealant is applied at the edges of the joint; this coating is called the fillet (see the
figure) and it should be strong enough to cope with any flexing between the parts.
A final brush-on coat of sealant is applied to overlap the joint and fillet. Interfay,
fillet and the brush-on coat are part of the standard treatment for sealing integral
fuel tank structures and all use a similar sealant. As an aid to quick production,
the joint can be covered by a barrier coating of a quicker drying substance. The
barrier-coating material is not the same as the sealant used for jointing and it will
not prevent or cure leaks. The barrier-coat becomes tack-free in a relatively short
time and it is applied over partially cured sealants to reduce the possibility of
contamination from swarf, when work must continue in the area of an uncured
joint. To extend the leak-free life of the integral fuel tank, take great care when
handling or working on the skin area which covers the integral fuel tank.

Integral Tank Sealing


Figure 7

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FUEL SYSTEMS

Generally speaking, large commercial aircraft have three tanks in each wing,
inner fuel tank, outer fuel tank and a surge tank. On some aircraft the fuel tanks
are referred to as fuel cells. A centre tank is sometimes available as a standard
option.
Each fuel tank has additional space for 2% expansion of the fuel without spillage
into the surge tank. Removable access panels are provided in the lower wing
surface. The centre tank, if fitted, is accessible through manholes in the rear
spar.
10.3.2 Water Draining

Water drain valves are provided at low points of each tank. All valves may be
opened with standard tools and the outer seal of the valve is replaceable without
emptying the tanks.

Water Drain Valve


Figure 8

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Fuel Tank Drain Points


Figure 9
10.3.3 Water Scavenge System

A typical system has a water scavenge system fitted in the optional centre tank.
Two jet pumps using tappings on the tank pumps for motive power, collect water
from low points and discharge it towards the fuel pump inlet. Removable access
panels are provided in the lower wing surface. The optional centre tank is
accessible through two manholes in the rear spar.

Water Scavenge System


Figure 10
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10.4

SUPPLY SYSTEMS

10.5 ENGINE FUEL FEED


10.5.1 Design Requirements of an Aircraft Fuel Feed System

On an aircraft, a fuel system should be designed to comply with many


requirements as laid down in Joint Airworthiness Requirements. An example of
these requirements is as follows:
1. Each fuel system should be constructed and arranged to ensure a flow of fuel
at a rate and pressure to ensure proper functioning of the engine for each
likely operating condition.
2. The fuel system must allow the supply of fuel to each engine through a
system independent of the system supplying fuel to any other engine.
3. The system design should be such that it is not possible for any pump to draw
fuel from two or more tank simultaneously unless means are provided to
prevent the introduction of air into the system.
4. If fuel can be pumped from one tank to another in flight, the fuel tank vents
and transfer system must be designed so that no structural failure can occur
because of over-filling.
5. Integral tanks must have facilities for interior inspection and repair.
6. Fuel tanks must be designed, located and installed so that no fuel is released
in or near the engines in sufficient quantities to start a fire in otherwise
survivable crash conditions.
7. Pressure cross-feed lines passing through crew, passenger or cargo
compartments shall either be enclosed in a fuel and vapour proof enclosure,
ventilated and drained to the outside, OR consist of a pipe without fittings and
routed or protected against accidental damage.
8. The system shall incorporate means to prevent the collection of water and dirt
or the deposition of ice or other substances from satisfactory functioning of
the system.
9. Lines, which can be isolated from the system by means of valves or fuel
cocks, shall incorporate provision for the relief of excess pressure due to
expansion of the fuel.
10. Each fuel tank filler connection must be marked with type of fuel and be
provided with a bonding point and drain discharging excess fuel.
11. There must be a fuel strainer at each fuel tank outlet or for the booster
pump(s).
12. Each fuel line must be designed, installed and supported to prevent excessive
vibration and allow a reasonable degree of deformation and stretching without
leakage.

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10.5.2 Engine Fuel Feed (Multi Tank and Booster Pumps)

Multi tank fuel systems can use a low-pressure fuel booster pump in each tank as
shown.
Location of Pump Canister Assemblies
Figure 11
The pumps are located in collector tanks which are equipped with check valves
which provide a one way fuel flow.
10.5.3 Engine Fuel Feed (Collector Tanks)

Rather than use booster pumps in each tank, some aircraft fuel systems use
groups of tanks that feed collector tanks as shown in the diagram.

Engine Fuel Feed Collector Tanks


Figure 12
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10.5.4 Engine Fuel Feed (Fuel Cells)

Another multi tank system is the use of fire cells. In normal conditions, each
engine is supplied from one pump in the optional centre tank or both pumps in the
tank of its own wing. Any one pump can supply the maximum demand of one
engine. A cross-feed pipe, controlled by a double motor actuated spherical plug
valve, allows both engines to be fed from one side or all the fuel to be used by
one engine. The valve is mounted on the rear spar in the centre section.
Two plug-in a.c. driven booster pumps supplied from different busbars are fitted
in each tank. Each pump has a suction inlet. On each side, the two pumps in the
wing tank and one pump in the centre tank (when fitted) deliver fuel via a built in
non-return valve into a single pipe. The pumps in the wing tanks are fitted with
pressure relief sequence valves that ensure that when all pumps are running, the
centre tank pumps will deliver fuel preferentially. No sequence valves are
provided on a two tank version aircraft.
In each wing tank the pumps are located in a collector box. The box is fed by
gravity through flap non-return valves. This ensures that the system can continue
to supply fuel under negative g or transient manoeuvres. A bypass is provided
at the pumps to permit gravity feed.
Air release valves are fitted to the feed lines.
The supply of fuel to each engine can be shut off by an engine LP valve mounted
on the front spar. This is a spherical plug valve driven by a double motor
actuator. To provide the maximum integrity, the two actuators are supplied from
different busbars and the cables are routed separately.
Controls and indications for pumps and crossfeed valves of the feed system are
located on the overhead panel. In normal operation, all wing pumps will remain
on throughout the flight. If a centre tank is fitted, switching of pumps is automatic.
If there are no malfunctions, no action is required during flight.
The engine LP valves are controlled by operating the engine fire handles.

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Engine Fuel Feed


Figure 13
10.6

FUEL FEED COMPONENTS

10.6.1 Fuel Pumps (Booster Pumps)

Pumps employed in aircraft fuel systems differ in size, shape, output, etc.
However regardless of type and any special features they may have, they all
operate on the same principle and consist of very similar components.
Each tank is normally provided with two fuel pumps. They are all identical and
interchangeable. These pumps are installed in the canister assemblies to enable
replacement without de-fuelling the tank.
The fuel pumps are centrifugal pumps driven by 115 volts, three phase motors.
The output of each pump is about 250-300 litres per minute. Maximum fuel
pressure at zero flow is about 38 p.s.i.
Each pump includes a non-return and a by-pass valve.
The by-pass valve is to reduce the pressure drop allowing an engine to be
operated on suction feed up to about 6000 feet.

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They are protected by a thermal fuse, which is activated at approximately 175


degrees centigrade.

Fig 14
Some pumps have special features that are dictated by the aircraft role and any
design requirements namely:
a. Pressure relief valve.
b. Non-return valve.
c. AC DC motor.
d. Thermal trip devices.
e. Cannister shut off valve to facilitate pump replacement with fuel in the tanks.

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Cannister Assembly
Figure 15
10.6.2 Jet Pumps

These are another method of transferring fuel around an aircraft fuel system.
They use fuel bled from the booster pump which is continually fed through the
central nozzle into a venturi. The depression created in the venturi draws fuel
from the surrounding tank, in through the filter then up through the venturi tube
and either into the next fuel tank or straight to the collector box.

JET PUMP
FIGURE 16

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Figure 17

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10.6.3 Sequence Valves

Sequence valves are fitted to give an automatic transfer from one tank to another,
the following example is for an aircraft with pumps in the centre tank, inner tank
and outer tank.
The valve limits the fuel pressure of the outer tank pumps from 38 psi to 17.5 psi.
This is to give priority to the inner tank fuel pumps for structural reasons.
When the inner tanks are empty, the engines will be automatically supplied from
the outer tanks So the outer fuel pumps run continuously.

Sequence Valves
Figure 18
10.6.4 Transfer Valves

The example at figure 13 shows the fuel tank split into two cells at rib 15. To
enable transfer to take place, two transfer valves are fitted in this instance at rib
15. Operation of these valves is actuated by a signal from low level sensors
shown just inboard of rib 2.

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10.6.5 L.P. Valve

LP Valve

Figure 19
The L.P. shut off valve enables isolation of the fuel system in the event of fire and
engine maintenance, i.e. engine removal. Located at the top of the pylon on the
outside of the front wing spar it will be controlled normally be operation of the fire
handles and activated by either a pair of electric motors or mechanically as
shown above.
10.6.6 Cross Feed Valve

Cross-feed Valve

Figure 20
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The cross feed valve enables fuel to be fed to any engine from any tank.
Normally of a spherical type construction with two 28 VDC electric motors
mounted on a differential gearbox. One motor only will drive the valve at any
time, the other motor is a back up. The cross feed valve would normally be fitted
on the rear spar as shown in the figure.
10.7 APU FUEL FEED
The feed to the APU is taken from the left engine feed but may be taken from the
right engine feed when the cross feed valve is open.
The tank booster pumps can supply fuel to the APU at the required pressure. For
starting the APU without electrical power available for the tank pumps, a separate
pump is provided that can be operated from the aircraft batteries and is mounted
in the feed line on the rear spar of the centre section.
The supply of fuel to the APU can be shut off by a valve mounted on the rear spar
of the centre section. It is a spherical plug valve driven by a double motor
actuator. To provide the maximum integrity, the two actuators are supplied from
different busbars and the cables are located in separated routes.
The feed pipe emerges from the top of the tank and passes through the
pressurised fuselage in a drained and vented shroud that extends to the APU fire
wall.

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APU Fuel feed


Figure 21

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10.8 DUMPING, VENTING AND DRAINING


10.9 DUMPING (JETTISON)
Fuel jettison systems are fitted to a number of large commercial aircraft to allow
the jettisoning of fuel in an emergency thus reducing weight so as to prevent
structural damage when landing.
Fuel jettison systems are often fitted after the installation of a centre tank,
because of the extra fuel weight.
The system illustrated is from a wide-bodied twin fitted with multi tanks and
booster pumps. The jettison pipe is branched off the feed pipe between the inner
tank fuel pump and the inner tank shut off valve.
A check valve is installed to separate the outer tanks during jettisoning. The
function of this check valve is to prevent the dumping of the outer tanks fuel. The
jettison pipe runs inside the wing tanks through the ribs into the outer tanks,
where the jettison valves are installed. These valves are fitted to the bottom of
the tank.

Jettison System
Figure 22
Because of electrical emergency situations, the valve will be driven by two 28
VDC electric motors. The motors are mounted from the outside and are attached
to the bottom of the tank through a gearbox and in many instances are
interchangeable with the cross feed valves.

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Shut Off Valve


Figure 23
The outlet of the jettison pipe is normally at the end of the flap track fairing and
fitted with an anti corona device to avoid vaporisation of the fuel. A normal
transfer rate will be in the region of 30-350 litres per minute.

Fuel Jettison
Figure 24

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The jettison operation is controlled from a jettison panel located either on a flight
engineers station or from an overhead panel on a two crew configuration.
Normally the panel is protected by a quick release cover.
In the following example, two switches are provided to operate the jettison valve.
i.

A primary switch for motor number one.

ii.

A guarded secondary switch for motor number two.

Fuel Jettison Control


Figure 25
The position of the right and left-hand jettison valve is monitored by two magnetic
indicators, showing green cross-line when the valve is closed and in-line when
the valve is open. As is common with this type of indicator, it will show amber
cross-line to indicate transit or malfunction.

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10.10

THE VENT SUB-SYSTEM

10.10.1 General

An air vent is fitted to the top of each tank to allow free flow of air in and out of the
tank as the fuel level rises and falls. This is known as inwards and outwards
venting and is required to prevent over pressurisation of the tanks as the fuel
level rises and depressurisation as it falls.
10.10.2 Venting Due to Heat

Another important aspect of an aircraft vent sub-system is that it must be able to


cope automatically with any expansion and/or contraction of the fuel. As the fuel
expands, due to heat, the vent must allow air and sometimes fuel, to escape to
atmosphere via vent pipes. Conversely the sub-system must allow air into the
tanks during contraction of the fuel when the outside air temperature (OAT) is
decreasing.
10.10.3 Unpressurised System Venting

This is a very simple method of venting tanks which requires only that fuel tank
vent orifices be connected to a vent pipe gallery, which leads to atmosphere
directly. Venting of this type is found mainly in small aircraft; some helicopters
and aircraft with low flight ceilings.
The disadvantages of open orifice or open vented tanks are that they are
subject to fuel venting during manoeuvres, they limit the maximum ceiling of the
aircraft due to the fact that fuel boils at the low ambient atmospheric pressure
found at altitude; danger of cavitation in fuel supply lines if fuel should boil;
increased rate of evaporation (REID VAPOUR PRESSURE) leading to a greater
fire risk.
REID VAPOUR PRESSURE (RVP) the rate at which fuel gives off vapour.
Obviously there are many inherent problems with the open vented system. It is
for many reasons that most aircraft fuel systems are pressurised.
10.10.4 Pressurised Fuel Tanks

On most large aircraft, the fuel tanks are vented through a pipe connected to the
surge vent tank. The vent pipes are sized to prevent tank overpressure in the
event of a refuel cut off failure.
In the example shown, the centre tank vent pipe is connected to the left-hand
surge vent tank.
The inner and outer tank pipes are connected to the relevant side surge vent
tank.
The centre tank vent pipe ends inside the surge vent tank at the top. The inner
and outer vent pipes end about 3 centimetres above the bottom of the surge vent
tank.
These ends are arranged so that any fuel overflowing into the surge vent tank is
drawn back into the wing tanks by suction, as long as one or more fuel pumps are
running. On some aircraft fuel pumps are fitted to pump the fuel back to the
tanks from the surge tank and will be activated by a float switch.
Each vent tank is vented to atmosphere via the NACA valve.
This valve ensures tank pressurisation during flight and allows the fuel to flow out
in the event of a high level cut-off failure during refuelling.

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On some aircraft a frangeable disc is fitted in the surge tank to prevent structural
damage caused by over pressure. A flame arrester is also fitted in the NACA
intake in case of ground fires.

Venting System
Figure 26

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Figure 27

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10.10.5 Float Valves

Each wing tank is provided with an additional vent opening.


This opening is connected to the corresponding venting line and controlled by a
vent float valve situated at the highest point of the tank.

Vent Float Valve


Figure 28

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10.10.6 Vent Pipe Drains

At the lowest points of each vent pipe, a self-draining non-return valve is


connected. The type shown is made of synthetic rubber.

Vent Drain Valve


Figure 29

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The use of the centre wing box as a tank on some aircraft has made it necessary
to protect this area against leaking fuel. A vapour seal is installed around the
forward and lower part of the tank. The space between the tank sink and the
vapour seal is ventilated with air coming from the air conditioning system. The air
is directed to the outside through several small outlets. If the tank has a fuel leak,
the vent air line will collect this fuel and drain it through these outlets.

External Ventilation of Centre Tank


Figure 30

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10.11

CROSS-FEED AND TRANSFER

Cross-feed Valves permit the transfer of fuel from any tank to any engine,
whereas Transfer Valves enable fuel to be transferred from tank to tank.
10.11.1 Auto transfer

When an aircraft has a wing with lateral dihedral the fuel pumps will normally be
inboard and the fuel flow towards the wing root. When the wing contains more
than one tank, the outboard tank will automatically transfer into the inboard tank
and so be the first to empty. Since the inboard tanks will be feeding the engines,
a transfer valve between the inboard and outboard tanks will be opened
automatically, whenever a high level float switch in the inboard tank detects it
being not full.

Cross Feed Control Panel


Figure 31

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Figure 32
10.11.2 Manual transfer

No in-flight transfer of fuel between left and right mainplanes is possible for
reasons of trim. However fuel can be fed from any tank to any engine by means
of boost pump selection and the opening of a crossfeed valve from the flight
deck.

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10.12

INDICATIONS AND WARNINGS

Provision is made to display fuel tank quantity, boost pump low pressure,
crossfeed valve and fuel/fire shut off valve position, on the flight deck overhead
panel. Though the layout will vary from aircraft type to type, generally it will be
similar to the examples shown below.

Overhead panel - Push switch type


Figure 33

B1 Mod 11.10

Overhead panel - Toggle switch type


Figure 34

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Additionally, aural and visual warnings on the glare shield will result if the fuel
system develops a fault.

Glare Shield and Fire Warning Panel


Figure35

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ECAM System Display


Figure 36

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10.13
FUEL LEVEL SENSING
A modern aircraft will use thermistors to send signals through amplifiers to
actuate warnings, sequencing, etc. Older aircraft may use float switches as
shown in the following diagram.

Low Level Sensing


Figure 37
Float operated switches are of a magnetic type, similar to the one shown above
and are designed to isolate the electrical mechanism from the fuel tank for safety
reasons. Upward movement of the float brings the armature closer to the magnet
and at a predetermined fuel level, it has sufficient influence to attract the magnet,
which results in operation of the micro switch. As the fuel level and the float fall,
the attraction of the armature is eventually overcome by the combined forces of
the counterweight and the micro switch spring and the counterweight falls,
changing the micro switch circuit.
Whether they are float switches or thermistors, their functions are as follows.
1
2
3
4
5

High level sensing.


Overflow sensing.
Low level sensing.
Under full level sensing.
Level sensing for calibration (Fuel Trim only).

10.13.1 High Level Sensing

High level sensing is installed to prevent an overfilling of the fuel tanks. When the
fuel washes around the respective sensor, the:
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associate refuel/defuel valve closes.


blue FULL light on the fuelling panel comes on.
The high level signal from the inner and outer tanks could be used for
computation purposes in the fuel quantity computer, when refuelling in AUTO
MODE.
10.13.2 Overflow Sensing

If during refuelling the high level shut off system fails, fuel enters the adjacent
vent tank and washes around the overflow sensor. This is indicated by the amber
FULL light on the refuel panel.
10.13.3 Low Level Sensing

Low level sensing is divided into:


outer tank low level and
inner/centre tank low level sensing.
If the outer tank LO LVL sensor is exposed to air, the associated amber LO LVL
light comes on.
The inner/centre tank low level sensing have only in the AUTO MODE a function
(ref. fuel pump control).
10.13.4 Calibration Sensing (Fuel Trim only)

Calibration sensors are installed in centre tanks, inner tanks and trim tank. They
give a signal at a predetermined filling level in the trim tank for accuracy test of
the fuel quantity indication during refuelling. For the trim tank the calibration
sensor switching level is corrected by the stabiliser position.
10.13.5 Under Full Level Sensing

When the fuel quantity drops in either outer tank below a certain level, the
maximum flight speed (VMO) becomes reduced in order to protect the wing
structure. The sensor signals are sent to the ADC (Air Data Computer).
10.14
FUEL QUANTITY SYSTEM MEASUREMENT AND INDICATION
The system has the following tasks:
1
Measuring of the fuel quantity in the tanks.
2
Indicating of the fuel quantity on:
The fuel quantity indicator.
The pre-selector.
The ECAM system fuel page.
ECAM/EFIS.
3
Controlling of automatic refuelling.
4
Fuel quantity messaging to the flight management computer.
The system comprises:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

B1 Mod 11.10

fuel quantity computer.


capacitance probes.
capacitance index compensator.
cadensicon sensor.
attitude sensor.
THS position detector.
associated indicator in the flight compartment.

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10.15
PRINCIPLE OF CAPACITANCE GAUGING
A capacitor is an electrical device which stores electrical charge. The amount of
charge it can hold depends upon three physical properties of the capacitor itself,
namely:
a. The surface area of the plates.
b. The size of the gap between the plates.
c. The insulating material (dielectric) between the plates.
In a fuel tank capacitor stack two of the above are fixed, ie. the area of the
plates and the gap between them. The only variable is the dielectric which, in a
fuel tank, is either fuel or air or both. The amount of charge held in the capacitor,
when the tank is full, will be of a preset value. As the fuel level falls, the dielectric
will gradually change to air and the amount of charge stored will reduce. This
change in capacitance is sensed by a signal conditioner and the change in fuel
level is thus sensed.
10.16
FUEL QUANTITY INDICATING SYSTEM
Each tank has installed a group of probes arranged so that a minimum of one
probe is immersed at all times, the number of probes will vary from aircraft to
aircraft. The following example is from a wide-bodied twin fitted with a fuel trim
system.
The number of probes is:
6 in each outer tank.
6 in each inner tank.
4 in the centre tank.

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The probes of each group are wired in parallel and connected to a summing
adapter, located on the wing rear spar. The probe level signals are sent to the
fuel quantity computer.

Wing Capacitance Probe Installation


Figure 38
10.16.1 Capacitance Index Compensator

One compensator is installed in each tank to the lowest located capacitance


probe.
Separated wiring for these units is routed to the fuel quantity computer.

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The purpose of the index compensator is to sense the different types of fuels,
additives, etc. and make correction signals for accurate fuel readings.

Capacitance Index Compensator - Installation


Figure 39

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Probe Installation Trim Tank


Figure 40

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10.16.2 Measurement

The signals from the capacitance probes in each tank are sent via adapters to the
fuel quantity computer. The computer calculates the fuel quantity. To increase
the measuring accuracy, further signals enter the computation:

capacitance index compensator, balances different fuel types.


Condensicon sensor:
Senses while refuelling the:
Density
Dielectric constant of running fuel.
Attitude Sensor:
Senses on ground and in flight the attitude of the aircraft to the:
Roll axis (longitudinal)
Pitch axis (lateral)
The attitude signal computation depends on the AIR/GRND signal (wing
bending direction).
THS Position Detector
Senses the THS position steady and gives its signal to the fuel quantity
computer for correction of trim tank fuel measurement.
Fuel Quantity Indicator
The fuel quantity of the tanks is normally displayed in 10 kg steps. Power supply
and the indication signals are delivered by the fuel quantity computer. To avoid
transmission errors, the indicator sends feedback signals to the computer. The
indicator is also used for test purposes. In the test mode, the indicator displays
different number codes.
The examples shown are from an aircraft with a two-man crew. The refuelling
system will be looked at later. The aircraft is a twin with a centre tank, an inner
and an outer tank.
Note: The LO LVL lights in the indicator receive their signals from the outer tank
LO LVL sensing circuit.
10.17

REFUELLING AND DE-FUELLING

10.18
REFUELLING
As you will be aware, as any liquid flows through a pipeline, it will produce Static
Electricity. If this static electricity were allowed to discharge in the presence of
aviation fuel vapour, an explosion would result, with possible catastrophic results.
To therefore minimise the explosion risks, the following guidelines must be
followed.
Safety Precautions:
Use correct grade of fuel (Av-gas, Av-tur, Av-tag).
No smoking within 15m.

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No metal studded or tipped footwear.


Correct bonding of Aircraft and Bowser.
Correct positioning of Bowser.
No vehicles or Ground Equipment under the aircraft.
Maintenance activity kept to a minimum.
No replenishment of LOX.
No transmitting of Radar
Aircraft & Bowser not to be left unattended.
Check and remedy fuel spillage or leakage.
Appropriate Fire Appliance readily available.
The electrical state of the Aircraft must not change while connected to the
Bowser.

Refuelling a small aircraft is no more complex than filling the family car. One
limitation is that on some aircraft it is not possible to fly the aircraft with all the
seats occupied with full baggage allowance, when the tanks are full. This means
that if the aircraft is to be flown fully loaded, it may be necessary to re-fuel to less
than full, to keep the aircraft within its weight limits.
As the aircraft become more complex, the refuelling exercise has to be carried
out with more care. If the aircraft is small but has say, two tanks in each wing,
and the fuel load is to be three quarters full; then it may be the rule for that aircraft
that the inner tanks have to be filled to the top first and the remainder put into the
outer tanks. This puts less bending load on to the wing spars.
When we get to larger aircraft, there are several further problems to consider. Not
only must the aircraft be filled laterally in the correct order but, if the aircraft has
the fin, tailplane and rear fuselage tanks mentioned earlier, it must be refuelled in
the correct order longitudinally as well to ensure the aircraft stability is
maintained.

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Modern large aircraft utilise pressure refuelling, which has replaced open line
refuelling on most aircraft with high fuel capacities. The time taken to fill a Boeing
747 through a normal hose and nozzle system would take hours. With pressure
refuelling, a large diameter hose is rigidly connected to a coupling in the aircraft
and fuel under pressure of about 40 psi is pumped into the aircraft tanks. To
assist this operation, most aircraft can have the total fuel load pre-set at the point
of connection so that the aircraft stops the refuelling at the correct time. The
illustrations show the location and layout of a typical, Boeing 777, refuelling
panel.

Boeing Refuelling Panel


Figure 41

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10.18.1 Pressure Refuel Functional Description

Fuel flows from the refuel adapters into the refuel/jettison manifold. When the
refuel valves open, fuel flows from the manifold into the fuel tanks. A flow tube at
the end of each refuel valve decreases the exit force of the fuel. The flow tube
also puts the fuel in different parts of the tank.

Refuel System Layout


Figure 42

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As each tank reaches full, the high level sensor signals the refuel valve to close
to stop fuel flow. When all refuel flow ceases, fuel that is left in the refuel/jettison
manifold goes through the manifold drain valves and into the main tanks. The
manifold has two vacuum relief valves. These valves permit air into the manifold
when the fuel leaves via the manifold drain valves.
Refuel Manifold Drain Valve
Fig 43

Refuel Manifold Drain Valve


Figure 43

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If a refuel system failure prevents the refuel valves from closing, fuel goes into the
surge tanks. If the fuel gets to the level of the surge tank float switches, the switch
closes, and all refuel valves are closed.

Surge Tank Float Switch


Fig 44

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10.19

DEFUELLING

Defuelling a pressure type fuel system is almost the reverse of the refuelling
procedure. A de-fuel bowser would be connected to the single fuel point coupling,
and using a combination of both the bowsers suction pump and the aircrafts own
fuel supply booster pumps, selected tanks can have their contents returned to the
bowser.

Defuel System Layout


Fig 45

10.20
LONGITUDINAL BALANCE FUEL SYSTEMS
The weight of the fuel is a large percentage of an aircrafts total weight, and the
balance of the aircraft in flight changes as the fuel is used. These conditions add
to the complexity of the design of an aircraft fuel system. In small aircraft the fuel
tank or tanks are located near the centre of gravity so the balance changes very
little as the fuel is used. In large aircraft, fuel tanks are installed in every available
location and fuel valves allow the flight engineer to keep the aircraft balanced by
scheduling the use of the fuel from the various tanks. High performance military
jets and more modern civil aircraft will use a fully automatic fuel scheduling
system to reduce the workload on the flight crew.

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10.21

SUPERSONIC FLIGHT FUEL TRANSFER

Longitudinal Fuel Transfer


Figure 46

In supersonic flight the aerodynamic centre of pressure moves aft, thus changing
the longitudinal stability. This was compensated in aircraft like Concorde, by
moving the centre of gravity, shifting fuel as necessary between the fuel tanks in
the rear fuselage and the wings as shown in the previous diagram.

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uk

MODULE 11.11
HYDRAULIC POWER

engineering

CONTENTS
11 HYDRAULIC POWER INTRODUCTION ...................................... 11-3
11.1

11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12
11.13
11.14
11.15
11.16

11.17

11.18
11.19
11.20
11.21

11.22
11.23

COMPARISON W ITH OTHER POWER TRANSFER SYSTEMS ............... 11-3


11.1.1 Mechanical Systems ..................................................... 11-3
11.1.2 Electrical Systems ......................................................... 11-4
11.1.3 Pneumatic Systems ...................................................... 11-4
BASIC HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES ...................................................... 11-5
COMPRESSIBILITY ......................................................................... 11-5
PASCALS LAW OF FLUID COMPRESSIBILITY .................................... 11-5
FORCE DUE TO FLUID PRESSURE .................................................. 11-6
DIFFERENTIAL AREA ..................................................................... 11-7
HYDRAULIC FLUIDS ....................................................................... 11-8
EFFICIENCY .................................................................................. 11-8
PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL HYDRAULIC FLUID .................................. 11-8
TYPES OF HYDRAULIC FLUID ......................................................... 11-8
SEALS ......................................................................................... 11-9
11.11.1 Types of Seals .............................................................. 11-10
HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEMS ............................................... 11-13
SIMPLE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM ......................................................... 11-15
11.13.1 Operation (Fig. 15) ........................................................ 11-16
SYSTEM COMPONENTS ................................................................. 11-20
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 11-20
RESERVOIRS ............................................................................... 11-20
11.16.1 Vented Reservoir .......................................................... 11-21
Pressurised Reservoir................................................................. 11-22
11.16.3 Remote Servicing Point ................................................. 11-25
11.16.4 Filters ............................................................................ 11-26
ACCUMULATORS ........................................................................... 11-28
11.17.1 Purpose ........................................................................ 11-28
11.17.2 Construction .................................................................. 11-28
11.17.3 Charging Operation ....................................................... 11-29
11.17.4 Bladder & Diaphragm Type Accumulators ..................... 11-29
PRESSURE GENERATION (HYDRAULIC PUMPS) ............................... 11-32
HAND PUMPS ............................................................................... 11-33
SUCTION BOOST PUMPS............................................................... 11-34
POWERED PUMPS ........................................................................ 11-35
11.21.1 Constant Volume Fixed Displacement Pumps............... 11-35
11.21.2 Piston Pumps ................................................................ 11-37
11.21.3 Unloading (cut-out) Valve .............................................. 11-41
11.21.4 Constant Pressure/Variable Displacement Pump .......... 11-42
11.21.5 Stratopower Pumps....................................................... 11-44
11.21.6 Operation ...................................................................... 11-45
EMERGENCY PRESSURE GENERATION ........................................... 11-47
HAND PUMPS ............................................................................... 11-47

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11.24
11.25
11.26
11.27
11.28
11.29
11.30

11.31

11.32
11.33
11.34

11.35
11.36
11.37
11.38

DUPLICATION OF SUPPLY .............................................................. 11-47


ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN PUMPS (EMDPS) 115V AC .................. 11-51
AIR TURBINE MOTOR DRIVEN PUMPS (ATMS OR ATDPS) ............. 11-52
POWER TRANSFER UNITS (PTUS) ................................................ 11-53
HYDRAULIC RAM AIR TURBINES (HYRATS) ................................... 11-54
HYDRAULIC VALVES ................................................................ 11-55
PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES........................................................ 11-55
11.30.1 Pressure Relief Valve .................................................... 11-55
11.30.2 Pressure Regulators ..................................................... 11-56
11.30.3 Thermal Relief Valve ..................................................... 11-57
11.30.4 Pressure Reducing Valve .............................................. 11-58
FLOW CONTROL VALVES ............................................................... 11-59
11.31.1 Non-Return (Check) Valve ............................................ 11-59
11.31.2 Selector Valves ............................................................. 11-61
11.31.3 Priority Valves ............................................................... 11-65
11.31.4 Sequence Valves .......................................................... 11-66
11.31.5 Hydraulic Fuses ............................................................ 11-68
POWER DISTRIBUTION .................................................................. 11-70
POWER CIRCUITS ......................................................................... 11-71
COMPONENT CIRCUITS ................................................................. 11-73
11.34.1 Flaps ............................................................................. 11-73
11.34.2 Landing Gear ................................................................ 11-76
HYDRAULIC POWER - INDICATION AND W ARNING SYSTEMS ............. 11-76
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE ................................................................. 11-77
HYDRAULIC QUANTITY .................................................................. 11-80
INTERFACES WITH OTHER SYSTEMS ............................................... 11-83

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11 HYDRAULIC POWER INTRODUCTION


This section explains the basic principles, advantages, operation and
layouts of aircraft hydraulic power systems. It also describes the various
materials used and the function of the associated components that
make up, operate and control different types of hydraulic systems and Fluid power: The
the interface of hydraulic power with other systems.
transmission of force by
Fluid power systems are mechanical systems in which a moving fluid
performs work. This fluid may either be a compressible gas or an
incompressible liquid. Systems that use compressible fluids
(gasses) are called pneumatic systems, and those that use
incompressible fluids are called hydraulic systems.
Hydraulic power is often used to operate aircraft landing gear, flight
controls, flaps and slats, air brakes, wheel brakes, nose-wheel
steering, freight doors etc. in conjunction with other systems. This
method of operation is termed; Hydraulic Actuation.
11.1 COMPARISON WITH OTHER POWER TRANSFER
SYSTEMS

the movement of a fluid.


i.e. Hydraulic and
pneumatic systems.

Fluid: A substance,
either a gas or a liquid,
which flows and
conforms to the shape of
its container.

Hydraulic actuation has the following advantages over mechanical,


electrical and pneumatic forms of remote control:
11.1.1 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

a Hydraulics provides smoother and steadier movement.

Hydraulics: A fluid
power system, which
transmits force through
an incompressible
fluid.

b Hydraulic power is confined to pipelines and components, which


avoids the extra strengthening of airframe structure required for
mechanical operations.
c Hydraulics systems have a higher Power/weight ratio than
mechanical systems, particularly on large transport aircraft.
d Installation of hydraulic equipment is simpler. Pipelines between
components for example, can be routed around obstructions and
structure, whereas to solve this problem mechanically requires
the use of levers, guides, bell-cranks and pulleys to change
direction of mechanical pushrods and cables.
e Variation in speed of operation can be achieved without the use of
complex gearing.
f

Finally, hydraulic actuation normally obtains its power from the


aircraft engines, which relieves the pilot of unnecessary fatigue
when operating a service.

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Pneumatics: A fluid
power system, which
transmits force through
a compressible fluid.

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11.1.2 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

The obvious advantage of electrical systems is that cables can be routed around
obstructions even easier than pipelines. They are also generally lighter in weight,
however, the power required to actuate landing gear and flight controls of large
aircraft, would require large electric motors powered by equally large (and heavy)
electrical generators, requiring high current cables connecting the system
components. Therefore, electrically operated systems are normally limited to light
aircraft.
11.1.3 PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS

Some older type aircraft used pneumatics to operate brakes systems and
emergency landing gear extension systems. Modern, large transport aircraft use
high-pressure pneumatics to actuate systems in high temperature, fire hazard areas
such as; jet-engine thrust reversing systems and engine starting operations, also
cabin pressurisation and air-conditioning systems. However, the main disadvantages
over hydraulic actuation is its compressibility when actuating highly loaded systems
such as landing gears and flight control operations. Also, difficulty in detecting leaks
in the system, and problems with moisture and corrosion contamination have limited
the use of pneumatic power as a remote control system.
Pneumatic power has some advantages such as; lightness and return lines are
unnecessary.

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11.2 BASIC HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES


11.3 COMPRESSIBILITY
All liquids have a high resistance to compression. The example in figure 1 shows two
cylinders of equal volume, each fitted with pistons, one containing liquid, the other
air. If a force of 20,000 N (Newtons) is applied to the pistons, the decrease in
volume of the air is large compared to that of the liquid, which is negligible.

Compressibility of Fluids
Figure. 1
11.4 PASCALS LAW OF FLUID COMPRESSIBILITY
Power transmission in a closed hydraulic (or pneumatic) system, is best
explained by PASCALS LAW, which states: Pressure in an enclosed
container is transmitted equally and undiminished to all parts of the
container and acts at right angles to the enclosing walls. See figure 2
Container (a), shows that pressure produced by
a fluid in an open container is caused by the
height of fluid above the point at which the
pressure is measured.
The higher the fluid above the gauge, the
greater the pressure.

Container (a)
Container (b)
Pascals Law
Figure. 2
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Container (b), shows that, when pressure


is applies to a liquid in a closed
container, the pressure rises to the same
amount in all parts of the container

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11.5 FORCE DUE TO FLUID PRESSURE


It has been stated that fluid pressure is transmitted equally in all directions, but in
hydraulic actuation it is more important to know the total effect of the pressure upon
a particular surface. In figure 3, a pressure of 10 N/mm is applied to one side of a
piston in a cylinder actuator.
The piston diameter is 40mm.
Its area is multiplied by the piston radius squared (r2)
i.e. 3.142 x 20mm = 1,256.8mm.
Therefore the force (load) that the piston can push is:
10N x 1,256.8mm = 12,568Nf

RETURN

PRESSURE =
10Nf/mm2

FORCE A =
12,568Nf

40mm

Force by an Actuator, due to Hydraulic Pressure


Figure. 3.
When the same value of hydraulic pressure is applied at the opposite side of the
piston (figure 4), the force will be smaller. This is due the ram, reducing the effective
piston area upon which the hydraulic pressure is acting. In this case the effective
area will be
The area of the piston, minus the area of the ram
i.e. (3.142 x 20mm x20mm) - (3.142 x 5mm x 5mm) = 1256.8mm2 - 78.55mm2
= 1178.25mm2
The force is now reduced to 10Nf/mm2 x 1178.25mm2 = 11782.5Nf.
RETURN

PRESSURE =
10Nf/mm2
10mm

FORCE B =
11782.5Nf

40mm

Reduced Force due to smaller piston area


Figure 4
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11.6 DIFFERENTIAL AREA


Another aspect of force produced by a fluid is the effect of differential area. When
the two fluid ports are connected together, as in actuator in figure 5, the pressure is
the same on both sides of the piston. The piston will move to the right. This is
caused by the area of the piston being reduced on one side by an amount equal to
the cross sectional area of the piston rod.
Since the force is 12568Nf on the larger area of the piston and 11782.5Nf on the
smaller area of piston, the resultant force will be 785.5Nf and the piston will extend.
= 10Nf/mm2
C = 785.5Nf

12568Nf

11782.5Nf

Resultant Force when equal pressure applied to both sides of piston


Figure 5

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11.7 HYDRAULIC FLUIDS


11.8 EFFICIENCY
The efficiency of a hydraulic system is governed by the resistance to motion, which
is encountered by the fluid. In practice, a certain amount of force is necessary to
overcome friction between pistons and cylinders, piston rods against bearings and
seals, etc.
Friction between the fluid and the walls of pipelines and hoses depends upon the:
a

Velocity of the fluid in the pipelines.

Bore, length and internal finish of the pipelines.

Number of bends in the pipelines and the radius of the bends.

Viscosity of the fluid.

11.9 PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL HYDRAULIC FLUID


Fluids used in an aircraft hydraulics system must have the following properties:
a

Be as incompressible as possible.

Have a very low viscosity rate.

Be free flowing over a wide temperature range.

Be chemically stable.

Not affect, or be affected by the materials in the system components.

Must not foam during operation when subject to sudden pressure increases or
decreases.

Have good lubrication properties.

Have a high flash point.

must not deteriorate or form sludge.

Not all fluids have these properties, therefore, the only type of fluid allowed in a
specific hydraulic system is that recommended by the manufacturer of the
hydraulic components (specified in the Maintenance Manual).
Technical bulletins issued by the fluid manufacturer provide information about the
compatibility of the hydraulic fluids with various aircraft materials.
11.10

TYPES OF HYDRAULIC FLUID

There are three basic types of hydraulic fluids used in aircraft hydraulic systems:
vegetable base, mineral base, and synthetic base.
1. Vegetable (Castor oil) base,

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DTD 900/4081
(MIL- H- 7644) - Golden yellow (or Blue) in
colour, used with natural rubber seals. It is inflammable, strips paint and attacks
synthetic rubber. It is toxic in a fine spray mist.
These systems can be flushed with alcohol. (Only found on very old aircraft types)
2. Mineral base,

DTD 585 (MIL- H- 5606) - Red in colour, used with synthetic rubber seals. It is a
kerosene-type petroleum product with good lubricating properties, but it is
inflammable and attacks natural rubber. It can be flushed with naphtha, varsol, or
Stoddard solvent. Neoprene seals and hoses may be used with this fluid.
Its density and lubricating properties vary with temperature.
3. Synthetic ester base,

SKYDROL 500B - Purple in colour, used with Butyl, Ethylene Propylene, or


Teflon seals. It is fire resistant, strips paint and attacks natural and synthetic
rubbers. It can operate in a very wide temperature range: -20C ( -68F) to 107C
(225F).
Skydrol systems can be flushed with trichlorethylene. Components can be cleaned
with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), or isopropyl alcohol.
Skydrol will cause irritation of the skin and burning of the eyes, therefore protective
equipment and clothing should be worn when handling this fluid.
CAUTION: These fluids are not compatible with each other and must never be
mixed, or used to replace each other.
Note: If a system has been inadvertently serviced with the wrong fluid, the complete
system must be drained and flushed with an approved solvent, and all the seals in
the system must be replaced. Seals can only be identified by Part number,
obtained from the appropriate Illustrated Parts Catalogue.
11.11

SEALS

Seals are used throughout hydraulic and pneumatic systems to minimise internal
leakage and the loss of system pressure. The two main types of seals used in
aviation are:
a) Gaskets. These are used where there is no relative movement between
the surfaces. (Covers, inspection panels and end-plate sealing etc.)
b) Packings.
Used where relative movement does exist.
(Piston and actuator sealing, rotating shaft sealing etc.)
All rubber seals have a Shelf life starting from the Cure date (Date of manufacture)
This shelf life is dependant on the type of material, its use and the conditions of
storage.

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Note:
All rubber items should be stored in a constant, dry and relatively cool
environment, away from any form of Ultra-Violet (UV) light, (Sunlight or strong
artificial light) and ionised atmospheres. (Storage batteries and strong magnetic
fields). Such varying conditions and harsh atmospheres can cause rapid
deterioration and reduced self-life of all rubber components.
Rubber seals are supplied individually in hermetically-sealed packaging, the Cure
date being clearly marked on each package, together with the manufacturers part
number, Batch number and Mil Spec. The seals should be stored in their original,
unopened packaging until required for use. The issue of seals from the Bonded
Store should be as they are received. First in First Out
11.11.1

TYPES OF SEALS

There are many different types of seals available for a variety of applications. Most
can be broken down into six general designs:
Chevron/V-ring, U-section, Square section, O-ring, Bonded Seal, Wiper ring, Duplex,

One-way seals:
Both Chevron (V-ring) and U-section seals
derive their name from their shape. (See fig.
6a) These seals will prevent fluid flow in one
direction only. To prevent flow in both
directions, two sets of seals must be installed
placed back-to-back. (See fig. 6b)
Both seal types are used in very high-pressure
situations, normally with two or more seals
placed together as in fig. 6b.

Figure 6a
Chevron/V-ring & U-section Seals

The apex or point of the seal rests in the


groove of a back-up ring. A spreader ring is
installed in front of the seal and compressed by
an adjusting nut, expanding the seals and
holding them tight against the actuator cylinder
wall.
U-section seals are used in the same manner
but with different shaped back-up and seal
retaining methods.
Figure 6b
Correct placement of Chevron seals
on a double-acting hydraulic piston

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Double-acting (Two-way) seals: (Fig.7) are suitable for


applications where a positive seal and long life are essential.
The T section profile provides a stable base thus
preventing rolling and spiral failure. The PTFE backing rings
positioned either side of the seal prevent extrusion
(distortion) of the seal under high pressure and piston
speeds.

Figure. 7
Double Acting seal

Note: Extrusion is when the seal is forced to distort and


wedge between the piston and cylinder wall due to high
pressures and speeds. (See O ring illustration fig. ?)
Figure 8
Duplex Seal

Duplex seals: (Fig.8) are often installed in accumulators,


floating pistons and emergency air circuit components. They
consist of an inner layer of soft rubber bonded to a harder
outer layer, allowing it to seal against varying oil and air
pressures.
Square section seals: (Fig. 9) Often used on piston heads
and Landing gear Oleos. It can withstand high pressures
and sudden, high speed piston deflections. Soft metal or
Tufnol back-up rings are sometimes installed to provide
additional seal compression for good sealing and prevent
extrusion.

Figure 9
Square Section Seal

Wiper Ring Seal: (Fig. 10) This type does not act as a
pressure seal, but as a scraper, by removing dirt, oil and
water from the piston shaft, preventing damage to the
pressure seal, thereby prolonging the pressure seal life.

Fig. 10
Wiper Ring Seal

Note: It is extremely important to ensure the Wiper ring is


installed the correct way! otherwise it will allow FOD to pack
up against the pressure seal, causing rapid seal failure and
piston shaft wear.
Bonded Seal: (Fig. 11) These seals are fitted to banjo
unions, adaptor plugs, flush-mounted components etc. The
rubber seal is hermetically bonded to the metal washer and
is fitted between the two components thereby compressing
the seal to the extent of the metal washer thickness when the
components are tightened together.
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Fig. 11
Bonded Seal

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O-ring Seal: This is the most commonly


used double-acting (Two-way) seal used
in fluid and pneumatic systems. It can be
used either as a gasket or a packing seal
in
both
static
and
reciprocating
applications. The seal fits into a groove in
one of the surfaces to be sealed, the
depth of which should be 10% less than
the seal diameter. (See fig.12). This
provides the compression of the seal
against the mating component to provide
a seal under zero pressure conditions.
Fig. 13 (A) shows the correct sealing
condition. Fluid pressure forces the seal
against the side of the grove and wedging
it tightly against the piston and cylinder
wall. With less than 10% pinch, fluid will
leak past the seal under low pressure
conditions. (See fig. 13 (B).

Figure. 12
The groove in which an O-ring seal
fits should be wider than the O-ring,
but the depth should be 10% less
than the O-ring diameter.

In some high pressure applications a


back-up ring is installed on the nonpressurised side of the O-ring on oneway operations, but both sides of the Oring should have back-up rings installed
on two-way operations to prevent
extrusion of the seal between the piston
and cylinder wall. (Fig. 13 (C)).
The mouth of a cylinder in which an Oring equipped piston fits must be
chamfered to avoid cutting or pinching of
the O-ring during installation. (Fig. 13 (D)).

Chamfer:-

Correct

Incorrect

Sealing action of an O-ring


Figure. 13.
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11.12

HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEMS

As aircraft have become more complex, the demand for hydraulically operated
equipment has increased. Retractable landing gear, wing flaps, brakes, engine
cowl flaps, passenger doors and stairs, hydraulically powered flight controls, i.e.
elevators, rudders, ailerons, air brakes and lift dump systems, leading edge flaps
and slats. On modern aircraft, this demand has warranted the design of a
complete and independent, Hydraulic Power Supply System
Figure 14 shows a block diagram of a large, jet transport aircraft.
To aid in understanding the development of the systems, we will start with a very
basic hydraulic system and build on it as we discuss the various components.

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Figure 14

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Large Aircraft Hydraulic System

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11.13

SIMPLE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Aircraft hydraulic systems consist of a varying number of components, depending


on the complexity of the system; i.e. fluid to transmit the force, pipelines and
hoses to carry the fluid to the components, a reservoir to store the fluid, a pump
to move the fluid, actuators to change the flow of fluid into mechanical work, and
valves to control the flow, direction and pressure of the fluid.
We will start with a simple system and add components to it, thereby developing
to a more complex system resembling that which you are likely to encounter in
the Aircraft Maintenance work-place.
Simple hydraulic system using a Reservoir, hand-pump, non-return valves,
double-acting, linear actuator and a three position, selector valve.

Simple Hydraulic System


Figure 15

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11.13.1

OPERATION (FIG. 15)

Hydraulic fluid, stored in the reservoir, is drawn into the hand pump via a pipeline
attached to the bottom of the reservoir, through a non-return valve (NRV) and
into the hand pump. The pump pushes the fluid through another NRV, via the
pressure pipeline, to a 3-position selector valve. Depending on the position
selected, it will either direct the fluid through a port, to one side of the doubleacting, linear actuator piston, or the other. Or it can be selected to the Off
position, which locks the fluid in the actuator and prevents any movement of the
piston in either direction. Fluid from the non-pressure side of the actuator piston,
is diverted back to the reservoir by another port in the selector valve via a return
pipeline.
By installing an Engine driven pump (EDP) (See figure 16) the pilot is relieved
from the physical task of hand pumping, which allows him to concentrate fully on
flying the aircraft. The hand pump is still retained however, and is used as an
Emergency back up, in case of an EDP failure. The hand pump is also used for
testing the hydraulic system when the aircraft is on the ground during servicing
operations and to build up the pressure in the system to operate the brakes
before the engines are started.

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The use of an EDP creates a problem in that the pump is still maintaining
pressure in the system when it is not needed during cruise flight, thereby wasting
valuable engine power. The pump absorbs very little power when it is not moving
fluid against an opposition. This problem is overcome by the installation of a
pump, unloading valve. (Also called an; Automatic Cut-out valve). This valve
relieves the pressure off the pump by diverting the fluid back to the reservoir. The
fluid circulates freely from the pump, to the reservoir and back to the pump again
with no opposition, thereby using very little engine power. The selector valve
holds fluid trapped in the actuator, preventing any movement, or creep of the
piston rod. (The actual operation of the unloading valve (cut-out valve) will be
discussed in detail in a later section.)

Non Self-idling Hydraulic System


Figure 16
When the piston has reached the end of its stroke, pressure will build up in the
system. This is relieved by the system pressure relief valve, which dumps the
excess pressure fluid back to the reservoir.
To maintain a positive pressure in the system when it is not operating, a nonreturn valve is installed in the pressure line from the pump, just after the
unloading valve. This prevents the back-pressure being sensed by the pump and
allows the unloading valve to divert the fluid back to the reservoir..
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An accumulator is installed to maintain a pressurised supply of fluid to absorb


the initial pressure drop in the system when a selector valve is opened,. It also
acts as a shock absorber to cushion the pressure surges of the fluid when the
actuator pistons reach the end of their travel, thus preventing damage to the
components. The accumulator has two compartments separated by a movable
piston or diaphragm. One compartment is connected to the pressure manifold
(pressure supply line) The other compartment is charged with air or nitrogen
through a charging valve. (Nitrogen is used because all water vapour is
removed during the processing of the gas at manufacture and the fact that
Nitrogen is an inert gas). This nitrogen pressure is felt across the piston or
diaphragm by the system fluid.
To actuate any hydraulic system with the engines running, the pilot places the
selector lever in the desired position. (Let us use a Flap selection as an
example) The system senses the pressure-drop and pressurised fluid flows
from the accumulator, through the selector valve to the desired side of the
actuator. The pressure-drop is also sensed by the unloading valve, which stops
dumping pressure back to the reservoir via the return manifold and allows full
pump pressure to feed the pressure manifold again during the operation of the
actuator. This action also charges up the accumulator again until the system
pressure relief valve senses the maximum system pressure, above which the
relief valve dumps the excessive pressure back to the reservoir via the return
manifold. Also at this time, the unloading valve once again senses the highpressure build-up and diverts the pump pressure back to the reservoir. The
system continues to recycle in this manner whenever there is a demand for
hydraulic power. As we continue to evolve the hydraulic system, you will notice
that the reservoir has been altered to include a supply line to the EDP which is
set higher in the reservoir than the emergency hand pump supply line. This
extension is called a standpipe or stackpipe. Its function is to ensure that
sufficient fluid is retained to operate the essential services such as brakes and
landing gear extension, in the event of loss of fluid due to an excessive leak,
down-stream of the brake and landing gear fluid pressure supply line. If the
broken line, or leaking component can be isolated, there will still be enough fluid
remaining in the reservoir to allow the emergency hand pump to lower the landing
gear and operate the brakes.
We can now add a few other items to the system to make it more usable. (Figure
17)
To keep the fluid in the system clean, we need a filter through which all the fluid
will pass. A typical location for the filter is in the return line just before the fluid
enters the reservoir. This is called the Scavenge or Return filter. Here, it will
catch all of the fluid, both that which is used to operate the actuators and that
which circulates through the pump via the unloading valve. A second filter is
installed immediately after the EDP to protect the rest of the hydraulic system
from contamination in case of EDP failure.

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Typical Constant Delivery (non-self idling) Hydraulic Power Circuit


Figure. 17

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11.14

SYSTEM COMPONENTS

11.15

INTRODUCTION

The following paragraphs describe various hydraulic components, including those


used in the circuits. Some components are similar in construction and operation,
but vary in the function they perform. Therefore, it is usual for the name of the
component to indicate its purpose. Unfortunately, due to a difference in the terms
used by the various manufacturers, some components with different names serve
similar functions, such as a selector valve and a control box act fundamentally
as a control valve. However, where different terms are used for similar
components, it will be mentioned in the appropriate paragraph.
11.16

RESERVOIRS

The reservoir stores the hydraulic fluid. It supplies fluid to the system through a
pump and receives the return fluid from the system. It accommodates the extra
fluid caused by thermal expansion and compensates for slight leaks, which may
occur throughout the system. Through its design, it provides a reserve supply of
fluid for emergency operation of systems which are essential for flight control and
landing. This is done by the installation of a standpipe (stackpipe). It should also
be observed that when the actuator piston rod is moved inwards, less fluid is
required as the piston rod occupies space within the cylinder. With the actuator in
this position, the surplus fluid is stored temporarily in the reservoir until the piston
travels in the opposite direction.

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11.16.1

VENTED RESERVOIR

Non-Pressurised (Vented) Reservoir


Figure. 18
CONSTRUCTION
1.
Welded, Aluminium Alloy.
2.
Vented Filler Cap.
3.
Metal, gauze strainer, To prevent FOD (Foreign Object Damage) and
contamination, during the filling operation.
4.
Sight glass, Indicating Maximum, Minimum and Normal Operating fluid
level.
5.
Remote level indicator, (To gauge on pilots instrument panel)
6.
Inlet connection. (From system Return manifold)
7.
Outlet connections, to Engine driven pump, (EDP) and Emergency handpump, (EHP)
A Vented reservoir is the type normally fitted to a Piston-engine, un-pressurised,
aircraft, which would normally operate below 20,000 feet altitude.
The reservoir is located at a higher level than the EDPs to ensure a positive
head of pressure supply of fluid throughout all normal flight manoeuvres.
However. when flying through turbulent air, negative g forces or high roll angles,
could cause a temporary loss of supply to the EDPs allowing them to run dry,
resulting in pump inlet cavitation. This could seriously damage the pump and
cause it to fail. To compensate for this, a low-pressure pump is sometimes
installed between the reservoir and the EDPs to ensure a positive head of
pressure during such conditions.

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11.16.2

PRESSURISED RESERVOIR

Typical Pressurised Reservoir


Figure.19
Jet and Turbo-prop aircraft that fly at altitudes higher than 20,000 feet require the
hydraulic reservoir to be pressurises to prevent foaming of the fluid due to the low
ambient air pressure at high altitudes, and to prevent pump cavitation in its inlet.
There are several ways in which pressurisation can be achieved:
a

A nitrogen charged cylinder.

Cabin pressurisation air.

Engine Compressor/ Bleed air. (P3)

Hydraulic system pressure

Construction
1.
Welded Aluminium Alloy.
2.
Pressurised via a Pressure Reducing Valve (PRV) from Engine
Compressor/ Bleed air, Cabin pressure, or from a Nitrogen storage
cylinder.
3.
Fluid quantity sight glass. (Indicating Max, Min, and Normal Operating fluid
levels)
4.
Max, pressure relief/ depressurising valve.

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5.
6.

Remote fluid level and temperature indicators (To gauges on pilots


instrument panel)
Return fluid de-aerator (Separates any air bubbles (foaming) absorbed into
the fluid during pressure changes, allowing de-aerated fluid to fall back
into the reservoir

Pressurised Reservoir using an Aspirator Regulator.


Figure 20
Figure 20 shows a typical method of pressurising a reservoir using Engine bleedair (P3) or Pressurised Cabin air. Pressurisation can vary between 30 to 45psi
depending on system design.
Figure 21 shows a typical reservoir pressurised by hydraulic system pressure.
Operation
System pressure acts on one side of a small piston attached to the bottom of the
main piston shaft, which exerts pressure on the fluid through the main piston.
Pressure ratios of about 50:1 are common for this type of reservoir. This means
that a 3,000 p.s.i. system pressure can pressurise the reservoir fluid to 60psi. The
fluid level in this type of reservoir is indicated by the amount the piston sticks out
of the body at the bottom of the reservoir. Low fluid level is sensed by the Level
sensing switch, which illuminates a light on the pilots instrument panel. In this
pressurised condition, both the return line from the system, and the EDP supply
line will be pressurised.
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Pressurised Reservoir
Figure 21

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11.16.3

REMOTE SERVICING POINT

On modern Jet and Turbo-prop aircraft it is common practice to install a Remote


Servicing Point (Fig. 22.) in a convenient place, with easy access from ground
level for maintenance personnel to carry out replenishment of the hydraulic fluid
level.
The Service point usually consists of;
a

Self-sealing, quick release, filler point

Hand pump.

Reservoir de-pressurisation valve.

Level indicator.

Selector Valve
SELECTOR VALVE
SHOWN CLOSED

FWD

PRESSURE FILL
CONNECTION
TO SYSTEM A
RESERVOIR

HAND
PUMP

FILTER
FILL
SUPPLY
TO STANDBY
AND B
SYSTEM
RESERVOIR

SUCTION HOSE.
(STAYS WITH
AIRCRAFT)

Hydraulic Reservoir, Remote Servicing Point.


Figure. 22
The servicing point allows fast and efficient servicing of the complete system
contents at all reservoirs.
Before connecting to the system, the Maintenance Manual procedures must be
followed and all hydraulic systems must be in the prescribed position to ensure
the correct fluid level is being indicated. The reservoir de-pressurisation valve
must be operated to relieve the reservoir pressure.

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11.16.4

FILTERS

The extremely small operating clearances in modern hydraulic pumps, valves and
components, require very effective filtration of the fluid. Therefore, filters are rated
by the size of particles, which they can arrest. The size of these particles is
measured in Microns.
One micron is equal to one millionth of a meter or 0.000039 inch. An indication
of just how small these particles are can be seen by the information in Fig. 23.
(e.g. Particles as small as 40 microns are just visible with the naked eye)

Filters, which will remove particles less than 10 microns will maintain a very clean
fluid

Relative Size of Particles Arrested by a Hydraulic Filter


Figure 23.

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There are several types of filtration designs, two of the most common types used
are shown in Fig 24. The paper element type, is made of specially treated paper
folded into pleats to increase its surface area. The micronic element is wrapped
around a spring wire coil to prevent it from collapsing under hydraulic pressure.
Such filters normally have a bypass valve across the filtering element in case the
filter becomes blocked with contamination, in which case the fluid bypasses the
filter allowing unfiltered fluid into the system rather than starving the system
completely of fluid.
Aircraft hydraulic filters are fitted at strategic locations throughout the system.
The main locations being:
L.P. (Low pressure) filter.
H.P. (High Pressure) filter.
By- pass filter.

Filters
Figure 24

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11.17

ACCUMULATORS

11.17.1

PURPOSE

a.

To absorb fluctuations in pressure.

b.

To ensure immediate response and delivery of pressurised fluid on demand.

c.

To allow limited operation of systems when the EDP is not running.

Hydraulic fluid is non-compressible, and pressure can only be stored with


compressible fluids. The compressibility effect can be gained by the using an
accumulator.
11.17.2

CONSTRUCTION

Accumulators are constructed from high-strength materials such as cast, or


machined, Aluminium alloys, or stainless steels. They consist of a container
divided into two compartments by some form of movable, sealing partition, There
are three types commonly used in aircraft hydraulic systems: Piston type,
Bladder type, and Diaphragm type. The Piston type, (Figure 25.) is in the form
of a cylinder with a floating piston. One compartment is connected to the system
pressure manifold, the other is charged with compressed dry-air, or nitrogen,
through a high pressure charging valve. The charging pressure is normally
around, 1,500psi. (Approximately half system operating pressure).

Sliding Piston Accumulator


Figure 25

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11.17.3

CHARGING OPERATION

As the accumulator is charged, (With zero system hydraulic pressure) the


piston moves to the top of the cylinder until it reaches its full stroke. The nitrogen
pressure is then allowed to build up to approximately 1,500psi. The accumulator
is now charged. A special, High-pressure (HP) valve, (See Figure 26) is then
checked for leaks, and the dust cap installed. NOTE: HP valve cores are
identified by a letter H, embossed on the end of the stem, and are NOT
interchangeable with inner-tube and tubeless tyre cores.

AN812, High Pressure (HP) Air Valve for Accumulators and Air-Oil Shock Struts.
Figure 26.

11.17.4

BLADDER & DIAPHRAGM TYPE ACCUMULATORS

CONSTRUCTION: Figure. 27 (A) & (B).


These accumulators are spherical in shape, usually made of cast, or moulded
aluminium, sometimes steel wire-wrapped. Others are of stainless steel. Both
form two compartments as in the piston type. One to accept the dry-air, or
nitrogen charge, the other connected to the fluid system pressure manifold.
OPERATION: The operation is similar the piston type in that, the lower compartment is
charged with dry-air, or nitrogen to a specified pressure, (usually between: 1,200 /
1,500psi).
As pressure builds up in the hydraulic pressure manifold above the nitrogen
pressure, hydraulic fluid is forced into the fluid compartment of the accumulator
and deflects the bladder, or diaphragm, compressing the nitrogen until maximum
system pressure is reached. (Usually around, 2,500 / 3,000 psi), Thereby
providing a flexible cushion of
In-compressible fluid via the medium of a compressible gas, transferred
through a flexible bladder, or diaphragm.
Some systems have a pressure gauge connected to the nitrogen side for quick
monitoring during servicing, without disturbing the charge valve.

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Bladder and Diaphragm Type Accumulators


Figure 27
Charging Valves
On the previous page, Figure 26. illustrates a simple high-pressure valve, which
seals through the valve core. Figure 28 shows two types of metal-to-metal
sealing vales which are more commonly used.
The AN6287-1 valve does not depend on the valve core to provide the seal, but
seals through metal-to-metal contact between the stem and the valve body. To
release air, loosen the swivel nut one turn and de-press the valve core. To
charge air, connect the special, high pressure hose fitting and apply pressure
through a regulator valve with the swivel nut open at leased one full turn.
CAUTION: Use great care and protect eyes and skin while charging, or releasing
high pressure air, or nitrogen.
The MS28889-1 valve is also used in many high pressure systems and is similar
to the AN6287-1, but with different features.
a) The swivel nut is the same size as the hexagon valve body, whereas the
swivel nut on the AN valve is smaller.
b) The stem is retained in the valve body by a roll pin to prevent the stem from
being unscrewed fully.
c) There is no valve core in this type, just the metal-to-metal sealing surface.
CAUTION: ALWAYS install the special, high pressure valve cap after you
have checked for leaks, and on completion of the work.
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Charging Valves
Figure 28

Deflation Cap
Figure 29
Figure. 29. Shows a special cap for safely deflating an accumulator, or air-oleo
strut under controlled conditions.
Screwing on the cap progressively, pushes the valve core off its seat slowly,
allowing gradual de-pressurisation to take place.

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11.18

PRESSURE GENERATION (HYDRAULIC PUMPS)

Hydraulic power is transmitted by the movement of fluid by a pump. The pump


does not create the pressure, but the pressure is produced when the flow of fluid
is restricted. We often use a hydraulic analogy for studying electricity, Therefore,
we will use our knowledge of electricity to help us understand hydraulic power.
The flow of fluid in a line is equivalent to the flow of electrons in a wire, the
current (I). The pressure that causes the flow is the same as the voltage (E), and
the opposition to the flow of fluid is the same as the resistance (R). If there is very
little friction in the line, very little pressure is needed to cause the fluid to flow.
In Fig. 30. we have a very simple electrical system, consisting of a battery, an
ammeter, a voltmeter, and a resistor. The ammeter measures the flow of
electrons in the circuit, and the voltmeter measures the voltage (pressure) drop
across the resistor. The hydraulic system in Fig. 31, is very similar in its
operation. The pump moves the fluid through the system and may be compared
to the battery, which forces electrons through the circuit. The flowmeter measures
the amount of flow, the valve acts as a variable opposition to the flow, and the
pressure gauge measures the pressure drop across the valve.
When the variable resistor is set to its minimum resistance, the current will be
maximum and there will be a minimum voltage drop across the resistor. In the
same way, when the valve is fully open, there will be a maximum flow of fluid and
a minimum pressure drop across the valve. When the resistance in the electrical
circuit is increased, the voltage across the resistor will increase and the current
will decrease. In the hydraulic system, as the valve is closed, the flow will
decrease and the pressure will increase. When the valve is fully closed, there will
be no flow and the pressure will increase to a value as high as the pump can
produce. If the pump is of the constant displacement type, there must be some
provision in the system to relieve the high pressure; otherwise the pump will be
damaged, or components in the system damaged.

Figure 30
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Figure 31
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11.19

HAND PUMPS

Single-action, piston type pumps, move fluid on one stroke only, while doubleaction pumps move fluid on both strokes. Most modern aircraft hydraulic systems
use the double-action type because of their greater efficiency.
Figure 32 illustrates the operating principle of a typical double-action hand pump.
This type is called a Piston rod displacement pump because the pumping action
is caused by the difference in area between the two sides of the piston, due to
the piston rod area displacement.
In view (A), the handle is pulling the piston to the left. Fluid is drawn in through
the inlet check valve, When the piston reaches the end of its stroke, chamber 1
is full of fluid and the inlet check valve closes by the action of its spring.
As the handle is moved to the right, as in view (B), the piston is pushed to the
right, forcing fluid through the outlet check valve and into chamber 2. The
volume of chamber 2 is smaller than chamber 1 because of the piston rod
area, therefore, the excess fluid is displaced through the outlet port.
On the return stroke, (To the left again) the remainder of the fluid in chamber 2
is also displaced through the outlet port. At the same time, a new charge of fluid
is being drawn into chamber 1, from the inlet port, through the inlet check valve.

Hand Pump Operation


Figure 32 (A)
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Hand Pump Operation


Figure 32 (B)

11.20

SUCTION BOOST PUMPS

This is a low-pressure pump, (Approx. 100 psi) whose prime function is to provide
a positive pressure to the inlet side of the main system pressure pump, to prevent
cavitation. It is located between the reservoir fluid supply and the Engine-driven
pump (EDP) inlet. The pump can be mounted independently, or attached to the
reservoir.
It is normally powered by a 3-phase electric motor, and in some cases, by a
hydraulic motor driven by system pressure.
Many modern hydraulic pumps have a Spur-gear type pump built into the body
of the main pressure pumps. (This will be discussed in more detail under Variable
displacement, piston type pumps).
In the event of a boost pump failure, The EDP (Main pressure pump) and system
will still operate, but at a possible reduced efficiency with a risk of cavitation of the
EDP. in severe cases.

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11.21

POWERED PUMPS

The only function of a pump is to move fluid through the system. There are a
number of ways powered pumps can do this.
The two basic types are:
1.
Constant Volume/Fixed displacement (Non-self idling). Figures. 33 & 34.
2.
Constant Pressure/Variable displacement (Self-idling). Figures. 43 & 44.
A Constant Volume/Fixed displacement, (Non-self idling) pump moves a
specific volume of fluid for each revolution of the drive-shaft. It requires some
form of Regulator, or Relief valve (Sometimes called a; Cut-out, or Unloading
valve) in the system to relieve the pressure which builds up when the pump
delivers more fluid than the system requires. (See Figs. 16, 17, and 33.).

Constant Volume/Fixed displacement (Non-self idling) Pump System


Figure 33
11.21.1

CONSTANT VOLUME FIXED DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

(Non Self- Idling)


The most common type of Constant volume (CV) pump for medium-pressure
systems, is the Gear pump type. (See Fig. 34.)
These pumps are very rugged and dependable, with few moving parts, relatively
easy and in-expensive to manufacture, compared with other types.

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The left-hand gear is driven by the engine through a splined shaft. This gear
rotates in a close fitting housing and drives the right-hand gear housed in the
same manner. As the gears rotate in the direction shown, fluid is transported
between the teeth around the outside of the gears, from the inlet side of the
pump. When the teeth mesh with each other, in the outlet chamber, fluid is
displaced into the outlet side of the pump.
A very small amount of fluid is allowed to leak past the gears and around the
shaft for lubrication, cooling, and sealing. This fluid drains into the hollow shafts
of the gears where it is picked up by the low pressure on the inlet side of the
pump.
A relief valve holds the oil in the shafts until it builds up to about 15 psi. This is
called; case pressure. This is maintained so that, in the event of the shaft, or
seal, becoming scored, fluid will be forced out of the pump rather than air being
drawn in.

Gear Type Hydraulic Pump


Figure.34
Spur gear pumps provide a good, non-pulsating, high flow rate, but are
limited to pressures up to about 800psi. Because of this, they are more
commonly used on smaller aircraft, but also as pressure back-up pumps for the
more powerful, piston-type pumps on larger aircraft, whos hydraulic systems
operating pressures are between: 1,200 to 3,000psi.

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11.21.2

PISTON PUMPS

Aircraft hydraulic systems that require a relatively small volume of fluid under a
pressure of 2,500 psi or more, often use fixed-angle, Multi-piston pumps as
shown in fig. 28.
a

Axial Piston Pump, (Figure 35)

This type of pump consists of a bronze cylinder block, rotated by a splined drive
shaft, driven by the engine, through a universal link. The cylinder housing is
mounted at a fixed angle to the drive shaft and bearing housing. The cylinder
block usually has seven, or nine axially-drilled holes, which accommodate,
High precision, close fitting pistons. These in turn are attached by a ball-jointed
rod to a pump drive plate which is rotated by the engine. As the piston and
cylinder block assembly are rotated by the drive-shaft, the pistons on one side
(upper pistons) are at the bottom of their stroke, and open to the Inlet port. due
to the angle of the housing. The pistons on the opposite side (Bottom pistons)
are then at the top on their stroke, open to the Outlet port. (See fig. 35)

Fixed Angle, Axial, Piston Type Hydraulic Pump


Figure 35
The stroke (Displacement) of the piston is dependent on the angle of the cylinder
housing to that of the bearing housing. As the whole assembly is rotated, fluid is
drawn in by the piston moving down in the one side of the cylinder block, while
fluid is being pushed out by the piston moving up in the opposite side of the
cylinder block.
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A valve plate with two crescent-shaped openings cover the end of the
cylinders. One above the pistons moving up, thereby pushing fluid through the
Outlet port. The other, above the pistons moving down, drawing fluid into the
cylinder, through the Inlet port.
b

Radial Piston Pumps

In this type of fixed volume pump, the cylinders are arranged radially around an
eccentric crankshaft. (See Fig.29A & B). When the crankshaft is rotated, the
pistons move outwards in each cylinder, forcing pressurised fluid into the annular
outlet port through each cylinder delivery valve. When each piston is at the
bottom of its stroke, the pistons uncover the inlet port, allowing a fresh charge of
fluid to enter each cylinder.
The fresh charge of fluid is then
compressed as the piston moves
outwards again forcing fluid once more
through the delivery valve. This process
is repeated with each revolution of the
eccentric crankshaft
Typical Radial, Piston-type,
Hydraulic Pump - Side View
Figure 36

Radial Piston Hydraulic Pump End View


Figure 37
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Typical Radial, Piston-type, hydraulic pump


Constant Volume/Fixed Displacement
Figure 38

Operation of radial, piston-type pump. (constant volume/ fixed displacement)


Figure 39
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Vane Pumps

These pumps are used in systems, which required moving a large volume of fluid,
but at relatively low pressures.
The vanes are allowed to float freely in slots machined in the rotor, and are held
in place by a spacer. This rotating assembly is attached to a drive shaft and is
driven by the engine, or, an electric motor. The rotating assembly is mounted
concentrically in a ported, steel sleeve which is pressed into a cast, aluminium
housing.

OPERATION: As the rotor turns in


the direction of the arrow, (Fig. 29.)
the volume between the vanes on
the inlet side increases, while the
volume between the vanes on the
outlet side decreases. This change
in volume draws fluid into the pump
through the inlet port, and discharges
it through the outlet port and into the
system

Vane-type Hydraulic Pump (Constant Volume Fixed Displacement


Fig. 40
This type of pump is normally used on light aircraft, particularly in POWERPACK type hydraulic systems, but is more generally used in fuel and pneumatic
systems than hydraulic systems.

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11.21.3

UNLOADING (CUT-OUT) VALVE

An Unloading (Cut-out) Valve of some sort is needed when a Constant


volume/Fixed displacement pump is used to relieve the engine of the pump
loading when there is no demand on the hydraulic system.

Fig. 41 Unloading (Cut-out) Valve during system demand

FIG. 42 UNLOADING (CUT-OUT) VALVE PUMP IDLING POSITION


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11.21.4

CONSTANT PRESSURE/VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP

A Constant pressure/Variable displacement, (Self-idling) pump, only moves an


amount of fluid, which the system requires, hence the term: Variable
displacement. As the pressure in the system builds up due to no actuation (no
fluid movement), the pump delivery displacement is automatically reduced to noflow. By varying the pump output, the system pressure can be maintained at a
constant, within the desired range without the use of Regulators (Cutout/Unloading valves). It allows the pumps to turn without delivering fluid to the
system. However, this can cause overheating of the pump. To prevent this, fluid
is by-passed back to the reservoir, by the LP spur-gear back-up pump, ensuring a
continuous flow of fluid through the HP piston pump at all times, even when there
is no fluid delivery to the system. Thus providing cooling of the pump.

Fig. 43 Constant Pressure/Variable displacement, (Self-idling) hydraulic


Pump
This type of pump is similar in construction to the fixed volume, axial-piston
type, (Figure 35) It is normally a 2 stage pump. The first stage usually consists of
a low pressure (LP), high volume, spur gear pump, (similar to the Radial pump
shown in Figure. 37). This ensures a positive supply of fluid to the second stage,
high pressure (HP), axial, Multi -piston pump, the cylinder block of which is driven
by a common drive shaft.

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The piston stroke is varied by a Yoke mechanism, sometimes called a Swashplate, or Cam. (See Figures. 43. & 44.) The pistons are attached to shoes that
rotate against the stationary Yoke. The angle between the Yoke and cylinder
block is varied, to increase, or decrease the piston stroke. This action is carried
out by a Servo Control Piston, which senses system pressure. This
pressure pushes the Servo Control Piston against the return spring pressure, and
reduces the Yoke angle, thereby, reducing the HP piston strokes. When the Yoke
is at 90 to the drive shaft, (Perpendicular to the pistons) the piston stroke is zero
and there is no flow of fluid, therefore, no load on the drive-shaft.

Fig. 44 Schematic of Constant Press./Variable displacement pump

Fig. 45 Constant Press/Variable displacement (Self-idling) hydraulic pump


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11.21.5

STRATOPOWER PUMPS

As previously discussed, some kind of unloading valve is required when using a


constant displacement pump. But the same force, (system operating pressure)
which controls this valve can be used to control the output of the variable
displacement pump. Figures 43, 44 and 45 shows variable displacement
pumps, which are controlled by a spring-loaded piston, which moves a pivoted
yoke, or swash-plate to adjust the stroke of the delivery pistons, thereby
regulating the fluid flow.
Another commonly used variable displacement pump for high pressure aircraft
hydraulic systems is the Stratopower demand-type pump illustrated in Figure.
38.

Fig. 46 Constant Pressure/Variable displacement, (Selfidling) hydraulic Pump.


(Stratopower Pump, demand-type)
This pump uses nine axially-orientated pistons and cylinders. The pistons are
driven up and down in the cylinders by a fixed-stroke cam. The stroke of the
pistons is the same regardless of system demand. In this type, the effective
length of the piston stroke controls the amount of fluid delivered to the system.
This type of pump usually has a delivery capacity of between 22-37gpm. (gallons
per minute) and maintains a nominal supply pressure of 3,000psi.

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11.21.6

OPERATION

The forces which control the pump output and system pressure is between the
compensator spring and the compensator stem piston. Pump out-put pressure is
ported around the compensator stem which acts as a piston and opposes the
compensator spring. As the pressure increases, the stem piston compresses the
compensator spring.

Fig. 47 Stratopower pump, flow and pressure controlling mechanism.


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The spider, which is connected to the compensator stem, moves the sleeves up
and down the delivery pistons. When the pressure is high, the stem piston moves
the spider, compressing the compensator spring and uncovers the relief holes
near the bottom of the delivery pistons during the full stroke. This allows the fluid
to be dumped during the compression stroke to the inlet side of the pump,
preventing fluid flow through the check-valves and into the system.
The pump is allowed to deliver a small amount of fluid even at its minimum
stroke to ensure adequate lubrication and cooling of the pump at all times during
operation.
When system pressure drops, the compensator spring forces the stem and spider
assembly down the piston, covering the relief holes at the bottom of the delivery
piston stroke. This prevents bleed-off of fluid during the compression stroke. The
compressed fluid is then forced out through the check valves and into the system
to meet the fluid demand. During any intermediate pressure condition the spider
sleeves cover the relief holes at some point along the discharge pistons stroke,
thereby maintaining system pressure and fluid flow to the required value. The
value of the compensator valve is set by the pressure adjusting screw, which
varies the tension of the compensator spring.

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11.22

EMERGENCY PRESSURE GENERATION

A failure of the hydraulic supply circuit may have a disastrous effect on the
operation of the aircraft. If such an emergency arises, provision must be made to
supply the services which are hydraulically operated by some alternative source
of power. There are several ways in which this can be achieved;
a

Hand-pump operated by the pilot,

Duplication of supplies,

Electrically operated AC or DC pumps,

Compressed air, Air turbine motor driven pumps, (A.T.M.)

Ram-air turbine pumps, (R.A.T.)

11.23

HAND PUMPS

The Hand-pump operation has been explained in Chapter 6.1


Almost all aircraft with a hydraulic power system installed have an Emergency
hand-pump mounted in the cockpit or flight deck. It is usually mounted and
stowed under the floor, between the pilots seats, thereby allowing either pilot or
co-pilot to operate it with relative ease while still flying the aircraft. A quick-release
access cover is usually marked in Red or Yellow and Black stripes, indicating;
Emergency operation.
The hand-pump is connected in parallel with the Engine driven pump (EDP) but
has an independent fluid supply line from the Reservoir which draws hydraulic
fluid from a lower level in the reservoir than the EDP supply, This ensures a
positive supply of fluid if the level is low. (See Figure 18)
In some systems the hand-pump is also used to initially pressurise the system to
ensure adequate system pressure to operate the emergency or park brake
system prior to towing, parking and engine start-up of the aircraft.
11.24

DUPLICATION OF SUPPLY

On Multi-engined aircraft, where hydraulic power is used extensively, and also as


a safety factor, it is often necessary to have a power circuit using two or more
pumps to meet the demand when most systems are being operated at the same
time. i.e. (Landing and Take-off) The circuit illustrated in Figure 48 is fitted with
two self-idling pumps which, should one pump fail during flight, the remaining
pump will still provide fluid flow but at half the normal rate. The primary purpose
of the Accumulators in this circuit is to dampen out the pulsations of the pumps,
also to give speedier operation of components when initially selected, and to
provide a source of hydraulic power when the engine-driven pumps (EDPs) are
not working.
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Figure 48

Fig. 49 Typical Engine-Driven Hydraulic Pump (EDP)


as fitted on Boeing 737
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Multi-engined aircraft normally have one EDP mounted on each engine similar to
the one in Figure. 49. However, some aircraft like the Lockheed L1011 Tri-Star,
have one EDP driven by each wing mounted engine, (Nos. 1 & 3 engines.) and
two EDPs driven from the rear fuselage mounted engine. (No. 2 engine.) This is
to ensure adequate flow and pressure supply to a large and complex hydraulic
system and to cater for redundancy and continued safety in the case of an engine
or pump failure.
Modern Jet transport aircraft now have at least two hydraulic systems
completely independent of each other with duplicated actuation of all primary
hydraulically powered flight control systems. Figure 50 shows a schematic
diagram of the Boeing 737 hydraulic system. This consists of two Main systems
(Systems A & B) with EDPs drawing fluid from separate reservoirs and a
Standby system as an additional back-up in case of failure of one or both main
systems.

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Fig. 50 Dual Hydraulic System Schematic Diagram (Boeing 737

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11.25

ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN PUMPS (EMDPS) 115V AC

It is common practice to install Electric Motor Driven Pumps (EMDP) primarily


as a back up to the EDP when system demand is high, but also to provide
hydraulic power in case of EDP or engine failure.

Fig.51 Typical 115v. AC Motor-driven Pump as fitted to Boeing 737 aircraft


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A three phase 115v AC EMDP is connected to the main hydraulic circuit in


parallel with each EDP. It draws its fluid from the same reservoir, but its fluid
supply line is mounted lower in the reservoir to ensure a continued supply to the
EMDP when the fluid level is low.
These pumps are very similar in operation to the EDPs but with a lower capacity,
usually about 6-10gpm (gallons per minute) and maintain a pressure of about
2,700 p.s.i.
Hydraulic fluid enters the pump by way of the electric motor housing to provide
cooling of the pump and motor assembly during operation.
On some aircraft a Low capacity (3 g.p.m. at 2,700 p.s.i.) 28v DC motor driven
pump is installed as an Emergency hydraulic power source which is also used to
provide initial hydraulic pressure to charge up the system for brake operation,
prior to towing the aircraft or engine starting.
11.26

AIR TURBINE MOTOR DRIVEN PUMPS (ATMS OR ATDPS)

Some aircraft such as the Airbus 300 series and B767 use hydraulic pumps
operated by air turbines, which are driven by bleed air from the engines. These
Air-turbine driven pumps (ATDP) receives pressurised air from the aircrafts
main bleed air system. The flow of air is controlled and modulated by a solenoid
operated pressure regulator and shut-off valve to maintain the turbine speed
within set parameters. The turbine is connected by a shaft to the pump. (See
figure 52)

Fig. 52 Typical Air Turbine Motor driven hydraulic pump. (ATDP)


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11.27

POWER TRANSFER UNITS (PTUS)

PTUs consist of a hydraulic motor, which is supplied fluid under pressure by


one hydraulic system. This motor turns a drive shaft, which powers a hydraulic
pump, which is connected to a second hydraulic system in the aircraft. The PTU
is an integrated unit housed in one casing. (See Fig. 53) The purpose of the PTU
is to use pressure from one system to power the motor which drives the pump to
provide pressure in the other system. The PTU motor may be isolated from
pressure when system operation is normal but may be selected manually or
automatically (by a pressure switch) in the event of a pressure drop or failure of
the other system pumps. The B737 incorporates a PTU to supply pressure to the
slat system automatically in the case of reduced pressure.

Fig. 53 Typical Power Transfer Unit (PTU) Schematic.

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11.28

HYDRAULIC RAM AIR TURBINES (HYRATS)

HYRATS may be used as an emergency source of hydraulic power in the case of


major failure within the normal system.
The HYRAT consists of a turbine (similar in appearance to a small propeller)
which is normally stowed in a compartment in the fuselage as in the Lockheed
L1011 trustier and Boeing 767 aircraft. (See Fig. 54.)

Fig. 54
Hydraulic Ram Air Turbine (HYRAT) Pump Unit.
It is only deployed in the case of a major hydraulic failure to provide minimum
hydraulic supply for the safe recovery of the aircraft. The HYRAT may be
deployed automatically or by manual selection. Pressure output is governed by
varying the blade angle in response to aircraft speed and pressure demand.
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11.29

HYDRAULIC VALVES

The valves used in hydraulic systems may be divided into pressure control and
flow control valves.
a

A pressure control valve adjusts, regulates and/or limits the amount of


pressure in the power supply system or any component circuit.

A flow control valve selects and directs the flow of fluid through the system
or circuit in a particular direction and is not normally concerned with the
pressure.

11.30

PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES

11.30.1

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE

The flaps are comparatively fragile and if they are lowered when the aircraft is
flying at high speeds, are liable to be damaged by the airflow. The flaps are
designed to be used only when the aircraft is landing or taking-off. To prevent
such damage occurring, a pressure relief valve is provided in the circuit. This
valve, which acts as a blow-back valve, bypasses pressure fluid in the Down
line to the return line. In effect, the valve enables the flaps to blow-back if they
are left down and the aircraft speed is increased. It also prevents the pilot from
lowering the flaps at high air speeds.

Fig. 55 Operation of Pressure Relief Valve (PRV)

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11.30.2

PRESSURE REGULATORS

In Chapter. 6.3 We discussed the two basic types of pumps used,


The Constant Volume/Fixed Displacement (Non-self idling) type.
The Constant Pressure/Variable Displacement (Self-idling) type.
It was stated that; the Non-self idling type required an Unloading, or Cut-out
valve to relieve the pressure which builds up in the system when the out-put from
the pump is greater than the system demand. It also regulates the system
pressure within a normal operating range. A complex Unloading valve was
discussed previously.
A simpler pressure regulator (the Balanced-type), is illustrated in Figure 56.

Fig. 56 Balanced-type pressure regulator valve.


OPERATION
The pump delivers a fluid flow through the NRV into the system and charges the
Accumulator with fluid and pressure builds up in the system. This pressure is
sensed on the under-side of the regulator piston. The same pressure is sensed
on the upper surface of the ball, forcing it onto its seat as the pressure increases.
The spring is acting downwards against the piston and a balance of forces is
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reached between the fluid pressure on the ball, the spring pressure on top of the
piston, and the system pressure acting upwards under the piston. At the condition
of balance, when the pressure is 1,500psi, there will be a force of 1,500 pounds
(lbs) pushing up on the piston. The total downward force of 1,000 lbs applied by
the spring and a 1/3 of 1,500 lbs (500 lbs) of fluid force pushing down on the ball.
If the system pressure rises above this balanced pressure, the spring pressure is
constant and not effected by hydraulic pressure, therefore the piston will move up
and lift the ball off its seat. This allows the pump delivery (flow) to return to the
reservoir with very little resistance and therefore virtually zero pressure. The NRV
holds the pressure trapped in the system and the accumulator. This condition will
continue until the pressure in the system drops to 1,000 psi, at which point the
spring will force the piston down, allowing the ball to re-seat and the pressure will
rise again to the unloaded pressure of 1,500 psi. This gives a system cycling
pressure of: 1,000 1,500 psi.
11.30.3

THERMAL RELIEF VALVE

This valve is designed to relieve excessive pressure caused by expansion of the


hydraulic fluid due to increase in temperature. It is situated in a pipeline
between components where the fluid is in a closed circuit, such as between an
NRV and an actuator, where there is a hydraulic lock. The excessive pressure is
relieved back to the reservoir via the return line.
The restrictor pack ensures that only the slow pressure changes from thermal
expansion effects the operation of the valve.

Fig 57 Thermal Relief Valve


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11.30.4

PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE

Some hydraulically operated components require a much lower pressure than


system pressure to operate them. In such cases a Pressure Reducer Valve
similar to the one in figure 58 is used. This valve reduces system pressure by the
action of a balance between hydraulic and spring forces.

Fig. 58 Pressure Reducer Valve

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OPERATION

Assume that the piston in figure 58 has an area of one square inch (1in) and is
held on its seat by the large spring with 100 pounds force (lbsf). The piston has
a shoulder area of square inch, which is acted on by the full 1,500psi. system
pressure. The reducer valve seat area is square inch (Same as piston
shoulder) and is acted on by the 200 psi reduced pressure. A small hole in the
piston bleeds fluid into the chamber behind the piston and the relief valve
maintains this pressure at 750 psi. This relief action is determined by the
pressure inside the piston cavity, acting on one side of the relief ball and the
spring, and reduced pressure (200 psi) acting on the opposite side. When the
reduced pressure drops, the hydraulic force on the ball drops, allowing it to
unseat. This decreases the hydraulic force on the piston and allows it to move up.
Fluid now flows into the reduced pressure line and restores the 200-psi. This
increased pressure closes the relief valve so that the pressure behind the piston
can again increase up to 750 psi and seat the valve. The small bleed hole also
prevents the piston from chattering by giving the piston a relatively smooth action.
The piston remains off its seat just enough to maintain the reduced pressure as it
is used.

11.31

FLOW CONTROL VALVES

Flow control valves in hydraulic systems control fluid flow and the direction of
flow. They may control manually (direct operation by flight or ground crew) or
automatically (by flow, pressure or remote sensing devices)
Flow Control valves can be mechanically, electrically or hydraulically operated.
The valves may be of the ball, sleeve, poppet, rotary, piston or sliding- spool type.

11.31.1

NON-RETURN (CHECK) VALVE

This valve is the simplest of all flow control valves and is used in most systems.
Its basic function is to allow fluid flow in one direction only. The different types
are shown in fig. 59. An NRV or Check valve, is always fitted just down-stream of
the pump to ensure there is no reverse-flow through the pump which could
cause damage to it when stationary or not in use.
Some applications require full flow in one direction and a restricted flow in the
other. This valve is known as a Restricted or Orifice Check valve (fig. 60)

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NON-RETURN (CHECK) VALVES

Fig 59

Fig 60

Ball Check Valve

Orifice Check Valve

Cone Check Valve

Orifice type, installed in

Swing Check Valve

a landing gear system

(Flapper Valve)

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11.31.2

SELECTOR VALVES

Selector valves may be considered to be the first valve in the Services System
and not part of the Power System.
The purpose of the Selector Valve is to direct fluid to the appropriate side of an
actuator, and to provide a return path for the fluid displaced from the opposite
side of the actuator, back to the reservoir. Many flow control valves are simple
four-way valves, connecting the pressure and return lines to alternate sides of the
actuator, without a neutral position, however, control valves in open-centre
systems often lock fluid in the actuator while providing an idling circuit for the
pump.

Fig. 61 Manual Selector Valves


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Figures. 61. Illustrates the Ball, Rotary and Sliding-spool type valves, which are
normally used in relatively low-pressure actuation. Higher-pressure systems
require a more positive shut-off of fluid flow and Poppet-type selector valves are
often used.
OPEN CENTRE, POPPET TYPE, SELECTOR VALVE
OPERATION
When the Control Selector handle is in the
Neutral position, Poppet valve 3 is off its seat.
Fluid flows straight through the valve from the
pump to the next selector valve and on to the
reservoir. All the other poppet valves are closed.
When Gear Down is selected, movement of the
cams causes valve 3 to close, and valves 1 and
4 open, redirecting pump pressure to the Gear
Down side of the gear actuator, through valve 4
Fluid on the other side of the actuator piston is
then redirected back to the reservoir through
valve 1 via the return line. When the actuator
reaches the end of its travel, the pressure
increases to a specific value and operates a
mechanism, which returns the selector handle to
the neutral position, thereby closing valves 1
and 4 and reopening poppet valve 3
When Gear Up is selected, valve 3 once again
closes and valves 2 and 5 open. This directs
pump pressure to the Gear Up side of the
actuator through valve 2 Fluid on the other side
of the actuator is redirected back to the reservoir
through valve 5 via the return line. When the
actuator again reaches the end of its stroke, the
pressure increase is again sensed by the return
mechanism and the selector handle is returned
to the Neutral position, thereby closing valves 2
and 5 and reopening poppet valve 3 again.
Note: This type of selector requires a pressuresensing device which moves the selector handle
back to the Neutral position when the actuator is
fully extended or retracted.
Fig 62 Open Centre, Poppet Type, Selector
Valve

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ELECTRICALLY OPERATED SELECTOR VALVES.


These valves use electrically operated solenoids to control the position of a spool
valve which, in turn, controls the direction of fluid flow to the system actuator.
Switches located on the flight deck, or remote sensors, operate these valves.
The advantage of this type over mechanical valves is the elimination of bulky
lever mechanisms, torque tubes, bell-cranks, levers and pulleys, which add extra
weight to the aircraft. On large Transport aircraft, this is especially important
when considering the large distances from the controlling point to the actuation
point. Fly-by-Wire systems are modern examples of this method of Power
Control.
SINGLE SOLENOID TYPE, SELECTOR VALVE
The selector illustrated in Figure. 63. is a Single solenoid, two-way valve.
Typically used for emergency operation of the Flaps or Landing Gear

Fig. 63 Electrically operated, Slide-valve, Selector (Single Solenoid)


OPERATION
With the solenoid de-energised, the pilot valve is spring-loaded against the
return seat, and fluid from the emergency power system passes to both sides of
the slide valve. Since the right-hand end of the valve is a larger diameter than the
left, the valve is moved to the left by the greater force, and system pressure fluid
passes to the actuator to extend its ram.
Fluid from the opposite side of the actuator passes through the slide valve, to the
reservoir, via the return line.

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With the solenoid energised, the pilot valve is held against the pressure seat,
and supply pressure acts on the left-hand side of the slide valve only. The right
hand side being open to return, thereby forcing the slide valve to the right. This
directs system pressure fluid to the actuator to retract its ram. Fluid from the
opposite side of the actuator, being open to return to the reservoir, via the return
line.
DOUBLE SOLENOID TYPE
This valve is similar to the single solenoid valve but is used
where the service has intermediate positions. With both
solenoids de-energised, the valve will hold the service in any
rigid position (Hydraulically locked) but with the supply
pressure isolated from the utility system.

Fig. 64 Double Solenoid type Selector valve


OPERATION
With both solenoids de-energised the ball valves are held against their respective
return seats, (same as the Single Solenoid valve). In this position, system
pressure is directed to identical area pistons on both sides of the Spring-loaded
shuttle valve. With no hydraulic power in the system, the springs, which are also
of equal tension, hold the shuttle valve in the centred position, thereby shutting
off, both lines to the actuator and creating a hydraulic lock in the actuator. When
the left-hand Solenoid is energised, the ball valve is held against the pressure
seat. This allows the pressure on the left-hand side of the shuttle valve piston to
be vented to the return line through the left-hand shuttle valve chamber, thereby,
causing a pressure imbalance which forces the shuttle valve to the left. This
allows pressure to one side of the actuator, and directs the other side of the
actuator to the return line through the right-hand chamber of the shuttle valve.
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11.31.3

PRIORITY VALVES

These valves are similar to Sequence valves except they are opened by
hydraulic pressure rather than by mechanical means.
They are called priority valves because such devices as Wheel-well doors,
which must operate first, require a lower pressure than the Main Landing Gear.
The valve will shut off all the flow to the Main Gear until the doors have actuated
to the fully Open position and the pressure builds up at the end of the actuator
stroke. The priority valve senses the pressure build-up and opens, allowing fluid
to flow to the Main Gear actuators.

Fig. 65
Typical Priority Valve Operation

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11.31.4

SEQUENCE VALVES

Most modern aircraft with retractable landing gear have landing gear doors, which
close in flight to cover the wheel well to ensure a streamlined airflow. When the
gear is selected UP or Down, by the pilot, the gear doors must open first
before the gear starts to retract. For this reason, a Sequence Valve is sometimes
installed. These are usually similar in construction to Check valves (NRVs) which
allow a flow of fluid in one direction, but may be opened manually to allow fluid to
flow in both directions.
These valves are similar to Priority Valves regarding their function, by allowing
one hydraulic component to function before another is allowed to function. The
difference between them is that Priority valves are controlled by fluid pressure,
whereas Sequence valves are controlled by mechanical displacement of a
plunger, which moves a Ball valve off its seat to redirect fluid to another
component.

Fig 66 Section through a typical Sequence Valve

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The illustration in Fig. 67 (below) Shows the location and typical use of
Sequence Valves in a simple Landing Gear system. It explains the basic
sequence of operation as the gear is selected UP.

(a)

i
Ii
iii

Gear selected UP
Wheel-well door Fully OPEN
Gear retracting

(b)

i
ii
iii

Gear fully UP
Door Sequence valve OPEN
Wheel-well door Fully CLOSED

Fig. 67 Sequence Valve location and operation, in landing gear system

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11.31.5

HYDRAULIC FUSES

PURPOSE
These special valves are used to block off fluid flow if a serious leak should
develop. There are two types of hydraulic fuse. The first type shuts off the fluid
flow if the pressure drop across the fuse falls below a specified limit. The second
type shuts off the fluid flow after a specific amount of fluid has flowed through it

Pressure Sensing Fuse Valve


This fuse senses the pressure drop
across the valve.

Fig 68 Pressure Sensing Fuse Valve


During normal flow through the valve, the spring keeps the piston against its seat.
If a serious leak or pipe failure occurs downstream of the outlet (B) the pressure
drop is sensed across the piston, which generates a force greater than that of the
spring. This allows fluid pressure upstream at the inlet (A) to move the piston to
the right, thereby shutting off the fluid flow. This condition will be maintained until
the system pressure as inlet (A) is relieved, i.e. The system is shut down,
allowing the spring to return the piston to its normal operating position.

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Flow Sensing Fuse Valve


Operation:
This fuse does not operate on the
pressure sensing principle.
It will shut off the flow after a given
amount of fluid has passed through
it.
In the static condition, all the ports
are closed off. When fluid begins to
flow in the normal direction of
operation, system pressure on the
sleeve valve moves it to the right
against the spring pressure, thereby
opening the ports and allowing fluid
to flow through the valve. During this
time some fluid passes through the
metering orifice and progressively
moves the piston to the right until it
shuts off the primary delivery ports
which stops fluid flow.
When fluid flows in the reverse
direction, the sleeve valve and the
piston are both moved to the left
which keeps all the ports open and
allows fluid to flow through the fuse
unrestricted, in the opposite
direction.
Normal operation of the unit
protected by this type of fuse doesnt
require enough flow to allow the
piston to drift completely to the right
and seal the primary delivery ports.
Only when there is a serious leak will
there be sufficient fluid flow to move
the piston to the right and close off
the primary delivery ports.
Fig. 69 Flow Sensing Hydraulic Fuse

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11.32

POWER DISTRIBUTION

As previously stated, the hydraulic system in an aircraft may be used for


operating various services, such as landing gear, flaps, airbrakes, wheel brakes,
control surfaces, nose-wheel steering, etc. As it will be necessary to operate
these services independently, provision must be made to ensure adequate fluid
flow and pressure at all times, not only during operation of all the primary circuits
at the same time, but also in the case of a complete failure of one power supply
system.

Fig. 70 Block diagram of hydraulic power distribution to component circuits


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Figure 70 shows a block diagram of a typical hydraulic power distribution system


and the supply to the various component circuits. The example shown, has two
main independent systems, System A and B with a Standby System to
cater for redundancy.
The complete hydraulic system consists of:
a.A power circuit,
b.Various component circuits.
c. An emergency circuit in the event of hydraulic power failure.
11.33

POWER CIRCUITS

The power circuit supplies fluid to the component circuits and accommodates the
fluid returned from these circuits. The system varies with the type of aircraft and
may contain more than one Engine-driven pump (EDP). The circuit may be selfidling or non-self-idling. The self-idling circuit is designed to idle when the
working pressure has been achieved, while in the non-self-idling circuit the
pump supplies fluid continuously to the circuit and necessitates the installation of
an automatic unloading (cut-out) valve.

Fig. 71 Power Circuit Constant Pressure/Variable displacement, (Self


idling) Pump System
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Power Circuit Constant Volume/Fixed displacement, (Non self-idling) Pump


System
Figure 72
Figures 71 & 72 show the differences in the hydraulic power system design when
a Constant Pressure/Variable displacement Pump is installed, (Fig. 43 and 44.)
Compared to a system that has a Constant Volume/Fixed displacement Pump
installed. (Figs. 34, 35, 36 & 37)

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11.34

COMPONENT CIRCUITS

Each component (system), has its own hydraulic circuit within the hydraulic
system. These circuits are usually connected to a common pressure line and a
common return line of a power circuit. Fluid expelled from each component circuit
is conveyed back to the reservoir by the return line.
11.34.1

FLAPS

The flap circuit illustrated in Fig 73 consists of port and starboard flap jacks,
synchronising jacks, and various components interconnected by pipelines. As
with the landing gear circuit, fluid is supplied by the main system power circuit, to
a control (selector) valve, via a Shut-off valve, which directs the fluid to the
desired end of the jacks, at the same time connecting the other end of the jacks
to the reservoir. A non-return valve before the control valve prevents operation of
other services, such as alighting gear, from interfering with the flaps.

Typical Wing Flaps Hydraulic Circuit


Figure 73
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THROTTLING VALVE
During flight, it is essential that the Wing flaps are lowered and raised slowly to
prevent sudden change in the trim of the aircraft, therefore, a throttling valve is
provided in the circuit. This valve reduces the rate of flow of fluid to and from the
flap actuators and is normally situated in the DOWN line.

Typical Balanced spring Throttling Valve


Figure 74
This valve, which is a form of two-way restrictor valve, maintains the flow of fluid
to and from a service, but at a constant rate.
It automatically sets the flow rate in proportion to the supply pressure and is used
to slow down the operation of the flaps.

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OPERATION

With fluid pressure normal, fluid flows through the piston ports, but an increase in
the Inlet pressure or an increase in flow to the valve would increase the pressure
on one side of the piston which in turn will move the piston in the direction of the
flow. The leading needle valve approaches and restricts the outlet port, thereby
restricting the flow of fluid out of the valve. The design of the valve and strength
of the springs ensures that the needles will not seat and completely shut off the
flow.
SYNCHRONISATION
Owing to slight variations in jack volume or piston friction, or to unequal air
loading such as will occur when landing the aircraft in a crosswind, the rate at
which the port and starboard flaps move may differ. To minimise this possibility
the movement of the flaps is synchronised. The methods of synchronisation vary
and may consist of a single jack, mechanical linkage (cable), hydraulic
synchronisation valves or jacks.
The method of synchronisation varies with the type of aircraft, but the method
illustrated in Fig. 69 employs two additional jacks interconnected by transfer
pipes, which are not connected to the power circuit. The operation is as follows.
When the flaps travel in alignment, the fluid in the synchronising jacks is merely
transferred from one side of the piston in one jack, to the opposite side of the
piston in the other jack. There is normally a tendency for the travel of one flap to
be slower than the travel of the other flap. When this occurs, the synchronising
jack on the slow flap will provide an assisting force to the slow flap.
Example: Assume that Flaps Down has been selected and that the Port flap
tends to move down faster than the starboard flap. The piston in the port
synchronising jack would expel more fluid from D into A, therefore, pressure is
generated in A which, acting on the piston of the starboard synchronising jack,
produces an assisting force helping to keep the starboard flap in alignment with
the port flap. The fluid expelled from B is accommodated in C. (Fig. 74)
NOTE : Only the basic flap synchronising circuit is described and illustrated. In
the aircraft, provision must be made for priming, thermal expansion and
contraction; in some aircraft, the flap synchronising circuit is connected to the
power circuit.
A hydraulic lock will be formed between a non-return valve (or the
Control/Selector valve when selected in the OFF position) and the jacks. A
hydraulic lock or a closed circuit can be designed into a system as a Landing
gear protection device.
NOTE : In some aircraft the synchronising circuit is independent of the main
hydraulic circuit, the fluid in the circuit having no pressure except that built-up by
transfer.

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THERMAL RELIEF VALVE


When flying the aircraft to high altitude, the low temperature of the atmosphere
will cause the fluid in the pipelines to contract. From high to low altitude, due to
the increase in temperature of the atmosphere, the fluid will expand (thermal
expansion). Whereas contraction of the fluid will be compensated by the pump
supplying more fluid to the pipeline, thermal expansion of the fluid, especially in a
closed circuit such as previously described may burst the pipelines. To prevent
this, two thermal relief valves are fitted in the circuit, one in the up line and the
other in the down line. The valves relieve fluid pressure from the pressure line to
the return line. In the flap circuit illustrated in Fig. 74, the pressure relief valve will
act as a thermal relief valve.
11.34.2

LANDING GEAR

The Landing gear circuit illustrated consists of two main undercarriage jacks, a
nose wheel jack, fairing door jacks and various components interconnected by
pipelines. Normally, fluid is supplied by the power circuit to the control valve,
which may be manually or electrically operated and directs the fluid to the desired
end of the jacks, at the same time connecting the other end of the jacks to the
reservoir. A non-return valve positioned before the control valve provides a
hydraulic lock in both UP and DOWN position, which ensures that the alighting
gear remains in its selected position, when any other service is operated.

11.35

HYDRAULIC POWER - INDICATION AND WARNING SYSTEMS

Information regarding the condition of the hydraulic system must be relayed to


the flight deck, for normal and abnormal situations.
Generally the information comprises, actual hydraulic pressure, temperature and
quantity (normal indications) and warnings of low pressure and low quantity or
high oil temperature (abnormal indications).
Since most hydraulic reservoirs are pressurised by engine bleed air, to prevent
the oil from foaming due to low ambient pressure at altitude, a warning of low air
pressure is also included.
From a servicing viewpoint, direct reading quantity gauges are often to be found
on the side of the hydraulic reservoirs and to show the gas pressure in hydraulic
accumulators.

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System Control and Monitoring


Figure 75
11.36

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE

Since the hydraulic bay is often some distance from the flight deck and to avoid
the inherent risk of hydraulic oil leaking onto electronic equipment, no oil pipes
run directly to the flight deck instruments.
On all modern aircraft, electro-hydraulic transducers fitted in the hydraulic bay,
relay pressure information for each system to the flight deck. In this way all
hydraulic lines stay out of the pressure cell. Instead, electrical cables are routed
from each transducer to some form of ratiometer or solid state liquid crystal
display (LCD), calibrated to read hydraulic pressure.

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Pressure Indication Circuit


Figure 76
Additionally, a pressure switch set to minimum pump output pressure, is routed to
the aircraft alerting and warning system, to some form of visual warning (warning
lamp/ flashing glareshield lights) and an aural warning (chimes).

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Low Pressure Warning


Figure 77

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11.37

HYDRAULIC QUANTITY

The quantity of oil in the reservoir of each system will be relayed to a quantity
gauge on the flight deck by means of a float switch in the tank. Alternatively, a
capacitance type detector can be employed. Both types cause a voltage change
at the gauge corresponding to a change in oil level in the tank. The gauges can
be calibrated to show the actual quantity (litres) or displayed as a percentage of
full.

Hydraulic Fluid Quantity


Figure 78

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Additionally, a low level switch can be fitted in the reservoir or within the
gauge/indicator which will trigger visual and aural warnings, when the level
reaches a pre-calibrated minimum value.

Standby Hydraulic System Low quality Light


Figure 79

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Hydraulic Temperature
The system may be fitted with a temperature transducer relaying system
temperature to a gauge, but normally this is unnecessary. Usually, all that is
required is a temperature switch, usually in the return line as it enters the
reservoir, to trigger the visual/aural warning if the temperature should exceed a
pre-determined maximum value. Such temperature sensors are often associated
with electric motor driven hydraulic pumps and may monitor the temperature of
the motor windings as well as actual oil temperature.

System Overheat Indication


Figure 80

Reservoir Low Air Pressure


A low pressure switch fitted in the Bleed Air line downstream of the pressure
regulator just before it enters the reservoir, will trigger the visual/aural warning
system if the pressure drops below a pre-determined minimum value.
Accumulator Gas Pressure
Gauges are fitted to accumulators, to indicate the pre-charge gas (nitrogen)
pressure when all hydraulic pressure has been dissipated. These gauges are
usually direct reading and will show system pressure when the hydraulic pumps
are running.
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11.38

INTERFACES WITH OTHER SYSTEMS

Hydraulic Power is used for the operation of a large number of aircraft systems.
These include:

Powered Flying Controls Primary Controls

Leading edge and Trailing Edge Flaps

Spoilers

Speed Brakes and Air Brakes

Wheel Brakes and Anti-skid

Nosewheel Steering

Landing Gear Retraction & Lowering

Windscreen Wipers

Hydraulic pumps can be driven:


Mechanically from the main engine accessory gearbox or from the APU
Electrically from the main electrical buses
By means of a Ram Air Turbine deployed into the airflow (emergency)
Air-driven from the aircraft bleed air system (emergency)
Hydraulic Accumulators can be used for parking brake pressure storage.

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Contents
12 ICE FORMATION, ........................................................................ 12-3
12.1
12.2
12.3

12.4

12.5
12.6

12.7
12.8
12.9

12.10
12.11

12.12

12.13

12.14

12.15
12.16

CLASSIFICATION AND DETECTION INTRODUCTION ...................... 12-3


FACTORS AFFECTING ICE FORMATION ................................. 12-3
TYPES OF ICE FORMATION ..................................................... 12-3
12.3.1 Hoar Frost ..................................................................... 12-3
12.3.2 Rime Ice........................................................................ 12-4
12.3.3 Glaze Ice ....................................................................... 12-4
12.3.4 Pack Snow .................................................................... 12-5
12.3.5 Hail ............................................................................... 12-5
AREAS TO BE PROTECTED...................................................... 12-5
12.4.1 Effects On Aircraft ......................................................... 12-6
12.4.2 Effects of Icing on The Ground ...................................... 12-7
ICE DETECTION ........................................................................ 12-7
METHODS OF ICE DETECTION ................................................ 12-7
12.6.1 Visual (Hot Rod) Ice Detector)....................................... 12-8
Pressure Operated Ice Detector Heads ...................................... 12-9
Serrated Rotor Ice Detector Head ............................................... 12-10
12.6.4 Vibrating Rod Ice Detector ............................................ 12-11
ICE FORMATION SPOT LIGHT ......................................................... 12-12
ANTI-ICING AND DE-ICING SYSTEMS .............................................. 12-12
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 12-12
12.9.1 De-icing ......................................................................... 12-12
12.9.2 Anti-icing System .......................................................... 12-13
DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING SYSTEMS - GENERAL ................................. 12-13
FLUID SYSTEMS ........................................................................... 12-13
12.11.1 Windscreen Protection .................................................. 12-13
12.11.2 Aerofoil Systems ........................................................... 12-16
12.11.3 Propeller Systems ......................................................... 12-18
PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS ............................................................. 12-19
12.12.1 Air Supplies ................................................................... 12-20
12.12.2 Distribution .................................................................... 12-20
12.12.3 Controls and Indication ................................................. 12-20
12.12.4 Operation ...................................................................... 12-21
THERMAL (HOT AIR) SYSTEM .................................................. 12-22
12.13.1 Exhaust Gas Heating System ....................................... 12-23
12.13.2 Hot Air Bleed System .................................................... 12-25
ELECTRICAL ICE PROTECTION SYSTEN ................................ 12-27
12.14.1 Heater Mat .................................................................... 12-27
12.14.2 Spray Mat ..................................................................... 12-28
Windscreen Anti-icing ................................................................. 12-31
WINDSCREEN CABIN W INDOW DE-MISTING SYSTEMS ..................... 12-33
RAIN REPELLANT AND RAIN REMOVAL ........................................... 12-35

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12.17 WINDSCREEN CLEARING SYSTEMS ....................................... 12-35


12.18 WINDSCREEN WIPER SYSTEMS ..................................................... 12-36
12.18.1 Electrical System........................................................... 12-36
12.18.2 Electro-Hydraulic System .............................................. 12-38
12.18.3 Windscreen Wiper Servicing ......................................... 12-39
12.19 PNEUMATIC RAIN REMOVAL SYSTEMS.................................. 12-41
12.20 WINDSCREEN WASHING SYSTEM .......................................... 12-41
12.21 RAIN REPELLANT ..................................................................... 12-43
12.22 DRAIN MAST HEATING .................................................................. 12-46
12.23 WATER SUPPLY AND DRAIN LINES ................................................. 12-46
12.24 DRAIN MASTS .............................................................................. 12-46

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12 ICE FORMATION,
12.1 CLASSIFICATION AND DETECTION INTRODUCTION
The operation of aircraft in the present day necessitates flying in all weather
conditions and it is essential that the aircraft is protected against the build up of
ice which may affect the safety and performance of the aircraft.
Aircraft designed for public transport and some military aircraft must be provided
with certain detection and protection equipment for flights in which there is a
probability of encountering icing (or rain) conditions.
In addition to the requirements outlined above, certain basic standards have to be
met by all aircraft whether or not they are required to be protected by the
requirements. These basic requirements are intended to provide a reasonable
protection if the aircraft is flown intentionally for short periods in icing conditions.
The requirements cover such considerations as the stability and control balance
characteristics, jamming of controls and the ability of the engine to continue to
function.
12.2 FACTORS AFFECTING ICE FORMATION
Ice formation on aircraft in flight is the same as that on the ground; it can be
classified under four main headings, i.e. Hoar Frost, Rime, Glaze Ice and Pack
Snow. Dependent on the circumstances, variations of these forms of icing can
occur and two different types of icing may appear simultaneously on parts of the
aircraft.
Ice in the atmosphere is caused by coldness acting on moisture in the air. Water
occurs in the atmosphere in three forms, i.e. invisible vapour, liquid water and ice.
The smallest drops of liquid water constitute clouds and fog, the largest drops
occur only in rain and in between these are the drops making drizzle. Icing
consists of crystals, their size and density being dependent on the temperature
and the type of water in the atmosphere from which they form. Snowflakes are
produced when a number of these crystals stick together or, in very cold regions,
by small individual crystals.
12.3 TYPES OF ICE FORMATION
12.3.1 HOAR FROST

Hoar frost occurs on a surface which is at a temperature below the frost point of
the adjacent air and of course, below freezing point. It is formed in clear air when
water vapour condenses on the cold airframe surface and is converted directly to
ice and builds up into a white semi-crystalline coating; normally hoar frost is
feathery.

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When hoar frost occurs on aircraft on the ground, the weight of the deposit is
unlikely to be serious, but the deposit, if not removed from the airframe, may
interfere with the airflow and attainment of flying speed during take-off, the
windscreen may be obscured and the free working control surfaces may be
affected. Hoar frost on aircraft in flight usually commences with a thin layer of
glaze ice on the leading edge, followed by the formation of frost which gradually
spreads over the whole surface.
Again the effects are not usually serious, though some change in the landing
characteristics of the aircraft can be expected.
12.3.2 RIME ICE

This ice formation, which is less dense than glaze ice, is an opaque, rough
deposit. At ground level it forms in freezing fog and consists of a deposit of ice
on the windward side of exposed objects. Rime is light and porous and results
from the small water drops freezing as individual particles, with little or no
spreading, a large amount of air is trapped between the particles.
Aircraft in flight may experience rime icing when flying through a cloud of small
water drops with the air temperature and the temperature of the airframe below
freezing point. The icing builds up on the leading edge, but does not extend far
back along the chord. Ice of this type usually has no great weight, but the danger
of rime is that it will interfere with the airflow over the wings.
If the super-cooled droplets are small enough and the temperature is low, each
droplet freezes instantly on impact as an individual particle and being a nonadhesive dry powder in the slipstream the accumulation on the aircraft is not
serious. This is called "opaque rime".
12.3.3 GLAZE ICE

Glaze ice is the glassy deposit that forms over the village pond in the depth of
winter. On aircraft in flight, glaze ice forms when the aircraft encounters large
water drops in clouds or in freezing rain (or super-cooled rain) with the air
temperature and the temperature of the airframe below freezing point. It consists
of a transparent or opaque coating of ice with a glassy surface and results from
the liquid water flowing over the airframe before freezing. Glaze ice may be
mixed with sleet or snow. IT WILL FORM IN GREATEST THICKNESS ON THE
LEADING EDGES OF AEROFOILS AND IN REDUCED THICKNESS AS FAR
AFT AS ONE HALF OF THE CHORD. Ice formed in this way is dense, tough
and sticks closely to the surface of the aircraft, it cannot easily be shaken off and
if it breaks off at all, it comes away in lumps of an appreciable and sometimes
dangerous size.

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The main danger of glaze ice is still aerodynamic but also the weight of the ice
produces unequal loading and propeller blade vibrations. Glaze ice is the MOST
SEVERE and most dangerous form of ice formation on aircraft because of its
high RATE OF CATCH. Super-cooled rain is rare in the British Isles but is more
common on the Continent and East coast of North America.
12.3.4 PACK SNOW

Normally, snow falling on an aircraft in flight does not settle, but if the temperature
of the airframe is below freezing point, glaze ice may form from the moisture in
the snow. The icing of the aircraft in such conditions, however, is primarily due to
water drops, though snow may subsequently be embedded in the ice so formed.
12.3.5 HAIL

Hail is formed when water droplets, falling as rain, pass through icing levels and
freeze.
Air currents in some storm clouds (Cumulo-nimbus) may carry the hail vertically
through the cloud a number of times, increasing the size of the hailstone at each
pass until it is heavy enough to break out of the base of the cloud and fall towards
earth.
Aircraft encountering this type of ice formation may suffer severe damage in the
form of dented skin, cracked windscreens, blocked intakes and serious damage
to gas turbine engines.
12.4 AREAS TO BE PROTECTED
The following areas are critical areas on the aircraft where ice forms and
where protection is essential.
a. all aerofoil leading edges
b. engine air intakes (including carburettor intakes)
c. windscreens
d. propellers
e. pitot static pressure heads

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PROTECTION

Icing Areas to be Protected


Figure 1
12.4.1 EFFECTS ON AIRCRAFT

The build up of ice on the aircraft is known as 'ice accretion' and, from the
foregoing, it is evident that if ice continues to be deposited on the aircraft one, or
more, of the following effects may occur.
a. Decrease in Lift
This may occur due to changes in wing section resulting in loss of streamlined
flow around the leading edge and top surfaces.
b. Increase in Drag
Drag will increase due to the rough surface, especially if the formation is rime.
This condition results in greatly increased surface friction.
c. Increased Weight and Wing Loading
The weight of the ice may prevent the aircraft from maintaining height.
d. Decrease in Thrust
With turbo-prop and piston engines, the efficiency of the propeller will decrease
due to alteration of the blade profile and increased blade thickness. Vibration
may also occur due to uneven distribution of ice along the blades.
Gas Turbine engines may also be affected by ice on the engine intake, causing
disturbance of the airflow to the compressor. Furthermore, ice breaking away
from the intake, may be ingested by the engine causing severe damage to the
compressor blades and other regions within the engine.
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e. Inaccuracy of Pitot Static Instruments


Ice on the pitot static pressure head causes blockage in the sensing lines and
produces false readings on the instruments.
f.

Loss of Inherent Stability

This may occur due to displacement of the centre of gravity caused by the weight
of the ice.
g. Radio antennae
Reduced efficiency
h. Loss of Control
Loss of control may occur due to ice preventing movement of control surfaces.
(This is not usually a problem in flight but may occur on the ground).
12.4.2 EFFECTS OF ICING ON THE GROUND

The effects of ice accretion on the ground are similar to those occurring in flight
but the following additional effects may be caused.
a. Restriction of the controls may occur if ice is not removed from hinges and
gaps in the controls.
b. The take off run may be increased because of the increase in weight and
drag.
c. The rate of climb may be reduced because the weight and drag are
increased.
12.5 ICE DETECTION
The ANO Schedule 4 states that:
In the case of an aircraft of MTWA exceeding 5700 kg (12500 lb), means of
observing the existence and build up of ice on the aircraft must be provided.
The equipment will be carried on flights when the weather reports or forecasts
available at the aerodrome at the time of departure indicate that conditions
favouring ice formation are likely to be met.
12.6 METHODS OF ICE DETECTION
Ice detection systems use one of the following methods of detecting and
assessing the formation of ice.

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12.6.1 VISUAL (HOT ROD) ICE DETECTOR)

This consists of an aluminium alloy oblong base (called the plinth) on which ismounted a steel tube detector mast of aerofoil section, angled back to
approximately 300 from the vertical, mounted on the side of the fuselage, so that
it can be seen from the flight compartment windows. The mast houses a heating
element, and in the plinth there is a built-in floodlight.

Hot Rod Ice Detector


Figure 2
The heating element is normally off and when icing conditions are met ice
accretes on the leading edge of the detector mat. This can then be observed by
the flight crew. During night operations the built-in floodlight may be switched on
to illuminate the mast. By manual selection of a switch to the heating element the
formed ice is dispersed for further observance.

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12.6.2 PRESSURE OPERATED ICE DETECTOR HEADS

MAST

OUTLET HOLES

INLET HOLES

ELECTRICAL
CONNECTORS

Pressure Operated Ice Detector


Figure 3
These consist of a short stainless steel or chromium plated brass tube, which is
closed at its outer end and mounted so that it projects vertically from a portion of
the aircraft known to be susceptible to icing. Four small holes are drilled in the
leading edge of this tube and in the trailing edge are two holes of less total area
than those of the leading edge. A heater element is fitted to allow the detector
head to be cleared of ice. In some units of this type a further restriction to the air
flow is provided by means of a baffle mounted through the centre of the tube.
Each system comprises an ice detector head, a detector relay and a warning
lamp. When in normal flight, pressure is built up inside the tube by the airstream, this pressure is then communicated by tubing, to the capsule of an
electro-pneumatic relay tending to expand it and separate a pair of electrical
contacts. When icing conditions are met, ice will form on the leading edge and
close off the holes. As the holes in the trailing edge will not be covered by ice the
air-stream will now tend to exhaust the system, collapsing the relay capsule and
so closing the relay contacts. Generally these contacts operate in conjunction
with a thermal device, to illuminate a warning indicator in the flight compartment
and to switch on the heater in the detector head; the latter clears the head of ice
and is then switched off allowing continued detection of icing conditions. A heater
energised by the detector relays, automatically clears the ice from the head, but a
cam holds the lamp on for a further 4 minutes and the heater for a further 30
seconds.
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Should icing conditions persist and the detector heads again ice up, the cam is
automatically re-set and the time cycle repeated.The pilot will switch on the deicing system when the warning lights indicate icing conditions. In some systems
the warning phase is connected to automatically switch on the de-icing system.
This cycling will continue until such time that the icing conditions no longer exist.
12.6.3 SERRATED ROTOR ICE DETECTOR HEAD

Serrated Rotor Ice Detector


Figure 4
This consists of a serrated rotor, incorporating an integral drive shaft coupled to a
small ac motor via a reduction gearbox, being rotated adjacent to a fixed knifeedge cutter. The motor casing is connected via a spring-tensioned toggle bar to a
micro-switch assembly. The motor and gearbox assembly is mounted on a static
spigot attached to the motor housing and, together with the micro-switch
assembly, is enclosed by a cylindrical housing. The detector is mounted through
the fuselage side so that the inner housing is subjected to the ambient conditions
with the outer being sealed from the aircraft cabin pressure.The serrated rotor on
the detector head is continuously driven by the electrical motor so that its
periphery rotates within 0.050 mm (0.002 in) of the leading edge of the knife-edge
cutter. The torque therefore required to drive the rotor under non-icing conditions
will be slight, since bearing friction only has to be overcome. Under icing
conditions, however, ice will accrete on the rotor until the gap between the rotor
and knife-edge is filled, whereupon a cutting action by the knife edge will produce
a substantial increase in the required torque causing the toggle bar to move
against its spring mounting and so operate the microswitch, to initiate a warning
signal. Once icing conditions cease, the knife edge cutter will no longer shave
ice, torque loading will reduce and allow the motor to return to its normal position
and the micro-switch will open-circuit the ice warning indicator.
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12.6.4 VIBRATING ROD ICE DETECTOR

This ice detector senses the presence of icing conditions and provides an
indication in the flight compartment that such conditions exist. The system
consists of' a solid state ice detector and advisory warning light. The ice detector
is attached to the fuselage with its probe protruding through the skin. The ice
detector probe (exposed to the airstream) is an ice-sensing element that
ultrasonically vibrates in an axial mode of its own resonant frequency of
approximately 40 kHz.

SENSOR
UNIT

DETECTOR
PROBE

VIBRATING
ROD

Vibrating Rod Ice detector


Figure 5
When ice forms on the sensing element, the probe frequency decreases. The ice
detector circuit detects the change in probe frequency by comparing it with a
reference oscillator. At a predetermined frequency change (proportional to ice
build-up), the ice detector circuit is activated. Once activated, the ice warning
light in the flight compartment is illuminated and a timer circuit is triggered. The
operation of the time circuit switches a probe heater on for a set period of time to
remove the ice warning indicator and returns the system to a detector mode,
providing that icing conditions no longer exist. If, however, a further ice warning
signal is received during the timer period, the timer will be re-triggered, the
warning light will remain on and the heater will again be selected on. This cycle
will be repeated for as long as the icing conditions prevail.

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12.7 ICE FORMATION SPOT LIGHT


Many aircraft have two ice formation spot lights mounted one each side of the
fuselage, in such a position as to light up the leading edges of the mainplanes,
when required, to allow visual examination for ice formation.
Note:

In some aircraft this may be the only method of ice detection.

Spotlight Ice detectors


Figure 6
12.8 ANTI-ICING AND DE-ICING SYSTEMS
12.9 INTRODUCTION
There are various methods of ice protection which can be fitted to an aircraft but
they can be considered under one of two main categories, de-icing and anti-icing.
12.9.1 DE-ICING

In this method of ice protection, ice is allowed to form on the surfaces and is then
removed by operating the particular system in the specified sequence.
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ICE AND RAIN
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12.9.2 ANTI-ICING SYSTEM

Ice is prevented from forming by ensuring that the ice protection system is
operating whenever icing conditions are encountered or forecast.
12.10

DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING SYSTEMS - GENERAL

There are four primary systems used for ice protection. These are:
1. Fluid
2. Pneumatic
3. Thermal
4. Electrical
12.11

FLUID SYSTEMS

These may be used either as an anti-icing or de-icing system. When used as an


anti-icing system it works on the principle that the freezing point of water can be
lowered if a fluid of low freezing point is applied to the areas to be protected
before icing occurs. When used as a de-icing system the fluid is applied to the
interface of the aircraft surface and the ice. The adhesion of the ice is broken
and the ice is carried away by the airflow. The system is normally used on
windscreens and aerofoils and has also been used successfully on propellers. It
is not used on engine air intakes - which are usually anti-iced.
12.11.1

WINDSCREEN PROTECTION

The method employed in this system is to spray the windscreen panel with an
ALCOHOL based fluid. The principal components of the system are:

Fluid storage tank

Hand operated or electrically driven pump

Supply pipelines

Spray tubes

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ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

The diagram illustrates a typical aircraft system in which the fluid is supplied to
the spray tubes by two electrically driven pumps.

Typical Fluid De-icing System


Figure 7
This design enables the system to be operated using either of the two pumps, or
both pumps, according to the severity of the icing.

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ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

The next diagram shows a hand pump installation on the HS 125 aircraft where it
is used as an auxiliary system.

Windscreen Auxiliary De-icing System


Figure 8

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12.11.2

ICE AND RAIN


PROTECTION

AEROFOIL SYSTEMS

The fluids used for aerofoil ice protection are all GLYCOL based and have
properties of low freezing point, non-corrosive, low toxicity and low volatility.
They have a detrimental effect on some windscreen sealing compounds and
cause crazing of perspex panels.
The components in the system are the tank, pump, filter, pipelines, distributors,
controls and indicators normally consisting of a switch, pump power failure
warning light and tank contents indicator.
When icing conditions are encountered, the system may be switched on
automatically by the ice detector or manually by the pilot.
Fluid is supplied to the pump by gravity feed from the tank and is then directed
under pressure to the distributors on the aerofoil leading edges. After an initial
'flood' period, during which the pump runs continuously to prime the pipelines and
wet the leading edge, the system is then controlled by a cyclic timer which turns
the pump ON and OFF for predetermined periods.
The leading edge distributors appears in one of two forms, i.e. strip and panel.
Strip Distributor
The distributor consists of a 'U' channel divided into two channels, called the
primary and secondary channels, by a central web. The outer part of the channel
is closed by a porous metal spreader through which the de-icing fluid seeps to
wet the outer surface. The primary and secondary feed channels are
interconnected by flow control tubes to ensure an even spread of fluid over the
outer surface.
The strips are let into the leading edge so that the porous element is flush with
the surface of the leading edge curvature. This type of distributor is rarely used
and would only be found on very old aircraft.
Panel Distributors
This type of distributor consists of a micro porous stainless steel outer panel, a
micro-porous plastic sheet and metering tube. The fluid passes through the
metering tube that calibrates the flow rate into a cavity between the plastic sheet
and a back-plate. This cavity remains filled when the system is operating and the
fluid seeps through the porous stainless steel outer panel. The airflow then
directs the fluid over the aerofoil.

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ICE AND RAIN

engineering

PROTECTION

The outer panel is usually made of stainless steel mesh although a new
technique of laser drilling of stainless steel sheet is appearing on some new
aircraft.
DISTRIBUTOR
PANELS
FILTER

VENT
MAIN
FEED
PIPES

GALLEY
PIPES

PUMP

TANK

DISTRIBUTOR
PANELS

Fluid De-icing System with Distribution Panels


Figure 9
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ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

When a system is to be out of service, or unused for an extended period of time,


it should be functioned periodically to prevent the fluid from crystallising and
causing blockage of the metering tubes, porous surfaces and pipelines.
Distributors should be cleaned periodically by washing with a jet of water sprayed
on to the distributor at an angle.

Section of a TKS Distribution Panel


Figure 10
12.11.3

PROPELLER SYSTEMS

It is necessary to de-ice the propeller blade root and a section of the propeller
blade to prevent the build up which could change the blade profile and upset the
aerodynamic characteristics of the propeller. Uneven ice build up will also
introduce imbalance of the propeller and cause vibration. The leading edge of
the propeller blade is therefore de-iced and the ice is shed by centrifugal force.
The blade root has a rubber cuff into which the de-icing fluid is fed by a pipeline
from a slinger ring on the spinner back plate. From the cuff the fluid is spread
along the leading edge of the blade by centrifugal force.

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ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

Fluid is fed into the slinger ring from a fixed pipe on the front of the engine.

Propeller Slinger Ring De-Icing


Figure 11
12.12

PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS

Pneumatic (or mechanical) systems are used for de-icing only, It is not possible
to prevent ice formation and works on the principle of cyclic inflation and deflation
of rubber tubes on aerofoil leading edges. The system is employed in certain
types of piston engine and twin turbo-propeller aircraft. The number of
components comprising a system and the method of applying the operating
principle will vary but a typical arrangement is shown.
The de-icer boots (or overshoes) consist of layers of natural rubber and
rubberised fabric between which are disposed flat inflatable tubes closed at the
ends. They are fitted in sections along the leading edges of wing, vertical
stabilisers and horizontal stabilisers. The tubes may be laid spanwise, chordwise
or a combination of each method. The tubes are made of rubberised fabric
vulcanised inside the rubber layers and are connected to the air supply by short
lengths of flexible hose secured by hose clips.
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PROTECTION

Depending on the type specified, a boot may be attached to the leading edge
either by screw fasteners or by cementing them directly to the leading edge skin.
The external surfaces of the boots are coated with a film of conductive material to
bleed off accumulations of static electricity.

Pneumatic De-Icing Boots


Figure 12
12.12.1

AIR SUPPLIES

The tubes in the overshoes are inflated by air from the pressure side of an engine
driver vacuum pump or, in some types of turbo-propeller aircraft, from a tapping
on the engine compressor. At the end of the inflated stage of the operating
sequence, and whenever the system is switched off, the boots are deflated by
vacuum derived from the vacuum pump or from the venturi section of an ejector
nozzle in systems using the engine compressor tapping.
12.12.2

DISTRIBUTION

The method of distributing air supplies to the boots depends on the system
required for a particular type of aircraft. In general three methods are in use:

shuttle valves controlled by a separate solenoid valve

individual solenoid valves direct air to each boot

motor driven valves

12.12.3

CONTROLS AND INDICATION

The controls and indication required for the operation of a system will depend on
the type of aircraft and on the particular arrangement of the system. In a typical
system a main ON-OFF switch, pressure and vacuum gauges or indicating lights
form part of the controlling section.
Pressure and vacuum is applied to the boots in an alternating, timed sequence
and the methods adopted usually vary with the methods of air distribution. In
most installations, however, timing control is affected by an electronic device.
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PROTECTION

Pneumatic De-icing System Layout


Figure 13
12.12.4

OPERATION

When the system is switched on, pressure is admitted to the boot sections to
inflate groups of tubes in sequence. The inflator weakens the bond between ice
and the boot surfaces and cracks the ice that is carried away by the airflow. At
the end of the inflation stage of the operating sequence, the air in the tubes is
vented to atmosphere through the distributor and the tubes are fully deflated by
the vacuum source. The inflation and deflation cycle is repeated whilst the
system is switched on. When the system is switched off, vacuum is supplied
continually to all tubes of the overshoes to hold the tubes flat against the leading
edges thus minimising aerodynamic drag.

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Pneumatic De-Icing Boots - Operation


Figure 14
12.13

THERMAL (HOT AIR) SYSTEM

The thermal (hot air) system fitted to aerofoils for the purpose of preventing the
formation of ice employs heated air ducted span-wise along the inside of the
leading edge of the aerofoil and distributed between double thickness skins.
Entry to the leading edge is made at the stagnation point where maximum
temperature is required. The hot air then flows back chord-wise through a series
of corrugations into the main aerofoil section to suitable exhaust points.

Thermal (Hot Air) de-Icing System


Figure 15
In anti-icing systems a continuous supply of heated air is fed to the leading
edges, but in de-icing systems it is usual to supply more intensely heated air for
shorter periods on a cyclic basis.
Hot gas may be derived from heat exchangers around exhausts, independent
combustion heaters or direct tappings from turbine engine compressors.
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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

EXHAUST GAS HEATING SYSTEM

The following diagram illustrates the principle of a thermal system using exhaust
gases to heat ambient air.
Ambient air enters an intake formed on one side of the engine nacelle and is
ducted to pass through tubes of a heat exchanger. The exhaust gases from the
jet pipe are partially diverted by electrically actuated flaps to flow between the
tubes of the heat exchanger before discharging to atmosphere.
The heated air from the heat exchanger passes to a duct containing an
electrically operated hot air valve before passing to the leading edges.
In the event of failure of the gas flap in the open position, an emergency manual
override facility is provided to close the hot air valve and open an actuator
operated spill valve to direct the hot air overboard.
The gas flap actuator and the hot air valve actuator are electrically interlocked in
such a way that the hot air valve must be fully open before the gas flap opens.
Conversely, the gas flap must be fully closed before the hot air valve closes. This
arrangement, controlled by the limit switches in the actuators, prevents
overheating of the heat exchanger.
Temperature control is automatic with a standby 'manual' facility. A control unit,
in conjunction with 'normal' control and 'overheat' thermistors, provides automatic
control and overheat protection. An overheat control unit, in conjunction with an
'override' thermistor and flame-stat provides a final overheat protection system.

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Exhaust Gas Heating system


Figure 16

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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

HOT AIR BLEED SYSTEM

In this system, air is bled from a late stage of the gas turbine engine compressor
before being distributed to aerofoil leading edges in the same manner as the
exhaust system. The system may be used for anti-icing or de-icing purposes on
wing and tail leading edges. It may also be used for ice protection of engine
intakes
In principle, the system works by either maintaining the temperature of the skin
above that at which ice occurs or by raising the skin temperature to melt the ice
after it has formed. On aircraft with engines mounted on the rear fuselage,
distribution of air along the wing leading edges may be graded to give a higher
intensity of heating for the inboard section. This is to prevent the shedding of ice
accretions into the engine intakes of a size that could result in hazards to the
engine.
The following diagram illustrates, in schematic form, a thermal system for a four
engine aircraft.
In operation, anti-icing shut off valves on each engine open to supply air to the
leading edge ducting at temperatures of about 200C. Wing and fuselage cross
over ducts ensure a supply to all surfaces in the event of an engine shut down in
flight.

Hot Bleed Air Anti-icing System


Figure17
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ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

On some installations, air temperature in the ducting may be controlled by mixing


compressor bleed air with ram air admitted to the system by a cold air control
valve.

Hot and Ram Air Mixing


Figure 18
When initially switched on, hot air is fed undiluted into the cold leading edge
ducting. Temperature sensors in the leading edge monitor the temperature rise
and progressively open and close the cold air valve via an inching unit to control
the skin temperature. In the event of failure of the:

temperature sensor to control the temperature of the leading edge

cold air valve

or blockage of the ram air inlet, the overhead sensor will control the temperature
by regulation of the hot air valve.
Note: Temperature regulation may also be achieved by controlling the position of
the hot air valve.

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12.14

MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

ELECTRICAL ICE PROTECTION SYSTEN

Electrical heater elements are attached to the outer surface of the area to be
protected. There are two methods; these being the heater mat and spray mat.
12.14.1

HEATER MAT

This type of element consists of two thin layers of rubber or PTFE sandwiching a
heater element. Each mat is moulded to fit snugly over the section to be
protected. Heater elements differ in design, construction and materials according
to their purpose and environment. The latest mats have elements made from a
range of alloys woven in continuous filament glass yarn.
The diagram below shows the application of a heater element to the air intake of
a turbo-prop engine.

Electrical Anti-Icing Heater Mat


Figure 19

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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

SPRAY MAT

This type of element is so called because it is sprayed directly on to the surface


to be protected. The technique was developed by the Napier Company to
provide a lightweight system for use on aerofoils and is ideally suited for
application to compound curves.
A base insulator is brushed directly on to the airframe and is composed basically
of synthetic resin. The insulator is normally about 0.03 inches thick although in
some cases this may vary. The heater element, made of either aluminium or
Kumanol (copper manganese alloy) is sprayed on to the base insulation using a
flame spraying technique.
The insulation is of the same material as the base insulation and about 0.01
inches thick. Finally, a protective coating is used where the heater requires extra
protection from mechanical damage, eg on leading edges. This protective
coating known as 'stoneguard' consists of stainless alloy particles bonded with
synthetic resin.

Napier Type Anti-Icing Spraymat


Figure 20
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The system layout shows the distribution and heating elements on the leading
edges of an aircraft tailplane and fin.

Distribution of Heating Elements


Figure 21
Some of the elements are supplied continuously with electrical power (anti-icing)
whilst others are supplied intermittently on a cyclic basis (de-icing). Areas
provided with continuous anti-icing heating are situated immediately in front of
areas on which limited ice formation is tolerable but which require de-icing by the
cyclic application of heat. Heating of these areas is rapid in order to break
adhesion as quickly as possible, allowing the detached ice to be blown away by
the airflow. To ensure a clean breakaway of the ice, the cyclically heated areas
are separated by continuously heated 'breaker' strips.
A system requiring different intensifies of anti-icing and cyclic de-icing would
require one or more cyclic switches, temperature sensing elements and
temperature control units. In general, control methods may be classified as antiicing and de-icing.

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Anti-icing
Anti-iced areas have their heat supplied continuously, the heating intensity being
graded such that under operating conditions no ice formation occurs. The heat is
regulated by means of either a sensing element embedded in the mat and an
associated thermal controller or a surface mounted thermostatic switch which is
pre-set to give cut-in and cut-out temperature levels.
Cyclic De-icing
Cyclic de-icing areas are usually arranged in groups being connected to a cyclic
switch. The detailed design of the cycling switch depends upon the loading and
type of power supply, e.g. dc or 3-phase ac. Its operation is controlled either by
timed impulses from a pulse generator or by an electronic device built into the
switch.
The timed impulses are set to the appropriate rate for the range of ambient
temperatures likely to be encountered.
At a relatively high ambient temperature the atmospheric water content, and
consequently the rate of icing, is likely to be high but only a comparatively short
heating period will be required to shed the ice. At very low temperatures the
atmospheric water content and rate of icing are lower and longer heating periods
are required. The ratio of time ON to time OFF, however, remains unchanged.
The typical ratio is 1:10. Setting of the pulse generator may be manual, as
estimated from indications of ambient air temperature, or by an automatic control
system in which the ON:OFF periods are varied by signals derived from an
ambient air temperature probe, working in conjunction with either an ice detector
or a rate of icing indicator.
The source of power may be dc, single phase ac or 3-phase ac. In a 3-phase
system the heated areas are arranged so as to obtain balanced loading of
phases for both anti-icing or de-icing circuits, if possible. De-icing heaters are
connected in such a manner that, as far as practicable, current requirements are
constant. To achieve this the OFF period for certain areas is made to coincide
with the ON period for others.

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12.14.3

MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

WINDSCREEN ANTI-ICING

The windscreens and other critical


windows in the cockpit (e.g. direct
vision windows, sliding side windows)
of high performance pressurised
aircraft are complicated and expensive
items of the airframe structure as they
are designed to withstand varying air
pressure loads, possible shock loads
due to impact of birds and hailstorms,
and thermal stresses due to ambient
temperature changes. In all cases, a
laminated form of construction is used,
similar to that shown

Typical Laminated Glass Windscreen


Figure 22
Laminated glass panels were conceived in order to impart shatter proof
characteristics to the glass. Such panels are produced by interposing sheets of
clear vinyl plastic (polyvinyl Butyral) between layers of preformed and pretempered glass plies. The vinyl and glass plies are then bonded by the
application of pressure and heat.
Since the desired bird-proof characteristics of a windscreen depend to a large
degree, on the plasticity of the vinyl, it therefore follows that it also depends upon
its temperature. The optimum temperature range for maximum energy
absorption by the vinyl is between 27C and 49C and the electrically heated
windscreen panel assemblies are normally maintained within these limits. Below
this range the bird-proof characteristics decline rapidly and depending upon the
actual configuration, a panel's impact resistance can be reduced by 30% to 50%
when still at quite a moderate temperature of 16C.
Electric heating of a windscreen therefore is an important factor in maintaining the
optimum bird-proof characteristics.
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PROTECTION

The heating element is an extremely thin transparent conductive coating which is


'floated' on to the inside surface of the outer glass ply; this being normally thinner
in section allows a more rapid heat conduction. The coating may be a tin oxide or
a gold film depending on a particular manufacturer's design.
The conductive coating is heated by alternating current supplied to busbars at the
edges of the windscreen panel. The power required for heating varies according
to the size of the panel and the heat required to suit the operating conditions.

Windscreen Temperature Control


Figure 23
The circuit of a typical windscreen de-icing system embodies a controlling device,
the function of which is to maintain a constant temperature at the windscreen and
also to prevent over-heating of the vinyl inter-layer(s). The controlling device is
connected to temperature-sensing elements embedded in the windscreen. There
are two methods of temperature sensing commonly in use. One of these utilises
a grid in which the resistance of the grid varies directly and linearly with
temperature. The other uses a thermistor, in which the resistance of the
thermistor varies inversely and exponentially with temperature.
The number of sensing elements employed depends on the system and circuit
design requirements. A system of warning lights and/or indicators also forms part
of the control circuit and provides visual indications of circuit operating conditions,
e.g. 'normal', 'off' or 'overheat'.

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PROTECTION

When the electrical power is applied, the conductive coating heats the glass.
When it attains a temperature predetermined for normal operation the change in
resistance of the appropriate sensing element causes the controlling device to
isolate the heating power supply. When the glass has cooled through a certain
range of temperature, power is again applied and the cycle is repeated. In the
event of a failure of the controller, the glass temperature will rise until the setting
of the overheat system sensing element is attained. At this setting an overheat
control circuit cuts off the heating power supply and illuminates a warning light.
The power is restored again and the warning light extinguished when the glass
has cooled through a specific temperature range.
12.15 WINDSCREEN CABIN WINDOW DE-MISTING SYSTEMS

Glass is a very poor conductor of heat and at altitude the low atmospheric
temperature will maintain the inside of the windscreens and cabin windows at low
temperature resulting in condensation on the inner surface and obscured vision.
Windscreens are normally kept mist free by blowing hot air, from the air
conditioning system, across the inner surface of the glass. In addition, demisting
of some windscreens and, usually, all cabin windows is achieved by using
windows of "dry air sandwich" construction.
This is rather like double-glazing with outer and inner layers of glass sandwiching
a layer of dry air between them.
The outer layer of glass is of thick laminate construction (glass and vinyl) to give
the necessary impact and shatterproof qualities. The inner layer of glass is much
thinner allowing it to be warmed by the cabin air temperature, thus preventing
condensation.
The air sandwich is kept dry to prevent internal condensation of the outer glass,
by one of two methods:
During manufacture the two layers of glass are hermetically sealed with dry air
between them.
The space between glass layers is vented to the cabin to allow the pressure in
the air space to equalise with cabin pressure. Venting takes place through a
desiccant unit that absorbs moisture from the air during the venting process to
maintain the dry air sandwich.

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PROTECTION

On some larger aircraft the fixed cabin windows are interconnected to a common
desiccant unit whilst escape windows have their own integral unit. The diagram
shows typical fixed window and escape hatch desiccant systems.
The desiccant used is Silica Gel crystals which are blue in colour but gradually
change to pink or white as they absorb moisture. Frequent checks must be made
on the state of the desiccant which must be replaced when it begins to turn pink.
Failure to take this action may result in condensation within the dry air sandwich
which may involve lengthy rectification to dry out the sandwich or may require the
windscreen/window to be replaced.

Cabin Window Desiccant System


Figure 24

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PROTECTION

12.16

RAIN REPELLANT AND RAIN REMOVAL

12.17

WINDSCREEN CLEARING SYSTEMS

Vision through windscreens may become obscured by factors other than ice and
misting. For example, rain, dust, dirt and flies can impair vision to an extent
where methods of clearing the screens must be provided to enable safe ground
manoeuvring, take off and landing. Windscreen clearing systems may be
considered under the following headings:
a. Rain clearing systems which can be further broken down into
a.

windscreen wipers

b.

pneumatic rain removal

c.

rain repellent

d.

windscreen washing

Windscreen washing systems.

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PROTECTION

12.18 WINDSCREEN WIPER SYSTEMS


12.18.1

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

In this type of system the wiper blades are driven by an electric motor(s) taking
their power from the aircraft electrical system. Sometimes the pilot's and copilot's wipers are operated by separate motors to ensure that clear vision is
maintained through one of the screens in case one system should fail.
The following diagram shows a typical electrical wiper and installation. An
electrically operated wiper is installed on each windscreen panel. Each wiper is
driven by a motor-converter assembly that converts the rotary motion of the motor
to reciprocating motion to operate the wiper arm. A shaft protruding from the
assembly provides an attachment for the wiper arms.

Electric Windshield Wiper System


Figure 25
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The wiper is controlled by setting the wiper control switch to the desired wiper
speed. When the "high" position is selected, relays 1 and 2 are energised. With
both relays energised, fields 1 and 2 are energised in parallel. The circuit is
completed and the motors operate at an approximate speed of 250
strokes/minute. When the "low" position is selected, relay 1 is energised. This
causes fields 1 and 2 to be energised in series. The motor then operates at
approximately 160 strokes/minute. Setting the switch to the OFF position allows
the relay contacts to return to their normal positions. However, the wiper motor
will continue to run until the wiper arm reaches the "park" position. When both
relays are open and the park switch is closed, the excitation of the motor is
reversed. This causes the motor to move off the lower edge of the windscreen,
opening the cam operated park switch. This de-energises the motor and
releases the brake solenoid applying the brake. This ensures that the motor will
not coast and re-close the park switch.

Windshield Wiper Circuit Diagram


Figure 26

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The path swept by the wiper blade may clear an arc as shown in the diagram on
the left, or in a parallel motion as shown on the right. The parallel motion is
preferred as it provides a greater swept surface, but the operating mechanism is
more complex.

Windshield Wiper Swept Areas


Figure 27
12.18.2

ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Older aircraft employed hydraulic motors instead of electric motors to drive the
wiper blades. A typical example is shown in the figure below. It consists of two
independently operated motors powered from each hydraulic system with control
valves operated from a selector on the flight deck

Figure 28
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12.18.3

MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

WINDSCREEN WIPER SERVICING

Servicing of the windscreen wiper systems consists of inspection, operational


checks, adjustments and fault finding.
Inspection
a. Examine the system for cleanliness, security, damage, connections and
locking
b. Examine blades for security, damage and contamination. Blades should be
replaced at regular intervals.
c. Check level of fluid in pump reservoir (electro-pneumatic system)
d. Examine hydraulic pipes for leakage and electrical cables for deterioration
and chafing

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ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

Operational Check
Before carrying out an operational check, the following precautions must be
taken:
a. Ensure that the windscreen is free of foreign matter
b. Ensure that the blade is secure and undamaged
During the check ensure that the windscreen is kept wet with water.
NEVER operate the windscreen wipers on a dry screen. It may cause scratches.
Adjustments
The following adjustments may be made:
a. Blade tension should be adjusted to the value stated in the Maintenance
Manual. This is carried out by attaching a spring balance to the wiper arm at
its point of attachment to the wiper blade and lifting at an angle of 90. If the
tension is not within the required limits, the spring may be adjusted by the
appropriate pressure adjusting screw.
b. Blade angle should be adjusted to ensure that the blade does not strike the
windscreen frame. This would cause rapid blade damage. This may involve
re-positioning the operating arm on the drive spindle. Where a parallel motion
bar is used, the length of the tie rod may be altered to vary the angle of
sweep.
c. Proper parking of the wipers are essential to ensure that they do not obscure
vision. If the wipers do not park as they should, they should be adjusted by
the method laid down in the Maintenance Manual.
Trouble shooting may be carried out using charts in the Maintenance Manual
(Chapter 30-42-0 in the ATA100 Scheme).

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12.19

MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

PNEUMATIC RAIN REMOVAL SYSTEMS

Windscreen wipers suffer from two basic problems. One is that at speed the
aerodynamic forces tend to reduce the blade pressure on the screen and cause
ineffective wiping. The other problem is to achieve blade oscillation rates that are
high enough to clear the screen during heavy rain.

Pneumatic Rain Removal System


Figure 29
Pneumatic rain clearance systems overcome these problems by using high
pressure bleed air from the gas turbine engine and blowing it over the face of the
windscreen from ducts mounted at the base of the screen. The air blast forms a
barrier that prevents the rain spots from striking the screen.
12.20

WINDSCREEN WASHING SYSTEM

A windscreen washing system allows a spray of fluid (usually de-icing fluid, e.g.
Kilfrost), to be directed on to the windscreens to enable the windscreen wider to
clear dust and dirt from dry windscreens in flight or on the ground.

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ICE AND RAIN

engineering

PROTECTION

The fluid is contained in a reservoir and sprayed on to the screen through


nozzles. The fluid may be directed to the nozzles by an electrically driven pump
or by pressurising the top of the reservoir with compressor bleed air via a
pressure reducing valve.
An example of an electrically driven system is shown.

Electrically Driven Windscreen Wash System


Figure 30
Servicing of the system involves functionally testing the system, replenishment of
the reservoir and checks for security, leaks and damage.
The system may be used in flight and on the ground.
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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

RAIN REPELLANT

When water is poured onto clear glass it spreads evenly to form a thin film. Even
when the glass is tilted at an angle and subjected to an air stream, the glass will
remain wetted and reduce vision. However, when the glass is treated with certain
chemicals (typically silicone based), the water film will break up and form beads
of water, leaving the glass dry between the beads. The water can now be readily
removed.
This principle is used on some aircraft for removing rain from windscreens.
The chemical is stored in pressurised, disposable cans and is discharged on to
the windscreen through propelling nozzles.
Examples of rain repellent systems are shown.
The following system shows a combined rain repellent and windscreen washing
system.

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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

Combined Windscreen Wash And Rain Repellent System


Figure 31

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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

The system shown below is a rain repellent only system and uses a disposable
pressurised canister.

Rain repellent System


Figure 32
The system is operated by a push button which causes the relevant solenoid
valve to open. Fluid from the container is discharged onto the windscreen for a
period of about 5 seconds under the control of a time delay unit. About 5cc of
fluid is used with each discharge from the container which holds approximately 50
cc. The solenoid will be de-energised and the button must be re-selected for a
further application. The fluid is spread over the screen by the rain which acts as
a carrier.
The system may be used with, or without wipers, depending on the aircraft
speed, but it is normally used to supplement the wipers in heavy rain at low
altitude where airspeeds are low.
It is essential that the system is not operated on dry windscreens because:

heavy undiluted repellent will cause smearing

the repellent may form globules and distort vision

If the system is inadvertently operated, the windscreen wipers must not be used
as this will increase the smearing. The screen should be washed with clean
water immediately. The windscreen wash system, if fitted, may be used.
Rain repellent residues can cause staining or minor corrosion of the aircraft skin.
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12.22

MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

DRAIN MAST HEATING

On many large aircraft, the water supply and water drain lines are electrically
heated to prevent ice formation. Power is normally supplied via the AC bus line
and is available both on the ground and in flight.
12.23

WATER SUPPLY AND DRAIN LINES

Heater tapes and blankets are wrapped around some water supply and drain
lines, the temperature being controlled by thermostats. In a typical aircraft
(Boeing 757), the thermostats control the heating, to open when the temperature
exceeds 15.5C and closes when the temperature drops to 7.2C. Heating
gaskets may be installed on the ends of toilet drain pipes.
12.24

DRAIN MASTS

Drain masts are heated to allow in-flight drainage without freezing. Drain mast
heating is controlled by an air/ground relay. Low heat is supplied on the ground
and high heat in flight.
Figure 37 overleaf illustrates some of the heating methods used.

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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

Waste Water Heater Components


Figure 33
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MODULE 11.12
ICE AND RAIN
PROTECTION

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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MODULE 11.13
LANDING GEAR

engineering

CONTENTS
13 LANDING GEAR .......................................................................... 13-1
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5

13.6
13.7

13.8
13.9
13.10
13.11
13.12

13.13
13.14
13.15
13.16

13.17

13.18

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 13-1


GENERAL ..................................................................................... 13-2
CONSTRUCTION............................................................................ 13-3
MULTIPLE AXLES AND WHEELS .................................................... 13-5
SHOCK ABSORBING ..................................................................... 13-6
13.5.1 Oleo-pneumatic without separator ................................. 13-6
13.5.2 Oleo-pneumatic with separator...................................... 13-8
13.5.3 Liquid Spring ................................................................. 13-8
SERVICING FILLING AND CHARGING ............................................ 13-8
EXTENSION AND RETRACTION SYSTEMS ....................................... 13-10
13.7.1 Extension System ......................................................... 13-11
13.7.2 Retraction System ......................................................... 13-12
SELECTOR VALVE ........................................................................ 13-12
UPLOCK MECHANISM .................................................................... 13-13
DOWNLOCK MECHANISM ............................................................... 13-14
EMERGENCY LANDING GEAR OPERATION ...................................... 13-16
LANDING GEAR DOORS SEQUENCING............................................ 13-17
13.12.1 Door Operated Sequencing System .............................. 13-18
13.12.2 Gear Operated Sequencing System .............................. 13-19
SAFETY BARS .............................................................................. 13-19
INDICATIONS AND WARNING INDICATIONS AND WARNING ............... 13-19
SAFETY SWITCHES ....................................................................... 13-25
WHEELS, BRAKES, ANTISKID AND AUTOBRAKING ........................... 13-26
13.16.1 wheels........................................................................... 13-26
13.16.2 Types of Wheels ........................................................... 13-27
TYRES ......................................................................................... 13-29
13.17.1 Tyre inflation and deflation ............................................ 13-29
13.17.2 Tyre Construction .......................................................... 13-29
13.17.3 Tyre Wear Assessment ................................................. 13-30
13.17.4 Tyre Damage ................................................................ 13-33
13.17.5 Leak Holes (Awl Holes) ................................................. 13-33
13.17.6 Vent Holes .................................................................... 13-33
13.17.7 Balance Marks .............................................................. 13-33
13.17.8 Electrically Conducting Tyres ........................................ 13-33
13.17.9 Aquaplaning .................................................................. 13-34
BRAKES....................................................................................... 13-34
13.18.1 Energising Brakes ......................................................... 13-34
13.18.2 None Energising Brakes................................................ 13-34
13.18.3 Expander Tube Brakes ................................................. 13-35
13.18.4 Single Disc Brakes ........................................................ 13-35
13.18.5 Multi Disc Brakes .......................................................... 13-35
13.18.6 Brake systems .............................................................. 13-36

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LANDING GEAR

13.18.7 Brake control valve ....................................................... 13-38


13.19 ANTI SKID SYSTEMS .................................................................... 13-39
13.19.1 Introduction ................................................................... 13-39
13.19.2 Electronic Anti Skid System .......................................... 13-40
13.19.3 Mechanical Anti Skid System ........................................ 13-46
13.20 AUTOBRAKING ............................................................................. 13-48
13.20.1 Selector Panel .............................................................. 13-48
13.20.2 Auto-Brake Control Unit ................................................ 13-48
13.20.3 Auto Brake Solenoid Valve ........................................... 13-49
13.20.4 System Operation ......................................................... 13-49
13.20.5 Auto Brake Termination ................................................ 13-49
13.21 STEERING .................................................................................... 13-50
13.21.1 Steering Mechanisms ................................................... 13-52
13.21.2 Nose Wheel Self Centring............................................. 13-53

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13 LANDING GEAR
13.1 INTRODUCTION

Landing gears have two main functions:


Supporting the weight of the stationary aircraft on the ground
Absorbing the loads during touchdown, the landing run and taxiing.
They are divided into two main categories, fixed (non-retractable) or fully
retractable.
Early aircraft had fixed landing gear, which unfortunately produced a large
amount of parasitic drag in flight. Since drag increases at the square of forward
speed, as aircraft began to fly faster, the resulting amount of drag became too
prohibitive.
In the short term, this problem was resolved by simply installing streamlined
fairings over the wheels. However it soon became clear that this drag could be
almost completely eliminated, if the landing gear were retracted after take off and
stowed out of the air-stream.

Tail Wheel Type Undercarriage


FIGURE 1

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LANDING GEAR

13.2 GENERAL
Early landing gear designs consisted of two main legs set just in front of the
centre of gravity (C of G) of the aircraft and a small tailwheel at the rear end of
the fuselage. Putting the C of G just aft of the main gear, ensured the aircraft very
quickly attained flying attitude during take off.
All aircraft at that time, were propeller-driven types and the inclined fuselage gave
ample clearance between the propeller and the ground during taxiing, take-off
and landing.
However the main disadvantage of this configuration was the risk that the aircraft
was likely to nose over when heavy braking was applied and poor vision for the
crew during taxiing and the initial part of the take off run.
This problem was overcome by the development of the Tricycle configuration,
which is now used almost exclusively. This places the main landing gear aft of the
C of G and a supporting nose gear at the forward end of the fuselage. As aircraft
became larger and heavier, landing gear design included multi-leg and multiwheel configurations.

Nose Wheel Type Undercarriage


Figure 2

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13.3 CONSTRUCTION

All landing gears have to be attached to strong points on either the fuselage or
the wing structure, so that the landing loads can be absorbed and transferred
safely to the aircraft structure.
Smaller light aircraft use a steel leaf or tubular steel spring to act as an
undercarriage (figure 3). One end is attached to a strong point on the airframe
while located on the other end is the wheel and axle. The deflection of the spring
tube on landing absorbs the landing loads and transmit them to the airframe. A
properly conducted landing will not cause any undercarriage rebound.

Spring Tube Type


Figure 3
Another simple method was to use elastic bungee cord encased in a loose weave
cotton braid (Figure 4). The bungee cord is located on a series of support struts
which support the wheel and axle. The bungee cord stretches on landing and
transfers the landing forces into the airframe.

BUNGEE SHOCK
CORD
Bungee Cord Type Landing Gear
Figure 4
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LANDING GEAR

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Larger more modern aircraft, require more complex and heavier retractable
systems (Figure 5). The larger the aircraft the larger the system. The components
remain similar just the size and quantities change (Figure 6). Each landing gear
unit is basically a wheeled shock absorber (oleo). A forged cylinder body is
attached to the airframe on trunnions to allow it to pivot when lowered and raised.
Articulated side stays are located between the cylinder body and airframe strong
points to give the landing gear strength and rigidity and allow the landing gearleg
to fold. Drag or bracing struts may also be fitted. These absorb the high
acceleration loads during take off and deceleration loads during braking.
MAIN SUPPORT FRAMES

TRUNNION

MAIN ACTUATOR

DOWNLOCK ACTUATOR

BRACING STRUT

DOWNLOCK LINKAGE
(TOGGLE LEVERS)
SIDE STAY

MAIN OLEO

PISTON

Landing Gear Leg With Bracing Struts


Figure 5
The wheel and axle assembly (bogey) is attached to the piston end. A hinged
torque (scissor) link is located between the axle yoke and the cylinder body. This
allows the piston to move freely in and out of the cylinder but prevents the piston
and wheel assembly from swivelling.
Two actuators are usually fitted. A main actuator attached to the cylinder body to
raise and lower the gear and a downlock actuator located on the bracing strut
which operates to cause a mechanical lock when lowered. It also unlocks the
gear mechanism before raising.
A Hop Damper is often used with multi wheel units to align the bogie at the
correct angle for landing and absorbs minor shock loads during taxiing. It is
connected between the main landing gear body and the bogie.
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LANDING GEAR

engineering

MAIN ACTUATOR

DOWNLOCK
ACTUATOR
CYLINDER
BRACING STRUT

PISTON
SCISSOR
(TORQUE) LINK

WHEEL

Oleo Type Landing Gear


Figure 6
13.4 MULTIPLE AXLES AND WHEELS
To allow for maximum utilisation of aircraft when operating from different runways
multi wheel landing gear is used. Typical configurations are shown in Figure 7.
SINGLE

DOUBLE

TANDEM

BOGIE

Wheel Axle Configurations


Figure 7

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LANDING GEAR

The advantages of using multi-wheel configurations are:

They spread the landing loads over a larger area (footprint).

They are easier to stow as the wheel volume is reduced.

They provide greater safety. As the loads are spread over several wheels a
burst tyre is not so critical as the remaining wheels accept the extra loads.

The main disadvantages are:

There are more moving parts so they need more maintenance.

They are expensive to produce

Due to the large footprint the turning circle is increased to prevent the tyres
from crabbing and increasing wear.

13.5 SHOCK ABSORBING


In order to absorb and dissipate the tremendous shock loads of landing, the
kinetic energy of the impact must be converted into other forms of energy. This is
achieved on most landing gear legs by using self-contained hydraulic shock
absorbing struts.
There are three main types of strut commonly used in commercial aircraft:

Oleo-pneumatic without separator


Oleo-pneumatic with separator
Liquid Spring

13.5.1 Oleo-pneumatic without separator

The strut uses a compressed gas (normally nitrogen) combined with a specific
quantity of hydraulic oil to absorb and dissipate the shock loads. It is essentially
an outer cylinder into which an inner hollow piston is inserted.
When the aircraft is airborne, the landing gear is no longer supporting the aircraft
weight, consequently the piston fully extends under the influence of the nitrogen
pressure. The nitrogen gas being lighter than oil, will settle in the upper portion of
the cylinder with the heavier oil at the bottom. Since in this particular type of strut
there is no separator between the oil and gas, there will be some aeration (froth)
as the oil and gas mix together at the demarcation line.

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On landing, the inner piston is forced up into the outer cylinder, reducing the
internal volume. A tapered metering pin and snubber knob which are an integral
part of the piston, are forced into a snubber tube carried by the outer cylinder.
(See Figure 8).
OIL BLEED VALVE

NITROGEN/OIL
CHARGING VALVE

FLAPPER VALVE (OPEN)

CYLINDER

FLAPPER
VALVE
(CLOSED
)

INNER
CYLINDER

SNUBBER KNOB
CYLINDER

SNUBBER
TUBE

METERING PIN

SNUBBER
KNOB

PISTON

(Strut Compressed)
Figure 8
PISTON

Oleo - Pneumatic without separator

(Strut Extended)
Figure 9

Oil is forced into the upper chamber through a series of holes in the snubber tube
and through the open flapper valve. The tapered shape of the metering pin
steadily reduces the available orifice area as it compresses.
The landing energy is therefore absorbed by the oil, as it is forced through the
ever-decreasing sized orifice and by the compression of the nitrogen gas, as the
oil is forced into the reduced volume of the upper chamber.
The problem now is to absorb the recoil, to prevent the aircraft from bouncing
back up from the runway.
As the piston starts to extend, the oil is now forced downwards into the hollow
piston. The rate at which this transfer takes place is greatly restricted by the
flapper valve slamming shut, leaving only a reduced number of holes in the
snubber tube to permit transfer the oil. This restriction in flow and the associated
increase in internal volume, prevents rapid strut extension and thus dampens the
recoil energy. (See Figure 9).

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LANDING GEAR

13.5.2 Oleo-pneumatic with separator

In this design, the principle is exactly the same as the oleo-pneumatic without
separator type previously described. The main difference is the inclusion of a
floating piston, to separate the oil chamber from the nitrogen chamber and
therefore prevent oil and gas mixing together. It also means that the nitrogen
chamber does not have to be positioned at the top of the leg, or indeed be limited
to one chamber. This makes shock absorbing more efficient, less severe jolting
during taxiing and will simplify servicing (see later).
13.5.3 Liquid Spring

This type does not have a gas compartment. Instead, it relies on the fact that if a
piston is forced into a cylinder completely filled with oil under a static pressure,
energy absorption will take place due to oil compression.
Oil is generally considered to be incompressible, however it is a fluid and will
obey the same rules as for a gas. At normal hydraulic system pressures (typically
3000 psi), the amount of compression is negligible. However, in liquid spring
shock absorbers, pressures in excess of 60,000 psi will often be generated and in
this case the oil will be compressed.
During touchdown, the inner piston is forced up into the upper cylinder as before,
compressing the oil as the volume progressively reduces by what is known as,
jack ram displacement. A restrictor valve inserted as before, will absorb the
recoil in a similar manner to the previous two types.
13.6 SERVICING FILLING AND CHARGING
To guarantee the correct operation of the shock absorber, the strut must be
serviced in order to fill the leg with the proper quantity of oil. Additionally, the oil
must be completely free of air. The nitrogen chamber must also be charged to the
correct value in order to maintain the correct oil/gas ratio.
When correctly filled and charged, the strut will adopt the correct extension when
supporting the aircraft on the ground and the risk of the inner piston coming into
contact with the outer cylinder (bottoming) during touchdown will be eliminated.
Filling and charging procedures will vary between aircraft type, will be detailed in
the Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) and must be strictly adhered to. A
general sequence of events to fill and charge a typical oleo-pneumatic without
separator type of strut (conforming to relevant health and safety regulations), is
detailed as follows:

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Normally the aircraft will be positioned on jacks with the wheels clear of the
ground.
Using an approved adapter, completely release the nitrogen pressure via the
charging valve and ensure the valve remains open after all pressure has been
dissipated.
Place a bottle jack under the strut and carefully compress the leg, pushing the
inner piston into the outer cylinder until it bottoms and the leg is fully
compressed.
Open the hydraulic bleed valve and pump oil into the oil filling connection until
fresh clean oil, completely free of air bubbles, emerges from the bleed valve.
The leg is now completely filled with oil to the correct quantity.
Close and tighten the oil charging valve and oil bleed valve.
Remove the bottle jack, connect a nitrogen rig to the nitrogen charging valve.
Slowly and carefully inflate the leg with nitrogen until the leg is fully extended
and the inflation adapter gauge shows the correct gas pressure obtained from
the AMM.
Close and tighten the nitrogen charging valve and remove the charging rig.
Repeat if required on the other main leg.
Lower the aircraft off jacks.
The legs are now properly filled and charged.
OIL BLEED POINT

OIL CHARGING
VALVE
OIL
OIL BLEED

SEPARATOR

SEPARATOR

CHARGING
VALVE

GAS
OLEO - PNEUMATIC WITH
SEPARATOR
Figure 10
LEG EXTENDED
Figure 11

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MODULE NO 11.13
LANDING GEAR

Note 1: If the leg is an oleo-pneumatic with separator type, there will be an


additional procedure before deflating the nitrogen pressure to ensure the
separator is in its correct position.
Note 2: The procedure is similar with a liquid spring type regarding the oil filling
and bleeding, there will be no nitrogen charging procedure.
Note 3: In-service, the serviceability of the shock struts can be monitored with
the use of a pressure/extension graph and adjustments may be made to the
nitrogen pressure as required.

GAS PRESSURE
(PSI)
(GAUGE PSI)

OLEO PRESSURE/EXTENSION GRAPH


Figure 12
13.7 EXTENSION AND RETRACTION SYSTEMS
As the speed of the aircraft becomes high enough that the parasite drag of the
landing gear is greater than the induced drag caused by the added weight of the
retracting system it becomes economically practical to retract the landing gear
into the aircraft structure.
Raising or lowering of the undercarriage is carried out either hydraulically or
pneumatically via a selector lever in the cockpit which is mechanically or
electrically linked to a selector valve. When the selector valve is operated it
directs the fluid to one side or the other of the piston.

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The landing gear is uplocked and downlocked mechanically or hydraulically


through the uplock boxes and the downlock toggle levers. Landing gear positions
are sensed by proximity switches or microswitches and transmit these positions
to the cockpit instrumentation via a control unit.
In the case of fluid or electrical failure, a mechanical emergency lowering system
is available. An emergency handle located in the cockpit is operated and by a
system of push-pull cables and gearboxes, the uplocks are released.
The landing gear selector valve or a freefall valve is also operated, which opens
all extension and retraction lines to return. The landing gear is allowed to fall
under gravity and aerodynamic forces but may be assisted by a spring or gas
operated free fall assister.
Smaller light aircraft may use differing methods for operating the landing gear.
Electric motors may drive actuators, a winding cable system, a simple operating
lever with safety locks or a manual hydraulic jacking system may be used to raise
or lower the landing gear.
Most modern light aircraft use a hydraulic power pack. This is a self-contained
system and was designed to be lightweight and easy to maintain. The pack
contains the fluid reservoir, sight glass, pressure pump, filter, thermal relief valve,
pressure relief valve, ground service and replenishment connections.
13.7.1 Extension System

When the selector lever is selected to GEAR DOWN a micro-switch on the lever
is made which powers up the hydraulic pump, the hydraulic pressure is then fed
to the uplock actuator valves to unlock the uplocks. Once operated, the uplock
hooks remain mechanically open under spring pressure. Movement of the
undercarriage legs break the uplock limit switches which indicates on the
instrumentation panel that the landing gears are in transit.(red triangles) and that
the undercarriage is unlocked.
The landing gear selector valve operates, and the down lines to the actuators and
the return lines to the reservoir are opened. The fluid pressure flows through the
selector valve to the actuators and extends the actuators. Once the main
actuators are fully extended and the undercarriage legs have mechanically
locked, excess pressure is bled back through the low pressure control valve to
the reservoir.
When all 3 wheels are down and locked, proximity switches send signals to a
control unit which turns the hydraulic pump off, closes the selector valve lines and
sends signals to the instrument panel indicating that the undercarriage is locked
down, (green triangles).

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LANDING GEAR

13.7.2 Retraction System


The retraction procedure is basically the opposite of the extension procedure.
When the selector lever is selected GEAR UP a micro-switch on the lever is
made which powers up the hydraulic pump, the hydraulic pressure is then fed to
the downlock actuators to unlock the mechanical locks on the bracing struts. Its is
also fed to the selector valve and opens the uplines to the main actuators and the
return lines to the reservoir.
Movement of the undercarriage legs breaks the downlock proximity switches
which send signals to the control unit which indicates on the instrumentation
panel that the landing gears are in transit, (red triangles) and that the
undercarriage is unlocked.
The fluid pressure flows through the selector valve to the main actuators and
retracts the landing gear. The undercarriage legs on full retraction mechanically
lock the uplocks. Once the main actuators are fully retracted and the
undercarriage legs are locked up, excess pressure is bled back through the low
pressure control valve to the reservoir. When all 3 wheels are up and locked,
uplock limit switches send signals to a control unit which turns the hydraulic pump
off, closes the selector valve lines and change the red triangles to black on the
indicating panel.
If a red triangle remains on when the undercarriage is fully extended or retracted
there is a fault in the system. A squat switch system and an electro-mechanical
stop on the selector lever, will prevent the landing gear from being retracted when
the aircraft is on the ground. The landing gear will not be able to be retracted until
certain parameters are met. This is normally when all landing gear legs have fully
extended after take off. This is sensed by proximity switches on each leg.
13.8 SELECTOR VALVE
The selector valve on modern large aircraft will be normally operated by electrical
solenoids signalled from micro-switches in the landing gear selector lever, but on
some aircraft they may be mechanically operated. A spool valve in the selector
valve is moved from a neutral position one way or the other allowing hydraulic
pressure to one side of the main actuator piston, depending whether the landing
gear is to be raised or lowered .
Normal operation of the selector valve can be overridden in case the landing gear
has to be lowered in an emergency, if the landing gear fails to extend due to a
system fault. The spool valve is moved mechanically by a system of rods, cables
and levers to allow all lines to be opened to allow the free flow of hydraulic fluid
around the system. This operation is normally inter-linked with the emergency
mechanical opening of the uplocks.
A typical selector valve is shown in Figure 13

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LANDING GEAR

engineering

SPOOL VALVE

SOLENOID

SOLENOID

MECHANICAL OVER-RIDE
LINKAGE

Selector Valve
Figure 13
13.9 UPLOCK MECHANISM
On large modern aircraft when the landing gear is being retracted the uplocks will
operate mechanically. A roller on the landing gear leg will locate and engage into
the uplock hook. Limit switches will sense when the landing gear leg has
engaged in the lock hook and will turn off the hydraulic pressure. The gear will
then be held retracted in place purely mechanically. (Figure 14)
LOCK LEVER ASSEMBLY

LIMIT SWITCH

UNLOCK ACTUATOR VALVE


LANDING GEAR LEG ROLLER
UPLOCK HOOK

Locked Uplock
Figure 14
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MODULE NO 11.13
LANDING GEAR

engineering

Normal release of the uplock is by a hydraulically actuated valve. The supplied


hydraulic pressure pushes a plunger against the lock lever which rotates about its
pivot. This action allows the uplock hook to disengage under its own spring
tension. The landing gear will then be extended hydraulically by the main
actuator. (Figure 15)
LOCK LEVER ASSEMBLY
LIMIT SWITCH

PLUNGER
UNLOCK ACTUATOR VALVE
UPLOCK HOOK

LANDING GEAR LEG ROLLER

Unlocked Uplock
Figure 15
13.10

DOWNLOCK MECHANISM

The downlock actuator can have either a single or double direction operation
depending on the aircraft. A single direction operation would unlock the downlock
mechanism (upper and lower toggles) prior to retraction, the leg relying on its own
extension to provide the over centre lock. The double direction actuator will lock
the downlock mechanism on extension and unlock it prior to retraction.
Once the landing gear has been fully extended and is sensed by a limit switch
hydraulic pressure is directed to the downlock actuator which extends the
actuator piston. The piston acts against a toggle lever which move both toggle
levers to an over centre position. This over centreing of the toggle levers forms a
mechanical lock which prevents the landing gear leg from collapsing. (Figure 16)

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LANDING GEAR

engineering

MAIN LEG

DOWNLOCK ACTUATOR

PROXIMITY SWITCH

SIDE BRACE

UPPER TOGGLE
LEVER
LOWER TOGGLE
LEVER

PROXIMITY SWITCH
CENTRE LINE

OVER CENTRE POSITION

Linkage Downlocked
Figure 16
Once the aircraft has landed and parked up, a red flagged safety pin is inserted
through alignment holes in the toggle levers to prevent inadvertent collapse or
retraction of the landing gear on the ground. This safety pin is removed before
flight.

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LANDING GEAR

engineering

On selecting the landing gear up, the hydraulic pressure is directed initially to the
downlock actuator and retracts the piston. As the piston retracts it moves the
lower toggle overcoming the mechanical lock, moving both toggle levers from the
over centre position to an under centre position, so that the landing gear can now
fold. (Figure 17)
MAIN LEG
DOWNLOCK ACTUATOR

PROXIMITY SWITCH

SIDE STAY
UPPER TOGGLE
LEVER
UNDER CENTRE POSIITION
LOWER TOGGLE
LEVER
PROXIMITY SWITCH

CENTRE LINE

Linkage Unlocked
Figure 17
13.11

EMERGENCY LANDING GEAR OPERATION

The uplocks can be released manually if the actuator or hydraulic system fails. An
emergency landing gear lever, operated from the cockpit will act on and rotate the
hook locks, releasing the landing gear legs from the uplock hooks. The
emergency mechanism lever will also operate a lever on the landing gear selector
valve which will open all hydraulic lines to return. This allows the hydraulic fluid to
free flow through the system, to allow the landing gear to extend.
Once the uplocks are released the landing gear legs will extend under gravity and
aerodynamic forces. Spring or gas operated free fall assistors may be used to
help the gear extend. The proximity and limit switches will operate as normal
giving a cockpit indication of the gear in transit and down locked.

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LANDING GEAR

engineering

HOOK LINK ASSEMBLY


LEVER

LIMIT SWITCH

UPLOCK HOOK
UNLOCK ACTUATOR VALVE
CABLE

EMERGENCY
OPERATING HANDLE

Emergency Release Mechanism


Figure 18
On aircraft fitted with hydraulically sequenced doors if the hydraulic system fails,
the door jack is mechanically unlocked. This will also be carried out by a
mechanical linkage connected to the cockpits emergency release mechanism
(Figure 18)
13.12

LANDING GEAR DOORS SEQUENCING

To keep the aircraft as streamlined as possible and to reduce drag, the landing
gear is normally retracted into bays within the aircraft structure. However some
aircrafts landing gear do not fully retract into the structure and some access doors
do not fully enclose the landing gear.
The bays have access doors which open and close in relation to the movement of
the landing gear. Some doors are mechanically linked to the landing gear, by a
system of connecting rods, bellcranks and links, whilst other doors open and
close under operation from a hydraulic sequencing valve, signalled by microswitches or proximity switches via a control unit.
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LANDING GEAR

engineering

To further reduce the drag some doors will close when the landing gear has been
extended. The landing gear doors may have a manual unlocking mechanism to
allow the door to be opened on the ground for access in carrying out
maintenance tasks and inspections.
Anything that jeopardises the sequence can cause considerable damage to the
aircraft structure and could lead to an unsafe landing condition. Door sequencing
relies on the movement of valves operated by the doors and the movement of the
legs. The sequencing valve can be therefore be either door operated or gear
operated.
13.12.1 Door Operated Sequencing System
Only when the door is fully open is pressure allowed to flow to the main actuator.
If the door is not fully open the main actuator remains isolated. Hydraulic
pressure is initially fed to the landing gear door actuator which operates to open
the door. When the door reaches its maximum travel it abuts against. and
depresses a plunger. (Figure 19) The movement of the plunger unseats a valve in
the sequence valve, which opens a gallery to allow fluid pressure to the main
actuator and extends the landing gear down.
TO DOOR ACTUATOR

PRESSURE IN
VALVE SEAT

PLUNGER

TO MAIN ACTUATOR

Sequence Valve Door Shut


Figure 19

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LANDING GEAR

engineering

Retraction of the landing gear is reversed. Pressure is fed to the main actuator
which retracts the landing gear leg. When the landing gear leg is fully retracted it
abuts against and depresses a sequence valve plunger. The movement of the
plunger unseats a valve in the sequence valve, which opens a gallery to allow
fluid pressure to the door actuator which closes the door. (Figure 20)
TO DOOR ACTUATOR

PRESSURE IN
VALVE SEAT

PLUNGER

TO MAIN ACTUATOR

Sequence Valve Door Open


Figure 20
13.12.2 Gear Operated Sequencing System
The principle of operation is very similar to the door operated mechanism. The
difference being that the plunger (or slide) is operated via a cam and linkage
mechanism directly attached to the landing gear leg. This ensures that when the
gear starts to move the door starts to, or is in the process of opening.
13.13

SAFETY BARS

On some aircraft with hydraulically sequenced doors if the hydraulics system was
to fail, to allow the landing gear to lower, the wheels will forcibly open the doors.
This is done by the landing gear legs pushing against safety bars which are fitted
to the doors. The doors will open without being damaged and once operated the
doors will remain open.
13.14

INDICATIONS AND WARNING INDICATIONS AND WARNING

All modern aircraft fitted with retractable landing gear will have a means of
indicating on the flight deck whether the legs are locked down, in transit or
correctly locked up. Additionally, a separate warning system may be included to
show faults, or to indicate that the legs are not in the position selected (nips).
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MODULE NO 11.13
LANDING GEAR

Normally leg position is shown, by a dedicated set of coloured indicators on the


front panel, near to the landing gear selector lever. Each leg will have its own set
of indicator lights.
On some aircraft a nips light is included in the selector lever itself.
The actual sequence of indication often varies from aircraft to aircraft, but the
modern dark cockpit philosophy during flight, usually means that all indicator
lights are extinguished (no lights), when the legs are properly locked up.
Red lights are often used when the legs are in transit (i.e.: not locked up and not
locked down) and green lights illuminate when each leg is down and locked.

RED TRANSIT
GREEN
LOCKED
DOWN

A RED LIGHT COMES ON WHENEVER:


1.
THE LEVER IS NOT DOWN AND
GEAR NOT UP.
2.
THE LEVER IS DOWN AND GEAR
NOT DOWN AND LOCKED.
3.
ENGINE No. 1 OR 2 THROTTLE IS IN
IDLE RANGE AND ANY GEAR NOT
DOWN AND LOCKED.
A GREEN LIGHT COMES ON WHENEVER:
1.
THE GEAR IS DOWN AND LOCKED.

Gear Position Indicator


Figure 21
On other aircraft, the red transit lights are replaced by the nips light in the
selector lever, and separate amber warning lights on the front panel will show a
fault. (I.e.: if any leg fails to reach its selected position, either locked up or locked
down, within a certain time limit.)
Also, where for example, visual confirmation from the cabin windows is not
possible, usually for nose gear, the locked down indicator may be duplicated, as
an additional confidence light, in case a bulb failure occurs.
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LANDING GEAR

engineering

ADDITIONAL NOSE
LOCKED DOWN GREEN
GREEN
LOCKED
DOWN
LIGHTS

AMBER FAULT
LIGHTS

RED NIPS LIGHT


INSIDE HANDLE

Landing Gear Selector and Indications


Figure 22
Micro switches or proximity sensors are fitted to each leg to relay information the
flight deck indicators. A change the output voltage whenever the uplock or
downlock mechanisms are made or broken during the retraction or lowering
sequences, determine indicator output.

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MAIN LANDING GEAR

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE NO 11.13
LANDING GEAR

MAIN LANDING GEAR DOWNLOCK SENSOR


Gear Downlock Sensors
Figure 23

Other methods can be mechanical indicators outside the aircraft, visible from the
cockpit. There may be painted indicator lines on the landing gear legs toggle
levers which align when the gear is down and locked. (Figure 24)

UNLOCKED
LOCKED

Landing Gear Down Locked Visual Indicator


FIGURE 24
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LANDING GEAR

engineering

Some aircraft have pop up indicators which stand proud on the upper wing
surface when the gear is down and locked (Figure 25). These are plunger
operated through a cable linkage attached to the toggle levers. When the landing
gear extends and is locked down a plate attached to the toggle lever operates a
spring loaded plunger which by cable connection moves the indicator from its
housing, proud of the airframe skin. The indicator returns under spring pressure
into its housing when the landing gear is retracted

POP UP INDICATOR

AIRFRAME SKIN

UNLOCK ACTUATOR
PLUNGER

TOGGLE
LEVERS
SIDE STRUT

POP UP INDICATOR

AIRFRAME SKIN

UNLOCK ACTUATOR
PLUNGER

TOGGLE
LEVERS

SIDE STRUT

Landing Gear pop Up Indicator


Figure 25
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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE NO 11.13
LANDING GEAR

To prevent the pilot from landing with his under carriage retracted there may be a
warning system connected to the centralised warning panel with associated
warning lights and audio warnings. The warning system may be activated when
the aircraft descends to a certain height above the ground detected by the radio
altimeter, or when the landing configuration is incorrect ie, when the engine
power levers or flaps are set incorrectly.
SAFETY LATCH PIN
UP

LANDING GEAR
SELECTOR LEVER

DOWN
SAFETY
LANDING

SOLENOID

GEAR LEG

DE-ENERGISED

EXTENSION
CONTROL UNIT

LIMIT
SWITCHES

Landing Gear Selector Lever Safety Interlock


Figure 26
SAFETY LATCH PIN
UP

LANDING GEAR
SELECTOR LEVER

DOWN
SAFETY
SOLENOID

LANDING

ENERGISED

GEAR LEG
EXTENSION
CONTROL UNIT

LIMIT
SWITCHES

Landing Gear Selector Lever Safety Interlock


Figure 27
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LANDING GEAR

engineering

The landing gear may have an electro-mechanical safety device, which prevents
operation of the selector lever on the ground. When all the landing gear legs are
compressed a safety solenoid is de-energised which moves a latch pin under the
landing gear selector lever. So long as the solenoid remains de-energised the
latch pin prevents the selector lever from operating.
As soon as each landing gear leg is fully extended the limit switch is made which
sends a signal to the control unit. When the control unit receives signals from all
the landing gear legs an earth is made and the safety solenoid is energised. The
latch pin is withdrawn from beneath the selector lever allowing gear up when
selected. (Figures 26 and 27)
13.15

SAFETY SWITCHES

Proximity switches on each landing gear leg will indicate that the landing gear leg
is either downlocked or is in transit. The switch will be made when the target on
the landing gear leg comes into alignment with the switch probe indicating that
the landing gear is downlocked. The gap between the probe and target is set in
accordance with the maintenance manual for the aircraft. When the proximity
switche probes are out of alignment with their targets, the switches are broken
and it is sensed that the landing gear leg is in transit.
The signals will be sent to an electronic control unit or computer where they are
processed and will illuminate an associated green triangle on the landing gear
panel when locked down and a red triangle when the landing gear is in transit.
Limit micro-switches on the uplocks will sense when the landing gear is locked up
and limit switches on the oleos will sense when the oleo leg is fully extended. The
signals will be sent to an electronic control unit or a computer where they are
processed. When the landing gear is locked up the limit switch will change the
red triangles to black. When the oleos are fully extended the limit switches will
allow the landing gear to be retracted.
The proximity switches and limit switches form part of the weight on wheels,
weight off wheels squat switch system and will prevent inadvertent retraction of
landing gear on the ground and will only allow retraction when certain
circumstances are met. This mainly being that all 3 landing gear legs are weight
off wheels and are fully extended, and the downlocks have been unlocked.

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13.16

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE NO 11.13
LANDING GEAR

WHEELS, BRAKES, ANTISKID AND AUTOBRAKING

13.16.1 wheels

The wheels on the landing gear leg provides some form of suspension and
adhesion between the aircraft and the ground. Early wheels and tyres were of the
bicycle type with spoke rims and with the tyres fitted using tyre levers. Most light
aircraft have fixed flange one piece forged or cast wheels (Figure 28).

Fixed Flange Wheel


Figure 28
Modern tyres are much more rigid, due to the load-bearing requirements, which
results in the wheels having to be of two piece construction (Figure 29). The two
piece wheel construction, are of 2 types, removable rim or split wheel. The
removable rim wheel has an inner tube where as the split wheel is tubeless and
requires a perfect seal between the halves. An O ring is located between the
mating surfaces. To be as light and strong as possible they are usually
constructed from alluminium or magnesium alloys and may be cast or forged.
The inboard wheel section is fitted with key ways that allows the brake discs to
slot into. These key ways drive the brake discs with the wheels. Larger aircraft
wheels have one or more fusible plugs fitted. These plugs have a centre hole
which is filled with a low melting point alloy. In the event of the tyre overheating,
when a temperature limit is reached the low melting point alloy melts and allows
the tyre to safely deflate.

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13.16.2 Types of Wheels

There are three basic types of wheel used for aircraft:


Well-based
Divided (or Split)
Loose and Detachable Flange
13.16.2.1 WELL-BASED

This type is limited to smaller light aircraft and is similar to those found on a
typical family car.
13.16.2.2 DIVIDED (OR SPLIT)

This type is used on most modern commercial airliners. It consists two half
assemblies matched up and bolted together to form the complete wheel. Each
half is more or less identical and has its own tapered bearing assembly.
A sealing ring is incorporated between the two halves, to provide an airtight joint
when the wheel is used with a tubeless tyre. Additionally, the inner half will carry
the brake rotor drive blocks and the outer half may be fitted with fusible plugs.
Half Hub Assembly

Outer Bearing
Inner Bearing
Sealing Ring
Drive Block Mounting
Divided (Split) Wheel
Figure 29

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LANDING GEAR

engineering

13.16.2.3 LOOSE AND DETACHABLE FLANGE

This type of wheel has a main hub, which carries both bearings, brake rotor drive
blocks and fusible plugs. To facilitate tyre replacement, one of the two wheel
flanges can be removed. The flange when refitted to the wheel hub is retained by
a locking ring (loose flange) or by means of a series of nuts and bolts (detachable
flange). As with the divided wheel a sealing ring is incorporated in the flange
recess to provide the airtight joint when used with tubeless tyres.

Locking Ring

Loose Flanged sealing


Figure 30

Loose Flange

Spigot Joint

Three Piece Loose Flanged Wheel


Figure 31

Inner Bearing

Outer Bearing
Drive Blocks

Detachable Flanged Wheel


Figure 32
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13.17

TYRES

Tyres with patterned tread became important when aircraft got effective brakes
that could be used for slowing the aircraft during landing. At first the treads were
a diamond pattern that provided good braking on wet grass but the ribbed tread
proved to be more suitable for operation on hard surface runways. Today almost
all aircraft tyres have a ribbed tread that consists of straight grooves, which run
around the tyres circumference.
13.17.1 Tyre inflation and deflation

The tyres are inflated with nitrogen from a ground cart. The required pressure will
be laid down in the AMM and a tyre inflation box is used to regulate the charge
rate and pressure. A deflation tool is used to release the pressure and any ice
that forms must be allowed to thaw before the valve core is removed.
13.17.2 Tyre Construction

The Bead

The bead gives the tyre its strength and stiffness to assure a firm mounting on the
wheel. The bead is made up of bundles of high strength carbon steel wire with
two or three bead bundles on each side of the tyre. Rubber strips streamline the
round bead bundles to allow the fabric to fit smoothly around them without any
gaps. The bead bundles are enclosed in layers of rubberised fabric, to insulate
the carcass plies from the heat absorbed in the bead wires.

The Carcass

The carcass (or chord body) is the body of the tyre that is made up of layers of
rubberised fabric cut in strips with the threads running at an angle of about 45
degrees to the length of the strip. These strips extend completely across the tyre
around the bead and partially up the side. Each ply is put on in such a way that
the threads cross each other at about 90 degrees to that of the adjacent ply. This
type of construction is known as bias ply.
The cords of the ply fabric were originally cotton, then nylon and now aramid
fibres (kevlar) are used. This is stronger than nylon, polyester or fibreglass and
even strong pound for pound than steel.
Chafing strips are rubberised strips of fabric that wrap around the edges of the
carcass plies and enclose the bead area. The chafing strips provide a smooth
chafe resistant surface between the tyre and the bead seat of the wheel.

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The undertread is a layer of compound rubber between the plies and the tread
rubber that provides good adhesion between the tread and the carcass. On top of
the undertread are more plies of strong fabric that strengthen the tread and
oppose centrifugal forces that try to pull the tread from the carcass during high
speed rotation.
The inner liner is a thin coating of rubber over the inside plies. For tubeless tyres
it is made from a compound which is less permeable than other rubbers used. It
seals the tyre and reduces the amount of leakage. On tyres with inner tubes the
liner is very smooth to help prevent chafing.
TREAD
PLIES

SIDEWALL
CHAFING STRIPS

CARCASS

BEAD BUNDLE

BEAD WIRES

Aircraft Tyre Construction


Figure 33

The Tread

The tread is the thick layered rubber around the outer circumference of the tyre
that serves as a wearing surface. The tread has a series of moulded grooves
moulded into its surface to give optimum traction with the runway surface.
13.17.3 Tyre Wear Assessment

The manner in which tread wear of a tyre is established, is dependent upon which
of a number of methods of indicating wear has been incorporated into the tyre by
the manufacturer.
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Tyres used on modern aircraft have a series of circumferential grooves in the


tread, primarily to displace water on the runway and so help to prevent the tyre
from aquaplaning. These grooves can be also used as a means of establishing
tyre wear.
If this method is adopted, then wear which results in any groove being less than
2mm in depth, for more than 25% of the tread circumference, requires the tyre to
be replaced.
Other ways of establishing wear assessment are by the use of:
Tie Bars
Wear indicator Grooves
Sipes
13.17.3.1 TIE BARS

These are small transverse bars of rubber, moulded at intervals in the


circumferential grooves around the tyre as described above. They are set at a
depth of 2mm, or as required by the particular manufacture and thus provide an
easy visual means of establishing wear limits.
Limits tyre worn to the top of the tie bar.

Tie Bars

Tie Bars
Figure 34
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MODULE NO 11.13
LANDING GEAR

13.17.3.2 WEAR INDICATOR GROOVES

These are dedicated grooves set in the tread pattern and have a depth graduated
by the manufacturer, but typically 2mm shallower than the water-displacing
grooves.
Limits tyre worn to the bottom of the indicator groove anywhere on the
circumference of the tyre.

Wear Indicator Grooves


Figure 35
13.17.3.3 SIPES

Certain tyres, normally those having a zigzag tread pattern have an axial slit in
the tread rubber at some of the zigzag corners. The slit does not extend into the
depth of the tread and is called a sipe.
Limits Tyre worn to the bottom of the sipe.

Sipes

Sipes
Figure 36
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13.17.4 Tyre Damage

The amount of tyre damage a tyre can suffer without becoming unserviceable is
very small. Damage in the vicinity of the bead is rarely tolerated, while cuts in the
casing plies must be assessed very carefully in accordance with the
manufacturers requirements before deciding on the degree of serviceability.
Normally if the chords are exposed due any form of damage, including splits or
crazing, then the tyre will be classed as unserviceable.
NOTE: Always consult the Aircraft/Component Maintenance Manual.
13.17.5 Leak Holes (Awl Holes)

During inflation of a tyre/tube assembly, air may become trapped between the
tube and the inside surface of the tyre, giving an incorrectly inflated assembly.
The risk is reduced by allowing the air to escape through Leak Holes, pierced
completely through the sidewall of the tyre, during manufacture. The holes are
often made with a pointed tool called an Awl. Because of this, the holes are
sometimes referred to as Awl Holes. The position of these holes is indicated by a
series of 6mm diameter spots of grey or green litho ink, usually grey.
13.17.6 Vent Holes

During the manufacture of tubeless tyres, air that gets trapped between layers in
the casing is permitted to escape to atmosphere through vent holes pierced in the
sidewall. The vent holes do not penetrate right through the sidewall in this case
and are identified, as with leak holes, by 6mm diameter spots of grey or green
litho ink, usually green.
13.17.7 Balance Marks

A red spot (sometimes triangular) on either side of the tyre indicates its lightest
point around the circumference as ascertained during the manufacturers
balancing procedure.
During assembly with the wheel the red spot should be aligned with the inflation
valve on a tubeless assembly. On a tubed assembly, the spot should be aligned
with a red line (heavy point) on the tube. If it has no red line, align with the
inflation valve of the tube.
13.17.8 Electrically Conducting Tyres

Some wheel assemblies are fitted with tyres that are designed to conduct
electrical charges to earth as the aircraft touches down. Such tyres are identified
with the word CONDUCTIVE or the letters ECTA (electrically conducting tyre
assembly) on the sidewall.

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MODULE NO 11.13
LANDING GEAR

13.17.9 Aquaplaning

Aquaplaning is a condition that occurs on wet runways when a wave of water


builds up in front of a spinning wheel. This could result in the tyre being lifted from
the runway surface and to float on the thin layer of water. This is dangerous, as a
complete loss of braking efficiency will occur.
Although it appears only to be an aircrew problem, there is a significant factor that
affects the maintenance engineer.
Mathematically there is a formula for Aquaplaning speed Aquaplaning Speed (Kt.) = 9 (approx.) x Square Root of the Tyre Pressure.
This speed will be placarded for the crew, so that in wet conditions they will
quickly traverse through it on landing.
However, if the tyre pressures are incorrect, the placarded speed will be useless
and aquaplaning will occur at a different speed.
Take care, therefore, to maintain tyre pressures at their correct value at all times.

13.18

BRAKES

Aircraft brake systems convert kinetic energy from the motion of the aircraft into
heat energy, which is generated by the fiction between the brake linings and the
brake drum or disc.
There are two types of brakes in use energising (servo) and none energising.
Energising brakes use the friction developed between the rotating and stationary
parts to produce a wedging action that uses the momentum of the aircraft to
increase the braking force which reduces the pilots effort needed in producing the
required braking action. None energising brakes do not use this wedging action.
13.18.1 Energising Brakes

Energising brakes used on some smaller light aircraft have a single servo action
and only operate with forward motion. Energising brakes have their shoes and
linings mounted on a torque plate in such a way that they are free to move out
against the rotating drum. When the brakes are applied two pistons move out and
push the linings against the drum that rotates with the wheel. Rotation of the
brake drum wedges the linings against it. When the hydraulic pressure is
released, a retracting spring pulls the linings form the drum and releases the
brakes.
13.18.2 None Energising Brakes

This is the most common type of brake used on aircraft. These brakes are
actuated by hydraulic pressure and the amount of braking action depends on the
pressure applied. Expander tube, single disc and multiple disc brakes are the
main types of none energising brakes used.

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13.18.3 Expander Tube Brakes

Expander brakes utilise a heavy neoprene tube, but are rarely use on modern
aircraft. Hydraulic fluid from the master cylinder is directed into the expander tube
which is located on the circumference of a torque flange. When this tube is
expanded it pushes the brake block linings out against the brake drum and the
friction between the linings and the drum slows the aircraft.
The heat generated in the linings is kept from damaging the expander tube by
stainless steel heat shields placed between each of the lining blocks. As soon as
the brake pedal is released, the return springs between the brake lining blocks
collapse the expander tube and force the fluid back into the cylinder reservoir.
13.18.4 Single Disc Brakes

This is most common on light aircraft. The brakes are actuated by hydraulic
pressure from a master cylinder and friction is produced when the rotating disc is
squeezed between the brake linings in the brake caliper.
There are two types of single disc brakes, one has the disc keyed into the wheel
and it is free to move in and out as the brake is applied. This type is called
floating disc fixed caliper. The second type of brake disc is rigidly attached to the
wheel and the caliper moves in and out on anchor bolts. This type is called fixed
disc floating caliper.
Some single disc brakes have automatic adjusters and wear indicators. The
automatic adjusting pin is pulled through the grip when brakes are applied. When
the brakes are released the piston and the linings move back only under pressure
of the return spring. The protrusion on the adjuster pin indicates lining wear. In
general, when the pin is flush with the housing the linings are replaced.
13.18.5 Multi Disc Brakes

The gross weight of the aircraft and the speed at the time of brake application
determines what size brakes are required. As the aircrafts size, weight and
landing speed increases there is a need for greater braking surfaces and heat
dissipation.
Segmented rotor, multiple disc brakes are standard on most modern high
performance aircraft. The segmented disc brake has three rotating discs keyed
on to the wheel. The rotors are segmented to allow for cooling and for expansion
caused by the high temperatures generated during braking.
Between each disc is a stator plate or brake-lining disc, keyed on to the axle
shaft. Riveted on to each side of the stator plates are the brake linings. A
pressure plate is located on the inboard side of the axle shaft and a backing plate
is located on the outboard side.
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Automatic adjusting pins are pulled through the grip when brakes are applied.
When the brakes are released the pressure plate moves back under pressure of
their return springs. The protrusion on the adjuster pins indicates lining wear. In
general, when the pin is flush with the housing the linings are replaced.
PRESSURE PLATE
PISTON
BRAKE
LINER
SEGMENTED
ROTOR
CYLINDERS
PADS

STATOR
PLATE

BACKING
PLATE

WEAR PINS

Multi Disc Brake Unit


Figure 37
The brakes used on most large jet aircraft use a number of brake cylinders
instead of a single annular cylinder. (Figure 37) Each cylinder has a piston which
presses against the pressure plate when hydraulic pressure is applied. Each
cylinder will be supplied from separate hydraulic systems so if one fails full
braking can be applied from the other system.
Some aircraft may have their brake discs made from carbon fibre. These are
lighter in weight and they can function at higher temperatures. They are
expensive to use and generally only used on transport aircraft where the weight
saving makes them more cost effective.
13.18.6 Brake systems

Light aircraft will generally use hydraulic pressure generated by the pilots feet.
When the pilot depresses the rudder pedals, pressurised fluid is moved from the
master cylinder, to a slave cylinder operating the brakes. Larger aircraft will use
the aircrafts main hydraulic systems to provide the pressure to operate the
brakes.
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The pressure applied to the brakes must be proportional to the force exerted on
the brake pedals; the pilot must be able to hold the brakes partially applied
without a build up in pressure. The hydraulic pressure to the brakes is much
higher but remains proportional to the input. This is achieved with a brake control
valve also known as a metering valve.
The rudder pedals are connected to the brake control valve by various methods
including hydraulically by use of a master cylinder (also known as foot motors),
rods or cables.
The hydraulic systems will operate simultaneously and usually a different system
will feed the inboard wheels to the outboard. In the event of a system hydraulic
failure, braking is still maintained to at least one set of wheels.
PILOTS FOOT
MOTORS

1ST

PILOTS FOOT
MOTORS

1ST

2ND
SYSTEM
PRESSURE

2ND

RETURN

BRAKE CONTROL
VALVE
1 2

Brake control system


Figure 38

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13.18.7 Brake control valve

The schematic drawings of the brake control valve (figures 39, 40 and 41) shows
a simplified version of how the proportional application is achieved. The centre
slide moves to the left as the pilot applies the brakes, opening the pressure line
and closing the return line. This allows pressure to the brakes and they are
applied. At the same time pressure is directed to the metering chamber were
pressure builds up until it equals the pedal input pressure. When the pressures
are equal the slide moves to the right, until it is in the central position, with both
the pressure and return lines blocked. This holds the brake pressure constant
until the pressure is either increased or decreased by a change in the pilots
input. If the pedals are released the slider will move to the right opening a line
from the brakes to return, dissipating the pressure.
RETURN

PRESSURE

BRAKE

Figure 39
Brakes released -The return line is open for the pressure to dissipate.

RETURN

PRESSURE

BRAKE

Applied
brake
pressure

Monitoring
chamber
pressure
Figure 40

As brake pressure is applied the slider moves to the left blocking the return line
and opening the brake line to the pressure. Pressure is fed to the monitoring
chamber were it starts to move the slide to the right as it equals the input force.

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PRESSURE

RETURN

BRAKE

Applied
brake
pressure

Monitoring
chamber
pressure

Figure 41
With the pressure equal to the input force the slide moves to the central position
with both the pressure and return lines blocked off. In this position a constant
brake pressure is held to the brakes.
13.19

ANTI SKID SYSTEMS

13.19.1 Introduction

The anti skid system is designed to provide maximum effective braking for any
runway condition without skidding and is often used in conjunction with an
autobrake system.
It operates by automatically overriding or modifying the metered input brake
pressure from the flight deck, or braking commands from the autobrake system.
Hydraulic pressure is automatically controlled at each brake unit, maintaining the
optimum wheel braking requirement, regardless of prevailing weather conditions
(ie: ice/heavy rain/crosswind etc). Aircraft stopping distances are minimised and
directional control is maintained. Maximum braking efficiency occurs when all
main wheels are at the maximum rate of deceleration just before an impending
wheel skid.
The system continuously modulates the hydraulic pressure at each individual
brake unit in response to actual wheel speed, thus preventing blown tyres, flat
spots or the risk of aquaplaning caused by a locked wheel.
On a normal landing sequence, there is no need for a corrective signal as long as
the rate of wheel deceleration is within limits. However, if the rate is above these
limits, this is sensed as an approaching skid. A corrective signal is applied to
momentarily reduce the applied brake pressure at the relevant wheel. The
corrective signal is removed when the wheel speed increases again and the
process repeated as required, until the deceleration rate remains within limits
once more.
The anti skid system can be either electronically or mechanically controlled. Most
modern systems are electronic, since mechanically controlled systems are only
fitted to older aircraft types.
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13.19.2 Electronic Anti Skid System

The system consists of the following components:


A wheel speed transducer, located in each main landing gear axle and driven
by the wheel rotation.
An electronic antiskid control unit, normally located in the electronic/electrical
equipment bay, with BITE facility to provide continuous self test and fault
warning.
An antiskid control valve for each mainwheel, normally located in the hydraulic
equipment bay.
A control switch and failure warning indicator, on the flight deck panel.

Electronic Anti-Skid System With


Auto-Brake Facility
Figure 42

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13.19.2.1 WHEELSPEED TRANSDUCER

The transducer is a speed sensing generator-type device, which sends an output


voltage directly proportional to wheel rotation to the electronic antiskid control
unit.
The control unit compares the transducer output voltage, with a reference voltage
scheduled to the maximum deceleration rate for the aircraft.
If the transducer output voltage exceeds the reference voltage, the error signal
will be sent to the relevant antiskid control valve. This results in the hydraulic
pressure at the corresponding brake unit momentarily reducing, until the voltages
agree once more.

WHEELSPEED
SENSOR
RING NUT
GENERATOR
CARRIER

DRIVE CAP

V-CLAMP
Wheel speed Transducers
Figure 43
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LANDING GEAR

13.19.2.2 ANTI SKID CONTROL VALVE

This valve is a two-stage electro-hydraulic servo valve, which meters pressure


applied to the brake unit in accordance with signals from the anti skid control unit.
The first stage is a torque motor-operated flapper valve set between two hydraulic
ports (return and pressure). The second stage is a spool valve, spring biased to
brakes on position and hydraulically controlled, by directing oil pressure into a
drilled passage way at either end of the spool.
When there is no control signal to the torque motor, the flapper valve is biased
towards the return nozzle and maximum braking is possible. However, a signal
(increase in current), will be sent to the torque motor windings from the Control
Unit, if it in turn receives a signal from a wheel speed transducer that a wheel is
slowing down too quickly and may skid. This causes the flapper valve to move
towards the pressure nozzle, restricting fluid into the chamber and allowing more
to escape to return.
As a result pressure reduces in the first stage chamber and the reduction is felt
on the bias spring side of the second stage spool valve. Pressure on the opposite
end of the spool forces the valve to move, closing off the pressure line and
connecting the brake line to return. The amount of second stage valve movement
is directly proportional to torque motor current in the first stage, which in turn
depends on the amount of brake pressure reduction required to achieve wheel
spin up.
As the mainwheel spins up again to its correct speed, the current at torque motor
windings reduces. This allows the flapper to move back to the return nozzle and
moves the spool valve back, closing off the return line and causing brake
pressure to be re-applied to the wheel brake.
If necessary, the complete cycle can be repeated, often with a rapid Brakes off/
Brakes on modulation rate of up to 50 cycles/second.

Anti-skid Control Valve


Figure 44
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Anti-skid Control Valves


Figure 45
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LANDING GEAR

13.19.2.3 ANTI SKID CONTROL UNIT

This contains all the electrical circuits necessary for full anti skid control and
circuits for BITE and monitoring of control valves and transducers. Circuits for a
typical aircraft having four mainwheels ( Boeing 737) are normally arranged into
two separate channels, for inboard and outboard pairs of wheels.
As we have seen, skid control for each individual wheel requires a self-generated
signal from its wheelspeed transducer.

Two types of anti-skid control unit


Figure 46
The system has three modes of operation:
Touch-down protection, which prevents landing with brakes on.
Skid-control, which makes sure there is maximum braking efficiency.
Locked-wheel protection, which prevents any wheel from locking up due to the
runway condition.
When the aircraft is airborne, an in-flight signal is sent to the Control Unit via the
ground/flight switch relay. The signal is sent to the Touchdown protection mode
circuit, causing a full brake release signal (full dump) to be sent to the skid control
valves. This prevents any pressure from going to the brakes and ensures that all
brake units are always connected to return, even if the brake pedals are fully
depressed. The full dump signal will be removed on touchdown when the inflight signal is replaced by a on-ground signal.
The Skid control mode will not commence until the wheels have spun up to predetermined speed for the particular aircraft concerned. (Examples are; 30kts and
70kts for Fokker 50 and Boeing 737 respectively). Brake pressure is now
controlled by modulation of the antiskid control valves as previously described.
In addition to the Skid Control mode which ensures maximum braking efficiency
for the level metered from the flight deck, the Locked-wheel protection mode
circuitry looks at the inboard and outboard pairs of wheels and compares their
speed. Should one of the pair slow down to a pre-determined difference, a full
dump signal will be momentarily sent to the slower wheel in order to restore
equilibrium. (Examples are; 30% and 40% difference for Fokker 50 and Boeing
737 respectively). Below about 15kts this mode is switched off (drops out) but
Skid control mode remains.
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13.19.2.4 CONTROL SWITCH AND WARNING SYSTEM

This is normally located on the front panel of the flight deck and is often combined
with the auto brake selector, if applicable to the particular aircraft type. It usually
consists of a simple on/off switch to power up the anti skid circuitry. It also
contains a warning light to give a warning of system malfunction.
Following illumination of this warning light, it is possible to interrogate the Anti
Skid Control Unit and pinpoint the cause for example a particular transducer,
valve or the control unit itself.

Flight deck control panel for anti-skid and autobrake


Figure 47

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13.19.3 Mechanical Anti Skid System

This older type system modulates brake pressure as with the electronic type, but
the modulation is achieved mechanically by a single self-contained device, one
for each wheel.
The device, often referred to as a maxaret (maximum arresting) unit, detects a
rapid deceleration of the wheel and momentarily releases the brake pressure as
before. It will normally be mounted externally on the brake unit torque plate and
driven by a small rubber tyred wheel in contact with the aircraft mainwheel.
Alternatively, it can be mounted inside the axle and driven by the aircraft
mainwheel via a splined drive shaft in the hub cap.
Both types, wheel or axle mounted, incorporate an internally mounted heavy
flywheel, sensitive to the angular deceleration that occurs when braking. When
the braking is severe or just before the wheel is about to lock up, the flywheel is
permitted to continue rotating at the higher speed due to its inertia. It will advance
through an arc until it contacts a set of limit stops.
The flywheel, is connected mechanically to two hydraulic system metering valves
within the maxaret unit. Using a pair of thrust balls and push rods the valves
change their position from the normal pressure to brakes position, to the no
pressure in and brakes to return position.
With brake pressure removed, the wheel regains speed and the flywheel returns
to its original position assisted by a return spring. The brakes are re-applied and
the brakes on/ brakes off sequence will continue until the deceleration returns to
normal limits.
BRAKE UNIT

MAXARET
DRIVE WHEEL
MAIN WHEEL
SPRING TO PUSH
DRIVE WHEEL
ON TO MAIN WHEEL

Mechanical anti-skid unit


Figure 48
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To
brake

Base of
Cam
Pressure
supply

Thrust
plate

Thrust
rod

A. - Normal Braking
Condition
From
return
brake

profile
Wheel
rim

Base of
Cam
profile
60

Pressure
supply

B. - Anti-Skid
Condition
Operation of Rim-Driven Unit
Figure 49
Main shaft
Valve spring

Flywheel

Drive ring

Clutch friction pad

Thrust bearing
Input shaft

Clutch cover
Clutch plate
spring
Sun gear RingClutch
gear
Drive spring
Planet gear

Valve

Main spring
Valve thrust rod

Axle mounted anti-skid unit


Figure 50
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13.20

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE NO 11.13
LANDING GEAR

AUTOBRAKING

Some modern aircraft have auto-braking systems. A selector switch on the


instrument panel allows the pilot to select a deceleration rate that will be
controlled automatically after landing. On landing the auto-braking system will
smoothly apply the brakes to achieve the selected deceleration rate down to a
complete stop without any further action from the aircrew. This allows the aircrew
to concentrate on other activities during landing.
The auto brake system utilises the normal anti-skid and brake units but instead of
using pressure from the brake metering valve, hydraulic pressure is sent via
solenoid valves which allow a pre-determined amount of pressure through the
anti-skid valves to the brake units.
13.20.1 Selector Panel

The selector panel consists of a solenoid latched switch which will hold a selected
position only if all the arming conditions for that setting are met. If the system
cannot be armed the switch will automatically return to the DISARM position and
a warning will illuminate on the local panel and centralised warning panel. The
panel will have a number of settings that the pilot can select depending on the
rate of deceleration that is required.
13.20.2 Auto-Brake Control Unit

Selection on the auto brake selector panel will send an electrical signal to the
auto-brake control unit. The signal is processed by the control unit, which
commands the solenoid valve to direct pressure to the brake units.
The brake pressure must be gradually built up and released to prevent brake
snatch and jerking. To prevent this a time delay and an electrical ramp are used.
The time delay ensures that the aircraft is firmly on the ground before the system
activates. The terminology used to indicate the auto-brake operation is:

On Ramp A gradual build up of brake pressure to the amount required for


the selected rate of deceleration.
Off Ramp A gradual decrease in pressure down to zero at the end of the
landing run or cancellation of auto-brake.
Drop Out Instantaneous pressure release to zero (go around mode).

Autobrake On-Ramp
Figure 51
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13.20.3 Auto Brake Solenoid Valve

These valves are electrically controlled, hydraulic valves that allow pressure to
the brake units at a specific setting. The greater the deceleration rate the higher
the setting. These valves are fitted just upstream of the anti-skid valves.
The solenoid will open when all the arming conditions are met and the aircraft is
weight on wheels. It is also the solenoid valves that immediately shuts on Drop
Out.
A solenoid servo valve modulates the brake pressure to regulate the deceleration
rate. A pressure switch is connected to the DISARM warning light to monitor zero
pressure when auto-brakes are armed.
13.20.4 System Operation

Once the aircraft lands and is weight on wheels the anti skid transducers send
signals to the control unit. When the wheels have achieved a certain speed or
after a pre-determined time delay the brakes will be applied Up The Ramp.
Once the selected rate of deceleration is reached the auto-brake pressure is
modulated to hold that rate.
As the wheel speed slows down to more than the deceleration rate, the servo
valve will close slightly reducing the brake pressure causing the wheel to speed
up. Once the aircraft has come to a stop or the aircraft is below a certain speed
the auto-brakes will switch off to enable the aircraft to taxi.
13.20.5 Auto Brake Termination

Auto-Brake can be cancelled at any time. Depending on the aircraft, the system
can be over-ridden by:

The pilot moving the selector lever to disarm or off.

The pilot using manual braking.

Auto-brake needs to be immediately cancelled if the pilot has to initiate a go


round procedure. The following actions will cause immediate DROP OUT:

The thrust levers are advanced from the idle gate.

The speed brake lever is moved to stow the speed brakes.

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13.21

STEERING

To improve the ground operation of aircraft nose wheel systems are used. These
improve tyre life through less scrub, reduce brake wear, save fuel and engine life
as brakes and engine thrust are no longer required to turn the aircraft.
Most nose wheel steering systems use servo jack operated scissor links attached
to a collar on the landing gear leg, the collar being driven by the servo jacks
which rotates the nose wheel leg via the scissor links. Steering inputs to the servo
jacks come from a tiller on the pilots side of the cockpit. Inputs can also come
from the rudder pedals.
Apart from mechanical steering systems there are three basic methods of
operation:

Single Servo Jack.

This system is used on smaller light aircraft (Figure 52). Both ends of the jack
ram are attached to the landing gear leg. Fluid is directed to move the jack body
along its ram. A cam and link assembly is attached to the jack body. Movement of
the jack body operates the link which rotates the cam and turns the wheel. Action
of the shock absorber is unaffected as the shock absorber is splined on to the
steering shaft to allow the compression and extension of the absorber.
JACK BODY
PISTON
LINK

CAM

SPLINED SHAFT

STRUT

AXLE

Single Servo Steering


Figure 52
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Double Servo Jack.

Larger aircraft use a two servo jack system (Figure 53). The two jacks are fixed to
a steering collar, which is free to rotate around the landing gear leg. The steering
collar is attached to the upper scissor link. When the servo jacks are actuated
they rotate the wheels and axle through the scissor link. assembly

Double Servo Jack


Figure 53

Rack and Pinion

Some aircraft use a rack and pinion steering system. Hydraulically operated racks
rotate a pinion which rotates the wheel and axle. A mechanical linkage from the
cockpit tiller operates a servo valve in a hydraulic metering valve. The servo valve
when operated directs fluid to one side or the other of the rack piston. The rack
then moves and rotates the pinion and turns the aircraft nose wheel in the
required direction.
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13.21.1 Steering Mechanisms

On some small aircraft the nose wheel is steered by direct linkages from the
rudder pedals, or on small retractable landing gear aircraft, from the rudder
pedals to a steering bar which locates against a steering arm on the landing gear
leg. (Figure 54) Once the wheel is stowed the mechanism is ineffective.

STEERING BAR

STEERING ARMS

STEERING LUGS

Nose Wheel Steering Mechanism


Figure 54
The nose wheels or tail wheels on light aircraft mat be steerable or castoring. A
castoring nose wheel aircraft is steered by the independent use of the brakes and
rudder inputs. Some light aircraft have limited tail wheel steering via a mechanism
interlinked with the rudder pedals. The tail wheel will brake out if the turning circle
is too small to allow the tail wheel to castor. Once centralised the tail wheel
becomes steerable again. Some aircraft have a tail skid mechanism (Figure 55)

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Tail Skid Mechanism


Figure 55
Inputs to the hydraulic control valves which direct pressure to the steering jacks
are carried out by a mechanical system of cables, bellcranks, levers and
gearboxes from the hand operated tiller and the rudder pedals. The input has a
follow up action through interconnected links or cables which neutralise the nose
wheel movement when the desired rate of turn has been achieved.
Rudder pedals movement can also be inputted to the control valve, but this is
usually restricted to a small degree of movement either side of the aircraft centre
line. Rudder pedal steering is normally used on take off or landing and is isolated
when the aircraft is airborne.
13.21.2 Nose Wheel Self Centring

It is important that when a steerable nose wheel is being retracted that the wheel
is centred so that it fits into the wheel well to prevent any damage to the aircraft
structure as well as the landing gear. This can be done by a centring cam inside
the oleo strut. When the strut is compressed the piston cam disengages from the
cylinder cam receptacle to allow the wheel to be steered. On take off when the
strut extends the piston cam is forced into the cylinder receptacle to hold the
wheel in the desired position for stowing. Double servo jacks can centralise the
wheel by supplying pressure to a centralising jack. This is normally initiated by
the weight-on-wheels micro-switches as the aircraft takes off.

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MODULE 11.15
OXYGEN

CONTENTS
15 OXYGEN ....................................................................................... 15-1
15.1
15.2
15.3

15.4

15.5

15.6

15.7

OXYGEN SYSTEMS GENERAL ................................................ 15-1


OXYGEN SAFETY PRECAUTIONS.................................................... 15-1
SYSTEM LAYOUT .......................................................................... 15-2
15.3.1 Cockpit System Layout ................................................. 15-2
15.3.2 Cabin System Layout .................................................... 15-4
15.3.3 Continuous Flow Oxygen System ................................. 15-5
15.3.4 Demand Type Oxygen System...................................... 15-6
15.3.5 Portable Oxygen Systems ............................................. 15-7
DROP OUT SYSTEM ...................................................................... 15-8
15.4.1 Pneumatically Operated PSU Flap ................................ 15-8
15.4.2 Electrically Operated PSU Flap ..................................... 15-9
SOURCES OF OXYGEN .................................................................. 15-9
15.5.1 Chemical Oxygen Generator ......................................... 15-9
15.5.2 Gaseous Oxygen Systems ............................................ 15-11
15.5.3 Charging Of Systems .................................................... 15-11
15.5.4 Oxygen Distribution ....................................................... 15-11
SUPPLY REGULATION ................................................................... 15-12
15.6.1 Diluter Demand Type Regulator .................................... 15-12
15.6.2 Continuous Flow Regulators. ........................................ 15-12
INDICATIONS AND WARNINGS ......................................................... 15-13

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OXYGEN

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MODULE 11.15
OXYGEN

15 OXYGEN
15.1 OXYGEN SYSTEMS GENERAL
If an aircraft is designed to fly at heights above, say, 8,000 feet, there must be
some way in which we can maintain a comfortable environment for the crew and
passengers to breathe normally. This is normally done by cabin pressurisation. If
for whatever reason the pressurisation failed above this altitude an alternate but
emergency source of breathable air must be supplied. This is normally by
individual oxygen supplies from gaseous, liquid and chemical sources. Civil
aircraft use the gaseous and chemical type, with the military using liquid.
Some small, unpressurised aircraft only require oxygen occasionally and use a
system that meters a continuous flow of oxygen; the amount based on the
altitude flown.
Aircraft that fly at altitudes above 18000 feet have a diluter demand system that
also meters oxygen based on the altitude flown but directs it to the mask only
when the user inhales. Aircraft flying at very high altitude where the outside air
pressure is too low to force the oxygen into the lungs use pressure demand
systems. These systems send oxygen to the mask under a slight positive
pressure that forces the oxygen into the lungs.
15.2 OXYGEN SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
The safety precautions associated with the use of oxygen are laid down in the
aircraft maintenance manuals. Although oxygen is none flammable it will support
combustion. If oil grease dust or metal particles are present a spontaneous
explosion may occur. The following safety precautions must be adhered to:
1.

Keep oil and grease away. Oxygen equipment, hoses and fittings must not
be handled with greasy hands or wearing greasy overalls.

2.

Keep oxygen away from fire. A small fire or spark will rapidly grow in an
oxygen-enriched atmosphere.

3.

No smoking.

4.

Handle oxygen components carefully.

5.

Dont mix oxygen

6.

Always follow any instructions given in manuals and/or on charging panels.

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OXYGEN

When charging a gaseous system ensure:


1.

No refuelling operations are being carried out.

2.

No switching on or off electrical supplies.

3.

Adequate warning notices are in place i.e. oxygen charging in


progress

4.

That there is no smoking or naked flames.

5.

That the aircraft is earthed

6.

That adequate fire fighting equipment is available.

15.3 SYSTEM LAYOUT


The crew and passenger gaseous oxygen systems and their oxygen cylinders are
usually independent of each other except for a common charging point and an
over pressure relief facility. Both these systems provide for storage of the oxygen
at high pressures and its delivery to the crew and passenger manifolds and
outlets under low pressure.
In general gaseous oxygen systems are used for the cockpit and chemically
generated oxygen is used for the cabin. Some aircraft use gaseous systems for
both the cockpit and cabin.
15.3.1 Cockpit System Layout
The aircrew will have a mask for each occupant. These will be quick fitting and
will be located inside boxes that are within easy reach. Figure 1 shows a typical
cockpit layout

Typical Cockpit layout


Figure 1

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Crew Mask

Crew oxygen masks contain a microphone implanted in the mask that is


permanently connected; to allow communications to be maintained at all times.
The end of the mask hose is connected to the supply regulator that regulates the
oxygen flow to the mask. On some aircraft an inflatable harness is used to allow
one handed fitting of the mask. The mask and harness is contained in a storage
box shown in figure 2.
When the mask is required the storage box release levers are squeezed together.
The box doors are unlocked and the mask is withdrawn. A green oxygen on flag
will appear. On withdrawal of the mask, the harness is automatically inflated.
Once the mask and harness has been fitted the release levers are released and
the oxygen that has inflated the harness is exhausted to atmosphere. The
harness deflates and tightens on the crew members head.
The storage box contains a test lever that can be operated to test the oxygen flow
to the mask. When the system is operating correctly a blinker indication on the
flow indicator turns green. There will also be a 100% selector button which when
depressed will allow pure undiluted oxygen to be delivered to the mask.

Typical Storage Box and Mask Harness


Figure 2

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15.3.2 Cabin System Layout


On gaseous oxygen systems a ring main is provided from the storage bottles to
the PSU`s. In chemically generated oxygen systems an oxygen module is located
in each PSU. A typical layout is shown in figure 3.

Candle Type Oxygen Module


Figure 3

Passenger Mask

The passenger masks will be found within the Passenger Service Unit (PSU) and
will be deployed by gravity on actuation of the drop out mechanism. Each seating
position both in the cabin must have an easily fitted mask, which will be used by
each occupant. Some aircraft do not have a mask for each person but have
strategically placed masks in the PSU for the passengers to share. Some aircraft
do not have drop out systems and the masks may have to be deployed
manually by the cabin crew.

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OXYGEN

These are normally simple cup shaped mouldings with an elasticated strap. The
cup is designed to fit all sizes from babies to adults. A reservoir bag is fitted to the
mask to store an immediate supply of oxygen.

Passenger Oxygen Mask


Figure 4
15.3.3 Continuous Flow Oxygen System
Continuous flow systems are usually used in passenger oxygen systems where
oxygen is needed only occasionally. These systems are wasteful of oxygen but
due to their simplicity are installed on most aircraft. The oxygen is carried in a
high-pressure bottle. The pressure is regulated down to around 400 psi (depends
on aircraft type) by a pressure reducing valve and the oxygen is metered by a
pressure regulator to around 70 psi before it is delivered to the masks.

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OXYGEN

A pressure relief valve is incorporated into the system to prevent damage in the
event of a failure of the pressure-reducing valve. If the pressure is relieved
through this valve a green blow out disc on the outside skin of the aircraft will
blow giving a visual indication. As well as a visible blow out disc some aircraft
also deploy a red streamer in an over pressure condition.

Continuous Flow Masks

Continuous flow oxygen systems use re-breather type masks. These masks may
be a simple transparent plastic re-breather bag. The mask is held loosely over the
mouth and nose with an elastic band and oxygen continually flows into the bag
through a plastic tube that is plugged into the mask outlet.
When the user exhales the air that was in the lungs for the shortest period is the
first out and fills the re-breather bag. The remaining air in the lungs is exhausted
from the mast. Inhaling again the exhaled air in the bag is enriched with the
oxygen supply and is re-breathed.
More sophisticated continuous flow masks are used in pressurised aircraft. In the
event of the loss of cabin pressure an automatic valve is turned on to send
oxygen to into the passenger oxygen system. The oxygen pressure actuates the
door actuator valve, which opens the overhead mask compartments. A mask
drops down. When the passenger pulls the mask tube a lanyard operated rotary
valve opens and starts the oxygen flow. The passenger places the mask over his
mouth and nose and breathes normally.
Valves mounted in the base plate of the mask allow some cabin air to enter the
mask and allow exhaled air to leave. During inhalation the pure oxygen in the bag
is taken into the lungs. When the bag is empty cabin air is taken in through the
mask and mixes with the oxygen flowing through the tube. During exhale the air
from the lungs leaves the mask through one of the valves while pure oxygen is
flowing from the regulator into the bag ready for the next inhale.
15.3.4 Demand Type Oxygen System
The cockpit crews of most commercial aircraft are supplied with oxygen through a
diluter demand system. The system meters oxygen only when the user inhales
and the amount of oxygen metered depends on the altitude of the aircraft.
Almost all pressurised aircraft have a diluter demand type system for the aircrew
and a continuous flow type system for the passengers.

Pressure Demand Oxygen Regulator.

At altitudes above 40000 feet the oxygen in the air has such a low pressure that
even the pure oxygen supply must be forced into the lungs. The low pressure
from the users lungs are insufficient to draw in the oxygen. This is done under a
slight positive pressure from the regulator.

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15.3.5 Portable Oxygen Systems


At various positions in the cabin, there are located, portable oxygen sets for use
by the cabin crew to allow them to check that the passengers have all got their
masks on. These masks can also be used to help breathing in the case of fumes
or smoke in the cabin.
A slightly different type of oxygen set can also be found in the cabins of most
passenger aircraft. These are called 'therapeutic' sets and are used for medical
purposes when, for example, a passenger is having difficulty breathing. The set,
which is illustrated overleaf, allows the passenger to receive an enriched or 100%
oxygen supply, until they are feeling better or medical assistance is obtained after
landing.
A typical portable system is shown in Figure 5. It has two outlets, which might be
therapeutic. A therapeutic outlet delivers more volume of oxygen than normal and
is used to aid those passengers that may have breathing difficulties or heart
conditions. The types of mask used with portable equipment, depends upon the
designer's or the company's requirements.

Portable Walk Round Set


Figure 5

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OXYGEN

15.4 DROP OUT SYSTEM


Drops out oxygen masks in each PSU are installed to ensure that there is an
adequate supply of oxygen should the aircraft conditions require it. When the
mask drops from the PSU the action of the passenger pulling the mask towards
him automatically starts the oxygen flow. If there were not many passengers on
board this would mean that only those masks that are pulled will have an oxygen
flow preventing both excess oxygen waste and an oxygen enriched environment.
The PSU is a hinged flap containing on its under face, reading lights, cold air
vents, warning signs and cabin crew alert button. The masks are stored inside the
flap panel (under the overhead bins). The masks will drop under the following
conditions:

Automatically when the cabin altitude reaches a pre-determined level (usually


around 10000 feet).

When the aircrew selects oxygen. Drop out could be actuated electrically,
pneumatically or mechanically.

In the case of a chemically generated supply the PSU flap is opened either
electrically or mechanically.
15.4.1 Pneumatically Operated PSU Flap
On the pneumatic door opening method a small plunger is fitted above each PSU
flap. The doors are held closed by a spring loaded latch assembly. When oxygen
is required and selected, oxygen pressure is directed to the over centre leaf
spring and to the plunger. The pressure extends the plunger that pushes against
and overcomes the latch assembly. The PSU flap opens under gravity deploying
the oxygen masks in the process.
Giving a sharp pull on the mask the flow control pin is withdrawn from its locating
hole. The oxygen pressure overcomes the over centre leaf spring and directs
oxygen to the mask.
Should the cabin crew require to turn off the oxygen at each PSU a manual
closing toggle is rotated which acts against the over centre leaf spring and cuts
off the flow to the mask.
If the PSU flap fails to open a manual actuation pin can be pushed to allow the
flap to open.

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OXYGEN

15.4.2 Electrically Operated PSU Flap


When chemical oxygen generators are installed for the passengers to use,
oxygen is not supplied until the masks are pulled. Therefore they cannot use the
oxygen generated to open the PSU Flap. The flap is opened by an electrical
solenoid. When oxygen is selected power is supplied to the solenoids which
when energised operate a plunger. This plunger extends and operates a latch
assembly. Operation of the latch assembly opens the PSU door and the masks
fall under gravity.
15.5 SOURCES OF OXYGEN
Most aircraft use gaseous oxygen as the primary source for the aircrew and a
chemically generated source for the passengers. Some aircraft with oxygen
generators fitted are having them replaced with a gaseous oxygen system due to
the associated fire hazards. The main reason for using gaseous oxygen is the
ease of handling and its availability at most airports, even though oxygen
generated systems are more lightweight.
The main disadvantage of a gaseous oxygen system is that the oxygen is stored
at a high pressure, it reacts explosively with greases and oils and the storage
bottles are very heavy. Bottles are made from high tensile steel, but on the more
modern aircraft, Kevlar wrapped aluminium alloy, carbon fibre or plastics are
used. They are painted either black with a white dome top or green (USA), and
stencilled with Aviation Oxygen in white letters.
15.5.1 Chemical Oxygen Generator
Oxygen generators or oxygen candles as they are sometimes known, is a
convenient way to carry oxygen in an aircraft, when it may only be required in
emergencies. They have a long shelf life and they are lightweight. The storage
capacity is about three times that of a gaseous oxygen system. Once used they
are easily replaced. A typical candle is shown in Figure 6.
Sodium Chlorate and iron is mixed with a binding material and is then moulded
into a solid block. The block is installed in an insulated stainless steel case. When
oxygen is needed, pulling the oxygen mask withdraws a safety pin from the firing
mechanism, and a spring-loaded percussion cap or an electrical squib igniter
starts the sodium chlorate decomposing by chemical reaction. Enough heat is
generated to start the reaction and then the heat of the reaction sustains itself. (It
does not burn).
As it decomposes it releases the oxygen at a pre-determined rate. The block will
continue to react until the sodium chlorate is consumed. There is no way to cut off
the process once it has started. The by product of the reaction, apart from the
oxygen, is sodium chloride (salt) and ferrous oxide (rust)

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OXYGEN

HEAT
SHIELD

PERCUSSION
CARTRIDGE

PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE

FILTER

FIRING
PIN

DISTRIBUTION
BLOCK
IRON AND SODIUM
CHLORATE CORE

ACTIVATION PIN

OUTLETS TO
MASKS

LANYARD

Chemical Oxygen Generator


Figure 6
The oxygen that is produced is proportional to the cross sectional area of the core
and the rate of reaction. The rate of decomposition is determined by the
concentration of iron in the core. The oxygen production is greater at initial
reaction (larger cross sectional area) to provide high oxygen output during the
initial few minutes of the emergency decent. Once generation has started core
temperature is approximately 450 degrees F.
The distributing and regulating system is self-contained. It consists of a manifold
attached to one end of the stainless steel cylinder. The oxygen is filtered to
remove any salt particles before it is supplied to the manifold. The manifold
contains calibrated connections for a number of oxygen masks and they ensure
an equal flow to each mask. Normal output from the generator is 10 psi and it is
therefore not regulated prior to breathing. A pressure relief valve is also located
on the casing to relive pressures in the generator above 50 psi.
The disadvantage of the system is mainly the large amount of heat generated,
which means that the generator must be well insulated from the airframe
structure. Some aircraft that use oxygen generators are replacing them with
gaseous oxygen systems due to associated the fire hazards.

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15.5.2 Gaseous Oxygen Systems


Oxygen in a gaseous state is contained in storage cylinders the number and
capacity of the cylinders depending upon the number of passengers and crew.
The normal charge of the cylinders is usually 1800 psi and a capacity of 30 to 120
cubic feet. Cylinders normally have a manually operated shut off valve in the neck
of the bottle to facilitate bottle removal. A direct reading pressure gauge is also
fitted, as is an electrical transducer that sends pressure indication signals to the
cockpit instrumentation.
15.5.3 Charging Of Systems
Gaseous systems can be re-charged either at the aircraft, from portable, large
capacity, bottle sets (oxygen trolley), or by removing the bottle itself, via quick
release clamps and connections, and re-charging in a dedicated oxygen charging
room or bay.
Which system is used is dictated by the Airworthiness Authority of the country of
registration, some of which allow 'on aircraft' charging, whilst most insist that all
bottles are removed for re-charging remotely from the aircraft.
With on aircraft charging, a regulated oxygen trolley supply is attached to the
aircraft charging point. The hose is usually purged before connection to clear the
hose of impurities and moisture. During the charging process temperatures are
generated in the pipelines to the storage bottles. To dissipate this temperature
thermal compensators are installed.
These compensators are sintered bronze elements soldered inside the pipelines.
They act as a heat sink to dissipate the heat whilst allowing the oxygen to flow to
the storage bottles.
With chemical oxygen systems, when the units themselves become life expired
and due for return to their manufacturers, they are simply removed as a unit from
the PSU. When they have been made safe, (usually by the fitting of a safety pin
in the firing sear), they are returned to the factory.
15.5.4 Oxygen Distribution
The supply pipes, in the high-pressure side of the system, from the storage bottle
to the pressure-regulating valve, are made from stainless steel or copper based
alloys. They are colour coded at each end with the words breathing oxygen and
a black rectangular symbol on a white background.
From the storage bottle the pressure is reduced to an acceptable level before
being distributed to the passenger and crew compartments. As the maximum
pressure to the masks will be 70psi, the distribution pipelines, from the pressure
regulator valve are made from aluminium alloy or plastic.

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The distribution lines for the aircrew go from the storage bottle to the cockpit
pressure regulator and the passenger lines go from the storage bottle, up the side
walls and then along the roof. Each passenger service unit (PSU) where the
masks are stowed are connected to the roof piping. Test connections are
installed in the system to allow pressure gauges to be fitted during system
testing.
15.6 SUPPLY REGULATION
15.6.1 Diluter Demand Type Regulator
Oxygen flows into the regulator through the supply valve and when the user
inhales the pressure inside the regulator decreases and the demand valve opens
under action from the demand valve diaphragm allowing oxygen to flow to the
mask.
The aneroid capsule operated metering valve mixes cabin air with the oxygen.
When the aircraft is flying at low altitudes the user gets mostly cabin air and a
small amount of oxygen. As the altitude increases the aneroid capsule metering
valve progressively reduces the amount of cabin air and increases the amount of
oxygen supplied. At about 34000 feet the cabin air is shut off completely and pure
oxygen is supplied.
If there is smoke in the cockpit or if the pilot feels the need for pure oxygen the
oxygen lever can be moved to the 100% position. The cabin air is shut off and the
aneroid metering valve fully opens and only pure oxygen is supplied to the mask
when the user inhales.
If the regulator malfunctions the emergency lever can be operated. This opens
the demand valve allowing a continuous flow of pure oxygen to the mask.
15.6.2 Continuous Flow Regulators.

There are automatic and manual continuous flow regulators. The automatic
regulator contains and aneroid capsule that senses the aircraft altitude and
meters the correct amount of oxygen for that altitude. The manual regulator has a
control valve that allows the pilot to adjust the flow rate based on the altitude. A
calibrated orifice in the mask outlet determines the amount of oxygen delivered to
the mask.

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15.7

INDICATIONS AND WARNINGS

The systems are provided with an overpressure relief facility. This is normally a
green coloured rupture disc. The disc will be located at the overboard discharge
fitting which is flush with the aircrafts skin. When the maximum cylinder pressure
is exceeded the cylinder safety valve operates discharging the excess pressure
into the overboard discharge line. The green disc ruptures, as the excess
pressure escapes to atmosphere and a red (or yellow) indicator becomes visible.
Some aircraft also deploy a red streamer from the fitting to make it instantly
visible.
On aircraft with oxygen generators fitted, once the generator has been activated,
dolls eye indicators on the end casing turn from orange (or purple) to black. Some
have heat sensitive tape wrapped around the outer casing. The tape changing
colour when the generator has been activated.
There will be various indications given on the oxygen panel and centralised
warning panel (CWP) indicating faults within the system.
A pressure gauge will be fitted which shows the pressures in the storage bottles.
The gauge will have a green segment and a red segment. The green segment
indicates the actual pressure in the system. The red segment will indicate that the
bottle is empty or maybe that the shut off valve is closed.
A low pressure switch is fitted in the system downstream of the storage bottle and
will give an indication (LO PR) on the local panel if the pressure reduces below a
pre-set figure. An associated (OXY) caution light will illuminate on the CWP and a
single chime warning will also sound.

Indications and Warning Panels


Figure 7

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PNEUMATIC AND VACUUM

CONTENTS
16 PNEUMATIC AND VACUUM ....................................................... 16-3
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5

GENERAL ..................................................................................... 16-3

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ........................................................... 16-3


FULL PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS ................................................... 16-3
VACUUM SYSTEMS ........................................................................ 16-5
LOW PRESSURE PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS LAYOUT............................. 16-5
16.5.1 Engine Driven Air Pump ................................................ 16-5
16.6 AIR SUPPLY SOURCES .................................................................. 16-6
16.6.1 Engine Bleed Air ........................................................... 16-7
16.6.2 Compressors or Blowers. .............................................. 16-8
16.6.3 Auxillary Power Unit (APU) ........................................... 16-8
16.6.4 Ground Supply .............................................................. 16-9
16.7 PRESSURE CONTROL .................................................................... 16-10
16.7.1 Pressure Regulator ....................................................... 16-10
16.8 DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................... 16-11
16.8.1 Expansion Joints ........................................................... 16-12
16.9 INDICATIONS AND WARNINGS......................................................... 16-14
16.9.1 Overpressure ................................................................ 16-14
16.9.2 Overheat ....................................................................... 16-14
16.9.3 Duct Hot Air Leakage .................................................... 16-15
16.10 SYSTEM INTERFACES .................................................................... 16-15
16.10.1 Pneumatic Gyro Power systems ................................... 16-15
16.10.2 Backup High Pressure Pneumatic Systems .................. 16-16
16.10.3 Pneumatic De-Icing systems ......................................... 16-16
16.10.4 Air Conditioning And Pressurisation. ............................. 16-16
16.10.5 Air Driven Hydraulic Pumps. ......................................... 16-17
16.10.6 Pressurising Of Hydraulic Reservoirs. ........................... 16-17
16.10.7 Waste And Water Systems ........................................... 16-17
16.10.8 Pneumatic Stall Warning ............................................... 16-18

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16 PNEUMATIC AND VACUUM


16.1

GENERAL

Pneumatic systems are fluid power systems that use a compressible fluid, air.
These systems are dependable and lightweight and because the fluid is air there
is no need for a return system
Some aircraft have only a low pressure pneumatic system to operate the gyro
instruments, others use compressed air as an emergency backup for lowering
the landing gear and operating the brakes in the case of hydraulic failure. Other
aircraft have a complete pneumatic system thats actuates the landing gear
retraction, nose wheel steering, passenger doors and propeller brakes.
16.2 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
When working on bleed air systems, it is important to follow the precautions
below:

Bleed air is hot! Do not touch pipes and ducts.

Always replace seals, (normally crush seals), when replacing joints.

Tighten clamps to the torque figure quoted in the Maintenance Manual.

Never lever against ducts, as dents cause hot spots.

All duct supports and struts must not put any strain on to the duct.

16.3 FULL PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS


The majority of aircraft use hydraulic or electrical power to operate landing gear
systems, but some aircraft use air systems. Some advantages of using
compressed air are:

Air is universally available and in unlimited supplies.

Pneumatic system components are reasonably simple and lightweight.

No return lines are fitted resulting in a weight saving.

There is no fire hazard and the danger of explosion is slight.

Contamination is minimised by the use of filters.

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Figure 1 shows a typical high pressure pneumatic system, that uses air
compressors driven from the engines accessory drive. The compressed air is
discharged through a bleed valve to a pressure relief (unloading) valve. The
bleed valve is held closed by oil pressure. In the event of oil pressure failure the
bleed valve opens to offload the compressor. The pressure relief valve maintains
system pressure at around 3000 psi.
A shuttle valve in the line between the compressor and the main system makes it
possible to charge the system from a ground source. When the engine is not
running the shuttle valve slides over to isolate the compressor.
SHUTTLE VALVE

GROUND CHARGING POINT

PRV
BLEED VALVE
WATER
SEPARATOR

BLOW
OUT
DISC

AIR PUMP
DESICCANT

NRV
FILTER

EMEREGENCY BRAKE SYSTEM

PRIMARY AIR BOTTLE

ISOLATING VALVE
EMERGENCY LANDING GEAR
TO NORMAL
SERVICES
OFF

GAUGE
PRV

AIR BOTTLE

PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE

A Typical Pneumatic System


Figure 1
Moisture in a compressed air system will freeze as the air pressure drops when a
component is actuated. To prevent this from happening, the water must be
completely extracted from the air. A water separator is fitted which collects the
moisture from the air onto a baffle and it is allowed to drain overboard. An
electric heater prevents the water in the separator from freezing.
After the air leaves the water separator any remaining moisture is removed as the
air flows through a desiccant or chemical dryer. The air is then filtered before it
enters main system.

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The air is then fed to each of the storage bottles, which provide the emergency air
for several systems. A manually operated isolation valve allows the air supply to
be shut off to so that maintenance can be carried out on the systems without
having to discharge the storage bottles.
The air is stored at maximum system pressure around 3000 psi to supply the
landing gear and brakes in an emergency. A pressure reducing valve is fitted to
reduce the air pressure down to the operating pressure that the majority of the
components work at 9around 1000psi) ie landing gear normal operation, the
passenger door, the propeller brake and the nose wheel steering.
16.4

VACUUM SYSTEMS

A supply of air at a negative pressure can be required for a number of purposes.


The supply of vacuum to instruments for example, usually comes from either a
small vacuum pump attached to the (piston) engine of the aircraft or from a
venturi jet pump, which obtains its power via a tapping from the (jet) engine. The
low pressure caused by the venturi draws in air to supply the system.
Other requirements for a source of vacuum might be in a pneumatic de-icing
system. This type of de-icing uses the inflation of flexible leading edge mats to
break-off the ice, which has formed. To keep the de-icer boots, as they are called,
in place, they are fed a negative pressure from a venturi, which ensures that the
boots are sucked flat onto the wing leading edge, ensuring a smooth,
aerodynamic surface.
16.5 LOW PRESSURE PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS LAYOUT
These systems provide air for gyroscopic altitude and direction indicators and air
to inflate the pneumatic de-icing boots. This compressed air is usually provided
by a vane type engine driven air pump (Figure 2).
16.5.1 Engine Driven Air Pump
On early aircraft engine driven air pumps were used primarily to evacuate the
casings of air-driven gyroscopic instruments so they were more commonly known
as vacuum pumps. On later aircraft the discharge air was used to inflate de-icing
boots on control surfaces and are now more correctly called air pumps.
There are two types of air pumps that are used, these are wet air pumps and dry
air pumps.

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Vane Type Air Pump


Figure 2

Wet Air Pumps

Wet pumps have steel vanes that are lubricated and sealed with engine oil which
is drawn in through the pump mounting pad and exhausted with the discharge air.
This oil is removed from the discharge air with an oil separator before it is used
for de-icing or driving the instruments.

Dry Air Pumps

Dry air pumps were developed so that there was no oil in the discharge air and
therefore there were no requirements for an oil separator. The pump vanes are
made from carbon and are self lubricating. The main problem with this kind of
pump is that the vanes are easily breakable by any contaminants that enters the
pump. To prevent this form occurring the inlet air is filtered.
16.6 AIR SUPPLY SOURCES
The source of air supply and arrangement of the system components depend on
the aircraft type and system employed but in general one of the following
methods may be used:

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16.6.1 Engine Bleed Air


This is used in turbo jet aircraft in which hot air is bled of from the engine
compressors to the cabin. Before the air enters the cabin it is passed through a
pressure and temperature control system which reduces its pressure and
temperature and is then mixed with ram air.
Because of the great variation of air output available from ground to maximum
flight rpm there is a need to maintain a reasonable supply of air during low rpm
operation as well as restricting excessive pressures when operating at full speed.
Two tappings are taken from the engine, one form the LP stages and one form
the HP stages to maintain a reasonable pressure band at all engine speeds.
Figure 3 shows a typical 2 stage bleed air system.
At low engine rpm the LP air is of insufficient pressure for use in the pneumatic
systems, so air will be tapped from the HP stages. When engine speed increases
the LP air pressure will also increase and at a pre-determined pressure the HP
air will be shut off and when operating at maximum engine speeds the air will be
taken purely from the LP stages. In all normal stages of flight therefore the bleed
air will come form the LP stages.

Typical Two Stage Bleed Air System


Figure 3

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16.6.2 Compressors or Blowers.


This is used by some turbo jet, turbo prop or piston engine aircraft, the
compressors or blowers being either engine driven via an accessory drive, by
bleed air or electric or hydraulic motors. The compressor inlet duct is connected
to an air scoop and its outlet is connected to the pneumatic manifold. The unit is
controlled by a shut off valve which is operated from the cockpit.
When insufficient LP air pressure is available for the pneumatic systems at low
engine speeds the aircrew will select the shut off valve to open. This will direct
the LP air to drive the turbo compressor. A pressure regulator is incorporated to
ensure a constant output at the required pressure.
On large multi-engine aircraft only some of the engines will have a turbo
compressor (Figure 4) which is normally mounted with its associated controls in
an engine bay.

Turbo Compressor
Figure 4
16.6.3 Auxillary Power Unit (APU)
This provides an independent source of pressurised air. It is basically a small gas
turbine engine that provides air and other service whilst the aircraft is on the
ground with its main engines stopped. It is usually a self contained unit located in
the tail section of the aircraft where it can be run safely (Figure 5). On some
aircraft the APU can be started in flight and act as a back up source of air,
hydraulics services in the event of a loss of an engine.

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Typical APU Setup


Figure 5
16.6.4 Ground Supply
For use on the ground when the engines are not running. This unit will run until
the aircraft is independent of the trolley. The ground cart is basically a
compressor driven by an engine, usually a diesel. The compressor output
pressure is regulated to match the aircrafts system pressure. A quick release
hose is connected from the cart to the aircraft service panel. The maximum
aircraft systems pressure and operating instructions including safety precautions
are detailed on the inside of the service access panel.

Ground Cart Control Panel


Figure 6

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Instructions for operating the ground cart will be found on a panel on the carts
control panel. Figure 6 shows a typical ground cart control panel.
16.7

PRESSURE CONTROL

In many bleed air systems the pressure is regulated only by the operation of the
high pressure shut off valve. The range of pressure may be from 10psi at ground
idle to 65 psi at take off power. Many modern aircraft use bleed air for many
systems that are sensitive to pressure variations and therefore some form of
regulation is required.
The pressure regulator is a pneumatically operated valve which will give a predetermined output pressure form the engine bleed air system. The regulator may
also perform as the shut off valve. This is then called a pressure regulating and
shut off valve.
16.7.1 Pressure Regulator
This valve operates on the principle of a balance between air pressure and spring
pressures. Referring to Figure 7. Assuming the piston has an area of 1 square
inch and is held in its seat by a spring that pushes with a 100 pounds force. The
piston has a shoulder of 0.5 square inches and this area is acted on by a system
air pressure of 1500psi. The cone shaped seat of the valve has an area of 0.5
square inches and is acted on by a reduced pressure of 200psi.
A bleed orifice in the piston allows air pressure into the piston chamber. A relief
valve being acted on by the reduced 200psi pressure and relief valve spring
pressure, maintains the air pressure in the piston chamber at 750psi.

PRESSURE RELIEF
VALVE

BLEED ORIFICE

PISTON
PRESSURE IN

PISTON
CONE
TO SERVICES

Pressure Regulator
Figure 7

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When the air supply is used by a pneumatic service, the reduced downline
pressure of 200psi reduces further. This reduced pressure is now insufficient to
keep the relief valve closed. The 750psi piston chamber pressure unseats the
relief valve and reduces the piston chamber pressure.
The reduced piston chamber pressure unseats the piston cone piston which
allows the system pressure to bleed into the down lines. Once the downline
pressure rises to 200psi, the piston cone and the relief valve re-seat and the
system is once again in balance.
16.8

DISTRIBUTION

Distribution is achieved by ducting and pipelines that carry the charge air from the
engine compressors to the various services that require air for their operation.
Due to the heat of the bleed air any leakage of the ducts will cause an extreme
temperature rise in the area of the leak with the possibility of fire or damage to the
surrounding structure and equipment. Leak detection systems are therefore
incorporated. Figure 9 shows a typical distribution layout.

Ducts Supports
Figure 8
The ducting is made up of many sections for ease of maintenance and
cheapness of replacement. They are constructed of thin wall material and
clamped together with joints that allow for thermal expansion.
Engine bleed air system ducts are manufactured from stainless steel and the
ducts and pipelines are usually manufactured from titanium as they are able to
withstand higher temperatures and are lighter in weight. The duct sections are
supported throughout their length by clamps and tie rod attachments to the
aircraft structure as shown in Figure 8.

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Bleed Air Distribution Manifold


Figure 9
16.8.1 Expansion Joints
Joints are assembled cold and when in use the temperatures int eh ducting can
reach up tom 350 degrees F. Expansion devices must be incorporated into the
systems to prevent any distortion or buckling of the ducts. This expansion can be
allowed for in several ways.

Pre-Stressed Joint

One method is to have the duct sections installed slightly shorter in length and
allow them to expand with the heat to fit correctly. The ducts will be pre-stressed
by the clamps when cold (Figure 10).

Pre-Stressed Joint
Figure 10

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Flexible Ball Joint

Another method is with a flexible ball joint fitting at the duct ends. The joint is
designed to allow for slight flexing and misalignment as well as expansion. A
flange on one end of the duct is connected to a bearing nut on the other and
screwed together to form the joint (Figure 11). Shims are used to ensure
adequate clearance is maintained for the expansion and flexing and a crush type
metal seal is used to prevent air leakage at the joints.

Ball Joint
Figure 11

Cable Attachment Joint

The cable attachment type joint is used where large temperature changes exist,
ie from cold soak at high altitudes to maximum working temperatures when the
pneumatic system is selected on. This joint has bosses attached at each end of
the duct.
There are usually 3 short cables equally spaced around the duct (Figure 12). The
cables have a swaged ball end fittings at one end and a swaged threaded fitting
at the other. Each end is located in a bracket on the ducting. A seal is fitted
around the duct before the ducts are connected. A nut is fitted on the threaded
end and tightened. This pulls tightens the cables and seals the duct. A small gap
is left at the seal ends to allow for expansion.

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Cable Joint
Figure 12
16.9

INDICATIONS AND WARNINGS

Safety devices are fitted into pneumatic systems to prevent a possible overheat
or overpressure which could cause severe damage to the air ducting or systems.
16.9.1 Overpressure
Overpressure is usually caused by a malfunction of the high pressure shut off
valve that remains open when the engine is operating at its maximum rpm. In
most systems a pressure relief valve is fitted in the engine bleed air ducting which
relieves excess pressures. The pressure relief valve may also work in conjunction
with a pressure switch will close the high pressure shut off valve at a pre
determined pressure.
16.9.2 Overheat
Over temperature of the bleed air is prevented, by an electrical temperature
sensor, downstream of the engine bleed air valve. When a pre determined
temperature is reached the electrical sensor will signal the high pressure shut off
valve to close. An overheat will be indicated to the aircrew on the CWP and
associated control panel.

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16.9.3 Duct Hot Air Leakage


Any ducting that includes joints is liable to leak under abnormal conditions. A duct
protection system will include fire-wire elements around the hot zones such as
engine air bleeds, air conditioning packs and auxillary power units if fitted.
The sensing elements will be the thermistor type. As the temperature around the
wire increases the resistance decreases until an electrical circuit is made. When
the circuit is made a warning signal is sent to the cockpit central warning panel
with associated caution/warning lights and aural chimes. The leaking duct may be
isolated automatically or may require the pilot to take action to close off the air
valves. The faulty system will then remain out of use.
16.10

SYSTEM INTERFACES

The pneumatic system interfaces with various other aircraft systems. Once the
bleed air has been reduced in pressure to around 40 to 50 psi, most services
have their own pressure and temperature controls, as well as generating their
own warnings and indications to the CWP or system control panels in the cockpit.
16.10.1 Pneumatic Gyro Power systems
The gyroscopes in pneumatic gyro instruments are driven by air impinging on
cups cut in the periphery of the wheel. There are two methods of obtaining air to
drive the instruments:

Air Pump Suction

The air pump suction evacuates the instrument case and draws air in through a
filter. The filtered air id directed through a nozzle and it strikes the driving cups to
drive the gyro instrument. A suction relief valve regulates the suction to the
correct value to drive the instrument and a suction gauge reads the pressure drop
across the instrument.

Dry Air Pump Pressure.

Since many aircraft fly at high altitudes where there is insufficient air pressure to
drive the instruments another method must be used. The gyro instruments are
driven by the air from the pressure side of a dry air pump. The air is filtered
before it is taken into the air pump and is regulated before it flows through an in
line filter to the instruments. After driving the instruments it is evacuated
overboard.

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16.10.2 Backup High Pressure Pneumatic Systems


On some aircraft, in case the hydraulic systems fail there must be provision for an
emergency extension of the landing gear and application of the brakes. The
system comprises of a pressurised cylinder which contains approximately
3000psi of compressed air or nitrogen. A shuttle valve (Figure 13) in the actuator
line directs hydraulic fluid to the actuator for normal operation or compressed
air/nitrogen for emergency operation.

PISTON
PISTON

EMERGENCY AIR

HYDRAULIC FAILURE

AIR

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE

Shuttle Valve Operation


Figure 13
16.10.3 Pneumatic De-Icing systems
The compressed air system used for inflating de-icing boots uses wet air pumps.
The oily air leaves the pump and passes through baffle plates in an oil separator.
The oil collects on the baffles and drains down to a collector at the separator
base and returned to the engine oil sump.
Clean air leaves the separator and flows through the de-icing selector valve to a
pressure regulating valve, where its pressure is reduced to the value needed for
the boots. It then flows to the distribution sequencing valve. When the system is
switched off the air is directed overboard. De-icing systems are dealt with in
more detail in Module 11.12 Ice And Rain Protection.
16.10.4 Air Conditioning And Pressurisation.
Bleed air supplies provide hot air to the air conditioning packs. The hot air passes
through primary and secondary heat exchangers before it is mixed with cold air to
provide conditioned air into the aircraft. As the hot air passes through the system
it flows across a turbine which drives the system compressor.

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Bleed air is also used for cabin pressurisation. The air drives a compressor which
pressurises the air before it is fed to the cabin. Some aircraft use a jet pump to
pressurise the air. Th air passes through an inter cooler to reduce its temperature
before entering the cabin.
Air-conditioning systems are often protected by flow control valves, which double
as shut-off valves in the case of a fault.
16.10.5 Air Driven Hydraulic Pumps.
Some aircraft use hydraulic pumps operated by air turbines. These are driven by
bleed air from the engines and the flow is controlled and modulated by a solenoid
operated pressure regulator and shut off valve to maintain the turbine speed
within set limits. The turbine is connected to the pump via a shaft and the air is
exhausted to atmosphere from the turbine outlet.
16.10.6 Pressurising Of Hydraulic Reservoirs.
Aircraft flying at altitudes in excess of 20000 feet require the hydraulic reservoir to
be pressurised to prevent foaming of the fluid, due to the low ambient air
pressure and to prevent pump cavitation. The bleed air is fed to a
regulator/reducing valve which regulates the pressure supplied to the reservoir. A
pressure relief valve is fitted to the system which vents any excess air pressure to
atmosphere.
16.10.7 Waste And Water Systems
The toilet systems fitted to larger aircraft use a vacuum to empty a number of
toilets into a single collector tank. This saves having a self-contained tank, full of
de-odorising fluid and the associated pumping mechanisms attached to each
toilet assembly.

Vacuum Waste System


Figure 14

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The flush operation consists of fresh water from the potable supply and, most
importantly, the vacuum, which draws the waste into the collector tank. This is
obtained by having the tank connected to the outside of the aircraft. Only at low
levels, when the outside air pressure is insufficient, is a small vacuum pump
called into operation. Figure 14 shows a typical vacuum toilet system.
16.10.8 Pneumatic Stall Warning

These systems are common on light aircraft. A slotted plate is mounted on the
wing leading edge and its slot coincide with the stagnation point of the wing
during normal flight. The slot is connected to a horn via a tube. When the angle of
attack is sufficient to induce a stall the low air pressure is drawn into the tube and
sounds the horn giving the pilot warning of an impending stall.

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CONTENTS
17 WATER AND WASTE SYSTEMS ................................................ 17-3
17.1

17.2

WATER SYSTEMS ......................................................................... 17-3


17.1.1 Pressure Control ........................................................... 17-3
17.1.2 Water Distribution System ............................................. 17-4
17.1.3 Water Heating ............................................................... 17-5
17.1.4 Waste Water Collection And Drainage .......................... 17-6
17.1.5 Quantity Indication ........................................................ 17-6
17.1.6 Water Service Panel ..................................................... 17-7
WASTE SYSTEMS ......................................................................... 17-8
17.2.1 Removable Toilet Assemblies ....................................... 17-9
17.2.2 Liquid Flush Toilets ....................................................... 17-9
17.2.3 Vacuum Toilets ............................................................. 17-11
17.2.4 Corrosion Control .......................................................... 17-13

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17 WATER AND WASTE SYSTEMS


17.1 WATER SYSTEMS
The term Potable water refers to drinking water. On aircraft it is used not only to
supply water for drinking, but also the galleys and to provide hot and cold water to
wash basins throughout the aircraft. A centralised water tank can feed any
number of galleys and toilets through a gallery of pipes. This will speed servicing
turnaround times when there need only be one main replenishment point. Potable
water is Hyper-chlorinated to control bacteria and is carried out at set intervals.
The major components in a potable water system are:

A storage tank.
Air pressure system to force water from the storage tank to the services.
Distribution lines
Filling system
Quantity indication system
Valves to drain the system

The tank is usually stored under the cabin floor in a cradle structure and is
constructed from either fibreglass with metal bonded bands or stainless steel.
The quantity and volume will be dictated by the number of passengers carried
and the length of the time the aircraft is airborne. Aircraft that are expected to
operate in cold climates may have heater blankets built in to the design to keep
the tank and the replenishing panel free of ice.
The tank assembly will incorporate a drain, filler connection, overflow connection
an air pressure connection and outlet pipelines to the galley and toilets.
17.1.1 Pressure Control

The supply of air for the movement of water is, tapped from the bleed air supply
of the engine compressor or the APU. Some aircraft, which require the ability to
draw water when there is no air pressure (on the ramp), have an electrically
powered air compressor that will provide a head of pressure to enable water to be
drawn off at any time. The compressor may automatically start when the bleed air
pressure drops below a pre-determined value.
On aircraft using a compressor, a riser loop is incorporated to prevent water
entering the compressor, the top of the loop being higher than the distribution
ducting ensuring that the water goes to the distribution lines first. A pressure
switch will control the compressor starting and stopping as the bleed air pressure
varies.
The distribution lines are connected to the tank drain, fill connection, overflow
connection, air pressure connection and the supply lines to all of the galleys and
lavatories.

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THE RISER LOOP PREVENTS THE


WATER FROM SIPHONING BACK
THROUGH THE COMPRESSOR

COMPRESSOR
PRESSURE SWITCH

WATER TANK

PRV

NRV`S

FILTER

PRESSURE
MANIFOLD

Water Tank Pressurisation System


Figure 1
17.1.2 Water Distribution System
A main water distribution line is taken from the water tank and is routed up into
the cabin ceiling. Individual pipelines are routed from this pipeline to the toilets
and galleys. The distribution lines are usually flexible hoses enclosed in an
aluminium sheath.

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The flexible hose is normally insulated to prevent it from freezing. The outer
sheath prevents any leakage from entering the cabin. Any leaking water will be
directed to the lower fuselage through drain tubes where it can then be drained
overboard. A quick release connection is located above each toilet and galley to
enable the supply line to be disconnected for removal of the toilet or galley.
On smaller aircraft the water tank may be located above the wash basin and
galley areas and provides water to the systems under gravity.
17.1.3 Water Heating
A water heater with a small capacity is installed in the supply piping under each
lavatory sink and provides hot water to the hot water tap. The heater contains
electrical elements in the base of the heater unit. On the side of the tank is a
warning light, a control switch, an overheat re-set switch and a pressure relief
valve.
Normally the heater switch will be on and the light will be illuminated. A switch
controller will regulate the water temperature to around 125 degrees F. If a
malfunction occurs and the temperature increases to 190 degrees F the overheat
switch will operate and switch off power to the heater unit. The power light will go
out. After a cooling down period the heater will have to be manually reset by
pressing the re-set button on the heater unit.
A pressure relief valve will relieve pressures in excess of around 140 psi. the
primary function of the relief valve is to relieve pressures caused by the water
overheating. A typical water heating system is shown in Figures 2 and Figure 3.
ON/OFF SWITCH

OVERHEAT RESET
SWITCH

OVERHEAT SWITCH

POWER SUPPLY
HEATING
ELEMENTS

ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR

CYCLIC
SWITCH

NEON
INDICATOR

Heating System Schematic


Figure 2

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Heating System
Figure 3
17.1.4 Waste Water Collection And Drainage
Waste water collection and drainage depends on the aircraft. On some aircraft
the water from the washbasins drains directly overboard while on others it drains
into a soil tank and is used to flush the toilet system. Water drained overboard are
drained through drain masts under the fuselage. These masts are normally
electrically heated to prevent freezing and the forward motion of the aircraft
ensures that the water is finely atomised as it leaves the aircraft. To test the drain
mast heaters on the ground the hand is carefully used feeling for warmth.
17.1.5 Quantity Indication
Some aircraft use a simple sight gauge by the side of the tank to indicate the
level of the waste tank contents. On larger aircraft the tank will be fitted with a
sensor to remotely signal the tank levels to the cabin crew. One method of
indication is to use a gauge on the attendants panel and a corresponding gauge
which is fed from the same float and electrical transmitter on the water service
panel.

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Another method of indicating tank contents is to use a series of lights controlled


by magnetic floats installed inside the tank. When the waste water level operates
one of the magnetic floats a circuit is made and a corresponding light on the
panel is illuminated.
17.1.6 Water Service Panel
A water service panel will normally be found on the lower part of the fuselage,
where it can be easily reached by the maintenance crew who have the job of
replenishing the tank during the turnaround maintenance. The panel will probably
contain most of the following items. A filling point, a drain/overflow point, a
quantity indication, either in the form of an array of lights or a gauge unit and an
external air connection. A typical servicing panel is shown in Figure 4
QUANTITY
GAUGE

OPEN DRAIN
CONNECTION

WATER MAIN
CONNECTOR

WATER
DRAIN
HANDLE

WATER VENT
VALVE
OPEN

CLOSE
D

WATER SYSTEM
MAIN VALVE

WATER FILL
CONNECTOR

CLOSE
D

FILL CONNECTION
WITH COVER
Servicing Panel
Figure 4
The filling point on the panel will allow the replenishing rig/ truck to fill the tank
during a turnaround servicing, whilst the drain/overflow will show when the tank is
full. When full any excess water overflows out of the overflow line. Once the water
is seen from the overflow valve the fill/vent valve is closed to the vent position.
The quantity indicator will allow the tank to be filled to a 'less-than-full' quantity,
where the aircraft is, perhaps, on very short flight legs and the excess weight of
the water that will not be used, is traded-off against fuel. The external air
connection allows a ground air air source to be connected to allow the water to be
moved, within the system, whenever there is no internal air pressure available.
Figure 5 shows a typical potable water system.

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FILL LINE

FILL/VENT VALVE
STACK
PIPE

WATER
TANK

WATER DRAIN
VALVE

OVERFILL LINE

FILL POINT

QTY
GAUGE

Replenishment System
Figure 5
The water drain valve is manually operated and allows the tank contents to drain
under gravity. When the tank is emptied the drain valve is manually re-set. The
fill/vent valve can be manually or electrically operated and rotates the valve to the
fill or vent position. Its operation may also electrically isolate the air compressor, if
fitted during filling.
The purpose of the vent valve is to prevent an air lock occurring in the wash basin
taps by opening the tap lines to atmosphere. Modern aircraft have self venting
taps which automatically relieve any air locks.
17.2 WASTE SYSTEMS
The provision of aircraft toilets is an essential requirement for any aircraft carrying
passengers over long distances. These toilets must be maintained and serviced
with care, as the comfort and health of the passenger must be protected. They
should be clean and odour free at all times.
There are three main types of toilet fitted to aircraft. The type used will depend
upon the number of passengers the aircraft can carry, and also the age of the
aircraft. In all cases it is essential that all the relevant health precautions are
observed during all forms of servicing carried out on these units.
Due to the nature of the fluids carried in many toilets, protection must also be
given to the structure of the aircraft to protect it from corrosion caused by these
fluids.

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The three types of toilet are:

Removable toilet assembly.

Liquid flush type.

Vacuum toilet assembly.

17.2.1 Removable Toilet Assemblies


The removable, or 'carry out' toilet is of the simplest type of aircraft toilet. This
unit is often referred to as an Elsan, named after the original company which
manufactured this type of toilet. It is simply a storage bin with a toilet seat fitted
to the top and partially filled with a strong chemical deodorant.
This type of toilet is removed from the aircraft and emptied into an approved
disposal site. Once washed out, it is replenished with deodorant and re-fitted into
the aircraft, using some form of quick release attachment such as 'pip' pins.
You will only find this type of toilet fitted to short range small light aircraft.
17.2.2 Liquid Flush Toilets
These are the most common type of toilet found in passenger aircraft, each toilet
being a completely self contained quick release unit, having its waste collection
tank mounted directly beneath the toilet bowl. The tank is normally made out of
composites or plastics. Directly below the waste tank is a service panel. An
illustration of a typical liquid flush toilet assembly is shown overleaf.
The assembly shown in Figure 6, contains the following components, which will
be found in most liquid flush toilet installations:

Motor and Pump.

Filter.

Drain Valve

Rinse Ring.

Flush Line.

Air vent.

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A Typical Liquid Flush toilet


Figure 6
The bowl is constructed from stainless steel, but the tank units can be either the
same material or fibreglass laminate. The capacity of the tank depends on both
the duration of the flights and the number of passengers catered for by each unit.
An average tank capacity figure is 20 gallons, (90 litres) of which 3 gallons, (13.5
litres) are a pre-charge of chemical; which contains disinfectant, dye and
deodorant. This would be sufficient for about 100 uses, before emptying and recharging would be required.

System Operation

When the flush button is pressed, the motor runs for a fixed time, usually around
10 seconds, which pumps the fluid through the bowl spray pipe in a swirling
action. This action flushes the bowl contents into the tank, via a lightly sprung
(loaded into the closed position) hinged separator. At the end of the 10-second
cycle, the motor re-arms to run again, in the reverse direction, to ensure the filter
does not become blocked with solid waste.

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17.2.3 Vacuum Toilets


On an aircraft fitted with a number of liquid flush toilets, there were two major
problems, the corrosion risk and the time taken to drain and replenish each
individual toilet. Both of these problems are overcome by installing vacuum
toilets.
There are dry toilet modules installed at convenient locations, to suit the seating
layout around the passenger cabin and connected to a central storage tank by
pipelines.
The vacuum toilet uses a waste container that has a negative pressure inside,
(vacuum). This vacuum draws the waste from the bowl together with the clean
flushing water and deposits it into the tank. On very large aircraft, more than one
waste tank is used to overcome the problem of one tank filling up during the flight.
The toilet systems fitted to larger aircraft use a vacuum to empty a number of
toilets into a single collector tank. This saves having a self-contained tank, full of
de-odorising fluid and the associated pumping mechanisms attached to each
toilet assembly.
The flush operation consists of fresh water from the potable supply and, most
importantly, the vacuum, which draws the waste into the collector tank. This is
obtained by having the tank connected to the outside of the aircraft. As the
aircrafts speed increases the pressure at the connection drops which causes the
waste to be drawn to the storage tank.

Vacuum Toilet System


Figure 7

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At low speeds or low altitudes, when the pressure differential is insufficient to


draw the waste to the storage tank, a small vacuum pump called a vacuum
generator, is operated by a pressure switch to provide the required pressure
drop. Its normal range of operation is between sea level up to 16,000 ft.
The illustration below shows a typical vacuum waste storage tank installation:

Waste Storage Tank


Figure 8

Emptying

Large aircraft usually hold waste in a storage tank that is emptied after the aircraft
has landed. The task of emptying the tanks at the end of the flight usually rests
with the specialist companies, sub-contracted to the airlines, they empty all waste
tanks at particular airports.
The tanks are emptied in one of two methods, gravity or suction. The gravity
method empties the tank, after the hose of the toilet emptying vehicle has been
connected, by simply operating the shut-off valve. Once the tank is emptied, it is
flushed out and, depending on the type of tank, replenished with deodorising
fluid.
Suction requires both that the emptying vehicle has the correct equipment, (set at
the correct suction value), and that the aircraft has ducting that is cleared for use
with suction equipment. If the aircraft only has 'gravity' emptying ducting and
piping, severe damage will be caused to much of the toilet equipment, if used
with vacuum emptying equipment.

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JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

MODULE 11.17
WASTE WATER

17.2.4 Corrosion Control


All the areas where toilet equipment is fitted must be protected against corrosion.
The effect of many toilet chemicals on aluminium alloy aircraft structure is severe.
All spillages must be neutralised and cleaned off as soon as possible, whilst
thorough checks of all the areas of the aircraft that could be affected, must be
inspected at regular intervals.
Such areas could be the toilet floor itself and beneath that floor; the vicinity of the
collector tank(s), around the draining/filling panel and anywhere else the
corrosive fumes could affect the structure.
Some toilet units are enclosed in an anti corrosion tank. Any leaks would be self
contained within this tank. The tank would be connected to the drain lines. The
toilet floors may be made from composite materials to reduces the likelihood of
corrosion damage. All connections in the service panel are sealed off when the
service panel is closed.

B1 Mod 11.17 Issue No *

Page 17-13

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1

MODULE 11.17
WASTE WATER

PAGE
INTENTIONALLY
BLANK

Page 17-14

B1 Mod 11.17 Issue No *

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

PART ONE
CONTENTS
1

INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS (ATA 31) ............................................. 1-1


1.1
1.2

1.3

1.4
1.5
1.6

1.7
1.8

1.9

1.10

1.11
1.12
1.13

1.14

THE ATMOSPHERE ....................................................................... 1-1


1.1.1
STANDARD ATMOSPHERE ................................................ 1-3
PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS ............................................................. 1-4
1.2.1
AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS.................................................. 1-4
1.2.2
LOCATION OF PROBES AND STATIC VENTS ....................... 1-7
ALTIMETERS ................................................................................ 1-10
1.3.1
ANEROID BAROMETER .................................................... 1-10
1.3.2
FRICTION COMPENSATION ............................................... 1-13
1.3.3
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION ....................................... 1-13
1.3.4
PRESSURE COMPENSATION............................................. 1-15
SERVO ASSISTED ALTIMETERS ..................................................... 1-18
1.4.1
GENERAL ....................................................................... 1-18
DIRECT SERVO ALTIMETER ........................................................... 1-19
1.5.1
DATUM PRESSURE SETTING ............................................ 1-22
PRESSURE REVERTING SERVO ALTIMETER .................................... 1-23
1.6.1
SERVO MODE OPERATION ............................................. 1-25
1.6.2
STANDBY MODE OPERATION ........................................ 1-25
1.6.3
DATUM PRESSURE SETTING ............................................ 1-26
CABIN ALTIMETERS ...................................................................... 1-26
AIRSPEED INDICATORS ................................................................. 1-28
1.8.1
SIMPLIFIED AIRSPEED INDICATOR .................................... 1-28
1.8.2
PITOT PRESSURE............................................................ 1-31
1.8.3
SPEED OF SOUND ........................................................... 1-32
1.8.4
MACHMETER .................................................................. 1-33
1.8.5
COMBINED SPEED INDICATOR .......................................... 1-35
1.8.6
PRESSURE OPERATED CSI ............................................. 1-36
1.8.7
SERVO OPERATED CSI ................................................... 1-37
VERTICAL SPEED INDICATORS ...................................................... 1-38
1.9.1
BASIC OPERATION .......................................................... 1-38
1.9.2
CALIBRATION .................................................................. 1-40
1.9.3
ALTITUDE & TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION .................... 1-41
GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS ......................................................... 1-42
1.10.1 GYROSCOPIC PROPERTIES .............................................. 1-42
1.10.2 RIGIDITY......................................................................... 1-42
1.10.3 PRECESSION .................................................................. 1-43
1.10.4 PRECESSION .................................................................. 1-45
1.10.5 VERTICAL GYRO ............................................................. 1-46
GYRO HORIZON UNIT .................................................................... 1-48
VERTICAL REFERENCE UNIT (VRU) ............................................... 1-53
ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR (ADI) .......................................... 1-54
1.13.1 WARNINGS ..................................................................... 1-56
1.13.2 ATTITUDE DISTRIBUTION ................................................. 1-56
1.13.3 ATTITUDE TRANSFER SWITCHING..................................... 1-58
STANDBY ATTITUDE INDICATORS .................................................. 1-59
1.14.1 DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION ........................................ 1-59

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

Part 1 Page 1

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24
1.25

1.26

1.27

1.28
1.29
1.30

1.31

1.32

1.33

1.34
1.35
1.36

Part 1 - Page 2

1.14.2 RUNNING UP .................................................................. 1-60


1.14.3 ERECTION CONTROL ...................................................... 1-60
1.14.4 CAGING ......................................................................... 1-60
1.14.5 ATTITUDE INDICATION ..................................................... 1-60
STANDBY ATTITUDE INDICATOR H 341 .......................................... 1-62
1.15.1 DESCRIPTION ................................................................. 1-63
DIRECTION INDICATORS ............................................................... 1-65
TURN & SLIP INDICATOR .............................................................. 1-67
1.17.1 BANK INDICATION ........................................................... 1-69
TURN CO-ORDINATOR .................................................................. 1-71
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)..................................... 1-72
COLLINS 331A-8K HSI ................................................................ 1-74
1.20.1 WARNING FLAGS ............................................................ 1-76
ANGLE OF ATTACK (AOA) ........................................................... 1-77
STALL WARNING INDICATION ........................................................ 1-79
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS ............................................. 1-81
ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM ................................... 1-84
ELECTRONIC ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR (EADI) ................... 1-84
1.25.1 FULL TIME EADI DISPLAY DATA ...................................... 1-86
1.25.2 PART TIME EADI DISPLAYS ............................................ 1-87
ELECTRONIC HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (EHSI) .............. 1-89
1.26.1 FULL TIME EHSI DISPLAYS ............................................. 1-90
1.26.2 PART TIME EHSI DISPLAYS ............................................ 1-92
1.26.3 PARTIAL COMPASS FORMAT............................................ 1-93
1.26.4 MAP MODE .................................................................... 1-96
1.26.5 COMPOSITE DISPLAY ...................................................... 1-97
EFIS CONTROLLER ...................................................................... 1-98
1.27.1 DISPLAY CONTROLLER ................................................... 1-99
1.27.2 SOURCE CONTROLLER ................................................... 1-101
OTHER SYSTEM INDICATIONS ....................................................... 1-103
POWERPLANT INSTRUMENTATION ................................................. 1-103
FUEL CONTENTS GAUGE .............................................................. 1-103
1.30.1 RESISTANCE GAUGES..................................................... 1-103
1.30.2 CAPACITANCE QUANTITY INDICATORS ............................. 1-104
FUEL FLOW INDICATOR ................................................................ 1-106
1.31.1 FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTERS ............................................ 1-108
1.31.2 SYNCHRONOUS MASS FLOW FLOW-METER SYSTEM ......... 1-108
1.31.3 MOTORLESS MASS FLOW METER SYSTEM ....................... 1-109
PRESSURE INDICATORS................................................................ 1-111
1.32.1 PRESSURE CAPSULE DETECTION .................................... 1-112
1.32.2 BOURDON TUBE DETECTION ........................................... 1-113
OIL & FUEL TEMPERATURE INDICATORS ....................................... 1-115
1.33.1 RESISTIVE BULB SENSOR ............................................... 1-115
1.33.2 THERMOCOUPLE SENSOR ............................................... 1-116
ENGINE RPM INDICATORS ............................................................ 1-117
1.34.1 ENGINE SPEED GENERATOR ........................................... 1-119
EXHAUST TEMPERATURE INDICATING............................................ 1-121
ENGINE PRESSURE INDICATORS ................................................... 1-124

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.37
1.38
1.39
1.40

1.41
1.42
1.43
1.44
1.45

1.46

1.36.1 EPR FORMULA ............................................................... 1-125


VIBRATION INSTRUMENTS ............................................................. 1-126
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS (ENGINE & AIRFRAME) ........................ 1-130
ENGINE INDICATING & CREW ALERTING SYSTEM (EICAS) ............. 1-130
1.39.1 DISPLAY UNITS ............................................................... 1-131
DISPLAY MODES .......................................................................... 1-135
1.40.1 OPERATIONAL MODE....................................................... 1-135
1.40.2 STATUS MODE ................................................................ 1-135
1.40.3 MAINTENANCE MODE ...................................................... 1-135
DISPLAY SELECT PANEL ............................................................... 1-137
1.41.1 DISPLAY SELECT PANEL OPERATION ............................... 1-138
ALERT MESSAGES ....................................................................... 1-139
MAINTENANCE CONTROL PANEL ................................................... 1-141
ELECTRONIC CENTRALIZED AIRCRAFT MONITORING ...................... 1-142
1.44.1 DISPLAY UNITS ............................................................... 1-142
ECAM DISPLAY MODES ............................................................... 1-143
1.45.1 FLIGHT PHASE RELATED MODE ....................................... 1-143
1.45.2 ADVISORY MODE ............................................................ 1-144
1.45.3 ECAM FAILURE MODE .................................................... 1-145
CONTROL PANEL ......................................................................... 1-151
1.46.1 ECAM CONTROL PANEL ................................................. 1-152

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

Part 1 Page 3

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

PAGE
INTENTIONALLY
BLANK

Part 1 - Page 4

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS (ATA 31)

Aircraft instruments can, on initial observation, appear a bewildering mass of dials


or 'TV ' type screens. The different types of instrumentation required fall into one
of the following types:
1. Pressure instruments.

2. Gyroscopic instruments

3. Compasses.

4. Mechanical indicators
5. Electronic instruments

1.1 THE ATMOSPHERE


A relatively thin layer of air called the atmosphere surrounds the earth. This
extends upwards from the surface for a distance of about 250 miles and is
composed mainly of nitrogen 78%, oxygen 21% plus 1% of other gases which
includes amongst others, argon, carbon dioxide and helium. Under the
gravitational effect of the earth, the atmosphere exerts a pressure upon the
surface of the earth. This pressure, if measured at sea level, it is approximately
1.013bar (14.7lbf/in2), and reduces with height.
The pressure reduction, is not linear, the rate of pressure reduction decreases
with a rise in altitude to form an exponential curve. Temperature and water
vapour within the air also affects the pressure of the air, and therefore the height
at which a particular pressure can be measured. Figure 1 shows a
Height/pressure graph.
65
60
55

AT 8,000ft
240mb

HEIGHT X 1000ft

50
45
40
35
30

AT 8,000ft
750mb

25

AT SEA
LEVEL
1013mb

20
15
10
5
0
0

.100

.200

.300

.400

.500

.600

.700

.800

.900

1.000

AIR PRESSURE IN BARS

Height/Pressure Graph
Figure 1

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

Page 1-1

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Temperature change within the atmosphere can be divided into 3 bands,


corresponding to the 3 layers or regions of the atmosphere:
1.

The Troposphere.

2.

The Stratosphere.

3.

The Chemosphere.

Figure 2 shows three bands of the atmosphere.

135

+22.473

140,000ft

CHEMOSPHERE TEMPERATURE INCREASES AT


APPROXIMATELY 2.256C FOR
AN INCREASE IN HEIGHT OF
1000ft

125
115
STRATOPAUSE 104,987ft

105

-56.5

95
ALTITUDE FEET X 1000

85
75

STRATOPHERE - TEMPERATURE
AT -56.5C

UPPER LIMIT OF ICAO ISA 65,800ftt

65
55
45

TROPOPAUSE 36,090ft

35

-56.5

25
TROPOSPHERE - TEMPERATURE
DECREASES 1.98C FOR AN
INCREASE IN HEIGHT OF 1000ft

15
5
+15

0
-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

TEMPERATURE (DEGREES C)

Atmosphere Bands
Figure 2

Page 1-2

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

The height of these layers varies considerably with latitude and the season. It is
assumed that the troposphere extends to a height of 36,090ft and has a
temperature gradient falling at a linear rate to 56.5C at 36,090ft. The
stratosphere is assumed to range from 36,090ft to 104,987ft and to have a
constant temperature of 56.5C. Above this is the Chemosphere, extending to
the limits of the atmosphere and which is assumed to have a temperature
gradient, which initially rises approximately 2C for each 1000ft of altitude. For
the purpose of aircraft pressure instruments, these higher levels are not
important.
1.1.1 STANDARD ATMOSPHERE
To be able to produce an instrument capable of accurately measuring aircraft
height (and speed) using only the prevailing atmospheric pressure, requires that
the instrument be calibrated and tested against a set of standard conditions.
Standard atmospheres have been in use since 1800s. the early ones being
based on very simple temperature laws. During WW1, these were found to be
inadequate, this led to the development and the international acceptance in 1924
of the International Committee on Air Navigation (ICAN) standard. This standard
was adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) in 1952.
Advances in aircraft performance and the introduction of missiles highlighted the
need for an increase in the altitude range of the standard atmosphere, the ICAO
limit being 65,000ft. This introduced two further standards to supplement the
ICAO standard, these being the Wright Air Development Centre (WADC) and the
Air Research Development Command (ARDC). Table 1 shows the comparison of
the standard atmospheres.
Height in feet
x 1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160

ICAN
1013.25
696.91
465.63
301.89
187.61
115.81
71.79
44.36
-

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

Air Pressure in Millibars


ICAO
WADC
1013.25
1013.25
696.81
696.81
465.63
465.63
300.01
300.89
187.54
187.54
115.97
115.97
71.72
71.72
44.35
27.43
16.96
10.49
6.53
4.22
2.84
1.97
Table 1

ARDC
1013.25
696.91
465.63
300.89
188.23
115.97
71.716
44.438
27.425
17.067
10.820
6.981
4.5779
3.0476
2.0575
1.4650
0.9727

Page 1-3

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.2 PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS


1.2.1 AIR DATA INSTRUMENTS
An Air Data system of an aircraft is one which the total pressure created by the
forward motion of an aircraft, and the static pressure of the atmosphere
surrounding it, are sensed and measured in terms of speed, altitude and rate of
change of altitude. The measurement and indication of these three parameters
may be achieved by connecting the appropriate sensors, either directly to
mechanical-type instruments, or to a remotely-located Air Data Computer (ADC),
which then transmits the data in electrical signal format to electro-mechanical or
servo-type instruments.
The basic Air Data Instruments display airspeed, altitude, Mach number and
vertical speed. All are calculated from air pressure received from a Pitot/Static
source.
1. Static air pressure, which is simply the outside air pressure at the instant of
measuring.
2. Pitot pressure is the dynamic pressure of the air due to the forward motion of
the aircraft and is measured using a tube, which faces the direction of travel.

Page 1-4

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 3 shows a Pressure head as fitted to aircraft to allow Pitot and Static
pressures to the relevant indicators.

PITOT LINE

STATIC LINE

HEATER
CONNECTION

FORWARD

PITOT PROBE

STATIC VENTS

Aircraft Pressure Head


Figure 3
Indicated Airspeed (IAS), Mach No, Barometric Height (Height above sea level),
and Vertical speed (Rate of climb/dive) are derived from the Pitot/Static inputs.
1. IAS = Pitot minus Static - (In knots).
2. Mach No = Pitot - Static divided by Static.
3. Baro Ht = Static - (In feet).
4. Vertical Speed = Change in Static pressure - (X 1000ft/min).

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

Page 1-5

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Figure 4 shows typical aircraft static vent:

FUSELAGE

STATIC
VENT

STATIC
PIPE

Aircraft Static Vent


Figure 4

Page 1-6

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

1.2.2 LOCATION OF PROBES AND STATIC VENTS


The choice of probe/vent locations is largely dependent on the type of aircraft,
speed range and aerodynamic characteristics, and as result there is no common
standard for all aircraft. On larger aircraft it is normal to have standby probes and
static vents. These are always located one on each side of the fuselage and are
interconnected so as to balance out dynamic pressure effects resulting from any
Yawing or side-slip motion of the aircraft.
Figure 5 shows the location of probes and vents on a Boeing 737.

Boeing 737 Air Data Probe and Vent Location


Figure 5
Pitot and static pressures are transmitted through seamless and corrosionresistant metal (light alloy) pipelines. Flexible pipelines are also used when
connections to components mounted on anti-vibration mountings is required. In
order for an Air Data System to operate effectively under all flight conditions,
provision must also be made for the elimination of water that may enter the
system as a result of condensation, rain, snow, etc. This will reduce the
probability of Slugs of water blocking the lines. This provision takes the form of
drain holes in the probes, drain taps and valves in the systems pipelines. The
drain holes within the probes are of diameter so as not to introduce errors into the
system.

MOD 11 BOOK 2 PART 1 ISSUE 6 - 01/02/11

Page 1-7

JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 11 BOOK 2
PART 1
AEROPLANE
AERODYNAMICS,
STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS

Methods of draining the pipelines varies between aircraft types and are designed
to have a capacity sufficient to allow for the accumulation of the maximum
amount of water that could enter the system between maintenance periods.
Figure 6 shows a typical water drain valve.

ORANGE
FLOAT
INDICATOR

TRANSPARENT
PLASTIC PIPE

DRAIN
VALVE

BAYONET
FITTING
CAP

(SELF SEALING)

Water Drain Valve


Figure 6
The three primary instruments in the Air Data System are:
1. Altimeter (Baro Ht).
2. Indicated Air Speed (IAS) Indicator.
3. Vertical Speed Indicator.
The IAS is often combined to display Mach No as well as indicated airspeed and