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TRANSPORT and R O A D
RESEARCH L A B O R A T O R Y
Department o f the ~ n v i r o n m e n t
Department o f Transport

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SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT 335

A REVIEW OF T U N N E L L I N I N G PRACTICE I N T H E U N I T E D K I N G D O M
by

R N Craig and A M M u i r Wood

(Sir William Halcrow and Partners)

The work described in this Report was sponsored by t h e T R R L

A n y views expressed in this Report are n o t necessarily those o f the


Transport and Road Research Laboratory o r o f any other division of
either the Department o f the Environment o r the Department o f Transport

Prepared f o r the Tunnels Division


Structures Department
Transport and Road Research Laboratory
Crowthorne, Berkshire
1978

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CONTENTS
Abstract
1.
Introduction
2.
Investigation methods
Purpose and methods of lining tunnels
3.
3.1 General
3.2 Market for tunnel linings (1970-76)
3.3 Previous forms of tunnel linings
3.3.1
Timber
3.3.2
Brickwork
3.3.3
Masonry
Cast iron and steel tunnel linings
4.
4.1 Cast iron tunnel linings
Bolted grey iron tunnel linings
4.1.1
Bolted spheroidal graphite iron tunnel linings
4.1.2
Expanded grey iron tunnel linings
4.1.3
Expanded spheroidal graphite iron tunnel linings
4.1.4
4.2 Steel tunnel linings
4.2.1
Bolted steel tunnel linings
4.2.2
Expanded steel tunnel linings
4.2.3
Liner plates
5.
Precast concrete tunnel linings
5.1 Moulds
5.2 Steel reinforcement
5.3 Joints
5.3.1
Plane or helical joints
5.3:2
~ o n c a v e / c o n v e xand convex/convex joints
5.3.3
Tongue and groove joints
5.4 Bolted and dowelled tunnel linings
5.5 Expanded concrete tunnel linings
5.6 Grouted smooth bore concrete tunnel linings
5.7 Expanded grouted concrete tunnel linings
5 . 8 Pipe jacking with concrete pipes
Cast in-situ concrete tunnel linings and temporary ground support
6.
6.1 Cast in-situ concrete tunnel linings
6.2 Rock bolting
6.3 Sprayed concrete tunnel linings
6.4 Temporary arch and lagging supports
Instrumentation, monitoring, research and development
7.
7.1 General
7.2 Deformation of tunnel linings
t s porewater pressure changes
7.3 Sub-surface n ~ o v e n ~ e nand
Horizontal sub-surface movements transvers to tunnels
7.3.1
Horizontal movements parallel to the centre line of tunnels
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4

Vertical ground movements


Porewater pressure changes

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Ownership of the Transport Research


Laboratory was transferred from the
Department of Transport to a subsidiary of
the Transport Research Foundation on 1''
April 1996.
This report has been reproduced by
permission of the Controller of HMSO.
Extracts from the text may be reproduced,
except for commercial purposes, provided
the source is acknowledged.

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7.4

Surface settlement
Development of settlement profile and trough
7.4.1
7.4.2
Extent of settlement
Discussion on ground movements and settlement
7.4.3
7.4.4
Settlement above multiple tunnels
Settlement above tunnels constructed using pipe jacking methods
7.4.5
7.5 Stresses and hoop loads in linings
7.6 Recent instrumentation and monitoring of tunnels
7.7 Research
7.8 Development
8.
Design
8.1 Designmethods
8.1.1
Soft ground tunnels
8.1.2
Rock tunnels
8.2 Joints in linings
8.3 Openings in preformed linings
8.4 Linings in mining areas
9.
Waterproofing
9.1 Grouting
9.2 Lead caulking
9.3 Cement based caulking compounds
9.4 Flexible caulking compounds
9.5 Sealing strips
9.6 Grummets
10. Tunnel construction
10.1 Rates of Progress
10.2 Suggested tunnel lining methods
10.2.1 Bolted cast iron linings
10.2.2 Expanded cast iron linings
10.2.3 Bolted concrete linings
10.2.4 Grouted smooth bore concrete linings
10.2.5 Expanded concrete linings
10.2.6 Expanded grouted concrete linings
10.2.7 Steel liner plate linings
10.2.8 Steel circular membranes
10.2.9 Bolted and expanded steel linings
10.2.10 Cast in-situ concrete linings
10.2.1 1 Sprayed concrete or gunite linings
10.2.12 Rock bolting
10.2.13 Pipe jacking
10.3 Special ground conditions
10.3.1 Aggressive ground conditions
10.3.2 Mining areas
11. Costs
11.1 Unit cost of linings
11.1.1 Precast concrete linings
11.1.2 Cast iron linings
1 1.1.3 Secondary linings
'

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12.

Maintenance
12.1 Road tunnels
12.2 Railway tunnels
12.3 Small diameter tunnels
13. Recommendations
13.1 Standardisation
13.2 Specifications
13.3 Developinent of linings
13.4 Waterproofing
13.5 Instrumentation, monitoring and research
Acknowledgenlents
14. Appendix 1 List of organisations consulted
15. Appendix 2
Primary and secondary linings - General
15.1 Tunnel lining demand, 1970-76
15.1.1 Collection of data
15.1.2 Total length of tunnels constructed
15 .I .3 T o t a l excavated volume of tunnels constructed
15.1.4 Average external diameters of tunnels
15.1.5 Tunnelling in 1976-1980
15.1.6 Tunnelusage
15.2 Secondary linings
15.2.1 Brick lining
15.2.2 Cast in-situ concrete linings
15.2.3 Infill panels
15.2.4 Thin cement mortar linings
15.2.5 Sprayedmortarorgunitelinings
15.2.6 Steel linings
15.2.7 Glass reinforced linings
15.2.8 Other forms of secondary linings

16.

15.3 Developments overseas


15.3.1 Concrete linings
15.3.2 Cast iron linings
15.3.3 Steel linings
15.3.4 Other forms of lining
Appendix 3 Cast iron and steel tunnel linings
16.1 Grey iron
16.2 Spheroidal graphite iron
16.3 Manufacture of cast iron linings
16.4 Steel linings
16.5 Bolted grey iron linings
16.6 Bolted spheroidal graphite iron
16.7 Bolted steel linings
16.8 Expanded grey iron lining
1 6.8.1 Articulated grey iron lining
16.8.2 Expanded bolted grey iron lining
16.9 Expanded steel linings
16.10Steel liner plates
16.10.1 Armco liner plates
16.10.2 Com~nercialHydraulics liner plates

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17.

Appendix 4 Precast concrete tunnel linings


17.1 General
17.2 Manufacture
17.3 Moulds
17.4 Reinforcement
17.5 Joints
17.6 Bolted and dowelled concrete linings
17.6.1 LTE - Central Line extension
17.6.2 Deep tunnel air raid shelters in London
17.6.3 Defence installation - Dorset Coast
17.6.4 Standard bolted concrete linings
17.7 Expanded concrete linings
17.7.1 Don-Seg lining
17.7.2 Wedge Block lining
17.7.3 Greenwood to Potters Bar tunnels
17.7.4 LTE running tunnels
17.7.5 Heathrow Cargo tunnel
17.7.6 Collins lining
17.8 Grouted smooth bore tunnel lining
17.8.1 McAlpine lining
17.8.2 Spun Concrete Flexilok lining
17.8.3 Spun Concrete Extra Flex lining
17.8.4 Charcon Tunnels Rapid lining
17.8.5 Charcon Tunnels Universal lining
17.8.6 Rees Mini tunnel
17.8.7 Mersey Kingsway and Dartford Duplication tunnels
17.9 Expanded grouted concrete tunnel linings
18. Appendix 5 Cast in-situ concrete tunnel linings and temprary ground support
18.1 Cast in-situ concrete tunnel linings
18.1.1 Roadtunnels
18.1.2 Railway tunnels
18.1.3 Water tunnels
18.1.4 Sewer tunnels
18.2 Rock bolting
18.2.1 Mechanical anchored bolts
18.2.2 Resin anchored bolts
18.2.3 Other forms of anchor
18.3 Sprayed concrete tunnel linings
18.4 Temporary arch and lagging supports
18.4.1 Steel arches
18.4.2 Bernold system
19. Appendix 6 Instrumentation, monitoring research and development
19.1 Instrumentation and monitoring
19.1.1 LTE Central Line extension to Ilford (1942)
19.1.2 MWB Ashford Common tunnel (1952)
19.1.3 LTE underground tunnels (1952-5 6)
19.1.4 River Clyde water tunnel (1953-55)
19.1.5 Shell building 1957
19.1.6 MWB tunnels (1955-75)

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20.

2 1.

19.1.7 Clyde vehicular tunnel (1954-1961)


19.1.8 CEGB, Sizewell Power Station cooling water tunnels (1962-1963)
19.1.9 LTE Victoria Line (1960-1968)
19.1.10 Elephant and Castle shopping centre (1963-1965)
19.1.1 1 BAA - Heathrow cargo tunnel (1968)
19.1.12 Mersey Kingsway tunnels 2A and 2B (1968-1972)
19.1.13 Ely-Ouse water tunnel (1969-1973)
19.1.14 LTE Fleet Line at Green Park (1972-1973)
19.1.1 5 CEGB Severn-Wye cable tunnel (1972-1973)
19.1 .I 6 Cleveland Potash: Boulby Shaft (1973-1975)
19.1.1 7 BR Liverpool Loop-Moorfields Station (1 973-1975)
19.1.1 8 LTE - Fleet Line at New Cross (1973)
19.1.19 LTE - Fleet Line at Regents Park (1973-1974)
19.1.20 NWA Tyneside sewerage scheme - Hebburn contract (1973-1974)
19.1.21 NWA Tyneside sewerage scheme - Tyne Syphon (1974)
19.1.22 NWA Tyneside sewerage scheme - Willington Gut (1974-1975)
19.1.23 Kings Lynn mini tunnel (1974)
19.1.24 NWA Kielder scheme (1974)
19.1.25 TRRL Chinnor trials (1974)
19i1.26 Warrington sewer (1975-1976)
19.1.27 Channel Tunnel Stage 2 (1974-1975)
19.1.28 Tunnels crossing at right angles or on the skew
19.1.29 Settlement at the surface
19.2 Research
19.3 Development
Appendix 7 Design methods
20.1 Bull's Method
20.2 Morgan's ~ e t h o d ~ '
20.3 Muir Wood's Method
20.4 Schulze and Duddeck Methods
20.5 Peck's Method
20.6 Temporary design conditions
20.7 Terzaghi's Method
References

0 CROWN COPYRIGHT I978


Extracts from the text may be reproduced except for
commercial pulposes provided the source is acknowledged

A REVIEW OF TUNNEL LINING PRACTICE I N T H E U N I T E D KINGDOM

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ABSTRACT
This Report outlines the several methods used in the United Kingdom for
lining tunnels and gives brief details of some of the more recent tunnels
constructed with each form of lining. The different methods available for
lining tunnels are discussed taking into account the tunnel usage and the
ground conditions. Methods of waterproofing tunnels, use of secondary
linings and cost data are included.
The approximate annual length and volume of tunnels constructed
for the period 1970-76 are given, broken down into different types of
lining and tunnel usage.
The instrumentation of tunnel linings and of ground movements
during the construction of tunnels have been examined and the design
methods are discussed. Recommendations are given for research and
development of tunnel linings.

1. INTRODUCTION
Following the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Advisory Conference on
Tunnelling held in Washington, U.S.A. in 1970 1,theTransportand Road Research Laboratory's Research
Committee on Tunnels,2 on the advice of the Panel on Tunnel Linings, recohmended that a review be carried
out of tunnel lining ,practice in the United Kingdom. After discussion with Sir William Halcrow and Partners,
Consulting Engineers, the senior author was seconded to the Transport and Road Research Laboratory t o carry
out the survey.
This Report is divided into two parts with details of tunnel linings, research, design and recommendations
in the main text which is supplemented with more detailed data, including brief details of some o f t h e more
recent tunnels, in the Appendices. The Report is aimed to give comprehensive information on tunnelling practice
and research on tunnel linings in the United Kingdom which will be useful not only t o those who have a wide
knowledge but also to those with little or no knowledge of tunnelling who may be considering the use of tunnels
for future schemes. It covers the whole field of tunnels from the 1 .Om diameter t o the largest road tunnels.
There is a predominant use in the United Kingdom of preformed linings since the localities for much o f the
recent tunnelling are found in soft ground, weak rock or shattered or heavily jointed rock.
The several methods of lining are discussed in Chapters 3 , 4,s and 6 with additional data in Appendices 2,
3 , 4 and 5. The ground conditions in which each lining has been constructed are given together with tunnel usage.
However, in some instances the choice of lining may not necessarily have been that most suited t o the ground
conditions. Tumellers, like most groups of engineers, are seldom unanimous on the best lining to use in given
circumstances. In addition, the ground conditions likely to be encountered may not have been accurately known
or may be so variable as to require a highly tolerant scheme. There is great skill in knowing when t o specify the

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types of linings and methods which have been well tried and proven over the last 2 0 to 100 years and when to
pioneer the new tunnel linings and/or construction methods which have greatly contributed to reduce the overall
cost o f tunnelling. I n each instance there will be a choice and the final decision must be an engineering judgement
after weighing up the technical and economic considerations. This Report attempts t o distinguish between fact
and opinion, pointing t o the factors which should be considered in selecting a tunnelling system. The recommendations for the methods of lining tunnels, given in Chapter 10, take into account tunnel usage and ground
conditions and have therefore, t o some extent, to cover both extremes of the tolerant and the specific types of
lining. When making suggestions for future research and development, however, some new ideas have been put
forward as a basis for discussion.
The market for tunnel linings in the United Kingdom is briefly discussed in Chapter 3 with more detailed
information in Appendix 2 , where statistics are given of the approxiinate annual length and volume of tunnels
constructed, broken down into the several forms of tunnel linings and tunnel usage.

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2. INVESTIGATION METHODS
The survey has been carried out by reference to published literature on design and construction of recent tunnels
and by discussions with interested and experienced organisations. At the outset of the survey, the importance o f
personal discussions and visits t o tunnelling sites was seen as far more fruitful than the circulation of questionnaires.
It was clearly impossible to cover more than a small percentage of those organisations concerned in tunnelling, b u t
this has to be seen in the knowledge that a wider investigation would entail diminishing returns. A list of
organisations was drawn up consisting of the larger local authorities, a selection of the larger tunnelling consulting
engineers and contractors, manufacturers of linings, shields and waterproofing materials, research organisations
and universities working on tunnelling problems. Some fifty such organisations were visited, many on several
occasions, a list of which is given in Appendix 1. In almost every case there was good co-operation, assistance and
free discussion with disclosure of much valuable and sometimes confidential material. In particular, from this
material and with the consent of the organisations concerned, it has been possible to draw up the histograms and
graphs of lengths of tunnels constructed and of related costs. The authors and the Transport and Road Research
Laboratory are very grateful to all these organisations for their co-operation in this survey.

3. PURPOSE AND METHODS OF LINING TUNNELS


3.1

General

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The size of tunnels constructed in the United Kingdom may be classed in three categories.
a)

Small diameter tunnels, up t o 3 m internal diameter, for sewers, water and cable tunnels.

b)

Medium diameter tunnels, 3 ni to 6 m internal diameter, for underground railways and associated
tunnels and for the larger sewer and water tunnels.

c)

Large diameter tunnels, 6 m upwards internal diameter, for road and main line railway tunnels,
underground chambers and larger tunnels associated with underground railways.

These tunnels are constructed through a large variety of ground types, which may be classified under the
headings given in Table I , predominantly in soft ground* or weak t o moderately strong rock.

TABLE 1
Ground classification

Classification

Compressive strength
M N / ~ ~

Ground type

(a) Recent alluvium and glacial drift


deposits including waterbearing sands,
gravels, silts and clays and boulder clay.

(b) Eocene, Cretaceous and Jurassic stiff


fissured clays.

Very weak to moderately


strong rock

up to 5 0

Low strength rocks including shales,


Cretaceous Chalk, Triassic (Keupar) Marl
and Jurassic rock formations.

Strong rock

5 0 to 100

Many Triassic and Permian rock formations,


sandstones and medium strength Carboniferous coal measures.

Very strong and extremely


strong rock

above 100

The hard Carboniferous and older rocks,


the limestones and harder rocks.

Soft ground

This classification is based on the rock strengths and terminology given in the Geological Society
Engineering Group, Working Party Report 3 and on the new British Standards Institution draft code of practice
on site investigations4 . The rock groupings have been reduced to three, for convenience for tunnelling methods
and techniques. The classification of rock masses should also include the structure of the rock, the discontinuity
characteristics and the amount of
A method commonly used for indicating the intensity of
(
,
is the proportion of a borehole core that
discontinuities is that of Rock Quality Designation R Q D ) ~which

eath her in^.^'^?^

The Geologist would describe 'soft ground' as 'unconsolidated deposits' but this designation would be confusing
in the engineering context.

consists of intact lengths longer than O.lm. This was later used t o classify the stronger rocks7 . Priest and Hudson 8
have shown that the conventional RQD based on 0.1 m lengths is insensitive t o variations in rock quality when the
mean discontinuity spacing is greater than 0.3 m. They advocated presenting rock quality information in terms of
average fracture spacing or frequency.
Rock classification by strength and discontinuity spacing has been used t o indicate preferred methods of
excavation?*10 However, for the design of tunnel support systems more complicated designations are necessary
as discussed in Chapter 8.'

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Three forms of lining may be used during the construction of a tunnel:


a)

Temporary ground support

b)

Primary lining

c)

Secondary lining

In rock tunnels where the ground is not fully self supporting and where the primary lining is not erected or
cast as the excavation proceeds, a "temporary ground support" may be necessary t o support the ground until the
primary lining is complete. Steel arches, shotcrete and rock bolts are commonly used for temporary ground
support.

All tunnels, except in sound unjointed rock, where the ground is self supporting are lined with a "primary
lining" which is designed to support the ground loads and t o sustain such deformations of the lining which may
occur in the temporary conditions and for the design life of the structure.
The most severe stress conditions for many preformed linings may occur during handling of the segments or
from thrust from the shield rams. The primary lining should also exclude or control the ingress of water into the
tunnel. Several forms of primary lining are commonly used ranging from the monolithic cast in-situ concrete
linings to the flexible types of articulated linings which have a number of segments allowing the lining t o deform
to reach an equilibrium state with the forces acting on the lining. In between these extremes there are linings of
different degrees of stiffness, such as the bolted linings which are not usually designed to take full bending moments
across the joints.

A 'secondary lining' may be required to convert the primary lining to a form suitable for the tunnel use. The
secondary lining will provide a smooth bore finish to the tunnel and may be necessary to prevent erosion o f the
primary lining or t o act as an anti-corrosion barrier. A secondary lining may also be used as a waterproof umbrella,
as insulation or to provide an aesthetic finish. Table 2 gives details of the types of primary lining in relation t o the
usage of the tunnels and the need for a secondary lining. Secondary linings are briefly included in Appendix 2 in
order that cost comparisons can be made concerning the different forms of primary linings, only some of which
require secondary linings.
The primary lining for a tunnel may be one of several forms of lining, as illustrated in Fig. 1:
a)

a bolted grouted lining

b)

an expanded lining

c)

a smooth bore grouted lining

d)

a cast in-situ lining

TABLE 2
Need for secondary lining related t o type of tunnel usage
Type of primary preformed lining

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Usage

Bolted linings

Smooth bore linings

Sewer

Smooth bore finish


required

Generally no secondary lining

Water

Smooth bore finish


required

Generally no secondary lining

Cable

Generally no secondary lining


unless for waterproofing reasons

Underground
railways

Generally no secondary lining


unless for waterproofing or acoustic reasons

High speed
railways

Smooth bore finish


probably required

Generally no secondary lining


unless for waterproofing
reasons

Road and
Pedestrian
Passages

Secondary, waterproof, aesthetic


lining required

Secondary, waterproof,
aesthetic lining required if not
incorporated in primary lining

The 'bolted' lining is made up of a number of segments cast with a skin or web curved to the radius of the
tunnel with flanges along each of the four sides. The segments are bolted together along the longitudinal flanges
t o form rings and along the circumferential flanges for erection purposes and for continuity in the longitudinal
direction. The rings are made up of three types of segments - 'ordinary' segments, a smaller 'key' segment and
adjacent 'top' segments.
The lining is erected and bolted t o the previous ring and the void between the external periphery of the
lining and the excavation filled with a grout or with pea gravel and grout. This form of lining has been
manufactured in concrete, cast iron and steel.
The 'expanded' lining is made up of a number of segments which are erected without bolts in the longitudinal joints and are expanded t o fit the profile of the excavation (see Fig. 1). The present form of this lining is
used with a tailless shield in self supporting ground in which a true circular profile can be cut. The lining may be
expanded in the crown or a t or near the axis level (see Section 5 . 5 ) . The longitudinal joints may be plane or
articulated (see Section 5.3). The plane joint gives a flat contact surface between segments while the articulated
joint gives theoretically a line or point contact. The articulated joint may be of a convex/convex or concave/
convex profile, which allows the line of contact to rotate from the designed position without overstressing the
joint. This form of lining has been manufactured in concrete, cast iron and steel.
The 'smooth bore' lining is made u p of a number of solid segments with plane or articulated joints. The
linings are normally erected either on a former ring or with reinforcement in the joint (or in the centre of the ring)
o r each ring may be bolted t o the previous ring. After erection the void behind the lining is grouted or alternatively
filled with pea gravel and then grouted. These linings have been manufactured only in concrete.

The 'cast in-situ' lining is generally used in rock where only temporary ground support is required during the
excavation for the tunnel. The lining is then cast as a separate operation.
In Chapters 4 , s and 6 the type of primary linings used in the United Kingdom are briefly discussed with
additional data in Appendices 3 , 4 and 5. These chapters give a general background to the individual linings with
information on where and in what ground conditions they have been used. In Chapter 10 general recommendations
are given on the types of lining to be used for particular tunnels, taking into account the type of tunnel usage and
the ground conditions.

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3.2 Market for tunnel linings (1970-76)


During the course of the latter part of the survey it was possible, with the co-operation of the lining
manufacturers, to obtain data on the production and delivery of tunnel linings. In order t o obtain a realistic figure
for the length of tunnels constructed the total number of rings of each diameter delivered t o the sites for each
calendar year was abstracted from the records of each manufacturer. The lengths of tunnels lined with segments
cast on site, or with cast in-situ concrete or left unlined were estimated from site data.
These statistics are included in Appendix 2 and a summary of the combined data is given in Table 3. These
data represent the first compilation of such information in a comprehensive manner and should form a reliable
datum for future tabulation and predictions.

TABLE 3
Tunnel statistics

Year

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976

Length
constructed

Total volume
of excavation

Average
external
diameter

km

100,000 m3

65
62
83
122
77
81
81

4.5
6.1 *
5.3
8.9
5.6
.
5O
6.2

Average

Percentage of total length

Percentage of total volume

sewer

water

sewer

water

3 .O
3.6
2.9
3.1
3.1
2.8
3.1

68
67
71
71
75
88
80

27
24
20
13
15
5
15

46
28
58
49
53
72
48

32
42
21
14
16
5
33

3.1

74

18

49

24

Includes the Mersey Kingsway 2B Tunnel

3.3 Previous forms of tunnel linings


Many of the tunnels in service today have been in use for up to 150 years and were constructed with forms
of linings which have not been used for new tunnels for many years. This is due mainly to the introduction of new
materials and tunnelling techniques which have enabled the construction of tunnels t o be carried out at rates of
progress many times those previously attained. The three main forms of lining which fall into this category are
timber, brickwork and masonry.

3.3.1 Timber: Timber is a traditional building material and has been used on a limited scale in the United

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States as a structural lining in-conjunction with an internal skin of brickwork or concrete. In the United Kingdom
where soft ground tunnelling predominates, timber has normally been used only as a temporary ground support
until the final structural lining is constructed. Timber has a limited life except for pitch pine and elm in the fully
saturated state, a n d has normally t o be imported to this country. Economics dictate that timber is used today as a
temporary ground support in conjunction with steel arches for rock tunnels, for temporary ground support in
timber headings o r at special locations such as junctions, breakups for enlargements and openings. The use of
timber headings, which was once common for small diameter pipes or cable ducts in built up areas has reduced
during the last decade. This is mainly due to the introduction of new smaller-diameter tunnelling techniques,
coupled with the increased cost of timber and of skilled workmen with the accon~panyingdecline in timbering
skills.

3.3.2 Brickwork: Brickwork linings have been used for a considerable length of tunnel in the United Kingdom.
The great majority of railway tunnels, over 1000 in number, on British Railways (BR) routes are brick lined and
were constructed 75 to 125 years ago. There is little standardisation in the cross-section profile of these tunnels
though they are usually a horseshoe shape, the largest probably being those built for the deep level station on the
Mersey Railway at Hamilton Square and James Street which are 15 m wide, 1 0 m high and 120 rn long.13 The
majority of railway tunnels are twin track tunnels with u p t o 100 metres of overburden. Several of these old
tunnels, such as the Thames (Wapping) Tunnel, Mersey Railway Tunnel and the Severn Railway Tunnel are
beneath rivers. Many millions o f bricks were required for the longer tunnels, for example 36 million were used for
the Kilsby Tunnel in the 1820's and 3 8 n~illionfor the Mersey Railway Tunnel in the 1880's.13 For some tunnels
the bricks were made in the vicinity of the construction and often from the excavated material. The thickness of
the brickwork varied from tunnel t o tunnel b u t was normally between four and eight rings. In stiff clays, brick
railway tunnels were often constructed without a structural invert, such that subsequently the clay softened and
the invert support was lost often aided by inadequate or blocked drainage. For shallow and medium depth tunnels
many faces were worked simultaneously t o speed construction. Many of these tunnels were constructed using the
'English Method' of tunnelling. This method incorporated a bottom haulage heading which was constructed ahead
of the main tunnel. A t o p heading was then excavated 3 m to 6 m ahead supported by crown bars extended from
the section previously constructed. The enlargement for the top half of the tunnel was then excavated, followed
b y the bottom half. The brickwork was built up or the in-situ concrete cast from the invert upwards until the
whole section, supported by timber formwork in the crown, had been constructed. The system of crown bars
may be seen as a forerunner of the tunnel shield.
For underground railways, brickwork was often used for the cut and cover section and for tunnels and
station walls constructed in headings. For deep tunnels, however, brickwork linings have seldom been built except
for special sections at junction openings or overbridge passages. In deep road tunnels the use of brickwork has been
confined to internal architectural finishes. Brickwork has been used extensively for canal and river tunnels.
For sewers, brickwork has been used for many hundreds of kilometres of tunnel and was the main form of
lining for sewers constructed until the 1930's except for sections in difficult ground where cast iron linings were
installed. The majority of these brick sewers are now about 100 years old and many of these may well require
considerable repairs or replacement during the next two decades. Brickwork has advantages for sewers in that the
sectional profile may readily be altered t o suit junctions, enlargements and the economic shape of the sewer. The
egg-shaped sewer is one such profile. Great cost and effort was given to the quality and precision of the brickwork.
The thickness of the brickwork varied from 2 rings of bricks for the smaller diameter sewers in clay to 4 rings for
larger tunnels. In poor ground, additional thicknesses were often necessary. Apart from the use of brickwork as a
secondary lining inside a precast concrete primary lining (see Section 15.2), very few brick-lined sewers have been
constructed during the last 2 0 years.

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Disadvantages of brick tunnels include the large quantity of timber work and centering which is required and
the consequent congestion at the face. Progress was bound to be slow due to the delay in erecting the brickwork
lining after the excavation and timbering for a length of tunnel. The use of multiple faces compensated for this t o
some degree by allowing the alternation of excavation and brickwork gangs between faces. Although brick linings
have been used in conjunction with a shield, precautions are necessary to avoid the thrust loads causing damage to
the newly erected brickwork.

3.3.3 Masonry: There are few tunnels in Britain lined with masonry, most of these being water or railway
tunnels. For railway tunnels this form of lining was only economic when used in place of a thick brick lining
where heavy loads were anticipated. Local stone was used in the interest of economy and was not always resistant
to severe atmospheric conditions associated with steam driven engines. The old Woodhead Twin Tunnels provide
an example where severe deterioration of the mortar in the joints between the stones resulted in falls during the
last years of the railway life. These tunnels which were replaced by the new Woodhead Tunnel have been relined
and now carry Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) cables.
The repair of brickwork and masonry tunnels is briefly discussed in Chapter 12 on maintenance.

4. CAST IRON A N D STEEL TUNNEL LININGS

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Cast iron linings have traditionally been manufactured from grey iron which derives its name from the grey
crystalline appearance of its fractured structure on account of the presence of free flake graphite. During the last
decade successful experiments have been carried out with tunnel linings cast in spheroidal graphite iron which has
a chemical composition similar t o grey iron except that the impurities of manganese, sulphur and phosphorus are
reduced. The flake graphite is changed to spheroidalgraphite by the addition of very small proportions of cerium
or magnesium.
Spheroidal graphite iron is more expensive than grey iron but, on account of its higher tensile strength,
thinner and wider sections can be designed which may be more economical. Thus in the larger diameter tunnels,
rings of widths up t o 1.2 m , with fewer circumferential bolts and thus reduced erection times, have been
competitive with the conventional grey iron linings. In the future, spheroidal graphite iron is likely to be more
economical for most diameters of tunnels.
Cast iron linings, generally, have been of the bolted type and have usually been used with a shield for long
drives, although, in good cohesive ground with long stand up time, short lengths of tunnel have been excavated
and t h e lining erected by hand without a shield. When a shield is used in non-cohesive ground the lining is erected
within the shield tail skin, which overlaps a short length of the previously erected ring; the grouting of the void
between the ground and the external surface of the lining is carried out after the shield has been shoved forward
for the next ring. Alternatively pea gravel may be injected in the void as the shield is shoved forward and the
grouting carried out at a later date. This latter method, however, has seldom been used in the United Kingdom
(see Sections 5.6 and 9.1).
In the early 1960's an expanded form of grey iron lining was developed for the experimental tunnel for the
London Transport Executive (LTE) Victoria Line. This lining was used in good cohesive ground in conjunction
with a tailless shield and was later used for sections of the Victoria Line. The lining was erected without bolts in
the longitudinal joints and with fewer bolts in the circumferential joints than for the conventional bolted lining.
The bolted form of cast iron lining,now rarely used for tunnels in good ground apart from step plate
junctions between tunnels, is mainly adopted for special sections or for tunnels in waterbearing ground where a
cast iron lining can be made more watertight than a concrete lining. Cast iron linings have been used for a
relatively small number of large projects which have been influenced in their timing by financial constraints.
During the last decade the use of this type of lining has reduced as a percentage of the total length of tunnel
constructed.
Fig. 2 shows the annual production, in tonnes, of cast iron segments in the United Kingdom for the period
1963-74 broken down into the weights of grey iron and spheroidal graphite iron used both in the United
Kingdom and exported for use abroad 1 4.
The peak of production during the period 1963-67 is mainly due to the LTE Victoria Line, for which
120,000 tonnes were cast at an annual production rate of approximately 45,000 tonnes, the Blackwall Road
Tunnel (25,000 tonnes) and the Tyne Road Tunnel (45,000 tonnes). The smaller peak 1967-70 included the
LTE Victoria Line extension to Brixton (37,500 tonnes), and the early stages of the first Mersey Kingsway
Road Tunnel. The 197 1-74 peak included part of the lining for the second Mersey Kingsway Road Tunnel, the
LTE Fleet Line (Stage l ) , the BR Liverpool Loop Railway, the San Paulo Metro, for which approximately
12,000 tonnes of spheroidal graphite iron were exported to South America, the Washington Metro and part of
the lining for the early stages of the Dartford Duplication Road Tunnel.

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The majority of schemes using cast iron linings require a production of less than 45,000 tonnes and for the
twelve year period under review only the production for the LTE Victoria Line has been above this figure. The.
average production of cast iron segments for the period 1963-74 excluding the Victoria Line was approximately
21,000 tonnes per annum with a peak of over 36,000 tonnes and a trough of 6,000 tonnes. During the period an
average of 10 per cent of the production was for export with a peak of over 35 per cent in 1973. The average
production for use in the United Kingdom during this period was therefore approximately 18,000 tonnes with a
correspondingly reduced peak of 33,000 tonnes and a trough of 6,000 tonnes.
Large differences in production requirements from year to year lead to considerable problems for the
foundries in forecasting future demands and for budgeting for their investment on research and new casting plant.
Fortunately the foundries can often be turned over to casting other products during these lean periods. The
production of cast iron segments, however, represents less than one per cent of all cast iron production in the
United Kingdom. During the peak period of 1964, the percentage by weight of cast iron segments was only 1.5 per
cent of the total production. During the last two decades the number of foundries casting segments has gradually
reduced to two, Stanton and Staveley (a subsidiary of the British Steel Corporation) and Head Wrightson, although
a number of foundries will manufacture small quantities of special linings. The present capacity is between 20,000
and 40,000 tonnes of cast iron with variations depending upon the ratio of grey iron to spheroidal graphite iron.
Steel has been used relatively little for primary tunnel linings in the United Kingdom mainly on account of
its high cost. Its main use has been for special lengths of tunnel where the loads from the ground or from the
shield have caused high bending moments or tensile stresses in the lining. In these instances steel has been used as
a replacement to a grey iron lining. Fabricated steel segments have been used at openings or at special and
transitional sections in tunnels where it would have been uneconomical or inadequate to cast a small number of
segments in grey iron.
The main types of steel lining which have been used in the United Kingdom are:
a)

Bolted fabricated flanged steel lining of a form generally similar t o the bolted cast iron linings.

b)

Expanded fabricated flanged steel linings which are also generally similar t o the bolted cast iron
lining but with special jacking recesses at the points of expansion of the linings.

c)

Steel liner plates pressed from steel sheet metal. Although these have been used extensively in the
United States they have only been used in the United Kingdom for short sections of tunnel as
temporary ground support.

d)

Steel circular membranes. These have not been used as a structural primary lining, their main use
being as a secondary lining in water tunnels as discussed in Appendix 2.

The preference for spheroidal graphite iron, providing comparable strength characteristics at lower costs
than fabricated steel, will probably confine the use of the bolted form of steel linings t o short lengths of tunnel
subject to high or uneven loading except for the possible use of liner plates for small diameter tunnels.
Brief details of the types of cast iron and steel linings used in the United Kingdom are given in the following
sections with further details including the characteristics and manufacture in Appendix 3.

4.1

Cast iron tunnel linings

4.1.1 Bolted grey iron tunnel linings: Although grey iron had been used since the end of the eighteenth

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century for permanent linings for shafts, it was not until 1869 that it was first used as a permanent lining for a
tunnel, the Tower Subway under the Tlianies. Before that date the tunnels constructed,with the exception of some
sewer tunnels were of a non-circular cross-section. It is possible that, following Marc lsambard Brunel's patent for
a shield in 1818, he would have incorporated a bolted grey iron lining in the Thames Tunnel (1815) if a circular
cross-section had been chosen, b u t it was not until J.H. Greathead designed the first circular shield for the Tower
Subway that the linings were used in a tunnel 15 .
A large number of tunnels, mainly in soft ground, have been constructed with bolted grey iron linings during
the last 1 0 0 years for all forms of tunnel use, but the majority have been for medium and large diameter tunnels
for railways and roads. Except for special sections in bad ground, outfalls, tunnels under rivers and for large
chambers these linings have not been used extensively for small diameter tunnels 15 .
Medium diameter bolted grey iron linings were first used in deep running tunnels for the City and South
a n d o n Railway in 188615 and for the Waterloo and City Railway for station and other associated tunnels in
89416. During the next 4 5 years these linings were always specified for the deep tunnels in the London Underground. With the increased demands on raw materials for re-armament purposes in 1937 and subsequently due t o
the increased cost of bolted grey iron linings and t o technical advances, concrete bolted linings (see Section 5.4)
expanded concrete linings (see Section 5.5) and expanded grey iron linings (see Section 4.1.3) have been
introduced. Although these latter linings have been used extensively for running tunnels in good ground conditions,
linings for escalators, machine chambers, concourse and station tunnels have still been in bolted grey iron. Bolted
grey iron linings have continued t o be widely used for all tunnels in underground railways in waterbearing noncohesive ground where adequate waterproofing of the tunnels is essential (see Plate 1).
All circular road tunnels under rivers have been constructed using bolted grey iron linings (see Plate 2) since
the first Blackwall road tunnel under the River Tharnes (1892-97)17 until the construction of the Mersey Kingsway
~ u n n e l s (1967-74)
l~
in Bunter Sandstone and the Dartford Duplication Tunnel, at present under construction,
in chalk. These two latter tunnels are lined, in good ground, with steel-faced precast concrete smooth bore grouted
lining (see Section 5.6) while the short sections at the ends of the tunnel in less stable ground are lined in grey iron.
In the early years of the use of grey iron for tunnel linings an original design of lining was produced for each
scheme as each project was owned by a different client1'. Details of some of these linings and the evolution of the
joint details are discussed in Appendix 3. Two types of lining were normally used, a heavy lining for sections in
waterbearing strata and a light section for London Clay or similar ground 1 6.
The grey iron linings were usually erected behind a shield with the excavation carried out by hand. In the
1890's mechanical excavators were introduced, but due t o teething troubles, there was little increase in the rates
of progress. At the turn of the century the Price machine was used on the London Underground Charing Cross t o
Hampstead Railway and maximum rates of progress increased from 3 t o 4 m per day for hand excavation to 5 m
per day1 6. The 3.1 t o 3.8 m internal diameter linings were erected in 20-30 minutes.
Table 2 4 in Appendix 3 shows how the internal diameters of the deep underground running tunnels in the
London Underground have gradually increased from 3.1 nl internal diameter, for the City and South London
Railway in 1886, t o the present LTE Fleet Line tunnels of 3.85 m internal diameter. The London Underground
system consists of shallow lines, which were constructed using cut and cover methods t o carry large rolling stock
and the deep lines constructed in tunnels t o carry smaller rolling stock than most underground railways.

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Fig. 3 shows a graph of the weights of grey iron tunnel linings per metre, excluding the more recent road
tunnels, plotted against the external diameter of the ring. The Curves (a), (b) and (c) are best fit curves for a large
variety of lining types and diameters. Since the 1330's a single lining has been specified in most types of strata up
to depths of the order of 40 to 50 m, rather thall the two types used previously. The early linings were generally
cast in low quality grey iron there being no system of grading in existence. During the last 4 0 years Grades 1 0 o r
12 iron (see Appendix 3) have been specified, and only occasionally the higher Grades, 1 4 and 17. For larger
schemes with a single diameter such as road tunnels, when large quantities are involved, two types of linings of
different widths have often been used for different ground conditions.
A comparison of the standard imperial linings Curve (c), and the new metric linings Curve (d), shows that for
external diameters below 8 m the two curves are virtually identical, while above 8 m the metric linings are lighter.
The imperial linings are 0.5 1 m wide up t o 4.9 m internal diameter and 0.46 m wide above 4.9 m internal diameter,
while the new metric linings are 0.6 m wide throughout the range.
Grey iron bolted linings are available with machined longitudinal flanges, and with either machined or
unmachined circumferential flanges. Where the circumferential flanges are machined a caulking groove, preferably
of wedged shape, is milled on the front edge of the flange. These linings can normally be erected more accurately
than linings with unmachined circumferential joints although treated timber packings may be required t o keep the
tunnel correct to line and level. For both grey iron and spheroidal graphite iron rusting of the two faces in contact
partly seals the joints which are subsequently caulked. The metric linings were designed t o have machined
circumferential flanges but due to production schedules this was not generally possible for the first stage of the
LTE Fleet Line. Recent subaqueous tunnels have had linings with all joints machined; caulking is thereby easier
and quicker and the volume of lead required considerably reduced. Although the additional cost of machining
exceeds these savings, the stiffness of the adjacent rings is greatly increased and if well built the linings will sustain
higher thrust loads from the shield rams.
With unmachined circumferential flanges a lip is cast at the back of the flange and the caulking carried o u t
behind the bolts. Timber or other packings are necessary in the joints to spread the thrust forces from the shield,
while yarn or plastic tubing may be used in the joints for hand driven tunnels and shafts. Grummets are fitted o n
all bolts for both machined and unmachined joints where watertightness is required. Fig. 4 shows typical details
of a grey iron bolted lining for the 1890's and the present day.
Tapered rings have been incorporated for many years for vertical and horizontal curves but more recently
they have been used for controlling the alignment of the tunnel. These rings are rolled t o the required pitch t o give
the horizontal and vertical adjustment necessary to keep the tunnel correct for line and level without using timber
or other packings. This method has the additional benefit of improving the watertightness of the tunnel.
One main improvement in cast iron linings in the last 30-40 years has been a reduction in the
number of circumferential bolts (see Table 2 4 in Appendix 3). The minimum number of bolt holes per segment
(apart from the key) for erection purposes is three. Bolt holes were originally cast into the flange as circular holes,
but later elongated holes were introduced to allow for the inaccuracies in machinifig the radial joints with respect
to the locations of the circumferential bolt holes. With modern machining techniques, employing jigs for precision
location, the bolt holes are now normally drilled circular.
Through the years much discussion has taken place on the advantages and disadvantages of staggering or
breaking joints - i.e. rolling one ring compared with the next. The first tunnels constructed with cast iron linings
were built with continuous longitudinal joints but by the early 1900's it was customary t o erect linings with
staggered joints. Although in very soft strata this may now be specified it is not a general practice except for large

diameter subaqueous tunnels in very weak ground where stiffness in bending is desirable. The method was introduced originally to help the building of the lining although it was also felt that there would be additional
strength against bending in the longitudinal direction. It is unlikely, however, that this effect would be obtained
without also using high strength friction grip bolts. If large deformations of the lining occur, however, the flanges
may crack at the bolt holes.

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Apart from any question concerning the use of special expedients, the rate of progress with bolted cast iron
linings depends on the following factors:
a)

rate of excavation and removal of the material

b)

speed of erection of the lining

c)

speed of grouting

d)

width of ring

Through the years the rate of excavation has generally increased considerably, as a result of the increasing
use o f mechanical aids in the face and full face tunnelling machines. The speed of erection of the lining, however,
has increased only marginally in small diameter tunnels, although mechanical methods of erection have helped
considerably in the medium and large diameter tunnels. Until the 1950's, it was customary to grout each ring
immediately it was erected as the shield was shoved forward; this standard is still widely specified. In good cohesive
materials or in weak rock under open ground and in particular where there is sufficient cover of good ground above
and below the tunnel, some relaxation has often been allowed. In such circumstances grouting may be carried out
at the end of the shift or during the erection of subsequent rings. In non-cohesive ground, or where mixed faces
are expected, it is not recommended that any relaxation of grouting procedures are given. In these instances,
failure t o grout immediately may cause uneven loading on the lining after grouting, leading to overstressing and
possible failure of the lining accompanied by more settlement at the surface, with possible undesirable effects on
the stability of the face.
Except for large diameter subaqueous tunnels, the width of cast iron rings used in the United Kingdom has
generally been between 0.46 m and 0.61 m. For the larger subaqueous tunnels the widthshave varied between
0.46 m and 0.76 m as discussed above. The width of the LTE linings has been restricted as they are required to be
used either with or without a shield and the main criterion has been the weight of the segment for hand-driven
tunnels. Other factors favouring lower widths have been the lower grade of cast iron, grouting capacities and risks
of possible additional settlement. Wider rings of spheroidal graphite linings may be used more readily since lighter
sections may be designed with this material.

4.1.2 Bolted spheroidal graphite iron tunnel linings: Spheroidal graphite bolted linings have only been
used to date for short lengths of tunnel in the United Kingdom. The annual production of this form o f lining,
which has mainly been for export, is shown in Fig. 2. The first experimental length of tunnel with this form of
lining was constructed in June 1968 as a pilot tunnel for an enlargement for a crossover tunnel for the LTE
Victoria Line extension to ~ r i x t o n ' ~details
> ~ ~ of
, which are given in Appendix 3. The results of this experimental
length have encouraged a more general use of spheroidal graphite iron. In the United Kingdom spheroidal graphite
iron has been used subsequently for a short length of arch construction for large concourses for two stations for
the BR Liverpool Loop (see Plate 3 ) . for short lengths of the service tunnel, at cross passages and in areas of bad
ground, for the Stage 2 Channel Tunnel* works, and for parts of the Tyneside Rapid Transit Scheme.

* The Channel Tunnel Scheme was abandoned in 1975.

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Spheroidal graphite bolted linings have been exported to San Paulo for the metro scheme and for the
Washington Metro. These linings were 1.0 and 1.22 m wide respectively being generally wider than those used in
the United Kingdom. More economical sections can be designed in spheroidal graphite iron with the neutral axis
near the median of the cross section. Spheroidal graphite iron is currently being used on the Continent where its
first extensive use was for the Vienna Underground railway.
In the early 1970's the use of spheroidal graphite bolted linings for small and medium diameter tunnels,
below 5 to 6 m, was not economical, when compared with grey iron bolted linings, because of the minimum
casting thickness. With improved techniques in casting, and the introduction of large capital cost equipment,
however, spheroidal graphite iron is likely to be used for smaller diameters. The present normal minimum casting
thickness for the skin is of the order of 12.5 mm compared with 19 mm for grey iron. For larger tunnels the
saving in the weight of the lining more than offsets the large increase in the cost of the cast material over that of
grey iron linings (see Chapter 11). In addition the use of wider segments, with fewer bolts, leads to consequential
savings in the cost of erection.
Bolted spheroidal graphite linings are likely to be specified in the future more frequently for tunnels in the
United Kingdom. However, this form of lining is unlikely t o be used in preference to bolted or expanded concrete
linings, except in waterbearing unstable strata or for lengths of tunnel subjected t o special conditions of loading or
stability.
One application meriting further study is that of fabricating segments from a number of simple pan-shaped
sub-segments. Each sub-segment may be cast at high speed and accuracy, eliminating the need for machining, and
the sub-segments glued together with epoxy resin to form the main segment. An experimental lining of this type
was manufactured by Pont et Mousson for the French side of the Channel Tunnel Stage 2 Works.

4.1.3 Expanded grey iron tunnel linings: The expanded articulated grey iron lining was developed between
1949 and the late 1950's. A short experimental length was driven in 1958 which was later followed b y a 1.9 km
length of experimental tunnel for the LTE Victoria Line in 1960-6121. The lining, with only minor modifica~ . lining is shown in Plate 4 and
tions, was later used for a total length of 3.0 km of the Victoria ~ i n e ' The
discussed in detail in Appendix 3.
The lining, which was interchangeable with the conventional bolted grey iron lining of 3.71 m internal
diameter, had six segments per ring. The flanges were approximately half the depth of those for the bolted lining
but slightly thicker, while the width of the ring was increased from 0.5 1 to 0.61 m. The total weight of each ring
was similar.
The small flange depth of 63.5 mm gave a relatively narrow width for locating the shoes of the shield rams.
The reduced moment of resistance of the segments, which were of comparable length to the conventional grey
iron lining, also made the segments more susceptible to damage during handling. When point loads built u p o n the
lining, on account of voids or soft areas behind the lining, fractures could occur and a number of the segments in
the crown had to be either replaced or strengthened with steel plates after the tunnel was complete. There was a
saving in the weight and therefore the cost of the grey iron per unit length of tunne1,but the main advantage of the
lining was the speed of erection and therefore the increase in the rate of advance of the tunnels.
Station tunnels in London Clay may be constructed with or without a shield and often running tunnels are
taken through the station as pilot tunnels. These pilot tunnels have normally been lined in bolted grey iron or,
more recently,in good cohesive ground, in expanded concrete linings if the future station tunnels are t o be
constructed with a shield. When a mechanical shield is used for the running tunnel the rates of progress for the

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construction of these pilot tunnels in conventional bolted grey iron are low. During the construction of the LTE
Victoria Line, experiments were carried out with methods of expanding these bolted linings22. A form of expanded
temporary lining using timber packings in the longitudinaljoints between segmentswas developed and used for a
number of station pilot tunnels (see Appendix 3). This form of lining has recently also been used in the LTE
Piccadilly Line extension t o Heathrow, for approximately 0 . 3 km of pilot tunnels for the crossover to the east of
Heathrow Central Station (see Plate 5).
Following the experimental use of the expanded bolted grey iron lining for pilot tunnels, lengths of running
tunnels were constructed using this lining as an alternative t o the expanded articulated cast iron or concrete linings.
In these permanent conditions steel wedges and packings or cast iron machined packings and wedges were used.
The total length constructed for both pilot and permanent tunnels for the LTE Victoria Line and Piccadilly Line
extension was 1.4 km.
Future applications of expanded cast iron linings for permanent conditions will probably be in spheroidal
graphite iron which has superior tensile characteristics t o grey iron thus avoiding some of the difficulties
encountered t o date.

4.1.4 Expanded spheroidal graphite iron tunnel linings: Expanded tunnel linings in spheroidal graphite
iron have not been used for lining tunnels to date, although designs were considered for possible use in sections of
the Channel Tunnel. These linings would be cast and expanded in much the same manner as the grey iron expanded
lining, discussed in Section 4.1.3. The saving in the weight of the material, compared with grey iron, and the
reduced erection time would considerably reduce the cost differential between cast iron linings and concrete linings.

4.2 Steel tunnel linings


4.2.1 Bolted steel tunnel linings: The fabricated bolted flanged steel linings are made up of segments of a
similar form to the bolted cast iron lining. The lining? have been used in two main conditions:
a)

For lengths of tunnel where excessive loads have been expected either from the shield during the
construction or from the ground, causing high bending moments or tensile stresses.

b)

For special segments at openings in cast iron tunnels where it would be uneconomical to use cast
iron segments or where lintel beams are required.

In the United Kingdom there has only been one recent example of a long tunnel in bolted steel linings. At
Dungeness 'A' Power Station the original lining for the inlet tunnel was of cast iron but, due to excessive shove
forces resulting from the small size of the ports in the diaphragm of the shield, the flanges of the iron cracked.
The lining for the inlet tunnels was redesigned in steel to take these excessive loads, When Dungeness 'B' Power
Station was constructed, a few years later, a new steel lining was designed for both the outfall and inlet tunnels.
Details of these linings are given in Appendix 3.
Steel linings have been used in several schemes in the United States and in Europe - in particular at Chicago,
San Francisco and Vienna. A bolted steel lining has also been designed for twin railway tunnels in compressible
silt under the River Ij in Amsterdam where a strong stiff lining would be required (see Appendix 3).
The use of special segments at openings in cast iron lined tunnels is discussed in Section 8.3. (See Plate 6).

4.2.2 Expanded steel tunnel linings: Expanded flanged steel linings were used for short lengths of tunnel on
two contracts for the LTE Victoria Line, where heavy or eccentric loads were expected close t o the lining. The
linings were used a t Oxford Circus Station, and at Kings Cross Station2 3.

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At Oxford Circus Station the crown of the 6.48 m internal diameter southbound station tunnel was only a
metre or so below the third basement of Peter Robinson's store. Complete details of the foundations were n o t
available before excavation commenced but loads of the order of 0.4 M N / ~ ' were indicated. An expanded steel
lining which was grouted in the crown was designed t o prevent possible settlement of the footings and to
accommodate the jacking stresses. Details of the lining construction are given in Appendix 3 (see Plate 7).
At King's Cross, the Victoria Line tunnels passed beneath three BR lines and the LTE Circle Line tunnel,
and over the LTE Northern Line and Piccadilly Line tunnels. The crown of the northbound station tunnel, 6.32 m
internal diameter, and the concourse tunnel, 5.63 m internal diameter, passed some 1.5 m below the footings o f
the brick arches o f the BR twin track Midland Curve and single track Hotel Curve which were built without inverts.
To prevent settlement of the brick arches an expanded steel lining was designed for b o t h the northbound station
tunnel and the concourse tunnel, details of which are given in Appendix 3 (see Plate 8). The design of the upper
half of the lining was complicated by the fact that the tunnels passed below the brick arches at an oblique angle,
and thus the new tunnels gradually traversed below the concentrated point loads from these arches giving eccentric
loadings.
At both Oxford Circus and King's Cross these tunnels were instrumented and details of the results are given
in Appendix 6. At Oxford Circus the hoop load built up within five months to approximately 90 per cent o f t h e
overburden pressure based on the loadings from the store and depth of the clay24. This, however, was only
equivalent to about 5 0 per cent of overburden based on the full depth of clay. No significant deformation o f t h e
lining was recorded and the columns in the store settled less than 1.5 mm. At King's Cross the hoop load after
seven months was approximately 55 per cent of the overburden pressure for the northbound station tunnel and
after five months was just over 9 0 per cent for the concourse tunnel. The maximum settlement of the brick arch
tunnels was of the order of 37.5 mm half of which was associated with the construction o f the cross passages.
For both the Oxford Circus tunnel and the King's Cross tunnels, jacks of 100 tonne capacity were used for
expanding the linings, the load later being taken by steel wedges or wedges and rockers.

4.2.3 Liner plates: Two forms of thin pressed steel segmental linings, called liner plates,are generally available
in the United Kingdom, both of which are manufactured on the continent. The Armco liner plate, designed as a
primary lining for the permanent ground conditions, is galvanised and does not require a n internal lining unless a
smooth bore is required2' (see Plate 9). The segments are flanged and bolted in the circumferential direction a n d
lapped and bolted in the radial direction. A second form is also available with more corrugations, which is used for
relining old tunnels. This lining is lapped and bolted in both the circumferential and longitudinal directions (see
Plate 10). This Multiplate lining is manufactured in the UK.
The Commercial Hydraulics lining is flanged and bolted in both the circumferential and radial directions;
this is used as a temporary ground support with a cast in-situ concrete primary lining26 (see Plate 11). In tliese
conditions the plates are not given special protection against corrosion.
These linings have been used in only a few instances in the United Kingdom although their use has increased
during the last few years. While the demand is small it is not economical to manufacture t h e plates in this country
and thus there are additional importing costs. Recently the linings have been used for a number of contracts which
were specified as pipes laid in timber headings and for which the contractor put forward liner plates as an alternative
for the ground support before laying the pipes.
Details of these linings and data on a number of schemes in which the linings have been used are given in
Appendix 3.

17

5. PRECAST CONCRETE TUNNEL LININGS

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Precast concrete tunnel linings were first introduced in the United Kingdom in 1903 but were not used extensively
until the 1930's and were not available as standard linings until the late 1940's and early 1950's. Four main types
of lining have been used:
a)

Bolted precast concrete linings, or dowelled linings of a similar form to the bolted cast iron linings.
These linings were first introduced in the late 1930's and are available as a standard lining and cover
the majority of the present day market in precast concrete linings. These linings are suitable for most
ground conditions.

b)

Expanded precast concrete flexible linings were first introduced for small diameter tunnels in London
Clay. These linings, which are of the smooth bore type, are not generally available as standard linings,
b u t their use in self supporting clays has increased considerably during the last decade.

c)

Smooth bore grouted precast concrete linings were the first form of precast concrete lining t o be
introduced (1903) but only became available as standard linings in the late 1950's. Use of these
linings is generally confined to tunnels in soft ground or weak rock.

d)

Expanded grouted precast concrete linings are the latest form of precast concrete lining and have
recently been used for the first time in weak rock in the Service Tunnel for the Channel Tunnel Stage
2 Works.

Records of the delivery of precast concrete segments and of site cast segments are given in Section 3.2 and
Appendix 2 for the period 1970-76.
Records were only available from some of the precasting manufacturers
for the previous years, and the incomplete data for the 1960's have therefore not been included. For expanded
linings, however, on account of the relatively small number of schemes, records are available since 1950 when
these linings were first used (see Section 5.5).
Precast concrete linings are generally cast in manufacturer's works and transported t o the sites by road. For
a relatively small number of schemes, usually of large size and using special linings, the segments have been cast on
or close t o the site. This is not usually economical for standard linings, except where the size of the individual
segments is large.
In the following sections, the different types of precast concrete tunnel linings and their manufacture are
discussed, with further data in Appendix 4.

5.1 Moulds
Little information is generally available on the manufacture of the early concrete segments but these were
generally cast in steel or cast iron moulds. During the 1939-45 war various types of moulds were investigated
77 .
including timber, steel and concrete ~nouldsConcrete segments may be cast in all-concrete moulds, concrete moulds with timber sides, all steel moulds,
composite steel/aluminium moulds o r , for the smaller segments, fibre glass. A few segments have been cast from
aluminium moulds with timber sides, but such moulds have been found t o distort excessively.
Concrete moulds for each particular manufacturer's bolted segments are all cast from concrete master
segments in the casting yard; thus all segments should be identica~'~.Additional moulds may be cast whenever

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required to suit the programme or to replace wornout moulds. Although steel moulds have occasionally been
fabricated at the precasting yard, they are usually obtained from an outside supplier. All moulds should be
regularly inspected and concrete moulds refurbished when required: the refurbishing of steel moulds is often
expensive. Both forms of moulds are normally used for between 250 and 350 castings. In some instances 600 or
800 uses of the moulds have been obtained where special care has been taken in the design, fabrication and use of
the moulds (see Appendix 4).
The segments for the bolted linings and for many of the smooth bore grouted linings are cast in a horizontal
position, with their extrados upwards. The smaller solid concrete segments with plane or slightly curved radial
joints may be cast in a vertical position on their sides in groups of 2 , 4 or 6 segments thus saving considerable
space in the casting area and the mould storage area. The special segments for larger diameter tunnels are normally
cast in a vertical position, on their sides, in steel moulds and often in special precasting yards at or near the site.
The methods of manufacture of concrete moulds are discussed in Appendix 4 and Plates 12 and 1 3 show
typical concrete andxteel moulds. Table 4 summarises the different moulds and linings.

TABLE 4
Moulds for precast concrete segments

Casting method

Average number of
castings per mould

Concrete with timber sides

Horizontally

250-350

All steel

Horizontally

250-350

Composite steel and


aluminium

Horizontally

250-350

Concrete with timber sides

Horizontally

250-350

All concrete

Horizontally or
Vertically in 2 , 4
or 6 segments

250-350

All steel

Horizontally

250-350

Composite steel and


aluminium

Horizontally

250-350 generally,
600 in certain instances

Fibre glass

Horizontally

up to 6 0 0

All steel

Vertically, singly
or in pairs

100-350 but depends


more o n programme

Composite steel and


aluminium

Vertically

Up to 800 have been


obtained

Type of linings

Types of mould

Bolted grouted

Smooth bore
grouted or
expanded

Special segments

5.2 Steel reinforcement


Steel reinforcement may be provided in precast concrete segments either (i) to increase the section resistance
to tensile and bending stresses imposed during the temporary conditions of handling and erecting the lining, and
shoving the shield, or (ii) to withstand the permanent ground load conditions. Reinforcing bars have also been used
to a small extent as aids to building the ring of the lining, as in the case of the McAlpine lining and the Charcon

Universal lining (see Section 5.6). A number of examples of reinforced precast segments are discussed in
Appendix 4.
Reinforcement is costly to use in precast concrete segments as the labour costs of bending and fixing the
relatively short lengths, often to close tolerances, are high in relation to the weight of the steel. In addition the
presence of the reinforcement in the mould will add t o the costs of casting the segments. This point is discussed
in some detail in Section 11.1.1 where the option of adding reinf~rcementis compared with the alternative of
a n additional thickness of concrete. When designing segments for special schemes the principal factors concerning
the use of reinforcement t o be considered are as follows:

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1)

The reinforcement required for handling: consider


a)

reductions of aspect ratio of the segment, i.e. the ratio of the length or width of segment to the
thickness,

b)

alternative means of reducing vulnerability t o damage.

2)

The reinforcement required in the vicinity of the longitudinal joint: consider alternative joint design and
the possibility of packing pieces t o improve load distribution.

3)

The reinforcement required to withstand secondary stresses caused by ground loads: consider changes of
.aspect ratio of segment (see l(a) above).

In Appendix 4 the minimum cover t o reinforcement is discussed in relation t o the corrosion of reinforced
precast concrete. In general the cover to reinforcement for precast segments is 13 t o 25 mm except for special
linings which may be in contact with seawater or a similar aggressive environment where the cover should be 25 mm
t o 40 mm.

5.3 Joints
Four main types of joints are used in precast concrete linings:
a)

Plane or helical joint

b)

Concave/convex joint

C)

Convex/convex joint

d)

Tongue and groove joint

These types o f joints are shown in Fig. 5 .

5.3.1 Plane or helical joints The longitudinal joint for all standard bolted linings (see Section 5.4), the
expanded Wedge Block lining (see Section 5.5) and the smooth bore grouted Universal lining (see Section 5.6)
are all plane joints and similarly the circumferential joint of most other forms of lining. For wedge shaped
segments all longitudinal joints are helical. For plane joints some relief from local overstress between abutting
concrete faces may be achieved by coating the surfaces with bituminous paint or similar compound or, with
greater effe.ct, a bituminous felt or other packing piece inserted in the joint. The edges of solid segments with
plane joints may be chamfered t o reduce the risk of local spalling.

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5.3.2 Concave/convex and convex/convex joints: The concave/convex joint and the convex/convex
joint are articulated longitudinal joints which ensure that the load is transmitted near the centroid of the
section and allow the ring to take up the shape of the excavation. The principle of the design of articulated linings
is that inequality in applied loading from the ground will cause the ring to deform until sufficient passive loading,
by compression and shear between the ground and the lining, is mobilised to achieve equilibrium. T o limit bending
moments in the individual segments, and thus the need of reinforcement, it is desirable that the ring should
consist of a number of segments, probably a minimum of 1 0 to 12, to give adequate flexibility of movement at
the joints. For a solid segment of aspect ratio L (circumferential length to radial thickness) the secondary stresses
r
caused by uneven loading around the ring, may be taken to vary approximately linearly with L2 .
The design of an articulated joint is a critical feature in the design of the lining as it largely determines the
areas of maximum compressive and tensile stress concentration.
The convex/convex joint is more readily designed as an unreinforced joint than the concave/convex joint
for which reinforcement is generally required near the concave face to prevent bursting. The concave/convex joint
is intended to act as a self-centering joint which helps in the erection of the lining; in practice with expanded
linings this does not always happen, on account of friction in the joint, and eccentric loading can occur. When
former rings are used for the erection of the lining, as for the smooth bore grouted Flexilok and Rapid linings (see
Section 5.6), the joints can be considered to be placed centrally as there is little play in the bolting of the formerring. The longitudinal joints of the expanded lining for the LTE Fleet Line (see Section 5.5) were convex/convex
in both the longitudinal and radial directions (see Fig. 5). This form of joint avoided the risk of concentrations of
load near the edge of the segment which may be a cause of damage where the ring has not been built square and
true. Further developments are proceeding to refine the geometry of such joints.

5.3.3 Tonge and groove joints: The tongue and groove profile is normally confined to the circumferential
joint. For thin segments in shield driven tunnels,distribution of load from thrust rams may present problems on
account of the thin concrete section available. The shaped joint provides some security in locating segments during
erection.
In Appendix 4 the different types of linings that have recently been used are listed with details of their
joints.

5.4 Bolted and dowelled tunnel linings


In 1937, during the construction of the eastward extension of the LTE Central Line, there was the likelihood
of a shortage of cast iron; investigations were started on a precast reinforced concrete lining of similar form t o the
traditional cast iron lining. The history of the lining is discussed in Appendix 4. The internal diameter of the final
lining was 3.74 m and a total length of 4.4 km of running tunnel was constructed using the lining.
The main features of the lining were the introduction of concrete stiffeners which helped to take the shield ram
forces, and the reduction of the number of bolts in each circumferential joint from 52 for the corresponding
conventional grey iron lining to 3 129 .
Although the lining was introduced originally to overcome the difficulty arising out of the shortage of cast
iron it was hoped that the lining would lead to appreciable reductions in the cost of tunnelling and on that contract
the manufacturing cost of the concrete lining was about 60 per cent of the cost of the grey iron lining. It was
realised that the concrete segments would not stand up to the rough handling given to the grey iron segments and
that additional care would be required by the miners. It was expected, however, that with the slightly reduced
weight of the concrete ring (1.4 tonnes) compared with the cast iron ring (1.6 tonnes) the same progress would be

obtained. In practice, after educating the miners in new techniques, the time required to erect both types of rings
was approximately 2 0 minutes. Special steel thrust ribs and rubber pads were designed for the shield rams to
enable the thrust t o be transferred through the skin of the linings.

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During the 1939-45 war this form of lining was used extensively for tunnels and air raid shelters. Two
interesting uses during this period were:
a)

eight air raid shelters each of twin 5.03 ni internal diameter tunnels, 430 m long, in London, adjacent
to existing LTE Stations, two thirds of which were lined with bolted concrete linings. (See Plate 14).

b)

a series of tunnels for the War Office on the Dorset coast of 2.44 m , and 5.03 m internal diameter
mainly at a minimum depth of 37 In 27 .

The design of all these linings was based on the original design for the LTE Central Line running tunnels. For
the larger diameter tunnels the width of the ring was 0.5 1 m but this was increased to 0.61 m for the smaller
diameters. The depth of the flanges of the larger diameter tunnels was similar t o that for the cast iron linings to
provide the same internal diameter for corresponding external diameters and to allow for the interchange of the
two types of lining when used behind a shield.
During the construction of the 5.03 m internal diameter tunnels in London a number of segments fractured;
this was partly caused b y distortion of the ring by the faulty erection of the key segments. These segments were
later replaced3' (see Section 5.5): Bituniinous packings were inserted in the radial joints for most of the early
schemes; when such packings were omitted squatting of the tunnel sometimes caused excess local loading of the
flanges with consequential cracking.
Following the 1939-45 war the use of the bolted concrete linings increased considerably, especially in the
diameters below 3 m for the sewer market. The linings for the standard range of diameters now available are of a
design modified from those used in the war years31. The width of the ring has been increased to 0.61 m for the
whole range of diameters while the depth of the flanges has been increased and the flange width decreased. The
number of circumferential bolts has been reduced and the number of reinforcing bars in each of the flanges reduced
from four to two (see Plate 15).
These standard linings have been used in all types of ground conditions and account for the major part of
the small diameter market. This market has increased considerably over the last decade and with the help of
improved production and quality control methods the cost of these linings, in real terms, has reduced (see
Chapter 1 1).
Where it is necessary for a tunnel t o have a smooth bore finish, as for a sewer or water tunnel, an internal or
secondary lining is required when a bolted concrete lining is used for the primary lining. These internal linings
were originally o f brick, b u t with increases in cost and the reduction in the number of skilled tunnel bricklayers,
cast in-situ concrete or precast infill panels are now normally used. A number of tunnels have been lined internally
with sheets of resin mortar or fibre glass reinforced plastic. These internal linings are discussed in Appendix 2 .
Originally the standard linings were used mainly in tunnels of small diameter (up to 4 m) and for shafts for
the larger diameters. The niiijority of these tunnels were at depths of less than 30 In, Inany being shield driven.
Only in the last few years have these standard linings been used more generally for larger diameter tunnels.

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In a shield driven tunnel, high ram thrusts may impose excessive loads on the skin of the lining. The lining
should therefore be designed for the expected ram thrusts to avoid cracking of the skin. Excessive thrusts are
normally avoidable if adequate supervision is provided at the face. Where ground conditions permit the degree of
burial of the cutting edge should be controlled with the minimum trimming of the excavation carried out by the
shield during the shoving. Where steering is a problem a compensating bead should be fitted to the shield. Recently
an alternative design with a solid invert called the Smoothvert lining has been introducted by Buchan Concrete
. locating dowels and sockets for the interlock between the solid segments both longitudinally and
Ltd 31 with
circumferentially. The use of solid invert segments reduces the cost of cleaning up the tunnel compared with the
conventional bolted lining and reduces the possibility of cracking invert segments by excessive ram pressures (see
Plate 16 and Appendix 4).
Special bolted concrete linings have been designed for a number of schemes of 2.4 m internal diameter or
above. Many of these schemes have been for tunnels at depths greater than 3 0 m or where large pressures were
expected from the shield rams. Data on a number of these schemes are given in Appendix 4. A new lining which
can be bolted and grouted, or expanded, has recently been designed for the LTE for a range of diameters from
3.85 m to 10.0 m. The bolted lining will have a key segment near the crown while for the expanded lining this is
replaced by two small wedges, one at each of the knees. All the other segments are common t o both types of
lining32.
In the United Kingdom the width of the bolted rings is generally 0.61 m , although a number of schemes
have used linings of 0.76 m width33>34. With the increased use of bolted concrete linings for larger shield driven
tunnels it is llkely that the width of larger diameter rings may be increased. The width of segments has been
dictated in the main by the weight that can easily be handled, a constraint reduced by the increasing use of
mechanical handling. The larger segments may, however, require more reinforcement for handling purposes than
that required for the permanent conditions. Bolted concrete linings of up to 1 m width have been widely used
overseas.

5.5 Expaoded concrete tunnel linings


Investigations of a fairly widespread fracture of the concrete flanges of a bolted concrete lining in a tunnel
during the mid 1940's showed that incorrect positioning of the key segment had resulted in eccentric loading of
the flanges3'. In such cases the hoop load was virtually concentrated in the skin with average stresses of the order
of 14 MN/m2, deduced from strain readings on adjacent cast iron rings. It was recognised that bolting of the
circumferential joints was only essential for erection purposes, until completion of grouting, and in water-bearing
ground for waterproofing reasons. Frequently the bolts were omitted or not fully tightened. The longitudinal joint
bolts were used chiefly to help the erection of the ring and little bending moment could be carried by these joints.
These experiences led in the late 1940's to studies to develop a lining that could be expanded into the ground, thus
avoiding the necessity for bolting and grouting of the lining. As the first result of these studies the Don-Seg lining36,37
was introduced in 1950, which was later followed by linings for the Greenwood to Potters Bar tunnels35 and for
the experimental length of the LTE Victoria Line. 2 1
In 1955 the Building Research Establishment (BRE) carried out an experiment for London Transport on
three cast iron rings in an old deep running tunnel adjacent to new tunnelling38. Before tunnelling commenced
strain gauges were fitted to the rings as large deformations were expected. When the bolts in the longitudinal joints
were subsequently slackened there was little effect on the strain distribution in the segments, thus confirming that
the joints transmitted small bending moments, a result expected from analysis of the conditions.

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A shield, mechanical or hand, must be used for a tunnel with an expanded lining to give an accurately excavated
profile t o provide an even bed for the completed lining. The linings, which are of solid segments and usually unreinforced, are erected in the usual sequence with the top half held either on the erector arm or on support bars from
t h e shield or b y the shove rams, until the lining is expanded. When building expanded linings additional care is
required to ensure that the face of the circumferential joint is always in plane. Two basic methods of expansion
have been used; one using wedged shaped blocks which are shoved longitudinally by a ram on the shield to stress
the ring against the ground, the other by one or more circumferential jacks which expand the ring, thus forming
one o r more spaces to be filled either with dry pack concrete o r a close fitting concrete block. The expansion of the
ring is usually carried out either in the crown or near the axis level or knee joint of the lining. A lubricant, such as
soap solution o r bentonite, is often used to reduce the friction between the ground and the back of the lining
during the expanding operation. When the rings are expanded by more than one wedge or jack it may be necessary
t o adjust the sequence of the operation if holes in the segments for brackets t o carry cables or other services are to
be accurately aligned between adjacent rings.
Although the majority of tunnels constructed with expanded linings have been in London Clay, they have
also been used in Lias Clay and the Gault. The ground has varied from soft clay t o hard and blocky clay and,
occasionally, with bands of rock and claystones. For soft clay, the ground moves onto the shield relatively quickly
and consequently a wedge or block of reduced circumferential length may be necessary to avoid overstressing of
the ring. Alternatively, an adjustable bead may be used on the front of the shield or a tail bead at the rear of the
shield finally t o trim the clay. Where bands o f claystone or rock are encountered a slightly increased circumference
of ring may be required. Any voids caused by over excavation can be filled with a soft clay and back grouted at a
later date to ensure even loading on the lining. Alternatively, trailing head boards may be used, temporarily
supporting the ground, the ring being expanded against the boards and grouted after shoving for the next ring.
This expedient has been used successfully in both the Metropolitan Water Board (MWB), now the Thames Water
Authority (TWA),and LTE tunnels.
Rates of progress for both hand and mechanical shields have increased dramatically with the use o f expanded
linings, partly due to the quicker erection of the segments with no delays for bolting and grouting operations and
partly, for mechanical shields, t o improved designs (see Section 10.1). Increased driving rates not only directly
reduce the overall cost of tunnelling, but also reduce the reliance on 'stand-up' time for the ground, immediately
ahead of lining and the working face.
The first expanded lining t o be used in the United Kingdom was the Don-Seg lining for the experimental
tunnel for the MWB Thames-Lee Valley scheme in 1950-5 I 36. Expanded linings have been used subsequently in
32 tunnelling schemes over a period of 25 years for a total length of over 150 km. Eight forms o f expanded
linings have been developed during this period. Table 5 gives basic data on each of these linings which are
mentioned below and discussed in Appendix 4. 39,40
The Wedge Block lining, (see Plate 17) was developed from the Don-Seg lining (see Plate 18) by the M W B ~ ~
and was first used in 1955. The Don-Seg and Wedge Block linings together account for approximately 8 0 per cent
o f the total length of tunnel constructed using expanded concrete linings. Both linings are expanded by the use of
one or more wedges.
Expanded concrete linings were first used for medium diameter tunnels on the LTE experimental length of
running tunnel for the Victoria Line in 196121 (see Plate 19). Subsequently three different linings have been
~ , Halcrow lining (see Plate 20) and the Mott Hay and Anderson
designed for t h e LTE - for the Victoria ~ i n e ' the
lining (see Plate 21) and another Halcrow lining for the Fleet Line and for the extension for the Piccadilly line 42
(see Plate 22).

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TABLE 5
Expanded concrete tunnel linings

cn

*
t

a trial length of 5 0 metres was constructed in this thinner lining.


on the Piccadilly Line extension some 1000 rings of the Victoria Line, Mott Hay and Anderson lining were used for the first section of one of the two tunnels. The
lining for the rest of the two tunnels was designed to have the same thickness of 152 mm.

The first use of an expanded lining in a large diameter tunnel, 8.08 m internal diameter, was for three
railway tunnels for the BR Greenwood to Potters Bar duplication in 1 9 5 5 ~ ' (see Plate 23). In 1966-68 the
largest tunnel with an expanded lining, the 10.3 m internal diameter Cargo Vehicular tunnel at Heathrow Airport
London, was constructed for the British Airports Authority H BAA)^^ (see Plate 24).

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The longitudinal inclined joints of the Don-Seg lining and the wedge joints for the Wedge Block lining were
designed for full face contact, and were therefore part of a surface of a helix, while the circumferential joints of
b o t h linings and the other longitudinal joints of the Wedge Block lining were flat surfaces. The Greenwood to
Potters Bar linings had tongue and groove longitudinal and circumferential joints. The articulated joint was first
used for the experimental length of the Victoria Line. All subsequent medium and large diameter expanded
linings have used this type of joint either in the convex/concave form or the convex/convex form (see Section 5.3).
On account of the small number of schemes using expanded concrete linings, with lengths varying fro111
0.3 k m to 2 7 k m , the annual length of tunnel constructed has varied considerably. Fig. 6 shows a histogram of the
total lengths of tunnel constructed and the total volume of tunnel excavated for each of the 5 year periods since
1950, subdivided into different types of expanded lining. The total number of projects under construction during
these periods is also shown. The histogram shows that the use of expanded linings is generally increasing although
at times such as the early 1960's and mid 1970's, there has been a temporary decline. The total volunle of tunnel
excavated has increased only marginally since the increased length of tunnels is in the smaller range of diameters.
This increase in length is almost solely due to the use of the Wedge Block lining under licence to the TWA. The
major use of these linings has been for water tunnels, where the annual length constructed has doubled in the last
ten years. Fig. 7 gives the annual lengths of tunnel constructed for the period 1970-76 and shows the fluctuation
between successive years. During this period six projects were under construction using the Wedge Block lining,
two LTE projects and one project using the Don-Seg lining. The Don-Seg lining has also been used for a number of
tunnels in Belgium.
Expanded linings have only recently been used in sewer tunnels - the major sector of tunnelling in the
United Kingdom. A trial length of sewer tunnel using a new expanded lining called the collinsa lining was carried
o u t in Stoke in mid 1974 (see Plate 25).
In developing expanded linings the use of an alternative lining must be foreseen which can be quickly and
easily interchanged with the expanded lining if difficult ground conditions are encountered. For the LTE running
tunnels and the BR Greenwood to Potters Bar railway tunnels the concrete linings were designed to be interchangeable with standard bolted cast iron linings. The thickness of the concrete lining was compatible with the
thickness of the cast iron linings plus the grouting space. In difficult ground or adjacent to portals a tail was
attached to the shield and the drive continued in cast iron lining. For smaller diameter tunnels, however, where a
standard bolted concrete lining is used in difficult ground conditions, the present depths of the flanges are not
compatible. If the internal diameter is to be kept constant excavation is necessary outside the diameter of the
shield; or if the excavated diameter is t o be kept constant there must be some reduction in the finished diameter
o f the grouted lining. Usually the internal diameters are kept similar, which reduces progress, and increases costs.

5.6 Grouted smooth bore concrete tunnel linings


The grouted smooth bore form of precast concrete lining was first introduced in 1903 when the McAlpine
lining was used for an experimental tunnel for a sewer in ~ l a s g o w This
~ ~ .lining with several modifications was
used intermittently until the early 1960's. The present generation of smooth bore linings was introduced in the late
1950's and 1960's following the introduction of the bolted and expanded precast concrete linings. Several of these
linings have articulated joints as described in Section 5.3.

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The smooth bore linings fall into two main categories:


a)

The standard ranges of tunnel linings manufactured mainly for sewer tunnels, namely: Spun Concrete
Ltd - Flexilok and Extraflex linings, Charcon Tunnels Ltd - Rapid and Universal linings and W.F. Rees
Ltd - Mini tunnel.

b)

The special linings developed by one engineer or contractor or for individual contracts, namely:
McAlpine lining, Mersey Kingsway Road Tunnels and Dartford Duplication Road Tunnel.

The standard range of smooth bore linings was first introduced as an alternative t o the bolted precast lining
in soft ground and weak to moderately strong rock in conditions which were unsuitable for expanded linings. The
linings have been used in all strata from soft silts to extremely strong rock, with and without hand shields, and in
a few instances in compressed air. The majority of tunnels in these linings, however, have not been in waterbearing
strata. It is usually recommended that the unbolted linings are not used in a length of tunnel that requires blasting
as the linings tend t o squat in response to the transient pressure waves.
The number of segments to the ring is usually higher than for a bolted lining t o reduce the bending moments
in the segments, the weight for handling purposes and damage during handling and erection. The segments are
solid and effectively unreinforced, having a smooth bore internal finish which does not require a secondary lining.
Caulking grooves are cast into the internal edges of all joint faces for sealing the joints with a caulking compound
or mortar pointing.
The standard smooth bore concrete linings are generally of a similar cost to the standard bolted concrete
linings and erection times and costs are generally similar. However, there is a substantial saving in programme
time as no secondary lining is required and the costs of cleaning out the tunnel at the end of the drive are reduced.
The standard smooth bore linings, with the exception of the three-segment Mini tunnel, require a temporary
or permanent circular support for erection purposes. The Flexilok and Rapid linings use a temporary steel channel
segmental former ring which is removed when the grout is set, while the Universal and the McAlpine linings
incorporate permanent hoop bars, made in sections, within the thickness of the ring. These forms of erection d o
not require a shield, except where dictated by the ground, and are therefore suitable for short lengths of tunnel.
Table 6 gives data on each of the linings which are also briefly mentioned below and described in detail in
Appendix 4. During 1976 and 1977 two new smoothbore linings have been introduced by Empire Stone Ltd and
Croxden Gravels respectively.
The Spun Concrete Flexilok lining was developed during the 1950's38>46 as an alternative to the laying of
pipes in timbered heading or to the use of bolted concrete lining. The initial manufacture was based on the firm's
long experience in casting pipes and the segments were spun in rings of segments. This was later changed t o
conventional casting methods (see Plate 26).
The Spun Concrete Extraflex lining was developed in the middle 1960's for tunnels through areas where
future mining is anticipated46. The basis of the lining is similar to that of the Flexilok lining with the exception
that the circumferential joint has been changed from the knuckle form to a spigot and socket joint t o allow for
horizontal strain and tilting between adjacent rings (see Plate 27).
The Charcon Rapid lining was developed in the early 1960's for a similar market to the Flexilok lining38,47 .
The thickness of the lining is similar to that for the bolted lining of the same diameter (see Plate 28).

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The Charcon Universal lining was developed in 1970 as an alternative to the bolted concrete, expanded and
smooth bore linings, to reduce manufacturing costs47. The lining is erected on two segmental hoop bars which
pass through the centre section of the ring and which are screwed together with toggles. In good cohesive ground
the lining may be expanded in a similar way to tile Wedge Block lining but the expanded form has not yet been
used to date. The lining is not strictly an articulated lining although the toggles provide some flexibility at the
joint (see Plate 29).
The Rees Mini tunnel was introduced in 1969 as the first fully integrated tunnelling system in the United
~ i n ~ d o The
m ~system
~ . is available only in the small diameter range of 1.0 m to 1.3 m and competes mainly
with the open cut and pipe jacking methods of construction. The lining consists of three segments and requires no
temporary support, such as a former ring, during erection, thus reducing erection time t o a minimum. The use o f
'Chocolate block' crack inducers permits controlled cracking in the event of deformations (see Plate 30).
The three segment ring without a key is practically restricted to the small diameter range because as the
thickness of the segments increases, the additional excavation required for manipulation of the segments into a
ring would become uneconomic. Alternatively special cylinders may be inserted at the joints to form 'pin joints' .
In addition, as the diameter increases the size of the segments become unmanageable and too heavy to lift without
mechanical means.
The special linings considered in this group are those which are manufactured for an individual contract in many instances on or near to the construction site. The McAlpine lining has changed very little following
However, with the introduction of standard smooth bore
modifications to the original lining in 191 1
linings and other alternatives in the late 1950's and 196OYs,this lining has not been used since 1961. The lining
was erected with two semi-circular hoop bars in the tongue and groove joints and after pointing these joints the
ring was grouted49 (see Plate 31).
.45749950

For the Mersey Kingsway Road ~ u n n e l s and


l ~ for the Dartford Duplication Road Tunnel special articulated
linings were designed for those sections in stable rock as alternatives to the more expensive cast iron linings. The
linings for the two schemes are similar, the main difference being the width of the ring and therefore the weight
of segments. In the Mersey Tunnels the contractor employed a method of erection using longitudinal bars screwed
to couplers within the previous ring. The same method, with an increased number of bars, is being used for the
Dartford Tunnel (see Plate 32).

5.7 Expanded grouted concrete tunnel linings


An experiment was carried out with the Don-Seg lining in the late 1950's whereby the lining was surrounded
by two hoops of prestressing wire against which the lining was expanded37. The void between the clay and the
outside of the lining was then grouted.(see Appendix 4). This form of lining has a particular application in pressure
tunnels where the depth of overburden is insufficient to take the internal hydrostatic pressure.
A grouted form of expanded lining has recently been designed and used for the first time in a long length of
tunnel for the Service Tunnel of the Stage 2 contract for the Channel ~"nnel". Where a tunnel is excavated by
fullface tunnel boring machine in weak rock, smoothness of the bore depends upon the cutter head design rather
than, as for a soft ground tunnel, on the cutting edge of the shield, and the discontinuities of the rock. In these
conditions this form of lining may be expanded into the ground and then grouted. The Channel Tunnel lining was
cast with four projecting pads on the back of each segment, the pads providing initial support against the excavation.
The subsequent grouting filled the overbreak and at the same time acted as a partial seal against ingress of water
into the tunnel (see Plate 33).

5.8 Pipe jacking with concrete pipes

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Pipe jacking and thrust boring embrace a wide field of underground construction ranging from pipes of less
than 150 m m diameter to large reinforced structures for bridge abutments, subways and underpasses. This section
is confined t o the application of pipe jacking in preference to conventional tunnelling methods, i.e. mainly pipe
jacking for the range of internal diameters from 1.0 m to 2.5 m.
Pipe jacking is suited to short lengths of tunnel of 100 n~to 150 m between jacking points and is often used
for sections of pipe under embankments, roads and railways where open cut methods would be particularly
uneconomic, on account of the need to keep traffic moving continuously. Likewise there have been many occasions
when the method has been used for small sections of long tunnels that pass below embankments or other structures
whose owners have required these methods to be used, in preference to tunnelling. In addition there is now a
tendency for longer and larger contracts to be undertaken, using pipe jacking, for the smaller diameter sewers, as an
alternative t o open cut or heading methods either for direct economy or to reduce disturbance at the surface.
One of the reasons for using pipe jacking under existing structures is that a rigid lining is provided immediately
after excavation in the shape of a pipe with relatively little over excavation. Back grouting may, however, be
required. This method will reduce settlement associated with the radial movement of the ground for a grouted
lining; however, the loss of ground a t the face of the excavation may be highly dependent on the method and the
workmanship. One tendency has been t o attempt thrust boring too close to the surface, at which level drag of the
ground rnay give rise to disturbance. For pipe thrusting under existing railway embankments, particular thought
needs t o be given to the condition of the embankment core, which may be poorly conlpacted, to avoid settlement
or interruption of the services (see Plate 34).
Pipe jacking is the process of pushing or jacking pipes through the ground from a thrust pit with the material
at the face being excavated within a shield, using conventional tunnelling methods for the larger s i - ~ e s ~For
~ ,a ~ ~ .
long thrust, intermediate jacking stations,which will cause unavoidable overbreak,are employed which are built
into the lining and subsequently removed. Steering and adjustments for line and level may be made at the shield
where, for long thrusts, double acting jacks rnay be installed thus enabling smaller shove forces to be used from
the thrust pit or intermediate jacking stations. The pipes, which may have flexible joints, are designed to withstand
the thrust forces and are therefore of a higher grade than would normally be required for a pipe at the same depth.
Waterproofing is obtained with the conventional watertight rubber rings in the flexible joints. For the larger
diameters and the longer lengths of thrust a lubricant may be necessary - usually a bentonitelfly ash grout injected behind the shield. The insertion of polythene sheeting between the ground and the unit has recently been
used successfully for a similar purpose.
There has been a large increase in the last few years in the number of firms carrying out pipe jacking work.
The Pipe Jacking Association has recently been formed and has published a code of conduct binding on all
members and which enforces standards54. In addition standard Conditions of Contract for pipe jacking and a
design and specification bulletin have been drawn up for publication in conjunction with the Concrete Pipe
Association 5 4 .
One of the main criticisms of pipe jacking is the difficulty of keeping to the correct line and level. Though
this has been improved with modern methods, higher tolerances (say + 75 mm) should be allowed than for
conventional tunnelling methods, when the final level is critical as for a sewer. A larger diameter internal section
than necessary may be used with provision for a cast in-situ invert to accommodate the adjacent levels of the
sewer.

6. CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE TUNNEL L I N I N G S ARID


TEMPORARY GROUND SUPPORT

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Cast in-situ concrete tunnel linings have been used as permanent primary linings for rock tunnels since the turn of
the century. The principal factors affecting the behaviour of rock around a tunnel are: the structure of the rock,
the discontinuity characteristics, the presence of water and the susceptibility to weatheringor swelling. For weak
rocks the ratio of the strength of the rock to overburden pressure at the depth of the tunnel should also be taken
into account.
The choice of method of ground support prior to lining depends on the quality of the rock. Several
classification schemes have been proposed 7910911,12but while each provides a first guide,none dispenses with the
need for careful assessment of the particular circumstances. These indices are briefly discussed in Chapter 8. For
strong intact rock - the highest quality - no support is required before casting the primary lining; with poorer
quality rock, ground support may comprise one or more of the following: rock bolting, with or without steel mesh,
shotcrete, and steel arches and laggings.
Where water problems are likely during the construction of a tunnel one or more of several measures may be
taken to reduce the ingress of water, with the main aim of improving the working conditions for the excavation and
the lining of the tunnel, and which, in certain circumstances may also improve the permanent conditions. These
measures may include the injection of stabilising materials into the surrounding ground, ground freezing, well
pointing and the use of compressed air. A pilot tunnel, constructed prior t o the driving of a large diameter tunnel,
may be located either in the crown, or at axis level or in the invert of the main tunnel. For downhill drives a pilot
tunnel in the invert will help to improve the working conditions for the main drive by taking the water away from
the face. For uphill drives water problems at the face will be reduced and thus this preferred method should b e used
where practical. A main object of a pilot tunnel,however,is usually that of locating the position of any likely
problems of water inflow.
De-watering may be used to reduce the ingress of water, either by pumping from the surface using well points
and/or by pumping from within the tunnel. Alternatively small flows may be diverted. This latter method includes:
a)

diverting the water behind the temporary lining in ducts to a drain below the invert.

b)

placing a permeable layer behind the permanent lining, e.g. with pea gravel which can be subsequently
grouted.

c)

the use of a mesh and plastic sheet behnd the permanent lining with drains on each side of the invert.

d)

for larger flows from exposed fissures by forming channels and sealing with quick-set mortars.

6.1 Cast in-situ concrete tunnel linings


The cast in-situ form of lining is economical where the whole length of the tunnel can be excavated and
requires only ground support until the drive is complete, when the permanent lining can be constructed. The two
main operations are thus separated with little delay caused by interference. In poor quality rock it may be necessary
to cast the lining close behind the face and,in severe cases, to use a shield to limit overbeak and provide safety for
the miners. In these instances some delays are bound to occur on account of interference between the removal of
spoil and the delivery of mixed concrete, or constituent materials, in which case it may be necessary to consider
the relative merits of a cast in-situ, compared with a precast lining.

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The concrete may be delivered to the site ready mixed and pumped down the tunnel; however, for long
tunnels this is not normally economic. Alternatively, the concrete may be mixed at the surface and delivered by
skip or agitator transit cars prior t o pumping or placing behind the shutter.
Comparatively low characteristic concrete strengths of 2 0 to 30 MN/mZ are usually specified but due to the
method o f placing, often b y pneumatic placer, a mix 25 per cent to 40 per cent stronger may be necessary to
improve flowability and t o give a concrete which is sound, homogeneous and without serious cracking. Alternative
mixes such as the introduction of PFA t o replace the additional cement should be considered. While reinforcement
may reduce the required thickness its use is seldom economic for small and medium diameter tunnels. The
minimum cover to reinforcement should be 5 0 to 75 mm and to steel arches 150 mm. For large diameter tunnels,
at depth, where a thick reinforced lining may be necessary, the economics of a concrete with a higher compressive
strength should be considered. For short lengths of tunnel timber shuttering is normally used but for long tunnels
the additional cost of collapsible steel shuttering is often warranted.
In weak to moderately strong rock an invert slab or a sub-invert slab may be cast, or alternatively precast
slabs may be laid as the excavation proceeds t o provide a lateral strut for the colliery arches and also a roadway
for the removal of the excavated material. The minimum thickness of the arch concrete is normally 250 mm which
is the least that can economically be placed. In many tunnels the specification requires that the temporary arches
are outside the nominal thickness of the lining and thus the theoretical minimum thickness is considerably greater
and will be further increased by overbreak (see Fig. 8).
There are a number of alternative procedures which may be employed for casting the concrete linings. The
whole lining may be cast in one operation or in two parts - the invert followed by the arch or vice-versa. In all
cases, however, there may be difficulty in casting the crown and systematic grouting is usually therefore required
at a later date t o fill any voids.
When the whole lining is cast in one operation the excavation will normally have been completed for that
drive, which will allow the concreting t o be carried out without interference. Telescopic forms may be used which
can be collapsed and taken through the remaining sh;;tters on rails for erection for the next section of tunnel. The
individual shutters may be 6 t o 1 0 m long with two t o ten shutters used in the system to enable concreting to be
carried out either on a one shift basis with stop-ends between each section, or on a continuous 24 hour cycle. In
the two shutter system one shutter leap-frogs while the other shutter is being concreted, while in the multi-unit
shutter system the concrete is in various stages of curing along the length of the combined shutters. The invert
shutter may be a separate unit to allow this t o be positioned before the arch shutter is moved into position. The
method has been used t o concrete up t o 300 m of tunnel per week. An alternative method,which is rarely used
except for short lengths or large diameter tunnels,is the casting of discontinuous lengths of tunnel with conventional shutters and s t o p ends. The intermediate lengths are then cast after a period of time when the adjacent
sections have cured. Shrinkage cracks may be reduced with this method but the construction takes longer.
When the invert is placed first i t may either be constructed immediately behind the excavation, when precast
units are normally used t o give a good roadway t o the face, or some distance ahead of the concreting of the arch.
In the latter case provision can be made for the rails carrying the arch shutter. The invert concreting may be cast
using conventional invert shutters or with slipform methods; the latter methods have been used with complete
success although only for experimental sections in the United Kingdom. The arch shutters may be of similar form
t o those described above and the concreting process may be carried out while the tunnelling operation is in
progress if the shutter is suitably designed.

The concreting of the archin full or in part,is often carried out in advance of the invert construction when
heavy support is required close to the face or before the excavation is complete. The arch shutters are normally
single shutters which are moved forward 12 t o 2 4 hours after each concreting operation and are designed t o allow
continued access t o the tunnelling face. The invert concrete is normally cast when the excavation and the arch
concrete are complete and the cleaning out of the tunnel is in progress.

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The length and volumes of tunnels constructed during the last seven years and lined with cast in-situ
concrete are discussed in Section 3.2 and Appendix 2. Such tunnels generally belong t o large single projects, and
hence the figures are subject to a wide annual variation. The diameters of the tunnels are generally larger than for
tunnels lined in precast concrete.
Details of a number of tunnels recently constructed with cast in-situ linings are given in Appendix 5. In view
of the small number of large diameter road and rail tunnels, those selected for discussion are up to 25 years old,
while, the sewer and water tunnels discussed have been constructed since 1970. The road tunnels include the
Newport-Crindau ~unnels", and the Gibraltar-Hill Monmouth ~ u n n e l s ' ~(see
, Plate 35), both of which were
constructed using shields, and the Birmingham, Great Charles Street ~ u n n e l s ' ~(see
, Plate 36). The BR rail
tunnels include the woodheadS8, Harecastle and Liverpool Loop and Link Tunnels, (see Plates 37 and 38). The
water and sewer tunnels include the Foyers ~ r o j e c t ' ~the
, Cross Hands ~ u n n e l s ~ ' the
, recent Briston sewers 61
.
39 shows cocreting in a small diameter tunnel.
and the Edinburgh 0 u t f a 1 1 ~ ~Plate

6.2 Rock bolting


Rock bolts are used as a form of rock reinforcement, either t o cause jointed rock around an excavation t o
behave monolithically and/or to provide the tension members of a composite structure. Rock bolts may be used on
their own or in conjunction with steel arches, mesh or sprayed concrete. Two main groups are available which may
be classified as passive dowels and actively-tensioned units o r mechanical bolts
These bolts are discussed in
more detail in Appendix 5 (see Plate 40).
63764.

The mechanical bolts are fixed at the base of a drilled hole with an expanding anchor. The anchor may take
the form of a wedge which is forced into a slot thus enlarging the end of the bolt or an expanding sleeve which is
tensioned by tightening the projecting end against a plate which bears against the rock. These forms o f bolts may
be subsequently grouted with the injection of cement grout or with the use of resin cartridges inserted with the
bolt.
The passive dowels may be inserted into a drilled hole and grouted if required or they may be driven into
weak rock. They may be made of mild or high tensile steel reinforcing bars or, when they are used as support t o
the face and subsequently excavated, they may be of wood. The resin bolts are normally grouted over their full
length and tensioned or left untensioned; in the latter case rock movement which may develop at joints generates
the tension in the bolt. Alternatively the bolts may be grouted over only part of their length, the length of which
will be designed to suit the type of rock; thus for a weak to moderately strong rock the anchor length will be considerably greater than for an extremely strong rock. If several cartridges of resin with different setting times are
used a controlled build up of load in the anchor can be obtained. Resin mixes are designed in relation to the
temperature in the ground which controls setting time.
A third form of rock bolt is the rock anchor which may take the form of a long cable grouted into a drilled
hole. This form is usually used for anchoring into the rock some distance from the excavation.

Pull out tests are often specified to help in the selection of the type, design and pattern of the bolts 65 .
There is a considerable variation in pull out loads not only between different rock types but also within each type
of rock depending upon the physical and chemical conditions of the rock, presence of water and type of drill.
The design of rock bolts is discussed in Chapter 8.
In the United Kingdom rock bolts have been used in a number of tunnels as ground support, prior to the
casting o f an in-situ concrete lining. In the 1960's grouted or mechanically anchored bolts were generally used but
more recently the use of resin bolts has greatly increased. In coal mines 9 0 per cent of the bolts used are now resin
anchored.

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6.3 Sprayed concrete tunnel linings


In the United Kingdom 'Gunite' is a trade name for sprayed mortar or concrete, while sprayed concrete in
tunnels is often called 'shotcrete'. (In the United States the term 'shotcrete' is used for both sprayed concrete and
sprayed mortar.) While such materials have had wide application in the United Kingdom, from the repairs of
cooling water towers t o fire resisting steel columns, their use in tunnels has been limited by comparison with most
other European countries and the United States. There is, however, increasing interest in the technique both for
tunnels and for coal mines 66,67968 (see Appendix 5).
Sprayed concrete has been used in the United Kingdom mainly for the repair and maintenance o f tunnels,
especially brick tunnels, (see Chapter 12), for secondary linings, (see Appendix 2) and in the construction of new
tunnels t o prevent degradation and weathering of the rock following excavation. It has seldom been used as a
primary structural lining. The application of a thin layer of sprayed concrete may completely or partially arrest
the rock deformation while penetration of the joints and fissures will strengthen the loosened rock and help to
develop a continuous stable arch. Sprayed concrete may be used in conjunction with rock-bolting and wire niesh
as a ground support. In most instances for the construction of new tunnels it has been used as a method of ground
support in areas of poor quality jointed rock. On a number of occasions it has been used as a permanent lining at
openings and junctions between tunnels which otherwise would have been difficult to construct in other forms of
lining.
The sprayed concrete layer may be reinforced with steel mesh or ordinary steel reinforcement according to
the type of work. The use of large diameter bars should be avoided and the spacing of reinforcement should be
arranged t o minimise interference with the concrete application.
During the last few years sprayed concrete with steel or glass fibres has been introduced which gives a small
increase in the con~pressivestrength and a large increase in the flexural strength when compared with ordinary
sprayed concrete69. T h s development is discussed in Appendix 5.
In the United Kingdom a considerable annual quantity of sprayed concrete is applied to structures, including
repairs to existing tunnels by specialist contractors. For new tunnels, however, where the quantities involved have
been small and often not of a continuous nature the work has often been carried out by the tunnel contractor's
labour. The spraying of concrete is a skilled operation and the mix must be properly designed to suit the rock's
condition and the plant involved.
One of the first applications in this country in a tunnel was in the mid 1950's when remedial measures were
necessary t o the cooling water tunnels for the Stockport Power Station. A 380 m length of tunnel, where there was
evidence o f small rock falls, was successfully sprayed to a thickness of about 100 nim. Other recent applications
include sections of the B R Liverpool Loop railway, the access tunnel to the Channel Tunnel works, sections of the

Kielder experimental tunnel and the preliminary works for the CEGB Dinorwic Power Station. The use of sprayed
concrete will prbbably increase during the next few years as the number of tunnels in moderately strong to strong
rock is likely to increase. Plate 41 shows a sprayed concrete lined tunnel.

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For the Liverpool Loop the running tunnels were constructed through Bunter Sandstone with roadheader
machines and temporary steel arch supports where necessary. A cast in-situ lining was used for those lengths with
temporary support while the unsupported sections were sprayed with 75 mm of concrete to prevent long term
deterioration of the sandstone. The total length with sprayed concrete was approximately 1 km, made up of a
number of short intermittent lengths
As part of the preliminary studies for the Kielder aqueduct at present under construction for the Northumbrian Water Authority an experimental tunnel has recently been constructed (see Appendix 6) in which sprayed
concrete was used for a number of sections of tunnel7'. For the main tunnel, sprayed concrete will not be used as
a primary lining but for ground support in difficult ground conditions. For the CEGB Dinorwic Power Station a
thin layer of sprayed concrete was applied behind the face immediately after excavation. A second application was
made at a later date according to ground conditions.

6.4 Temporary arch and lagging supports


The traditional method of temporary support in the United Kingdom over the last 25 years has been the steel
arch, rib or frame, normally ofjoist cross section, which is laterally supported with spacers or struts with intermediate lagging7'. These laggings, which may be close or open boarded concrete or timber, corrugated or perforated
steel sheets, iron bank bars or wire mesh, may be positioned behind the arches or between the flanges of the joist
sections (see Plate 42). The different types of arches and the method of bolting are discussed in Appendix 5. The
loads from the rock are transferred either through timber blocks or packings directly to the arches at intervals around
the periphery of the arch or alternatively through the laggings and thus to the arches. At the time of preparing this
Report experiments are in progress investigating the use of long permeable bags filled with grout as a form of lagging
between the arch and the ground73. In either method the rock must be in physical contact to prevent excessive
movement before appreciable load is transferred to the arches, whlch may cause overstressing of the arch in bending.
At the foot of the arch, the loads are transferred to the rock through base blocks, except where a full circle rib is
used. The base blocks may be cast into a concrete invert or sub base roadway to prevent lateral movement, or be
strutted with steel beams if excessive side loads are anticipated or encountered. In addition, steel invert struts may
be used to control heaving of the base of the excavation. The design of arches and laggings is discussed in Chapter 8.
In most instances the laggings are primarily to prevent falls of the rock and thus act as a safety curtain for the
miners. When close boarding is used the space behind may be filled with pea gravel or suitable selected spoil and
grouted when required. The close boarding will act as a form of temporary curtain, diverting any water entering
the tunnel. Drainage pipes may be used to take the water into the invert if the void behind is grouted. In the United
Kingdom open boarding is usually employed for the side walls with close boarding in the crown where spalling and
loosening of the rock are likely to occur. In a few instances, liner plates have been used behind the arches with pea
gravel and grout to seal the void behind 6 1 (see Section 4.2.3).
The use of arches is normally restricted to weak to strong and highly jointed rock tunnels, although they have
been used on a small number of occasions in cohesive soils. The distance between supports may be altered to suit
the ground conditions, normally from 1 metre centres down. The supports can be erected close to the face
immediately after excavation. For larger tunnels where pilots, heading or benches are used there is an advantage in
designing the supports so that those removed from the temporary heading can be reused in the completed
excavation. Arches may also be used in conjunction with rock bolting to improve the rock support or with shotcrete
to prevent weathering.

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Regular inspections should be made of the arches, and the rock where visible, to observe possible signs of
overloading of the temporary s-upports and lateral movement of the arches. The instrumentation of arches is
briefly discussed in Section 7.5. In soft ground or incompetent rock where subsidence at the surface should be
rninirnised a lining erected close t o the face is generally preferred t o arch supports.

A form of temporary lining which has not been extensively used in the United Kingdom, except for an
experimental length, but which has been used for considerable lengths of tunnel on the continent is the Bernold
system72 (see Plate 43). In this system, steel perforated and corrugated sheets are used, acting partly as a support
shutter for the cast in-situ concrete primary lining and partly as reinforcement to the full lining. The system
requires a good fit between the components, and is expensive but may occasionally be justified in special
circumstances. It has, however, been used as ground support for short sections of tunnel through poor ground
during construction of the NWA Kielder aqueduct. A fuller description is contained in Appendix 5 .

7 . INSTRUMENTATION, MONITORING, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT


7.1 General

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The instrumentation and monitoring of tunnels and the fullscale laboratory testing of linings have been
carried out in the United Kingdom for many years. The early instrumentation was limited mainly t o monitoring
from w i t h the tunnel of the loads and stresses in the lining, the pressures on, and the deformations of, the lining.
Movements within the ground as a tunnel is constructed have been monitored on a number of occasions in the
last 10 to 15 years and, more recently, the consequential changes in porewater pressures. The monitoring has been
carried out by consulting engineers, research organisations, statutory authorities and universities. The different
forms of instrumentation and monitoring of tunnels are discussed in Sections 7.2 to 7.6.
The instrumentation and monitoring of tunnel linings and the ground in the vicinity of a tunnel are carried
out to provide more detailed information on, and thus a better understanding of, the behaviour of the lining and of
the ground during the construction of a tunnel and subsequently until long term equilibrium is reached between
the ground and the lining. The results of these researches help to improve the design methods for tunnel linings and
to enable indications of the likely surface settlements to be established and thus the risk of damage to structures
above.
The objectives of any research programme should be examined to establish the likely benefit to the understanding of the ground and the lining behaviour. The programme should take into account that the major portion
of the monitoring will be over a relatively short period of hours or days when the tunnel is constructed past the
point of observation. The number of sets of readings taken during this period should be as large as possible if large
changes in the readings are anticipated. Instruments should be designed t o be easily installed and, if possible, fixed
or cast into the lining before the segments go to the tunnel face thus minimising delays to the tunnelling programme
and, where possible, readings should be taken remotely from the location of the instruments.
The funds available for research of tunnels are normally limited and much of the equipment non-recoverable.
The instruments should thus be relatively cheap to enable a sufficient number to be installed. All instruments
should be reliable and constructed to. withstand the environment in which they will be installed. This environment
is likely to be wet, dirty, dusty and have large variations in temperature and humidity. They should be sufficiently
robust to withstand the curiosity of the tunnel labour force and covered to withstand shock. The instruments
should be designed for the required accuracy and be simple to calibrate. Instruments installed in the lining should
be designed to cause as little modification to the structural performance of the lining as possible otherwise they
will be measuring conditions different from those of the standard lining.
The readings obtained from the instrument should where possible be analysed as the work proceeds, thus
enabling errors in the instruments or the reading techniques to be found during the course of the works rather than
at a later date. The output should therefore be designed to suit the results required for the final objectives and not
obscured by a large quantity of data that may never be used.

7.2 Deformation of the tunnel linings


When a tunnel is constructed in soft ground or weak rock the applied loading around the ring will cause
deformation of the lining until sufficient passive loading resistance at the sides of the tunnel is mobilised by compression and shear between the ground and the lining. If a rigid lining is used the deformation may be reduced, in
relation to an articulated lining, at the expense of bending moments developed in the lining. For the design of a
lining an estimate of the likely magnitude of any deformation is a fundamental requirement. The relaxation of the

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ground reduces the stress in the lining which is the theory behind many of the present design methods. The extent
o f the deformations wili be dependent upon the state of stress in the ground at the time the lining is erected, the
type o f soil or rock, and workmanship.
In the majority of soft ground tunnels the lateral pressure on the lining is lower than the vertical pressure
(KO, the coefficient of earth pressure at rest < 1) and thus the lining will tend to deform to an elliptical shape with
the major axis horizontal.
collected together the available data on the deformation of tunnel linings. These
data showed that for tunnels in London Clay (where KO > 1) the horizontal diameter generally increased by
between 0.1 per cent and 0.4 per cent (say 5 to 2 0 mm for a 5 m diameter tunnel) over a period of several years
and no instances of a reduction in the horizontal diameter were recorded for tunnels in the United Kingdom.
Deformations of tunnel linings have been recorded subsequently for a number of tunnels in the United Kingdom.
In general the horizontal diameter increases linearly when plotted on a log-time scale and for most soft ground
materials, with the exception of soft clays and silts, rarely exceeds 0.5 per cent. If good tunnelling practice is
employed this will be considerably less for tunnels in weak rock. In many instances particularly with expanded
for example,where a 10.3 m
linings, the deformations may be negligible. For the Heathrow Cargo
internal diameter tunnel was constructed at 7 m cover with an expanded lining, the deformation after six years
was only 1.5 m m , or 0.015 per cent of the diameter.
gave a small number of instances for which the vertical diameter increased and the horizontal diameter
decreased. These instances were either tunnels constructed in compressed air or in soft clays or silts and in all cases
t h e deformation reversed with time with increases in the horizontal diameter. Much of the recorded deformation
of grouted linings may be attributable to grouting delays and t o incomplete grouting of the crown. Two cases of
an increase in the vertical diameter have been monitored in the United Kingdom. The 2.5 m internal diameter
TWA Southern main was constructed recently in London Clay at depths up to 50 m with two full face tunnelling
machines. Monitoring of the deformations of the lining showed that there was a slight increase in the vertical
diameter with time 75. The Wedge Block lining is expanded in the crown and this may have lead to mobilising of
the lateral forces at a quicker rate than the vertical forces.
The second example was the construction in sand of the outfall tunnel for the CEGB Sizewell Power Station
in the early 1 9 6 0 ' s ~ ~In. the tunnel, which was constructed with compressed air and lined with a grouted grey iron
lining, two rings were monitored to determine the stresses in, and the deforn~ationsof, the lining. In these two
rings increases in the vertical diameter of 1 mm and 8 mm were recorded. It is probable that the compressed air
pressure which is normally based on the head of water at the invert reduced the overburden loading on the lining
thus allowing greater horizontal pressure to develop. In this particular case the subsequent reversal of the defor-.
mation was not apparent.
For tunnels in soft clay or silt, considerably larger deformations than for tunnels in stiff clay have been
recorded in a number of instances. In several cases in silt, deformations of small diameter tunnels of 100 mm, or
over 5 per cent of the diameter, have been recorded. Several of these tunnels have been constructed in free air or
without other techniques to hold up the face. When these face support techniques are used the deformations will
be considerably smaller, although with compressed air some further deformations will occur when the air is turned
off. In certain very soft clays, as discussed in Chapter 10, a rigid lining may be necessary to prevent the collapse of
the lining. In addition t o the deformations accompanying the build up of the ground pressures, a tunnel lining may
be subjected t o further deformations if a tunnel is constructed adjacent to it, passes over or below it or if an
excavation is carried out adjacent t o it.

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discusses a number of case histories where measurements have been taken of the deformation of a
tunnel lining during the construction of an adjacent tunnel. Details of tunnels where deformations have been
measured in the United Kingdom are given in Appendix 6 . If a tunnel lining is fairly flexible unsymmetrical
distortion of the lining will occur, with the maximum distortion on the side adjacent to the new tunnel on account
of the relaxation of the lateral pressure.
Fig. 9 shows that the lateral movement of the ground during the construction of a tunnel usually falls off
rapidly with distance from the tunnel periphery and that at a distance equivalent to half the diameter, the
movement is less than half the movement at the periphery 24943,77778 779,80?8 l. In the cases illustrated, the
deformations at 2 m from the periphery of a number of 4.0 m diameter tunnels were in the range of 4 mm to
7 mm, which are similar to the deformation of a typical lining following erection. In general, in stiff t o dense
materials with good tunnelling construction practice, tunnels may be constructed with relatively little deformation
to the existing tunnel with a clearance between the tunnels equivalent to half a diameter of the tunnels. Tunnels
have been constructed closer but each circumstance required individual analysis. For example, for the construction
of a crossover the tunnels may approach to within half a metre, but this is generally over a restricted length and
special precautions may have to be taken during the construction.
For tunnels in weak materials, adjacent tunnels should generally not be closer than one diameter. However
the individual conditions should be assessed, in particular, the lateral forces on the lining and the extent t o which
these will be relieved during the construction of the adjacent tunnel should be examined. This analysis should
take into account the tunnelling method and whether special techniques are to be employed. For tunnels in rock
the state of stress before and after the construction of the tunnels should be analysed before minimum distance
between adjacent tunnels can be assessed.
Where tunnels cross at right angles relatively little movement will occur if the tunnels are located with a
clearance between them equivalent to one diameter of the larger tunnel. In these conditions, however, the method
of tunnelling should be reviewed to restrict the ground movements. If the tunnels cross at a skew angle larger
movements will occur but these will normally be acceptable. Several tunnels in London Clay have crossed at right
angles or at a skew with distances between the tunnels of less than a metre. The deformations of the lining and the
settlement of the tunnel have generally been restricted to the range of 10 mm t o 25 mm when special precautions
have been taken. These precautions would include driving the section of tunnel with a minimum time lapse before
the lining takes the ground load. Rings, where grouted, should be grouted immediately after erection and if
possible the face should not be stopped for a long duration immediately below the point of the crossing. In special
cases, such as large diameter tunnels, embedding the cutting edge of the shield or keeping the face boxed when
excavation is not being carried out may be necessary. If the two tunnels are to be constructed under the same
scheme the lower tunnel should generally be built first.
When an excavation is carried out adjacent to or above an existing tunnel the pressure on the lining is likely
to be reduced to a value that may affect the stability of the lining. In these conditions measures may be required
within the existing tunnel to reduce the build up of excessive stresses within the lining (see Section 19.1.5). The
lining may be tie braced across the diameter or the diagonal to restrict the deformation. In one or two cases with
a bolted lining the bolts have been removed in the circumferential joints and slackened in the longitudinal joints
to form an articulated lining which reduced the tensile stresses in the lining. However, such measures should be
carried out with caution and under strict control.

7.3 Sub-surface movements and porewater pressure changes


Ground surface movements which develop during the construction of a tunnel in soft ground and in weak
rock are discussed in Section 7.4. These surface movements originate from, and are dependent upon, the extent of

;he movement of the ground in the vicinity of the tunnel. These ground movements are discussed in this section
with additional data in Appendix 6.

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The monitoring of horizontal and vertical ground movements as a tunnel is constructed has been carried out
o n a number of occasions though until recently only for tunnels in cohesive materials. In the earlier schemes
readings were taken in horizontal boreholes, drilled either:
a)

from adjacent tunnels into the ground in the vicinity of the approaching tunnel in which the
horizontal radial movements were monitored as the shield approached and passed the point o f
observation, or

b)

from a chamber ahead of the approaching tunnel where the boreholes were in the line of the tunnel
and readings taken of the horizontal axial movements as the face approached the point of
observation.

In these earlier schemes the ground movements were measured at frequent intervals, for example every half
hour, which enabled any changes in the rates of movement over short periods t o be identified.
Recent measurements have been taken mainly in vertical boreholes drilled from the surface with horizontal
and vertical measurements of ground movements taken in the vicinity of the approaching tunnel. Horizontal
movements have normally been measured either with an inclinometer lowered down tubes grouted into boreholes
or with the use of a vertical plumb bob. The vertical ground movements have either been measured at magnetic
rings, taped t o the outside of the tubes, coupled with the use of a reed switch, or with vertical extensometers
fixed or grouted into the ground at different depths.
In the inclinometer tube system horizontal readings are talken over the full length of the tubing, to enable
t h e movement at any depth to be calculated, while vertical movements are taken at selected points with a separate
instrument. In this system several boreholes are normally drilled in the vicinity of the future tunnel to give an
indication of the extent of the movement caused by the tunnelling. However, with the more complicated
measuring system for horizontal movements, only one or two sets of readings can normally be obtained each day
unless readings are taken round the clock. With the vertical plumb bob and extensometer systems regular readings
a t selected points and at frequent intervals can be made.

7.3.1 Horizontal sub-surface movements transverse to tunnels Horizontal movements transverse to the
tunnel were taken around the 4.1 m internal diameter LTE Victoria Line running tunnels, at Netherton Road and
Particulars of these two drives are given in Table 7 and plots of the ground movements against
at Brixton
distance for both the tunnels, a t axis level approximately 0.45 m from the periphery of the excavation, are given
in Fig. 9 .
24777.

In both cases the movement towards the tunnel was first detected when the shield was approximately one
diameter from the point o f observation and 4 0 per cent of the final movement occurred before the cutting edge
passed the point. For the Netherton Road tunnel, which was constructed at a rate approximately twice that of the
Brixton tunnel the movement, after an initial sudden movement at the cutting edge, continued at a constant rate
over the length of the shield at which stage 9 0 per cent of the final movement had occurred. The bead, on the side
of the shield on which the measurements were taken, was 12.5 mm and there was no sign of the clay against the
skin of the shield. The final movement, approximately 0.45 m from the periphery of the excavation, was 11.5 mm
a n d was reached when the tail of the shield was 1 or 2 m beyond the point of observation.

TABLE 7
Horizontal sub-surface ground movements transverse to the tunnel

Tunnel

Movement (6) mrn at distance (H) m


from the tunnel periphery
6
H
6
H

Depth
m

Diameter
m

15

4.1

0.5

12.5

2 .O

7.1

3.5

2.8

Netherton ~ o a d ~2 4 ~

4.1

0.4

11.5

2 .O

4.8

3.5

2 .O

Green

30

4.1

1.7

8 .O

2.1

6.0

Regents park8

34
20

4.1
4.1

1.5
1.5

5 .O
4.0

Seven Sisters2 4
(enlargement)

20

6.7

0.45

6.3

LTE

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Brixton77

For the Brixton tunnel with the slower rate of progress the inward movement of the clay at the periphery of
the excavation was restricted by the shield skin thus reducing the rate of movement of the ground behind. The
bead on the shield was 9.5 mm and the movement 0.45 m from the tunnel was restricted over the length o f the
shield to 5 to 6 mm, equivalent to only 5 0 per cent of the total movement. Just before the shield tail passed the
point of observation the rate of movement accelerated until the ring had been erected and grouted. The final
movement, approximately 0.45 m from the periphery of the excavation, was 12.5 m m and was reached when the
tail of the shield was a diameter beyond the point of observation.
The tunnel at Netherton Road was 5 0 per cent deeper than the Brixton tunnel and with a slightly larger
bead; therefore the inward movement would be expected to be greater. However, the two sets of readings gave very
similar final results, close t o the periphery of the excavation, as shown in Fig. 9(a). For the points further away
d ~lower
~ than those
from the tunnel, those for the deeper tunnel constructed at a faster rate at Netherton ~ o a were
n~~
The results are plotted on Fig. 9(b).
for the ~ r i x t o extension.
For the Netherton Road tunnel it is possible to plot the movement with time (see Fig. 9(c)). This graph is
particularly interesting as the tunnel drive was stopped for two hours between 18.00 hours and 20.00 hours and
the face left unsupported. The rate of movement before, during and following the stoppage are given in Table 8
which illustrates that the rate of movement when the tunnel was stopped was between 3 0 per cent and 60 per cent
of that when the tunnel drive was in progress. Following the stoppage the rate of movement increased slightly,
partly compensating for the slower rate during the stoppage. Similarly the average rates of movement over t h e shield
were several times smaller than the peak values (which could satisfy a time related 'elastic' modulus, such as
E = El + 4 (1 - F(T)) where 4 = constant and F(T), function of time, is such that F(T) = 1 when T = 0 and
F(T) = 0 when T = 1).
During the construction of the LTE Fleet Line horizontal movements transverse to the tunnel were measured
with inclinometers around one tunnel at Green ~ a r k and
~ two
~ 3tunnels
~ ~ at Regents park8 l . The readings a t or
near axis level for the three tunnels are plotted on Fig. 9(a) and the particulars of the tunnels given in Table 7. The
readings were taken a minimum distance of 1.5 m from the tunnel and fall into the same pattern as those for the
Victoria Line tunnels, with the expanded concrete lined tunnel causing smaller inward movements than the grouted
cast iron linings.

TABLE 8
LTE Victoria Line Netherton Road -- instantaneous rates of ground movement
RATES OF GROUND MOVEMENT
Average over
length of
shield
mm/min

Immediately prior
to stoppage
mm/min

During
stoppage
mm/min

Resumption of
tunnelling
mmlmin

0.06

0.02

0.085

0.45 m from tunnel

0.035

0.02

0.035

0.01 6

2.0 m from tunnel

0.017

0.006

0.03

0.004

Axial Movement

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Radial Movement

For the Heathrow Cargo ~ u n n e lwhich


~ ~ , is a large diameter tunnel close t o the surface, having a low depth
t o diameter ratio (0.7), the inward movement was 7.6 mm at 1.5 ni from the periphery of the excavation. This
value falls between the two graphs on Fig. 9(a) but the measures taken to restrict the settlenlent at the surface,
discussed in Section 7.3.3, will have influenced and reduced the values.
The results of the relatively small number of tunnels in London Clay for which radial horizontal movements
have been recorded show how the ground movements increase towards the tunnel periphery to a maximum of
between 15 m m and 2 0 mm. The inward movement for an expanded lining is lower than that for a grouted cast iron
lining. The effects of rate of progress and of the depth of the tunnel are not apparent from the small number of
readings. Although the shallower tunnel at Regents Park gave a smaller movement there is no correlation of movement with depth, o n account of the small number of schemes involved, but it is to be expected that movement
will increase as the overload factor - the ratio of the overburden pressure at the tunnel to the unconfined
compressive stress - increases. Table 8 shows how the rate of movement considerably reduces during relatively
short stoppages of the drive.
Horizontal movements have been recorded for a few schemes in different strata but on account of the small
number of readings it is difficult to draw any conclusions. The main results are shown in Table 9 .
The two tunnels in silt, as would be expected, show larger movements towards the tunnel than the tunnels
in stiff clays. The results,however, for the tunnel in laminated clay were similar to those for the over-consolidated
stiff London Clay, although there was a larger variation between the readings. Similar readings were also obtained
in the fissured Lower Chalk.

TABLE 9
Horizontal ground movements transverse to tunnels in strata other than London Clay
Type of
strata

Measured
Movement
mm

Distance
from tunnel
m

5 -0

1.3

10.0
10.0

1.0
2 .o

13.4

4.3

13.O
13.0
6 .O

0.1
1.8
6.3

~ ~ n e s i d e ~ ~ Laminated
Hebburn
Clay

7.5

2 -0

12.0
7.9
4 .O
3 .O

0-4
0.4
0.5
3 -6

chinnor8'

Lower
Chalk

8 .O

5 .O

7.9

0.5

New Cross (21g6

Gravel

10.0

4.1

4.5

1.5

Kings ~

Tyneside (llg3
Willington Gut

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Depth to axis
of tunnel
m

Diameter
of tunnel
m

Scheme

Notes:

n Siltn

Silt

(1)

Tunnel constructed with compressed air.

(2)

Tunnel constructed with bentonite shield.

7.3.2 Horizontal movements parallel to the centreline of tunnels Measurements were taken of the
axial movement of the ground towards the face of an advancing tunnel on the LTE Victoria Line at Brixton 77,78
and at Netherton ~ o a dAt~ Brixton,
~ .
three points were instrumented in the horizontal plane of the axis of the
tunnel; one on the centreline, one on the periphery of the excavation and one 0.3 m outside the tunnel excavation.
The locations and the measured movements are shown on Fig. 10(a). The axial movements commenced 1 t o 1%
diameters ahead of the face but 90 per cent of the movement occurred within one diameter of the face and 7 0 per
cent within half a diameter of the face. The pattern of movement, as would be expected, was dome shaped with
the movement on the centreline (18 mm) being 2% to 3 times that at the periphery of the excavation (6.5 mm).
The movement 0.3 m outside the excavation was little more than 1 mm. At Netherton Road the movements
developed according t o the distance from the face, with 60 per cent of the total movement occurring within 2 m
and 40 per cent within one metre of the face. The total movement immediately prior to the shield arriving at the
point of observation was 12.5 mm compared with 16.5 mm at Brixton. For the Brixton tunnel the average rate of
advance was approximately 0.4 m per hour, and the movement developed over some 8 m equivalent to 20 hours.
The average rates of ground movement for the two tunnels were 0.025 and 0.02 1 mm/min and the peak rates over
the last metre were 0.055 and 0.065 mm/min. The rates of movement for the two tunnels were therefore
approximately similar although the rate of advance varied by a factor of two.
The values for the radial movements for these two tunnels at axis level, discussed in Section 7.3.1, and the
axial movements discussed above, are similar for the same distance from the periphery of the excavation. At
Brixton at 0.45 m from the tunnel both readings were 12.5 mm, while at Netherton Road they were 11.5 mm and
10 mm respectively. The average face movement at Brixton, however, on account of the dome shape of the profile
would be nearer 14 mm than the maximum of 18 mm which is therefore lower than the estimated radial movement at the periphery of the excavation. The effects of this face movement and the radial movement are discussed
in Section 7.4.

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During the construction of a sewer tunnel at ebbu urn^^ in County Durham horizontal anchors were
positioned in front of the advancing tunnel, from a manhole, to measure the face movement in the laminated clay.
Measurements were also made at_the face with dial gauges during weekends to measure the rate of movement of
the face, when unboxed, for b o t h the laminated clay and the stiffer stony clay. The anchor measurements showed
that t h e movement towards t h e face commenced 1% diameters from the shield and that 8 0 per cent of the movement occurred within one diameter of the face and more than 50 per cent within half a diameter of t h e face. The
results of the face intrusion measurements at the weekends showed a linear relation with time, with a similar
although more peaked dome shape to that at Brixton (see Fig. 10(b)). The results again showed that t h e peak
movement into the face was similar t o the maximum radial movement 8 4 .
A number of readings o f the movement parallel t o a tunnel have been taken using inclinometer tubes. These
tubes, however, have not normally extended into the area of the face and have therefore only measured the axial
movement a t 1.5 m or more outside the periphery of the excavation. The results have therefore shown little axial
the overall axial movement 1.5 m outside
movement. I n the instrumentation of the Fleet Line at Green Park
the tunnel a t axis level was less than 3 mm with no significant relation between the direction or the magnitude of
the movement and the position of the tunnel. The readings at Regents Park were very small.
79980

At ebbu urn^^ the inclinometers on the centreline were extended into the area of the future tunnel and a
maximum axial movement towards the face of 2 mm at axis level was recorded. Following the passing of the shield
t h e movement of the tube above the tunnel decreased with little final displacement.
The recorded axial movements at T R R L experimental tunnel at Chinnor in Lower Chalk were generally only
2 m m t o 3 m m as the face approached and passed the point of observation but in one borehole on the centreline
the movement immediately above the crown later increased to 7 mm probably due to the displacement of chalk
blocks8'. This latter reading could therefore be disregarded for general interpretation.

7.3.3 Vertical ground movements Probably the first systematic recordings of sub-surface vertical ground
1 London
~ ~
Clay in 1967.
movements in the United Kingdom were taken around the Heathrow Cargo ~ u n n e in
subsequently, measurements have been taken for other tunnels in London Clay, laminated clay, boulder clay, silty
clay, gravel and Lower Chalk. The movements below ground level are larger than those at the surface, but restricted
t o a narrower width, and increase non-linearly with depth with a maximum just above the tunnel crown. The
method of construction of t h e tunnel and the type of lining will influence the extent and magnitude o f the rnovement. Table 1 0 gives data o n the individual tunnels and a summary of the recorded movements.
The general variation of ground movements with depth on the centreline of the tunnel are shown in Fig. 1 l(a).
When considering a vertical section on the tunnel centreline, between the ground surface and the crown of the
tunnel, the closer the point of observation t o the tunnel the sooner, in time and distance, the total movement will
be completed. In over consolidated clays the three sets of observations taken to date have shown a slight heave of
the points near the crown, o f 1 t o 3 mm, occurring 1 0 m t o 3 0 m behind the face of the shield as indicated on
Fig. 1 l(a). The increase in the movement with depth is illustrated in Fig. 11 (c). The variation of ground
movements with depth off the centreline of the tunnel are of a similar form but of lower magnitude. Further from
the shield, t h e movements at depth are lower than those at the surface as illustrated in Fig. 1l(b).
For t h e LTE Fleet Line at Green ~ a r k ~ ~ , ~ ~ , was
w h constructed
ich
with 28 rn of cover with a hand shield
a n d lined with a bolted grouted cast iron lining, ground movements were measured at three cross-sections. The
average surface settlements and the measured average vertical ground movements close to the tunnel are given in
Table 1 0 together with the estimated movement at the periphery of the excavation based on these measured
movements. Similar measurements were taken at Regents parkg1 above two tunnels; one with a cover of 32 m

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TABLE 10
Vertical ground movements

Ground
formation

Tunnel

Depth
axis

External
diameter

Surface
movement

(m)

(m)

A (mm)

Movement
1.5 m above
crown (mm)

Est. movement
at tunnel

Ratio

B (mm)

BI A

London
Clay

Bolted
Cast Iron

30

4.1

6.1

16

23

3.75

LTE ~ e ~ e n t s ~ London
Park
Clay

Expanded
Concrete

34
20

4.1
4.1

5.5
7

11.5
16

16
22

2.9
3.1

~eathrow~~
Cargo Tunnel

London
Clay

Expanded
Concrete

LTE ~
Cross

~Gravels
~

Bolted
Cast Iron

LTE
Park

7.4
10

10.9

11

14
(at 900 mm)

15

1.4

4.1

21.5

23
27.5
(at 3 m)

1.3

2 .O

~ ~ n e s i d e ~ ~ Clay
Hebburn

Bolted
Concrete

7.5

2 .O

7.9

12

16

~yneside~~
WiUington
Gut

Silt

Bolted
Concrete

13.4

4.3

A 18
B 28
C 45

32
40
50

Liverpool87
Loop

Boulder
Clay

Cast Iron
& Concrete

40

45

chinnor8'

Lower
Chalk

Arches

13

20

2.5

Note:
P
cn

Lining

6.0 min
to crown

11.4mand
15 m arch
width

8 .O

5 .O

8 .O

(1.1 to 1.8)

For the WillingtonGut Contract the borehole on the centreline was partly grouted as the face approached. The results quoted above are for a borehole
just outside the line of the tunnel. The movements varied considerably with time. The results are for (A) 23 days, (B) 51 days and (C) 159 days after
the shield passed the point of observation.

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and the other with a cover of 18 m. These two tunnels were constructed with hand shields and lined with expanded
concrete linings.
The vertical ground movements for these three tunnels are shown in Fig. 12(a) which gives the vertical ground
movement plotted against the distance from the tunnel. The three curves are all of the same form with a bolted cast
iron lining showing the largest vertical ground movement near the tunnel, the deeper expanded concrete lined
tunnel giving the smallest vertical ground movement and the shallower tunnel between the other two curves.
Predictions from these three sets of readings should be made with caution but they generally confirm the conclusion
in Section 7.3.1 that there is less vertical ground movement around a tunnel with an expanded lining than with a
bolted grouted lining. They also show that, for tunnels nearer the surface, larger vertical ground movements occur
near the crown than for deeper tunnels if the same construction methods are used. The relation between movements and depth-todiameter ratios, is difficult to interpret from the three results. The maximum rate of ground
movement for the Green Park tunnel was 0.0055-0.0070 mm/min which compared well with the laboratory
extrusion tests88 but which is lower than the horizontal movements (radial and axial) for the Victoria Line.
The Heathrow Cargo Tunnel was constructed in London Clay with an expanded concrete lining using
techniques to minimise ~ e t t l e m e n tThe
~ ~ .face of the tunnel was boxed and face rams used to keep a constant
force o n the face when the material was not being excavated in the shield compartments. The shield was shoved
into the face for the full depth of a ring and the erection of the next ring commenced before the excavation in the
face. These measures reduced the ground movements above the tunnel, which are plotted on Fig. 12(a). On
account of the measures taken t o restrict the ground movements, the curve is of a different form to the Fleet Line
curves.'The effects of the measures are illustrated by Fig. 12(b) where the development of the ground movements
is plotted. Heave of the point 0.9 m above the tunnel occurred as the shield was embedded into the ground
immediately below the point of observation which was followed by an acceleration of the downward vertical
ground movement. Steepening of the curve above the shield as illustrated in Fig. 12(a) is not apparent here. Heave
of the invert o n the centreline of the tunnel was also measured; this was estimated to be 7.5 mm at 0.5 m from the
periphery of the excavation.
The ground movements for the NWA Tyneside tunnel at ebbu urn^^ are also plotted on Fig. 12(a). This
tunnel, which was constructed at a shallower depth than the LTE Fleet Line tunnels, was in laminated clay. The
ground movements were however of a similar form although the ratio of the settlement at the tunnel t o that at
the surface was reduced. The maximum rate of ground movement was 0.0035 mm/min which again compared
well with the laboratory extrusion tests.
The LTE running tunnel at New crossg6, which was constructed with the bentonite tunnelling machine in
water bearing gravels, shows another variation from the common pattern of movement. The bentonite, which was
used t o support and stabilise the face, gelled in the surrounding ground and thus reduced the ground movements
immediately above the tunnel. In consequence the maximum vertical ground movement occurred some 3 m above
the crown of the tunnel. These results are shown on Fig. 12(c).
At TRRL experimental tunnel at Chinnor which was constructed at a shallow depth in Lower Chalk the
movement was affected by the reaction ring behind the shield (see Appendix 6) and by the fissured state of the
chalk. The data in Table 1 0 show the extent of the vertical ground movement immediately above the crown of
the tunnel, and the related movement at the surface 85,89
For the BR Liverpool ~ o oreadings
~ ~ were
~ taken
,
in the boulder clay above a 14 m wide horseshoe concourse tunnel. The tunnel, which was constructed in several stages with a cover of only 6 metres caused settlement
at the surface of 4 0 mm to 6 0 mm over the width of the tunnel. These readings are for a particular method and

sequence of construction and therefore cannot generally be used for prediction for other tunnels.
The results of the instrumentation of vertical ground movements give some indication of the variation of
movement with depth from the surface, but on account of the relatively small number of schemes involved in
different strata it is difficult to draw definite conclusions. The contribution of the horizontal and vertical ground
movements to the surface settlement is discussed in Section 7.4.

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7.3.4 Porewater pressure changes: As part of the instrumentation of the LTE Fleet Line at Regents Park 8 1
a piezometer was installed 1.5 m above the tunnel on the centreline prior to its construction (see Appendix 6).
The monitoring of the pressure during the construction of the tunnel showed that as the shield approached the
pressure rose by 2 m, to 19 m head of water, before falling dramatically t o 5 m as the shield passed below. During
the subsequent 12 months the pressure recovered to approximately 13 m.
Piezometers were also installed in the vicinity of the second tunnel from both the surface and from within
the tunnel. As the tunnel was at an axis level 14 m above the first tunnel the pressures were considerably lower
and the results not so conclusive. It is expected that in this case the pressures probably went negative as the shield
passed, though they could not be measured with the type of piezometers installed.
Recently porewater pressure piezometers were installed in the vicinity of a sewer tunnel being constructed
in silt at the NWA Tyneside Willington Gut contract 83. These showed that the pressures rose by 1.5 m head of
water following the passing of the shield, (see Appendix 6).

7.4 Surface settlement


The process of driving a tunnel will cause some surface settlement, although often insignificant, in all soft
ground and in some weak rock tunnels on account of the changes in the ground stresses and porewater pressures
in the vicinity of the excavation. In many soils these changes in the stress pattern are of benefit to the construction and allow the strength of the ground to be mobilised thus reducing the short term and in some cases the long
term loading on the lining. The surface settlements and deformation below ground level must, however, be kept t o
a minimum to avoid damage to the structures above. In some soils special measures such as compressed air,
chemical consolidation or de-watering may be necessary to reduce the ground movements.
There are many factors which affect the development of ground movements: these include the type of strata
and the soil parameters, ground water conditions, the geometry and the depth of the tunnel, the method of
excavation and the type of lining used for the tunnel, the rate of progress of the tunnel and the distance from the
face to the structural lining when the ground is only partially supported. The effect of many of these items is
difficult to assess on account of the small number of case histories available and the overlapping of the contributory factors. In uniform soil, however, with ideal tunnelling conditions and methods of construction, the movements will be related to the ground type and this is generally the approach used when discussing settlement. However, such movements are those associated with the construction of the tunnel and do not take into account large
movements associated with loss of ground or falls at the face which may be accompanied by considerable damage
to structures above.
The designer of a tunnel will be required to assess the magnitude of the surface movements which would be
considered tolerable and acceptable to the structures and thus the method of construction will, in many cases, be
specified by the designer to meet these requirements. When considering damage to structures above a tunnel the
differential or relative movement across the building or between sections of the building is important rather than
the absolute magnitude of the settlement.

The measurement of surface movements are carried out either:

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or

a)

on studs or tubes cast into concrete blocks, preferably in openSareas,which extend several feet below
the ground surface and which are positioned at set points along the centreline of the tunnel or
transversely t o the tunnel,

(b)

on studs positioned on structures, pavement and road surfaces situated above the line of the tunnel
which are convenient for surface levelling. In both cases reference datum points are positioned well
outside the likely trough of movement.

The results of the readings in open areas generally give consistent results, within the accuracy of the instruments and operators, for which smooth settlement trough curves can be drawn. In most strata the ground movements develop over a relatively short period and are therefore not affected by the general ground movements due
t o varying climate and ground conditions, including water table level and vegetation. The results of readings on
structures, pavements and road surfaces, however, vary considerably, often by a factor of two or three and the
width o f the settlement trough is therefore ill-defined. For example, the results of the settlement profile readings
l
Park showed a maximum settlement reading above the centreline of each
above the LTE Fleet ~ i n e at~ Regents
o f t h e tunnels o f 5 t o 7 mm, which was confirmed by stud points along the pavement adjacent to the park. Under
t h e built up area, however, the surface movements varied from 6 to 18 mm but were generally restricted to 6 to
1 2 mm. The discrepancy between these readings may be explained by variation in the strength of the London Clay
and t h e strata above, areas of unconsolidated material or voids below the structures, aggravation of previous settlem e n t o r t h e bridging of the structures over sections of the settlement trough. The idealised cases therefore will give
a range of settlement but the maximum settlement may be two or three times this value. Likewise the plots of
readings from different schemes may not be consistent.

7.4.1 Development of settlement profile and trough: The settlement caused by tunnelling is a troughlike depression which, in a horizontally bedded ground, is symmetrical about the centreline of the tunnel. The
width of the trough is largely dependent upon the depth of the tunnel below ground level and the type of strata.
and schrnidt90 have proposed a statistical model t o express the settlement trough which approximates to
t h e shape of an error function or probability curve with the maximum settlement value above the tunnel centreline. Attewell and ~ a r m e r discussed
~l
two cases of settlement in clay. In the first case the settlement profile fitted
the probability curve accurately b u t in the second case, in London Clay, the trough was elongated with the near
maximum settlement extending over a larger proportion of the settlement trough probably due to the overrelated the extent of the settlement trough to a
consolidated state o f the London Clay. Deere et a17 and
function of the depth and the diameter which is shown in Fig. 13(a). A shield-driven tunnel advanced in a straight
line a t a uniform rate in uniform ground is most likely t o fit such simplified predictions of settlement.
O n the centreline of a tunnel the ground movements commence at a distance from the face roughly equivalent t o half the width of the settlement trough. In a number of the tunnels, mainly in over-consolidated London
Clay,a slight heave has been detected ahead of the settlement trough 79,80,92
In general the settlement takes place over a relatively short period in most types of ground although in some
instances long term settlement may occur. Fig. 13(b) shows a typical profile of the development of settlement as
t h e face of the tunnel advances towards the point of observation. In most instances this settlement will be 8 0 per
cent t o 9 0 per cent complete when the face of the tunnel has travelled a distance equivalent to one to two times
the depth of the tunnel past the point of observation. Additional movement may occur when the compressed air
is removed from a tunnel constructed using this method. The amount of settlement which occurs ahead of the
shield, over the shield and behind the shield varies for different materials. In general, for soft ground tunnels the
percentages fall into the ranges given in Table 11.

TABLE 11
Development of settlement profile

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Type of Ground

Percentage of Total Settlement Completed


At Face of Shield
At Passage of Tail of Shield
%
%

Sand above water table

30-50

60-80

Stiff clays

30-60

50-75

Sand below water table

0-25

50-75

Silts and soft clays

0-25

30-SO*

In the case of tunnels constructed in compressed air these percentages are of the initial settlement.

For tunnels in weak rock the magnitude and extent of the settlement will be dictated to a large extent b y
the depth of the tunnel, the method of construction and the discontinuities in the rock. If the tunnel is at a
considerable depth, the arching effect above the tunnel will reduce the surface settlement t o a minimum. If it is
nearer the surface, within say two diameters, larger settlement will occur. The method of construction will, however, have a considerable bearing on the ultimate settlement. If the tunnel is machine excavated with the shove
force from the shield transferred to the lining, less settlement will usually occur compared with the arrangement
whereby the shove force is provided by a reaction ring which is jacked against the ground. In highly fissured rock
the several cycles of loading and unloading of the reaction ring at any point as the shield progresses may open up
these fissures above the tunnel, extending the height of arching above the tunnel 85.
When considering damage to structures above a tunnel the differential movement across the building or
section of the building can be assessed from Fig. 13 and the effect of this movement o n the structure calculated.

7.4.2 Extent of settlement: It is generally found that the volume of the settlement trough a t the surface is
approximately equivalent to the volume of the ground lost in the tunnel. In Section 7.3 the ground movement
around the tunnel has been discussed together with the rate of movement axially and radially around the tunnel.
In granular soils above the water table the method of construction of the tunnel will have a considerable
bearing on the loss of ground. If the ground is densely packed, and the lining can be erected and grouted without
the ground falling onto the lining, very little settlement will occur. If the ground moves onto the lining and fills
the grouting space the whole of this movement will be reproduced at the surface. If the material is loose, precautions will be necessary to restrict slides or falls into the face by using a table or series of tables in the shield.
With granular materials below the water table ground drainage will be required during the construction of
the tunnel. If compressed air is used the drainage effect of the tunnel will be reduced and little settlement o n this
account will occur. Unlike soft clays and silts little additional movement will normally occur when the air is turned
off93. In the few cases where readings of surface settlement have been taken above tunnels in granular material
below the watertable. settlements of the order of 6 to 15 mm have been recorded.
Although the majority of settlement readings have been taken above tunnels constructed in stiff to hard
clays, it is still difficult to predict accurately the settlement which will occur above a tunnel in clay. Attewell and
~ a r m e ? ' demonstrated an empirical relation for the prediction of settlement in London Clay based on the depth
and diameter. The relation gives an indication of the settlement for tunnels at a depth to diameter ratio greater

than three b u t , as discussed above, there are many factors which affect the ground movements and thus this
relation can be indicative only.

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Typical examples of settlement in stiff clay include those for the small diameter (2.5 m) Wedge Block lining
constructed at a high rate of progress at depth t o diameter ratios of 15 t o 2 0 , when negligible movement occurred
(1 t o 2 mm); and those for the LTE running tunnels of 4 m diameter at depth to diameter ratios of 5 t o 10 when
settlement of the order of 6 t o 1 5 m m occurred. When a tunnel is constructed with a pilot, settlements of this
order may be expected during the construction of the pilot and, again, for the main tunnel.
For tunnels in soft clays or silts considerably larger settlements will occur on account of the low strengths
of the material. The use of compressed air will reduce this movement but, when the air is removed, additional
settlement will occur often one t o two times the original settlement, probably due to the consolidation of the
ground immediately above the tunnel. The few cases of settlement readings for tunnels in silt have recorded movements of 5 0 t o 1 5 0 m m (see Appendix 6).
Special care is also needed in organic soils, including peat, where drainage or use of compressed air may
cause dramatic shrinkage of the ground. No monitoring has been carried out in these conditions.

7.4.3 Discussion on ground movements and settlement:

determined the volume of the settlement trough based o n the graph o f the extent of the trough given in Fig. 13 and the maximum settlement. For
London Clay Peck found that the width of the trough was proportional t o the depth. During the construction of
the LTE Victoria Line and Fleet Line, settlement readings were taken above a number of tunnels at depths varying
from 2 0 m t o 35 m and at different rates of progress. The volume of the settlement troughs per unit length of
tunnel have consistently fallen into the range of 0.17 m3/m and 0.20 m3/m. In the cases of twin tunnels or pilot
and enlargement tunnels similar results have been recorded for each drive.
and Bartlett and ~ u b b e r s ~ ~
showed that for a number of tunnels in London Clay the cross sectional area of the settlement trough at the
surface represented 1.0 per cent t o 2.0 per cent of the area of the face of the tunnel. Muir Wood 9 showed that
when special precautions, as discussed in Section 7.3, were taken for the Heathrow Cargo Tunnel this percentage
could be reduced t o 0.2 per cent while for tunnels in sand the percentage will be higher, at 2 per cent rising t o
6 per cent for tunnels in silt. More case histories based on the assumption of high standards of workmanship are
required however, especially in strata other than clay, before more accurate predictions can be made.
have discussed the distribution of the loss of ground in the tunnel between
Several commentators77,91
that occurring a t the face, along the shield, and after the erection of the lining. The loss at the face will be
proportional t o t h e area of the face while that along the tunnel will be proportional to the circumference,
assuming a constant rate of intrusion into the tunnel. Bartlett and ~ u b b e r and
s ~ Attewell
~
and ~ a r m e r divided
~l
these figures into face take and peripheral take respectively.
T~~

The results of ground movements t o date show that the rate of movement into the face is approximately
twice that of the radial movement, b u t that as the movements develop over different times and distances - the
radial movement over approximately twice that for the face movement - the total inward movements are similar.
The radial movement will normally be restricted by the size of the bead on the shield but the rate of movement
may accelerate after the tail of t h e shield has passed if the bead is too small. Attewell and Boden@ and Attewell
and Farmer 79980,84 have assessed percentages of face and radial take based on monitoring results and on
laboratory testing and have shown that up to 2 0 per cent may occur after the lining is erected. These methods
assume a constant rate of intrusion for the average rate of progress of the shield. However, it has been shown in
Section 7.3 that for tunnels at similar depths and diameters the total movement into the tunnel is not directly
proportional t o the rate of progress of the shield. There is still insufficient information to develop formulae for

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the total ground movement at the periphery of a tunnel but it is likely that the plot of the rate of progress against
the inward movement into the tunnel will be of the parabolic form shown in Fig. 13(c). The data in Table 8
suggest that the average rate of intrusion over the shield may considerably underestimate the instantaneous rates
of intrusion.

7.4.4 Settlement above multiple tunnels: The pattern of settlement caused by the loss of ground during
the construction of two adjacent tunnels in clay has been measured on a number of occasions in the United
Kingdom but seldom above tunnels in other strata. In general, the influence of the second tunnel will cause larger
settlements than those associated with the first tunnel on account of the disturbance caused by the construction
of the f i s t tunnel. During the construction of large underground stations where several tunnels and pilot tunnels
may be constructed at close centres, the settlement will generally be proportional to the number of tunnel drives
carried out within the vicinity of the point of observation. The influence of the second and subsequent tunnels
will normally cause assymmetrical settlement with the greatest value nearest the first tunnel. Fig. 14 gives a typical
i ~ l that where two tunnels have a common wall, the settlesettlement curve above two tunnels. ~ e r z a ~ hshowed
ment caused by the second tunnel may be less than the first.
For tunnels in granular materials the state of compaction of the ground and the watertable level may have
considerable bearing on the loss of ground. No readings have been taken above such tunnels in the United Kingdom
However, if the first tunnel acts as a drain the settlements in the second tunnel will be lower, but if the ground is
loosened above the second tunnel larger settlements can be expected 7 4 .

7.4.5 Settlement above tunnels constructed using pipe jacking methods: Very little information is
available concerning settlement above tunnels constructed using pipe jacking methods. In a small number of
cases large settlements and heaves have occurred at isolated points probably due t o tunnelling difficulties and
losses at the face, or to drag along the tunnel associated with the thrust of the pipe. In general, with pipe jacking
the overcut at the shield is less than that associated with the grouting space for a grouted tunnel lining. This space
is required solely for steerage of the shield and for lubrication along the periphery of the tunnel, except where
intermediate jacking stations are provided. On this account, the settlement a t the surface should normally be less
than for a tunnel. In one or two instances a drag effect has been measured which for jackings of 100 m or more
may cause more settlement than the initial construction 94. This is illustrated in Fig. 15. New methods of reducing
the friction along the periphery, such as the use of anti-drag membrane around the pipe, should reduce this tendency.
7.5 Stresses and hoop loads in linings
collected together the available data on the monitoring of stresses in tunnel linings which showed
that the majority of the data were for tunnels in clay, mainly London Clay, with relatively little data for tunnels
in other soft ground materials. Details of monitoring of tunnels in the United Kingdom are given in Appendix 6.
For tunnels in London Clay the first monitoring was carried out for the LTE extension of the Central Line
to Ilford in 1942 95. During the 1950's and early 1960's the instrumentation of linings was carried out on a large
number of tunnels, mainly with cast iron linings. Most of the instrumentation in the 1960's and early 19703,
however, has been in tunnelslined with expanded linings of concrete, cast iron or steel (see Appendix 6). For
tunnels in other strata the linings have generally been cast iron with a few examples of other linings, including
expanded and grouted concrete linings.
In London Clay the monitoring of stresses in tunnel linings during the construction of new tunnels has
shown that the average stresses generally increase during the first few months to between 5 0 per cent and 7 0 per
cent of the equivalent overburden stress and that,after several years, only a few cases have exceeded 75 per cent.

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Higher stress concentrations 95996,97, several times these values have been recorded in the early measurements
but these may be partly associated with moment stress. The instrumentation of existing tunnels 50 to 75 yearsold
which have been required to be dismantled during the construction of new works has shown combined hoop and
bending stresses* before dismantling in the lining equivalent to, or above, the overburden pressure. Where tunnels
have been constructed adjacent to existing tunnels the combined stresses in the existing tunnel have increased by
between 1 0 per cent and 2 0 per cent as the new tunnel has passed 20 .
The instrumentation of cast iron linings has, in a number of cases, shown considerable differences between
the stresses in the leading and trailing flanges. skempton9' showed that at Ilford, after three days, uneven stresses
developed in one segment with the stress in one flange four times that in the other flange. This particular case
illustrates how uneven stresses can be developed where twisting of the joint or 'birdsmouthing' occurs during the
erection of the lining. Similar results were obtained at the Ely-Ouse tunnel98 where load cells, in pairs, were fitted
at three locations in a number of rings. The loads in the two load cells at a joint often differed by a factor of two
or three showing that the rings had been erected out of plane.
When expanded linings are used in a tunnel in clay the theoretical initial load placed in the lining may be
about 2 5 per cent t o 5 0 per cent of the equivalent overburden load. However, stress readings around expanded
rings have shown that the mean load in the lining immediately after jacking may be considerably less than onehalf of this theoretical load o n account of the friction at the interface between the lining and the ground99. The
method of expanding, at one or two positions, may have a considerable effect on the load.
For tunnels in strata other than London Clay relatively little information is available. In sands below the
water table the two sets of readings available have shown that combined stresses between 8 0 per cent and 100
The bending
per cent of the equivalent overburden stress may develop within the first few months
moments measured in the lining were again large compared with the hoop stress but the total stresses were only
a small proportion of the allowable stress in the cast iron.
769100.

For tunnels in rock, reading? have been taken of the stresses in the arch ribs prior to the casting of a cast
02. The results have generally shown relatively low stresses, lower than those based on Terzaglu's
in-situ lining
method7'. This is probably explained by the relaxation of the ground on account of the compressibility of the
packings between the ground and the arches. Strains measured in a precast concrete segmental bolted lining in
limestone are difficult t o interpret on account of the extent of overbreak and the difficulty of relating strain to
stress 34.

7.6 Recent instrumentation and monitoring of tunnels


As discussed in the previous sections instrumentation and monitoring of tunnel linings and ground movements were carried out in a number of tunnels, mainly in London Clay, during the 1950's and 1960's. During the
last few years the number of projects carried out or in progress has considerably increased partly on account of the
increase in tunnelling in the period but mainly following the expansion of the research effort on tunnels.
There are many gaps in the present knowledge of the behaviour of the ground and of the lining as a tunnel
is constructed, as discussed in the previous sections, and thus the provision of the major part of the money for
such work by a central organisation with a co-ordinated policy should lead to a constructive overall programme of
work.

Subsequent references t o 'combined hoop and bending stresses' have been abbreviated to 'combined stresses'.

52

The monitoring of surface settlements, which is already carried out on many medium and large diameter
tunnels, to detect possible damage to structures above the tunnel, should be carried out on more small diameter
tunnels as part of the normal site checking.
A summary of the instrumentation of tunnel linings and ground movements, with the exception of surface
settlement readings, which have been carried out during the last two or three years or which are at present in
progress is given in Table 12. Further details of these projects, are given in Appendix 6.

TABLE 12

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Recent instrumentation and monitoring of tunnel linings and ground movements


Organisation

Location

Strata

Date

Binnie and
Partners

Kings Lynn

Silt

1974

Horizontal ground movements and surface


settlement readings around a 1.2 m external
diameter tunnel at shallow depth 82.

Building Research
Establishment

Kielder
Northumberland River
Authority

Mudstone
Limestone
Sandstone

1974-75

Instrumentation t o date in mudstone for


comparison of different linings with drill
and blast or roadheader machine excavation.
The linings, 3.35 m external diameter,
included steel arches and laggings, fully
bonded resin anchor bolts, shotcrete and a
thin steel liner. The final section was left
unsupported. The ground movements
around the tunnel were measured with
extensometers at two sections for each of
the linings. Ground movements ahead of the
tunnel were measured in two deep boreholes.
The investigation will continue during the
main contract for the tunnel 7 0.

Channel Tunnel
Consultants
and
Newcastle
University

Dover,
Channel Tunnel

Lower
Chalk

1974-75

Measurements of ground movements around


5.3 m diameter tunnel at considerable
depth, lining loads and stresses in tunnel
lining including specially designed deformable lining 103,104

Durham
University

London

London
Clay

1972-73

Vertical and horizontal surface and ground


movements at three cross sections for 4.1 m
external diameter tunnel at depth 79,80

Tyneside
Hebburn

Laminated
Clay

1973-74

Vertical and horizontal surface and ground


movements at a number of positions along
and transverse to the centreline of 2.0 m
external diameter tunnel at medium depth.
Measurements of axial movements and
movements into the face 8 4.

Tyneside
Tyne Syphon

Coal
Measures

1974

Measurements of ground loadings and of


lining stress in 3.4 m diameter tunnel 105.

Instrumentation and Monitoring

TABLE 12 (Contd)
--

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Organisation

Location

Strata

Tyneside
Willington
Gut

Silty
Clay

Measurements of vertical and horizontal


surface and ground movements and of
porewater pressures at one section for 3 m
external diameter tunnel at medium depth,
constructed with the use of compressed
air 8 3 .

C K Haswell
and Partners

Severn-Wye

Limestone

Measurement of lining stresses in 3.4 m


external diameter tunnel 34 .

Newcastle
University

Mersey
Kingsway
Tunnels

Bunter
Sandstone

Measurements taken, in twin 11 rn external


diameter tunnels, of interaction of rock
stress pattern due to two tunnels at 27.5 m
centres, stresses due to construction of
second tunnel, deformations of the lining,
stress in the lining and outside water
pressure readings 106.

Cleveland
Potash
Boulby
Shaft
Mersey Railway
Liverpool Loop

Transport and
Road Research
Laboratory

Date

Instrumentation and Monitoring

Measurements of inward movements at


considerable depth of soft material 107,

Boulder
Clay

Measurements of settlement and vertical


ground movements and tilts above concourse constructed in various stages, stresses
in the lining and bolts loads87 .

London
Fleet Line
New Cross

Gravel

Measurement of vertical and horizontal


surface and ground movements and porewater pressures around 4.1 m external
diameter tunnel at shallow depth constructed with bentonite machine 8 6.

London
Fleet Line
Regents Park

London
Clay

Measurements of vertical and horizontal


surface and ground movements and porewater pressures around two 4.1 rn external
diameter tunnels at medium depth, lining
loads, stresses and deformations 8 1.

Chinnor

Lower
Chalk

Measurements of vertical and horizontal


surface and ground movements around
5.0 m external diameter tunnel a t shallow
depth in vertical boreholes and from
adjacent shaft in horizontal boreholes.
Rockbolting and shotcreting trials 85,89,108,10$

Warrington

Sand

Measurements of vertical and horizontal


surface and ground movements and porewater pressures around 2.8 m external
diameter tunnel, at shallow depth, constructed with bentonite machine, (in progress).

7.7 Research
Research in the laboratory into tunnel linings and ground movements associated with tunnelling has been
carried out by BRE, TRRL and the Cement and Concrete Association (C & CA) and at Universities.

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Laboratory research into tunnel linings has usually taken the form of load testing of a single segment or
group of segments t o compare the theoretical results with the actual measurements. The earlier tests were carried
out on grey cast iron segments but since the late 1960's much of the work has been carried out on spheroidal
graphite iron. Some cases are discussed in this section.
In the mid 1960's research was carried out at the Civil Engineering Department at the University of Glasgow
into the stresses associated with the tightening of bolts within a group of segments. This work confirmed that
substantial stresses can be built up during the tightening of the bolts and theoretical methods were established t o
enable these stresses to be calculated. The research was based on the correct building of the segments with
complete bearing between the faces of the segments. In practice due to errors in the alignment of the tunnel and
to foreign matter being lodged in the joint, bird's-mouths occur, thus affecting the stress distribution. The joints
between the segments seldom transmit moments across from one segment to the next unless friction grip bolts
are used.
During the construction of the LTE Victoria Line extension to Brixton a number of spheroidal graphite
rings were incorporated into the pilot tunnel for one of the crossovers as described in Section 4.1 and the stresses
and deformations monitored by the BRE. Parallel experiments were carried out in the laboratory t o compare the
predicted stresses in the lining, by plane circular bending methods, with those measured using strain measuring
instruments. Previous experiments had showed that with the conventional grey iron segments beam theory applied
where the segments were loaded at quarter points. For the thinner and wider spheroidal graphite segments
experiments showed that the theory did not hold unless a uniform loading was applied. These experiments were
therefore carried out with the load applied using a flat rubber bag. The results showed that those types of segments behaved essentially as two independent units of skin and flanges
Research work has been carried out
by the Department of Mining Engineering of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne on the stresslstrain behaviour
of a spheroidal graphite cast iron segment. Uniformly distributed loading was applied through a loading plate comprising a layer of sand on the back of the segment. The work concluded that the circular bending theory was not
directly applicable to the segment analysis and that several variable and complex factors make a critical analysis
difficult - these are the variation in section modulus and of external loading.
20977.

These and other experiments on the behaviour of cast iron linings under load are necessary t o help to
establish the complex relations. However, perhaps more important is research into the stresses and deformation
associated with a complete ring of segments. Discussions have been held in the last few years with a view to
carrying out an experimental programme using a 4 m diameter spheroidal graphite lining but the project is
unlikely to be carried out on account of the prohibitive cost of the testing (see Section 13.3).
At the Engineering Geology Laboratories at the University of Durham, laboratory experiments have been
carried out using a clay extrusion technique on 100 mm diameter samples 88. These experiments have included
strain and stress extrusion tests and a dyed-layer extrusion test (see Appendix 6). From the results, rates of
intrusion of the material into an excavation are calculated, from which the theoretical settlement associated with
tunnelling through the particular type of strata is predicted. The approach is in its early stage of development and
data are required from many more schemes before a reliable system can be evolved and the scale effects assessed.
The small number of test samples for any particular scheme also imposes limitations on the predictions 88.

'

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A t the Engineering Department at the University of Cambridge 1yl


12,research is in progress in which
methods o f analysis are combined with model testing including the use of a centrifuge, to investigate the deformation of ground around a tunnel. The initial work considered the question of the stability of a shallow unlined
circular tunnel supported by a uniform internal pressure. By using the theory of plasticity a relatively simple
solution was obtained for the particular case in which a uniform surcharge pressure was applied at the soil surface
with t h e self-weight o f t h e soil neglected. Later work has investigated the stability of tunnels in real soils such as
dense sand whose self-weight may itself cause instability. These tests have been designed to enable the behaviour
of t h e tunnel and the deformation of the soil t o be studied throughout the test. Theoretical solutions have been
drawn u p in parailel with the work. The results demonstrate the inherent stability of a tunnel in dense sand at any
d e p t h provided the integrity of the tunnel is maintained. The research has shown that the collapse mechanism can
be simply modelled, leading t o varied theoretical solutions.

7.8

9'

Development

When new linings are designed and developed experimental work in the laboratory or on a site is often
carried o u t t o check o n t h e suitability of the lining. This work may consist of simple load testing experiments on
segments o r more sophisticated loadings o n a complete lining in the laboratory or below ground level. The
development o f a lining also includes full scale erection tests in a tunnel, preferably behind a shield where the
lining may be studied during handling, erecting and shoving. Where new components are used in a lining these
should be adequately tested for a trial length of tunnel to avoid teething difficulties when the lining is used for
its first few schemes.
Testing of linings in their early stages of development has been carried out since the turn of the century.
When the McAlpine Lining system (see Section 5.6) was developed, large scale testing, using bolts uniformly
loaded and point loaded rings, was carried out in 191 1 on different materials to compare their strengths. In 19313 4 more extensive tests were carried o u t on the lining where the lining was compared with the standard brick
construction. In 1933-34 rings of lining of 2.2 m diameter were tested to destruction in the laboratory at
Imperial College in London during five tests with different horizontal and vertical loadings on various forms of
lining 49.
Extensive testing was also carried out in the mid to late 1930's when bolted concrete linings were developed
for t h e LTE extension o f the Central Line t o Ilford. These included loading tests on rings erected several feet
below ground level with the use of many hundred tonnes of kentledge. The tests on the full-scale prototype
behind a shield were n o t successful and led t o a redesign of the cross section of the
(see Section 5.4).
Similar kentledge tests have been carried out when developing other new linings: a number of rings of the new
lining are erected alongside rings of conventional linings and the deformation monitored as the kentledge is
increased. The development of a permanent test rig, as discussed in Section 13.3, would be of considerably more
use for such testing. Alternative laboratory testing of new linings has included the point load testing o f segments
t o compare them with existing linings. When special solid linings are developed for particular tunnels t h e design of
the longitudinal joint between segmefits requires critical analysis. To help in the design of articulated joints, which
are discussed in Section 5.3 and which may be either flat, convex/convex or concave/convex, laboratory testing
has o f t e n been carried o u t . Test samples of the ends of the two segments, of sufficient length to avoid any end
effects, are cast and tested in specially designed rigs to investigate the behaviour of the joint and of the stresses
imposed in the segments. Such tests have been of particular importance in comparing different joint profiles and
in establishing the quantity of reinforcement required in the segment to prevent bursting. Details of some of the
experiments are discussed in Appendix 6.

8. DESIGN
8.1 Design methods

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The instrumentation and monitoring of tunnel linings and of ground movements has been discussed in
Chapter 7 where it has been shown that for soft ground tunnelling:
a)

The hoop loads in the lining may build up over a period of months or years to a value equivalent to
the full overburden pressure and has only exceeded it in one or two instances. Generally, however,
the hoop loads have been equivalent to approximately 75 per cent of the overburden (see Section
7.5).

b)

Additional distortion may be imposed on the lining by the construction of adjacent tunnels on
account of the reduction in the lateral pressure and of local concentrations of load.

c)

The linings deform after erection as the loads in the lining build up and as the lateral loading is
mobilised by compression and shear between the ground and the lining.

d)

Vertical and horizontal ground movements are associated with the construction of a tunnel. The
extent of these movements depends upon many factors and considerably more instrumentation and
monitoring are required before an adequate understanding of the ground behaviour can be established.
One factor which has a considerable bearing on the movement is the period which elapses between the
excavation of the tunnel and the time the lining takes to begin to carry its share of the load.

There has been comparatively little instrumentation and monitoring of stresses in tunnel linings in weak t o
moderately strong rock in the United Kingdom and much of what exists is of dubious value. The fundamental
design concepts of elasto-plastic behaviour of the ground and the concept of relative compressibility of the lining
are widely accepted. However, the data used for such analyses remain inadequate and insufficiently related t o the
"mass" properties of the ground.
In engineering terms the competence of a rock is a measure of its capacity to resist deformation under a given
loading. Since the loading is usually directly related to the weight of overburden the competence factor (Fc) is
defined as1

where P is the unconfined compressive strength of the ground and a, the initial vertical stress at the tunnel axis
level in the ground. This is twice the reciprocal of the more commonly used stability ratio.
The stability ratio (N) was developed by Broms and ~ennermarkll 4 from earlier related work on bearing
capacities of deep foundations and is defined as

Where

PZ is the total vertical pressure at depth Z


Pa is the air pressure above atmosphere
Cuis the undrained shear strength of the clay

Thus a competence factor o f 0.5 is equivalent to a stability ratio without the use of compressed air of 4,
similarly competence factors of 2 and 1 0 are equivalent to stability ratios of 1 and 0.2 respectively.

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Where Fc is less than 2, immediate support t o the ground is required. If Fc lies between 2 and 1 0 the
stability o f the ground in the unsupported state will depend upon the initial state of stress and on the time
dependent stress-strain characteristics. The excavation for the tunnel will cause negative porewater pressure in the
ground, the rate o f dissipation of which will control the behaviour of the ground. Where local overstressing of the
ground occurs, support will be required. If Fc is greater than 1 0 the ground will be competent and the main
problems will be associated with the discontinuities in the rock or soil.
showed that from a n analysis of a number o f case histories in plastic clays, tunnelling could be
carried o u t without unusual difficulty when the stability ratio was reduced t o 5 or 6 or below with the use of
compressed air.
The tunnel lining and the surrounding ground require t o be treated as a composite structure for the analysis
of t h e state of stress and deformation. The over-riding parameters for this analysis are the relative stiffnesses of
~ '
formulae for (a) the stiffness ratio (that is, the ratio of the stiffthe lining and t h e ground. ~ o r ~ a nexpressed
ness o f the tunnel lining t o that o f t h e surrounding ground) for the simplest elliptical mode of deformation of a
circular tunnel and (b) the bending moment in the lining. This type of approach contrasts to the design of overstiff linings o f very high stiffness ratio.

8.1.1 Soft ground tunnels: The soft ground tunnels constructed in the United Kingdom during the last
century and the early part of this century were lined mainly in brick, masonry or cast iron. The thickness of the
linings had been established mainly b y trial and error and in particular the sections for the cast iron linings were
generally very conservative for the permanent conditions, on account of the large temporary stresses during
erection and the casting requirements for the segments. Based on these trial and error methods, rule-of-thumb
dimensioning of t h e cross section o f the cast iron linings was available for cohesive and waterbearing soils 115.
The following requirements should be taken into account in the design of a tunnel lining for soft ground.
a)

The stresses associated with the short term and the long term loadings from the ground, including
those from any probable future tunnels or buildings nearby. The deformations caused by these
loadings should be k e p t within the limits appropriate to the particular lining.

b)

The a m o u n t o f leakage which will be tolerated in the completed tunnel, taking into account the
deformation of the lining in (a). As discussed in Section 13.4 the method of waterproofing the
joints should be taken into account during the design stage.

c)

The impact stresses during the handling, transporting and erection of the segments.

d)

For shield driven tunnels the loadings associated with the shoving of the shield.

e)

The cost of casting and erecting the lining. The design should, where possible, take into account the
probable tunnelling method and method of erection of the lining. The ideal lining should form part
o f a fully integrated system.

Grey iron is a material of low tensile strength, thus the sections have been designed to take the temporary
conditions o f handling, erection and bolting and the shoving forces from the shield. For the permanent conditions
these linings often had a factor o f safety of 4 to 1 0 and thus additional stresses imposed on the lining by the
construction of adjacent tunnels did not generally cause distress to the lining, provided measures were taken to
limit any excessive bending arising from distortion of the cross section.

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In the early part of this century these linings were often designed using the method proposed by Hewitt
and ~ohannesson' which was developed for shield driven tunnels. This method takes into account the lateral
support provided by the ground and the lining-soil interaction but it was assumed that the line of action coincided
with the centreline of the section. The tunnel was regarded as a continuous rigid structure both in the temporary
and permanent conditions. For the temporary conditions during the erection of the lining and for an unsupported,
ungrouted ring it was assumed that the dead load of the ring was supported on two knife edges near the invert of
the tunnel. For the permanent conditions it was assumed that the lateral pressure lay between the values for the
active and the passive pressures, the actual value being chosen according to the expected ground conditions. This
design method, however, used the right basic approach for tunnels with low cover and a small competence factor.
Many other design methods have been developed in the last thirty years for cast iron lined tunnels, several
of which have been described by Szechy 16. These methods generally make arbitrary assumptions for the loading
on the lining and give a large variation in the values for the stresses and moments, and thus for the stiffness of the
linings, when compared for similar tunnel conditions. One such method is that developed by ~ u l l l' 7 (see Appendix
7). The results of'the instrumentation of the lining for the SizewellTunnel (see Appendix 6) were compared with
several theoretical methods. Bull's method was found to give the closest correlation to the measured stresses. The
majority of these methods, however, have been little used in the United Kingdom.
Cast iron segments are bolted together in rings to form a cylinder. In the longitudinal direction the flanges
are machined and theoretically there should be only small bending moments associated with the tightening of the
bolts (see Appendix 6). In practice 'birdsmouthing' occurs on account of the incorrect building of the ring and
considerable bending moments may be built into the flanges; these are referred to as the building stresses.
However, on account of the large factors of safety the longitudinal flanges seldom crack. During erection, bolting,
grouting and caulking, which is often carried out at a later date, stresses may be built into the lining which may
affect considerably the stress distribution around the ring. For this reason it is often difficult to correlate the
measured stresses in a lining with those calculated by theoretical methods.
When precast bolted concrete linings were introduced in the late 1930's the linings were designed generally
to the same profile as the cast iron linings, with an increase in the thickness of the flanges and the skin to allow
for the reinforcement. The segments and rings were test loaded, as described in Chapter 7 and compared with the
cast iron segments. The lining was also erected in a tunnel behind a shield, as discussed in Section 5.4, and
following damage caused by the shield rams the lining was strengthened. The present standard bolted linings have
evolved from the original linings, as discussed in Section 5.4 and are generally designed for tunnels up to 30 m in
depth. The design of these linings is often carried out using the formulae developed by ~ o a r k l' 8 in "Formulae
for Stress and Strain" for rings and pipes.
The temporary stresses in linings developed during handling, erection and shoving of the shield are, however,
more critical and the skin in the standard designs are more likely to crack, than cast iron, when excessive forces
are applied from the shield rams*. The reinforcement in the segments will mainly be required for these temporary
conditions of handling, erection and shoving.
When articulated and expanded linings were introduced in the 1950's more attention was given to the design
of the linings. The segments for these linings are solid and are not bolted together. The stresses in the segments at
and near to the joints become critical.
-

In practice spalling and cracking may also occur with solid smoothbore linings but these are often caused by the
lining being out of plane or, in a few cases, when the position of the rams coincides with the joints between the
segments in the ring.

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~ o r ~ a proposed
n ~ '
a method of analysis which was originally developed for tunnels in London Clay but
which has subsequently been used for many tunnels in soft ground or weak rock (see Appendix 7). This method
considers the state of stress around a circular hole at depth and in particular the loading on the lining from the
ground. When a circular tunnel is subjected to ground loadings it deforms to an ellipse causing bending moments
in the lining which can be related by conventional beam theory to the deformation. The stress in the ground set
up by the deformations can be represented by a stress function from which the radial and circumferential stresses
can be determined for certain boundary conditions. The changes in horizontal and vertical loadings on the
segments, and thus the moments, can then be assessed for this passive loading and the moments for the active
ground loadings superimposed. The extreme fibre stresses can then be determined by the addition of the hoop
loadings. These stresses are related t o the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the ground.
The introduction of articulated and thinner linings also required the stability of the lining, which evolved
from the loading formula, to be determined.
Several commentators have observed that Morgan's analysis3' contained some errors apart from the intentional simplifying assumptions. The shear stresses between the extrados of the lining and the ground were
neglected which in turn simplified the solution. The main 'error' concerned the assumption that the plane strain
entailed plane stress which lead t o a higher value by a factor of 2 to 4 for the coefficient of ground reaction.
Muir wood1 l 9 modified the Morgan method and corrected the basic errors while at the same time updating
the method from the practical experience of the intervening years (see Appendix 7). The stiffness ratio is incorporated and he shows that if this is taken into account there is a reduction in the bending moment in the lining.
The effect of the shear forces between the ground and the lining and a compressibility factor are also introduced.
The,compressibility factor is the compressibility of the tunnel in relation to that of the surrounding ground and
thus if a high factor is provided the loading in the lining is reduced. The work of Muir wood1 19, however,
although updating ~ o r ~ a n ' shas
~ ' been further discussed by curtis12' and Muir w o o d l 2 l .
Other methods have been introduced overseas in the last decade which have been mainly used for tunnels
~~
which is based on the theory o f cylindrical
in granular material. These include Schulze and ~ u d d e c k ' s lanalysis
shells and assumes that the ground does not offer support to the lining in the crown of the tunnel (see Appendix.
7). An active loading for bending equivalent to the overburden pressure is used which gives a stiffer lining than
the British methods. The value for this active pressure is likely to be highly conservative and it is hoped that the
present research at Cambridge (see Section 7.7) will provide more realistic loadings and methods of analysis.
In most of these design methods the formulae for the stresses and bending moments in the lining depend
upon geotechnical parameters which are often difficult to assess accurately for the particular and varying ground
conditions near a tunnel. In some cases, however, the methods entail simple analyses of the design of the lining
which give at least an indication of the order of magnitude of the likely stresses and moments. For articulated
linings, the problems of unknown secondary stresses may often be kept to insignificant levels.
~ e c kintroduced
~ ~ $a semiempirical
~ ~ ~
approach to design where the lining is first designed for the ring
loading and then the bending moments for the normal deformation of the lining and for the local irregularities of
loading and stresses (see Appendix 7). Peck shows that there is a theoretical maximum ring load which the lining
would need to sustain if the tunnel were constructed instantaneously but that, on account of axial and radial
deformation of the ground as the tunnel face approaches, during the construction and until the load builds up in
the lining, the theoretical maximum load is smaller than this value. He suggests, however, that the ring load should
be based o n the overburden pressure as there are insufficient data realistically to justify reducing this value. For
heavily over consolidated clays he suggests that the assumed ring load should be increased for values of KO,the

coefficient of earth pressure at rest, greater than 1. As discussed above this is not generally confirmed by the
results of instrumentation. A high KO must be associated with a certain minimum permanent shear strength of the
ground.

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~ e c kassesses
~ ~ the
, magnitude
~ ~ ~ of the deformation for a perfectly flexible lining and checks for stability
against buckling. The lining can then be designed either as a flexible lining which will then take this deformation
or as a rigid or semi-rigid lining which should not be overstressed with these deformations. The deformation of the
lining should take into account any relaxation of lateral pressure associated with the possible construction of
adjacent tunnels. In addition the lining should be designed for any additional loads due to shield forces, irregularities of loading, or distortion in the longitudinal direction. These may be covered by an increase in the factor of
safety.
~ u r t i s discusses
'~~
the visco-elastic method of analysis which enables the time-dependent effects, such as
consolidation and creep to be taken into account. Using the Kelvin Model he develops formulae for a number of
viscoelastic situations. The analysis initially studies the case of a lining installed instantaneously, which gives the
long term solution, and this is modified for the delay in inserting the lining. A further analysis is carried out to study
the stress changes in the ground and added to the results of the first analysis. The formulae are derived for a thick
lining subjected to a uniform radial load and a distortion load and for the case of the construction of two adjacent
tunnels.
The basic principles of the British approach to the design of tunnel linings, which are shared by some American
and other overseas countries, but not generally by the Germans are for a light, flexible, compressible lining. The '
ratio of the stiffness and compressibility of the tunnel lining to that of the ground, whilst having a considerable
bearing on the stresses to be carried by the lining, have a reduced effect on the ground and lining deformations.
When tunnels are constructed alongside existing tunnels there will be a reduction in the lateral soil support
pressure on the existing tunnel and a corresponding asymmetrical increase in the deformation of the lining. The
distortion associated with the construction of adjacent tunnels is discussed in Section 7.2. Other data on foreign
tunnels are given by
Except where tunnels are constructed closer than half a diameter the effect is
relatively small, increasing the stresses by 10 per cent to 20 per cent, except for ground of a very low competence
factor.
The effect of the ram forces from the shield, handling, and erecting forces should be assessed for the lining.
The ram forces may be calculated from the jacking forces acting longitudinally on a segment and the stresses
calculated on the cross section. If several rings are ungrouted, longitudinal buckling or lateral displacement may
occur. The handling stresses are normally associated with segments being dropped either singly from 7. height or a
number of segments falling onto a segment. This requires conventional structural analysis as discussed in Appendix
7. The effect of bolting stresses is discussed in Appendix 6 .

8.1.2 Rock tunnels: Numerical methods, particularly finite element techniques, are now being widely used for
the design of tunnel linings and to analyse the behaviour of the rock. They are of particular value where large
underground chambers and passages are to be constructed, where finite element methods have great potential in
analysing stress and strain distributions. Many different programs are available from which to choose the most
suitable for the individual requirement of the geometry of the tunnel and the material properties of the ground.
The analyses are normally two-dimensional; although three-dimensional methods are available the computer
storage capacity required for the complex problems often makes them uneconomic except for academic study.
In general, errors in the prediction compared with the outcome are not due to the use of two-dimensional methods
for three-dimensional problems but are due rather to the incorrect rock mass idealisation. If a fraction of the

expenditure on finite element systems had been spent on trying to understand the mass properties of jointed rock
t h e present state of the art would be far more advanced. Finite element techniques may be used not only for stress
analysis b u t also for water flows and seepage problems, when great care is needed in taking account of inhomogeneit y.

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The principles of finite element analysis are easily understood but the programs are complex and to avoid
misuse require considerable knowledge and practice in their use. For non-linear stresslstrain analysis t h e procedure
of loading is of considerable importance since there is no unique solution and superposition is no longer possible.
The main scope at present for finite element techniques lies in parametric studies, i.e. the examination of the
variation in the different variables and in considering the failure modes in relation t o the joint pattern. The shortcoming of the technique lies in the fact that n o tunnel goes through strictly isotropic ground and that the soil and
rock parameters are t o some degree variable. While soil may be treated as a continuum without too much error, for
rock the discontinuities are more important than the rock sample properties, consequently certain finite element
models attempt t o model the joint behaviour. In designing experiments in real ground, too little heed is often
given t o such factors so that the results appear scattered and inconsistent. To enable more precise modelling many
m o r e case histories are required for analysis coupled with research. In this connection the present model analysis
a t Cambridge University (see Section 7.7) should help t o give a better understanding of the problem. For simple
two-dimensional problems, elastic study may be undertaken cheaply using photoelastic models. Jelly and frozenstress photoelastic models also often serve to provide adequate information on 3-D problems.
The most versatile of the several methods for finite element analysis is the use of standard elements which
correspond t o the rock mass and special elements t o model the discontinuities and simulate joint movements.
Likewise, t h e method o f excavation (drill and blast or machine excavation) may have a considerable bearing on
t h e extent t o which the discontinuities may open, which may well affect design assumptions 125,126,127
Design methods such as those outlined above are of great help to get the 'feel' of the problem b u t with the
present knowledge they require empirical calculations to confirm their predictions, and they will always require to
be complemented by engineering judgement. If simple programs can be built up following the initial design they
may be of considerable use during the construction if input data are modified as the ground conditions and tunnel
behaviour become clear, thus enabling new predictions to be made for lining thickness, ground support, rock
bolting, and similar aspects.
The extent of the need for a primary lining in a rock tunnel is governed by the response of the rock mass to
the stress redistribution following excavation. Many factors affect this redistribution including the initial state of
stress, the shape, size and depth of the excavation and the method of excavation. Calculations, model testing and
finite element analysis methods, are available to analyse the stress fields but generally the information on the
geological data, the rock mass behaviour and the in-situ state of stress are insufficient.
The in-situ rock stress may be inferred from strain measurements at selected points but no universal
calculation methods are available. The vertical component of the stress may be as high or higher than the average
overburden pressure, while the ratio between principal stresses depends on the geological history, but in soils
cannot exceed the coefficient of passive earth pressure (Kp)*. For a tunnel at depth an initial approach based on
the theory of elasticity may be appropriate.

K p = an' (45 + 01/2) +


density of the material.

Tan (45 + @'/2) where s@


i' the angle of friction, c' the cohesion and 7 the immersed

In an elastic continuum the redistribution of stress following the advance of a tunnel will be complete when
the face is several diameters beyond the point of observation. In nonelastic media, however, the deformation may
continue as the rock around the opening adjusts to the new loadings causing tension cracks and the opening of
joints. As discussed above in general the greater the deformation the lower the final load which the lining will be

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required to withstand (see Fig. 16). Thus if a stiff costly lining is erected immediately, the load in the lining will be
hlgher than if a more economical deformable or yielding support is used. Similarly, if the excavation takes place in
stages, the effect on the stress pattern of each stage of the excavation should be taken into account. While the
deformation of the rock is continuing visual inspection and measurements are essential. If the rate of deformation is
decreasing the support is usually adequate. An alternative method, and a safer rule, may be based on a plot of
deformation against time. If the slope is increasing, additional support will be necessary.
The support needed for an excavation will be influenced by the discontinuity characteristics of the rock
and thus a series of zones should be designated, t o cover the extremes of rock jointing conditions likely t o be
encountered, entailing studies of degrees of fracturing and analysis of preferred joint directions, using graphical
methods. Zoning techniques are valuable, using simple tests whereby designs are prepared for each zone type of
ground encountered.
The most widely used forms of ground support are steel ribs and lagging, rock bolts and sprayed concrete.
Where a primary lining is required, this is normally cast in-situ concrete.
The rock loads associated with ribs and lagging and the primary lining have normally been designed using
Terzaghl's method7l, which was the first rational approach t o evaluating the rock loads (see Appendix 7). In the
absence of quantitative information on joints, this method is the best basis available, but should be modified in
relation to experience and engineering judgement based on the particular tunnel conditions or instrumentation
results. The method was designed for tunnels excavated by drill and blast methods and assumes that a bridging
'
a table which gives
effect occurs above the tunnel thus forming a rectangular shaped loading. ~ e r z a g h i ~gives
typical rock loadings for different types of ground conditions based on the width and the height of the tunnel
(see Appendix 7).
Terzaghi was principally concerned with relatively rigid tunnel supports. More recent methods64 take
account of the ability of rock bolts, where suitably disposed, to cause the rock to act as an arch, thus relieving
the dead load to be accepted by other means of support.
When designing for rock bolts a knowledge of the state of stress of the rock, its physical and mechanical
properties are again essential. The several forms of rock bolts commonly used have been discussed in Section 6.2.
The design for a rock bolt system has developed partly by rule of thumb methods which are based on experience,
and others. The important variables are length
but far more by the simple type of analysis advocated by
and density of the bolts, working load, pre-load and stiffness. Several design methods have been put forward,
including those of ~ o o d m a 129
n and Ortlepp 30.

an^^^

The bolts must be of sufficient length to prevent the collapse of the beam or arch formed by the rock and
the bolts around the soffit of the tunnel. The bolts must be close enough to prevent individual blocks falling out
with additional support provided such as steel mesh or steel plating if required. The tension in the bolts once built
up by the rock load or by pre-tensioning must not be allowed t o relax unduly on account of movement of the
rock, although in certain circumstances bodily movement of the rock bolt may be permitted. Routine checking
ofthe bolt tensions should be carried out to ensure that the anchorages are not impaired by blasting damage 131.

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Pull o u t tests in the type o f rock likely to be encountered are essential unless other information from other
tunnels is available for comparison6'. Finite element analyses have been undertaken but it is unlikely that these
have been very seriously used as a basis for design. Coates et
adopt the generally accepted view that the rock
under tensile o r low compressive stress is that most likely t o fail. He suggested that where the length of the bolt is
greater than a quarter o f the span, the spacing should be less than 0.8 of the length of the bolt. If the length is
less than a quarter span the spacing should be half the length. The spacing should not at any time exceed three
times the joint spacing unless a wire mesh is used to help support individual blocks. Other approaches which are
widely used suggest closer spacing, of 113 t o % of the span of the opening with a length to spacing ratio of at least
2%. The extent o f the rock around the crown which is t o be bolted depends upon the nature of the rock and the
jointing pattern. Measurements o f the deformation of the rock will give data on the diametral strain and thus the
in-situ state of stress. Rock reinforcement may show signs of distress where the diametral strain increases above
0.2 t o 0.3 per cent.
For the design of sprayed concrete for tunnels Terzaghl's theory of rock loading cannot be used. The
essential object of the sprayed concrete is t o form with the rock, a compressible stressed arch. Design methods
based o n shear strength of the sprayed concrete may overestimate the thickness since they do not represent the
interaction between rock and concrete shell. Most design methods for sprayed concrete with or without rock bolts
have been developed b y trial and error and are normally specific to limited ranges of ground conditions. The
methods are often tied t o ground classification systems, such as Rock Quality Designation (RQD). There is a great
need for more meaningful methods of classification. Several classification systems have been evolved, the more
~,
et allo, ~ieniawski'l , Barton et all2, ~ a u f f e r ' and
~~,
recent of which have been proposed by ~ e e r eFranklin
~ e c i l 34.
' Each system provides guide lines for the extent of support required for various rock types based on
classification factors. The qualitative assessment of jointing (whether open, nature of filling etc.) is the most
difficult factor t o represent adequately in numerical terms. A study of case histories for similar types of ground
conditions is a considerable benefit 6 8 .
The new Austrian Method of t u n n e l ~ i n ~which
~ ~ ~has
, ' been
~ ~ used for many tunnels in Europe is based
on the principal t h a t it is desirable t o take advantage of the capacity of the rock being able to support itself. The
method generally incorporates t w o stages of support: the first a flexible arch designed to 'stabilise' the structure,
of rock anchors and sprayed concrete surface protection. The second support is an inner concrete lining. The first
support is based o n a predicted curve of radial stress against deformation which is confirmed by measurements in
the tunnel and additional support given where necessary.

8.2 Joints in linings


With the introduction of articulated linings the design of the joints has become particularly important;
model or full scale testing is normally required during the design stages. For the LTE Victoria Line tests were
carried o u t on the design of concave/convex and convex/convex joints (see Appendix 4), which gave the load
characteristics for different radii o f curvature of the joint and the angle of movement 231137. These showed
that for the concave/convex joint the joint strength decreased by up to 5 0 per cent as the angle between the two
segments increases from zero t o 3O, on account of the change in the relative geometry of the contact surface and
the boundary of the segment. The testing of such joints gives a good indication of the mode of failure (see
Appendix 4).
The maximum compressive stress at the area of contact of the joint is many times higher than that in the rest
of t h e segment. The joint acts as a plastic hinge. Theoretical methods of analysis of the joint stress are best carried
out using finite element techniques based on the design loading and assumed figures for concrete strength. In using
these methods reference should first be made t o joint configurations which have been used previously to check on
the design basis (see Section 5.3).

8.3 Openings in preformed linings

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For the design of openings in preformed tunnel linings for access passages and ventilation openings the load
in the rings from which the segments are removed is transferred t o the adjacent jamb rings. For a two ring opening
the transfer of this load is unlikely to overstress the jamb rings if adequate factors of safety have been used in the
design of the standard lining. For openings greater than two rings, however, special jambs will be necessary or
alternatively the load should be transferred to at least two rings on each side of the opening. Several methods of
transfer of this loading have been used or proposed which essentially produce a structural beam above and below
the opening. These include:
a)

The use of a rectangular frame of special segments, picture frame or shaped voussoirs around a curved
opening.

b)

Steel segments above and below the opening bolted together with friction grip bolts or shear pins t o
form beams which transfer the loads to the adjacent rings.

c)

Removal of the segments directly above and below the opening and a steel lintel beam and sill inserted
to take the loads. To reduce needs for temporary support of the tunnel soffit and invert segments,
during the construction of the opening,theload may be transferred by a series of brackets as each
ring is broken out.

d)

For solid concrete segments, shear pins between the segments may be used (see Figs. 17 and 18).
Semi-circular holes are cast in the circumferential joint of the segments and the circular hole formed
between two adjacent segments filled with dry packed concrete. For larger openings prestressing bars
have been inserted through sleeves in these segments and stressed to form lintels above and below the
opening 35.

8.4 Linings in mining areas


The design of tunnels in areas where mining is or will be carried out requires a knowledge of the way the
settlement profile develops138 caused by mineral extraction. The lining must be designed t o sustain, without
distress, the development of this profile as the mining face approaches and passes the tunnel. Following extraction,
settlement over the area will be fairly uniform except for areas where there are hard spots or faults. In general the
effect of mining is to cause extension, subsidence and compression.
The lining must be flexible in the longitudinal direction with compressible jointing material designed t o
extend and compress as the settlement profile is developed. The thickness of this jointing material must be sufficient
to allow for this movement without unsealing the joint. The National Coal Board (NCB) have estimated that for
the present 0.6 m wide standard rings the maximum movement which is likely to occur on account of extraction of
future coal seams is 0.8 per cent of the diameter of the ring.(see Section 17.8.3). Where the extraction is of a small
thickness the movement may be considerably less. The correct geometry of the joints, whether they are specially
designed or conventionally bolted segments with loosened bolts, is the most important part of the design of the
tunnel. If the space between the segments is too small cracking of the flanges or spalling of the concrete will occur.
Methods available for tunnels in mining areas are discussed in Section 10.32.

9. WATERPROOFING

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The temporary measures available t o reduce the ingress of water during the construction of a tunnel have been
discussed briefly in Chapter 6 . The permanent measures commonly used to seal the primary lining are discussed in
this chapter.
Specifications often require that a tunnel should be completely dry. This may not, however, be economically
possible in water-bearing ground and consideration should always be given to the tunnel use, especially when
additional waterproofing measures are being discussed. Visible issues of running or dripping water are usually
unacceptable but in many instances, from Brunel's Thames Tunnel onwards, leading the water in channels behind
a facing o r canopy has been considered acceptable. Figures of the quantities of water flowing into a number of
c o n ~ p l e t e dtunnels, given in Table 13, show the very large differences between tunnels in similar ground conditions.
These figures, which refer t o a relatively small number of tunnels in varying ground conditions, confirm that
generally a tunnel lined in cast iron will give a drier tunnel than one lined in concrete segments. If, however, new
techniques of sealing joints are developed comparable results may be obtained.
For road and cable tunnels and rail tunnels, where track circuits are used for signalling, there must be no
dripping water in the main area of the tunnel. In road tunnels seepage water is unsightly and should be led behind
a watertight secondary lining t o the invert drainage system. For railway tunnels dripping water or dampness may
interrupt t h e signalling or electric circuits and thus all joints must be adequately sealed above the track level. When
the ingress o f water before caulking is small and adequate pumping capacity is available, the joints in the invert
(ie below roadway or track) may be left uncauked, thus relieving the pressure on the joints above. For cable
tunnels a dry environment is required when the cable jointing is in progress, consequently temporary measures
may be necessary in the vicinity of this work. In some cases the acceptable inflow of water in the invert may be
several times that from the upper part of the tunnel.
For tunnels carrying raw water and for sewer tunnels, the ingress or egress of water must be reduced to a
minimum, while for tunnels carrying filtered water supply there is an evident need to avoid contamination.
The cost of caulking o r otherwise sealing a tunnel may represent up to 10 per cent of the total cost of a
tunnel and remedial measures may be even more expensive. The additional cost of sealing the ingress of a small
quantity o f water may therefore be far greater than the benefits obtained. There is thus frequently a law of
diminishing returns in relation to the standards of watertightness. In extreme cases a true estimate of these final
costs of caulking and sealing a tunnel could prejudice the use of one more suitable method of lining for the ground
conditions as against another less suitable lining.
In general a cast iron lined tunnel adequately caulked with lead or with a butting neoprene seal, as used in
Germany, will give the driest tunnel in waterbearing strata, although welded steel joints, which are costly, will
give a similar satisfactory dry tunnel. In similar conditions a bolted concrete lining may require not only sealing
at t h e joints, but also the sealing of hairline cracks and other cracks present in the lining following construction.
Many of these cracks or other small holes in the caulking may seal themselves in time due to the deposition of calcite
which forms as a result of water leaching lime from the cement grout.
The several methods commonly used for permanent waterproofing measures are discussed briefly in the
following sections. The caulking cormpounds are mainly rigid ~naterials,some of which will take a little movement.
No material has yet been used successfully with flexible characteristics for use with articulated linings, although
trials have been used with a large number of different types of materials.

TABLE 13

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Leakage into tunnels

Date of
completion

Internal
diameter

Type of
lining

Water flow
l/m2 /day x
1o-2

Approximate
max. head of
water at the
crown
m

Tunnel

Strata

Greenwich
Footway
Tunnel

Ballast,
mottled
clay

1901

3.58

Bolted
cast
iron

Rotherhithe

Clay, sand
and gravel

1908

8.45

Bolted
cast
iron

Blackwall

Ballast,
London
Clay

1961-67

8.6

Bolted
cast
iron

Clyde

Sandstone
boulder
clay, silts
and sands

1963164

9 .O

Bolted
cast
iron

Year 1963 52-68


Year 1973 76

40

Dart ford

Chalk,
gravel,
peat

1963

9.5

Bolted
cast
iron

76

21

LTE
Victoria
Line

Mainly
London
Clay

1969

3.8
to
6.5

Expanded
cast iron,
expanded
concrete,
bolted
cast iron

0.6 to 120

40

Thames
Cable

Chalk

1970

.
3O

Bolted
concrete

*540-3240

46

Severn
Cable

Sandstone,
Mudstone
and Lirnestone

1973

3O
.

Bolted
concrete

1242

55

Top half of tunnel 540 x

l/m2/day, bottom half 3240 x lo1

18

17

25

l/m2/day.

9.1 Grouting

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Grouting is mentioned albeit briefly here as it is the first waterproof barrier of the tunnel, although this
large and controversial topic has not been covered in detail in this survey. In waterbearing ground there may be a
need for a quick setting grout, with gelling characteristics, which will not be easily diluted or washed out by the
inflow of water. Various grouts are available which use combinations of ordinary Portland cement or rapid
hardening cement, pulverised fuel ash, bentonite or other gelling agents, and additives including long chain polymers and accelerators, which give a large range of strengths and gelling times for different conditions. Systematic
back grouting, in several stages, although tedious will help considerably to prevent the ingress of water.
In a number of instances pea gravel has been injected behind the lining which, if adequately compacted in
t h e crown, will reduce settlement of the ground on t o the lining. T h s process has been used a great deal in the
United States b u t has seldom been used in the United Kingdom, apart from the Mini Tunnel system and a number
o f trial lengths of tunnel. In the United Kingdom pea gravel of spherical shape is often difficult to obtain and this
may partly be the reason for the lack of use of this method. The pea gravel, which must be of uniform size and
rounded, can be grouted for long lengths of the tunnel in one operation thus reducing considerably the number of
'cold' joints in the grout and the number of grouting operations. In a few instances in the United Kingdom,
excessive variation in the size of the pea gravel has prevented the grout from successfully sealing the tunnel.

9.2

Lead caulking

Lead caulking has been used in conjunction with cast iron linings since the nineteenth century, for tunnels
in most types of ground. For a small number of cast iron lined tunnels in very dry conditions cement mortar
pointing was used. With the introduction of cement-based and other caulking compounds and the increase in
material cost, lead is now only used for a relatively small proportion of tunnels in waterbearing ground, under high
water pressures. For linings with machined longitudinal and circumferential joints, the lead caulking is carried out
a t the internal face of the flange while with unmachined circumferential joints it is carried out towards the back of
the joint behind the bolts (see Fig. 19). In this latter case a considerably thicker caulked joint is required at each
corner with the lead brought up to the front of the joint at each longitudinal joint to obtain a seal with the
longitudinal face caulking. These block joints, as they are called, are costly and if the rings are staggered, that is
break joint, the number of block joints is doubled. The lead caulking in the circumferential joint is liable to
spring if slight movement occurs and therefore rust, a mixture of iron filings and sal ammoniac, has been used
additionally t o fill the remainder of the joint, acting as a rigid wedge to prevent the lead springing. The rust while
dry remains dormant but it becomes active when a leak occurs and swells sealing off the leak. The sealing may not
be 100%effective because rust caulking needs workmanship of a high standard which is not always obtainable.

9.3 Cement based caulking compounds


Cement based caulking compounds are mainly used for caulking concrete segmental tunnels although as
discussed in Section 9.2 cement mortar pointing is occasionally used for cast iron lined tunnels in dry conditions.
Cement based caulking compounds generally have only a small degree of flexibility, the amount of which varies
between products.
The majority o f tunnels are caulked with an asbestos cord impregnated with special cement based materials,
which is packed into t h e joint using a caulking tool and hammer. Water is then added so that the cement sets and
hardens forming a tight joint. Where the material is used to seal joints in pipes it has been shown to withstand
~ . material will take movement caused by small thermal expansion and conwater pressures up to 7 M N / ~The
traction b u t only slight articulation of the joints. The material has a very long life.

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Other cement based caulking compounds commonly used incorporate mixtures of cement, oven dried
quartz sand, ground silica, additives and proprietary waterproofing compounds. These compounds will allow
only slight flexibility and therefore cannot generally be recommended for articulated non-bolted linings unless
the caulking is carried out at the end of the drive when the short term squatting of the lining has occurred. The
long term squatting, however, which may be as large as that for the short term, may open up the leaks.
With all cement based caulking compounds the joints must be thoroughly cleaned of all dirt and dust. When
the joints are not damp pre-watering may be necessary with certain compounds. When large water leakage occurs
in the joints the method of caulking the ring should be arranged t o channel the water t o one location of maximum
discharge. Asbestos cement materials may be packed into the back of the joint to obtain an initial seal followed
by a permanent seal made with one of the other cement based compounds. In some cases it may be necessary t o
use a quick-set cement as a temporary seal to avoid leaching out of the cement prior t o setting.

In one of the contracts using the Don-Seg linings a few rings were cast with a semi-circular chase in the
circumferential joints. The circular duct so formed between two rings was grouted with a bentonite cement grout.
Various grout mixtures were used. The weaker grouts were more flexible than the stronger ones but the success
of the system is difficult to ascertain due to the amount of condensation in the tunnel, even several years after
the tunnel was complete. Difficulty also exists in ensuring that no excavated material gets lodged in the joint,
especially in the invert, during erection of the ring.

9.4 Flexible caulking compounds


The caulking compounds discussed.above are basically rigid materials with a small degree of flexibility.
Expanded linings usually have more joints and thus more movement at the joints than bolted linings so that if
they are caulked with rigid materials soon after erection, leaks may develop at the joints. Trials have been carried
out during the construction of several tunnels with expanded linings during the last 10 years to obtain a flexible
caulking compound which can be easily applied in the tunnel environment. These trials have not been generally
successful and the conventional cement based compounds have later been used for the main lengths of tunnel t o
prevent the ingress of water.
The materials used to date, based generally on epoxy resins, polyurethane and polysulphide, have proved
successful in laboratory trials. In a tunnel environment, however, where the joints are often wet, occasionally
with running water, and often difficult to clean adequately, they have not proved successful. In many instances
a considerable amount of costly preparation work is necessary t o clean the caulking grooves and to divert the
water. This is an area where further research is necessary, as discussed in Chapter 13.

9.5 Sealing strips


Various materials have been used in the longitudinal and circumferential joints of tunnel linings which
compress and may incidentally reduce the concentration of loadings along the joint. For bolted concrete linings,
bituminous felt is normally used for the latter purpose but this does not give an adequate seal between segments.
Rubber bitumen strip, which may be reinforced with fibre, is fairly soft and will squeeze under load, giving
a seal between the segments, has been used in both concrete bolted and smooth bore segments. A final seal with
a cement based compound is, however, still recommended. The rubber bitumen may be cut with a knife or
extruded and is easy to install. It is slightly tacky and bonds to the concrete under pressure, although deforming
under load. For this material to bond satisfactorily the surface must be dry and clean. The service life is, however,
probably only 20-50 years on account of ageing and thus caulking of the internal groove is essential for the long

term. A sealing strip recently introduced incorporates a polyethylene strip at the back of the circumferential
bolts in the concrete bolted ring, which compresses under the shove force from the shield forming a seal.
The painting o f joints with bitumen has little effect on the quantity of water entering the tunnel. However,
the rubber bitumen emulsion and cement compound used with the Wedge Block lining does help to seal the joint.

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Alternative sealing methods for concrete linings include the fixing of straps or bandages of aluminium,
plastic, epoxy resin and fibre glass or similar material to the face of the joint which seals the joint or leads the
water to the invert o f the tunnel where it is collected in the drainage system. These methods are, however,
normally confined t o remedial works if the initial caulking is not completely successful, or where no caulking
groove is provided.
The sealing o f joints with neoprene sealing strips, as used in Germany, is effective but expensive, entailing
precise alignment of segments and adjacent rings without the use of packings.

9.6 Grummets
For bolted cast iron and concrete linings grummets are commonly used to seal the bolt holes when the
caulking of the flanges is carried o u t at the inside face. The grummets which are placed between the washers and
the flange are available in two forms, the gel grummet and the oyster grummet (see Fig. 19).
The gel grummet, which is manufactured from pure sisal hemp impregnated with a mineral gel, has been
used for sealing bolt holes since t h e last century. The grummet is compressed when the bolt is tightened thus
forming a seal between the washer, the bolt and the flange of the lining.
Red lead may be used with the gel grummets when the external water pressure is high. The grummets are
available for bolts with diameters of 19 mm to 5 1 mm and are colour coded according to size.
The oyster grummet which is used mainly in'cast iron and steel lined tunnels is manufactured from low
density polyethylene which is impervious to oil, water, alkali and mild acids. The bolt holes in the flanges are
countersunk at 45' t o a depth of 6 m m and the grummets are chamfered on both edges. When the bolt is tightened
beyond a certain limit the material flows into the bolt hole around the bolt and in most instances between the washer
and t h e flange t o form a watertight seal. Where the material flows between the flange and washer some relaxation
of the bolt load may occur subsequently but there will be a permanent seal. If the bolts are retightened, however, the seal may be lost. To avoid this relaxation the geometry of the countersunk bolt hole and the chamfered
grummet must be matched so that when the bolt is tightened the material does not flow between the washer and
the flange. The grummets are available for diameters of bolt holes of 26 mm to 52 mm and for circular and
elongated bolt holes, and are 12 m m t o 15 mm thick depending on the diameter of the bolt.
Recently the oyster grurnmet has been used with a bolted concrete lining when a supply of gel grumn~etswas
n o t available. The bolt holes for the concrete segments are not countersunk and thus to contain the grummet a
dished washer was used. A satisfactory seal was obtained.

10. TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION


10.1 Rates of progress

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Rates of progress for driving tunnels vary considerably from scheme to scheme and are dependent upon two
main groups of factors:
a)

Those dictated by the design of the tunnel which include the diameter and the length of the tunnel,
the distance between shafts, the ground conditions and the type of primary lining. These factors will
also have a large bearing on the contractor's method of excavation in (b) below.

b)

Those dictated by the construction system which include the chosen method of excavation with or
without a shield, by hand, roadheader or full face machine - the back up system for the delivery of
the lining to, and the removal of the excavated material from, the face, the method of erection of the
lining, the shift system, the mining gangs and the target payments, the extent of preventive
maintenance and, for mechanical methods of excavation, the actual down time for the shield or
tunnelling machine.

Many of these factors are directly or indirectly concerned with the lining and these are briefly discussed in
the following paragraphs.
The diameter of the tunnel dictates the accessibility of the face and thus the rate of removal of the excavated
material. The rates of progress for tunnels of 2 m diameter and below, with similar methods of excavation and
lining, will differ little, with congestion generally more acute as the size decreases. In practice many contractors
will tender for a 1.8 m or 2 m diameter tunnel as an alternative, at a very competitive cost, to a smaller handexcavated specified diameter, as the rate of progress can be increased. Hand excavation has traditionally been
used for tunnels below 2 m diameter. Recently, however, roadheader and similar machines have been used for
tunnels in cohesive materials and soft rock for diameters down to 1.8 m diameter and below with greatly increased
rates of progress139. A full face machine has also been introduced recently for stiff clays, marls and weak rocks for
the 1.2 m internal diameter Mini Tunnel which has increased rates of progress for this tunnelling system in these
types of ground conditions, several fold. Above 2 m to 3 m diameter the rates of progress for similar conditions
generally decrease. For tunnels below 2.5 m to 3.0 m the linings are normally erected by hand as there is little or
no increase in the speed of erection by using mechanical aids. A particular case is the 2.5 m diameter Wedge Block
lining, where very high rates of progress have been obtained. With increase in diameter, however, more elaborate
mechanical methods of erection become practical and reduce the time of erection of the lining.
The length of drive has a considerable effect on the rate of progress. At the commencement of a drive there
is a gradual build up in the rate of progress as the miners become familiar with the tunnelling system and the back
up equipment is installed behind the face. For hand shields the rate of progress may increase to the sustained
average over a length equivalent to some 2.5 to 5.0 times the diameter 140,while for full face machines it may be
2 to 3 times the length of the travelling platform.
The type of lining used in a tunnel and the method of erection will affect the rate of advance of the tunnel.
For tunnels of diameter up to 3 m with conventional bolted concrete, smoothbore or cast iron linings the time
for erection of a ring will vary from 20 minutes to 45 minutes, generally increasing with diameter. In comparison
the 1.0 m to 1.3 mMini Tunnel and the expanded DonSeg and Wedge Block linings of diameter up to 2.5 m can
be erected by hand in 3 to 5 minutes, increasing to 10 to 30 minutes for the medium diameter expanded linings.

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In order t o show the effect of the type of lining and the method of excavation on the rate of progress it is
necessary t o have a large number of drives in the same type of strata. For the LTE Victoria Line, between 40 and
5 0 running tunnels of approximately 3.85 m internal diameter and with a large variation in length were constructed
with different forms of excavation and types of lining. The rates of progress for these drives have been analysed
together with additional data from the more recent LTE Fleet Line and Piccadilly Line Extension to Heathrow
Airport.
Fig. 2 0 shows the maximum sustained rates of progress, for the 3.85 m internal diameter tunnels, based on
t h e best 4 week period o f each drive, plotted against the length of drive in metres for the various forms of
excavation and types of lining. The full face machine drives, of up to 1500 m in length, with expanded concrete
o r cast iron linings and a limited number of roadheader or excavator machine drives, of up to 1500 m in length,
w i t h expanded concrete linings are based o n Fig. 2 1.
The graphs show how the maximum sustained rates of progress increase with the length of drive tending
towards a maximum. For the shorter drives, up to 300 m , the graphs for the hand excavation and the hand shield
drives are very similar. The method of excavation for the other three types of drives, with expanded linings,
dictate the maximum sustained rates of progress. The curve for the roadheader machine, which is based on a
small number o f drives, shows a faster sustained rate of progress, up t o drives of 1200 m in length, than that for
t h e full face machine.
Fig. 2 1 shows the spread of maximum sustained rates of prosess for the full face and for the roadheader
machines with expanded concrete or expanded cast iron linings, and for a smali number of drives with mainly
expanded linings b u t with lengths o f bolted cast iron linings in poor ground conditions. The maximum sustained
rates of progress increase generally with increase in length of drive although for drives above 2000 m in length the
rates o f progress have levelled off and there is a tendency for a reduction in the rate of progress probably due to
t h e increased travelling time t o the face.

A comparison of the maximum sustained rate or progress over the best four week period and the average
progress for the drive showed very variable results and no general trend. The plot of the ratio of the two rates of
progress against length of drive is given in Fig. 22. There are many factors which affect the average rate of progress
a n d therefore the difference between t h e ratio for similar schemes. In particular those factors most relevant
probably include t h e availability o f miners, the contractors site set up, organisation and efficiency for the delivery
and removal of materials and whether the particular drive is on the critical path of the construction programme.
A similar exercise in the comparison of the rates of progress for different methods of excavation was carried
o u t b y the MWB in the late 1960's based o n information from two of their contracts with handshields, a roadheader in a shield and a full face mechanical shield. The results showed that for drives up to 1.5 k m the handshield
was quicker overall for the construction of the drive. This is a very high figure but would be influenced by a
relatively long period of 1 2 weeks before the full face machine reached its peak rate of progress. If this had been
reduced to say 6 weeks the break even distance would have been more than halved. In this particular case the use
of a roadheader machine increased the rate of progress only marginally on that for the handshields.
I n general, however, the rates of progress for a mechanical shield may be 3 to 4 times that for a handshield
a n d for a roadheader machine 2 t o 3 times. For drives between 0.5 km and 1.5 km to 2 km the roadheader
machine will probably be more economical than a full face machine.
The process o f driving a tunnel incorporates two main operations - the excavation and removal of the
material and the erection o f the lining. In most cases these two operations are consecutive but in certain circumstances they are carried out concurrently with a consequent increase in the rate of progress. With a full face

mechanical shield the machine is thrust forward on the previously erected ring and thus the two operations are
carried out consecutively. When a roadheader or similar machine is used in the face it may be possible, if no thrust
force is required, for the two operations to be carried out concurrently, but the space available for the erection
will be restricted. For hand excavation with a shield, overlapping of the two operations is possible for medium
diameter tunnels but space is inadequate to permit this in small diameter tunnels.

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When a shield is not used the two operations are normally consecutive. The third operation of grouting,
which is required for the bolted and former ring types of lining, may be carried out concurrently with the two
main operations or at the end of the shift, depending on the ground conditions.
When a tunnel is excavated by hand, with or without a shield, the excavation is normally the longer of the
two operations accounting for 213 to of the cycle time and thus a few minutes saved on the time for the lining
erection is of little consequence. When a tunnelling machine is used, however, the excavation will normally be the
shorter operation and a few minutes saved on the lining erection may add a ring or two to the number erected in
the shift. For the LTE 3.85 m internal diameter running tunnels, for example, the cycle time may be 2% hours
for a hand shield with a bolted cast iron lining, reduced to some 20 minutes to 30 minutes for a full face machine
with an expanded lining. For the Wedge Block expanded lining the cycle time for a hand shield may be 1 hour
while for a full face machine it is 10 to 12 minutes, evenly split between the excavation and the erection.
In the United Kingdom a five day working week is normally worked with 10 or 15 shifts, depending o n the
availability of miners and the work involved. The 10 shift system normally consists of 12-hour shifts or 10-hour
shifts plus two hours for maintenance requirements; the 15 shift system comprises 8-hour shifts. In practice, the
miners on account of the piecework payment system complete the work that will give them their required weekly
target wage one or two hours before the official end of the shift. The target for this piecework is therefore critical
to the rate of progress attained.
The rates of progress quoted in the technical press are often misleading as they are the maximum progress
attained for one or two isolated shifts or for a particular week, which are well above the sustained progress and
no comments are usually made about the following shifts or week when the miners probably reduced their output.
It should also be explained that many of the records quoted for the maximum weekly progress are for a seven day
week rather than the conventional five day week. The important statistics for a tunnel drive are the average
progress based on the complete drive and the maximum sustained weekly progress which is often taken as the
maximum based on a four week period. For the design of ancillary and back-up equipment, however, it is clearly
necessary to consider the anticipated peak rates of progress.
Table 14 gives a general guide to the rates of progress for tunnels in a variety of strata, based on a large
number of schemes. These are based generally on the maximum sustained rates of progress for the drives which
may be 1.3 to 2 times the average rate of progress.
The designation of the rocks is based on the classification given in Table 1 in Chapter 3 and could be subdivided into further groups based on the discontinuity characteristics, weakening etc. They are therefore only a
guide to the range of maximum sustained rates of progress. The number of tunnels constructed in rock in the
United Kingdom is relatively small when compared with those in soft ground. The rates for the medium and large
diameter tunnels cover schemes over the last two or three decades and may therefore be underestimated.
Typical rates of progress for drives are difficult to give as two tunnels are seldom the same and different
contractors will tender and obtain different rates of progress. In general however rates of progress for tunnels up
to 3 m may be 3 to 8 rings a shift for hand shield drives depending on the ground conditions. In very poor or hard

TABLE 14
Typical ranges of maximum sustained tunnel driving rates (m/week)
Tunnel diameter

Ground type
up to 3 m
Soft Ground
Drift, alluvium and glacial

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Stiff t o Firm fissured


clay with full face machine

15 t o 75

3mto6m

10 t o 7 5

6 m upwards

7.5 to 15

275 to 300

9 0 t o 180

3 0 to 6 0

45 t o 100

15 to 30

15 to 45

45 to 250

1 0 t o 60

Strong

15 to 6 0

15 to 70

10 to 7 0

Very strong and extremely


strong

2 0 to 150

15 t o 100

10 to 60

Stiff t o Firm fissured


clay with b o o m machine
or hand excavation
Rock
Very weak t o moderately
strong

rock this may be reduced t o one ring a shift. For tunnels above 3 m up to 6 m the maximum will vary from 1 to
6 rings per shift with a hand shield. For tunnels above 6 m rates of progress of 1 to 3 rings per shift have been
obtained with hand shields. Examples of rates of progress have been included in the data given for a number of
tunnels in Appendices 3 , 4 and 5.
The time to erect a shield varies considerably even for the same diameter shield. For small diameter hand
shields where access is n o t limited and a large enough shaft is available the hand shield can be lowered down in
o n e piece and be available for the commencement of the drive the next day or certainly within a week. Where
such access is not available 2 t o 3 weeks may be necessary for a small hand shield. For medium sized tunnels,
3 m t o 6 m, the hand shield may take 2 to 1 0 weeks t o erect depending upon access and the size of the shield
chamber b u t 3 t o 6 weeks is probably average. For larger diameter 6 to 12 weeks may be necessary.
For mechanical shields of less than 3 m diameter if ready access is available 1 to 4 weeks may be necessary
b u t in difficult conditions 6 t o 8 weeks may be required. For the range 3 m to 6 m, 6 to 15 weeks may be
required before commencement of the drive. The time to dismantle a shield is often longer than expected and in
many cases is n o t o n the critical path for the contract, realistic figures are therefore difficult to establish. One
third t o half the time t o erect is probably realistic but in many cases it has taken longer to dismantle than erect
especially if access is difficult, if it is a long distance to the shaft or if the skin is left in place.
Data are given in Appendices 3 and 4 on the time to erect the individual linings. In general there is a large
range of times, depending upon the type of lining, the chosen method of erection and how critical it is to the
duration of the tunnelling cycle. These are summarised below:
Bolted concrete and smooth bore linings up to 3 m
Bolted concrete above 3 m
Mini Tunnel 1 .O- 1.3 m

20-45 minutes
30-90 minutes
3-5 minutes

Expanded concrete linings 2.5 m Wedge Block


3.8 m LTE linings
5-10 m
Bolted cast iron linings 2 m - 4 m
4m-10m
Expanded cast iron linings 4 m

3-5
15-30
15-45
15-60
1-3
15-30

minutes
minutes
minutes
minutes
hours
minutes

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10.2 Suggested tunnel lining methods


The several forms of primary linings and secondary linings have been discussed in Chapters 3 , 4 , 5 and 6
while in Table 2 in Chapter 3 details are given of the general types of primary linings, the tunnel use and the
secondary lining requirements. This section summarises the conditions in which each form of primary lining should
be used. Many tunnels are driven without full knowledge of the likely ground conditions which may vary from
metre to metre and therefore some tunnellers are very conservative and specify forms of linings which have been
well tried, and tolerate a wide range of ground conditions. Some engineers on the other hand, where ground
conditions can be accurately assessed, have pioneered new types of lining which have markedly helped t o reduce
the overall cost of tunnels. Each tunnel must therefore be analysed on the data available taking into account
technical and economic considerations. In consequence only broad outlines are discussed in the following paragraphs.
6

The forms of linings are briefly summarised, indicating the type of ground conditions in which they should be
used. In practice, they have been used to a small extent in other ground conditions which may not necessarily have
been ideal for the requirements of the lining. Table 15 gives a summary of these forms of linings with tunnel use
and ground conditions and Table 16 the ground conditions for which each form of lining is suited.

10.2.1 Bolted cast iron linings: These linings may be of grey or spheroidal graphite iron and are now generally
used for road and rail and associated tunnels, but only in a few instances for water cable and sewer tunnels. The
linings may be erected in hand excavated, hand shield or mechanical shield tunnels with the void behind the lining
filled with grout. The use of these linings has considerably reduced during the last 2 0 years and their main application now is where good waterproofing is required, and for special and difficult sections of tunnel.
10.2.2 Expanded cast iron linings: These linings have only been used in grey iron although future application
would probably be in spheroidal graphite iron due to its tensile strength characteristics. The linings are quick t o erect
and high rates of progress are obtained with hand or mechanical shields. Their application in grey iron for the 3.85 m
LTE running tunnels was not fully successful on account of the thin cross section of the lining.
10.2.3 Bolted concrete linings: These linings are the main form of lining used in the United Kingdom for all
forms of tunnels. They may be erected in hand excavated, hand shield or mechanical shield driven tunnels in most
soft ground or weak to moderately strong rock tunnels in conjunction, where necessary, with compressed air or
blasting. They may be used also in strong rock tunnels where lining is required for safety or waterproofing reasons.
In soft ground tunnelling where the ground is not self supporting the rings should in general be grouted immediately after erection. If the ground is allowed t o come on to the lining the ring will squat slightly, causing difficulty
in the erection of subsequent rings although the bolts will support the ring. Grouting t o the crown will, however,
be difficult or impossible after squatting. Although these linings have been used in very soft clays, a rigid lining
such as that provided by pipe jacking may be preferable and will be essential where the competence factor is less
than %.

10.2.4 Grouted smooth bore concrete linings: These linings, normally for sewer tunnels, are used in hand
excavated and hand shield tunnels and are, with the exception of the three segment Mini Tunnel, erected o n a steel

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TABLE 15
Suggested methods of lining tunnels

Tunnel use

Sewer

INTERNAL FINISH

Water

Cable

Underground
railway

High spced
railway

Road

Pedestrian
Subways,
Passages,
Co~icoursesetc.

Smooth

Smooth

As primary lining
or special profile

As primary lining

Smooth

Aesthetic,
waterproof

Aesthetic
waterproof

(a) D ~ i f above
t
watertable

Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore
concrete
Pipe Jacking

Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore
concrete
Pipe Jacking

Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore
concrete
Pipe Jacking

Bolted Cast Iron


(Bolted Concrete)

Bolted Cast Iron


(Bolted Concrete)

Bolted Cast Iron


(Bolted Concrete)

Bolted Concrete
Bolted Cast Iron

(b) Drift below


watertahle

Bolted Concrete
Pipe Jacking
(Smooth Bore
concrete)

Bolted Concrete
Pipe Jacking
(Smooth Bore
concrete)

Bolted Concrete
Pipe Jacking
(Smooth Bore
concrete)

Bolted Cast Iron


(Bolted Concrete)

Bolted Cast Iron


(Bolted Concrete)

Bolted Cast Iron


(Bolted Concrete)

Bolted Cast Iron


(Bolted Concrete)

(c) Silts and clays

Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore
concrete
Pipe Jacking

Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore
concrete
Pipe Jacking

Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore
concrete
Pipe Jacking

Bolted Cast Iron


(Bolted Concrete)

Bolted Cast Iron


(Bolted Concrete)

Bolted Cast lron


(Bolted Concrete)

Bolted Cast lron


(Bolted Concrete)

(d) Very soft clays

Pipe Jacking
(Bolted Concrete)

Pipe Jacking
(Bolted Concrete)

Pipe Jacking
(Bolted Concrete)

Bolted Cast Iron


Bolted Steel

Bolted Cast Iron


Bolted Steel

Bolted Cast Iron


Bolted Steel

Bolted Cast Iron


Bolted Steel

(e) Stiff fissured

Bolted Concrete
Smootli Bore
concrete
Expanded Concrete

Expanded Concrete
Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore
concrete

Expanded Concrete
Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore
concrete

Expanded Concrete
or Cast Iron
Bolted Concrete
(Bolted Cast Iron)

Expanded Concrete
or Cast Iron

Expanded Concrete

Expanded Concrete
Bolted Concrete

(a) Very weak to


~nodcratelystlong

Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore concrete
(Cast in.situ concrete)

Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore concrete
(Cast in-situ concrete)

Bolted Concrete
Smooth Bore concrete
(Cast in-situ concrete)

Expanded grouted
Concrete lining
Cast in-situ concrete

Expanded grouted
Concrete lining
Cast insitu concrete

Expanded grouted
Concrete lining
Cast insitu concrete

Bolted Concrete
Cast in-situ concrete

(b) Strong

Cast in-situ concrete


(Bolted Concrete)
(Sprayed Concrete)

Cast in-situ concrete


(Bolted Concrete)
(Sprayed Concrete)

Cast in-situ concrete


(Bolted Concrete)
(Sprayed Concrete)

Expanded grouted
Concrete lining
Cast in-situ concrete
(Bolted Concrete)
(Sprayed Concrete)

Expanded grouted
Concrete lining
Cast insitu concrete
(Bolted Concrete)
(Sprayed Concrete)

Expanded grouted
Concrete lining
Cast in-situ concrete
(Sprayed Concrete)

Cast in-situ concrete


(Bolted Concrete)

(c) Very strong and


extremely strong

unlined
(Cast in-situ concrete)

unlined
Sprayed Concrete
(Cast in-situ concrete)

unlined
Sprayed Concrete
(Cast in-situ concrete)

unlined
Cast in-situ concrete
Sprayed Concrete
Rock bolting

unlined
Cast in-situ concrete
Sprayed Concrete
Rock bolting

unlined
Cast in-situ concrete
Sprayed Concrete
Rock bolting

Cast in-situ concrete


Rock 1Jolting

CROUND CONDITIONS
SOFT CROUND

clays

ROCK

Notes:

I.

Linings shown in brnckets may be used for the type o f ground but other forms may be preferred on economic grounds.

2. For water tunnels a steel lining may be necessary where for particular conditions, the ratio of the overburden pressure to the water pressure is below an acceptable factor.

TABLE 16
Preferred form of lining for a variety of ground conditions

Type of lining
ground conditions

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SOFT GROUND
(a)

Drift above
watertable

(b)

Drift below
watertable

(c)

Silts and
clays

(d)

Very soft
clays

(e)

Stiff fissured
clays

3c

*
*

ROCK
(a)

Very weak to
moderately
strong

(b)

Strong

(c)

Very strong
and
extremely
strong

Notes:

Preferred lining shown by

former ring or on internal hoop bars. A few tunnels have been constructed in compressed air or with blasting
although the latter is not generally recommended for use with this lining. The linings, in ground that tends t o
come rapidly onto the lining, should be grouted immediately to avoid progressive squatting from one ring t o the
next. The linings should not generally be.used in very soft clays unless designs have been carried out t o prove their
suitability. For the Mersey Kingsway Tunnels, in Bunter Sandstone, and the Dartford Duplication Tunnel in chalk,
this form of lining was used, the segments being supported during the erection and prior t o grouting with longitudinal bars.

10.2.5 Expanded concrete linings: These linings, which are quick to erect, are always used in association

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with a hand or mechanical shield and are suitable for firm and stiff clays. Their application in weak to moderately
strong rock tunnels may be possible if a smooth bore excavation, with little overbreak, is possible but grouting or
"pugging up" may be necessary. If techniques can be developed for erecting and partly expanding the lining
within the tail of a shield their use may be extended t o other soft ground conditions, but preferably in cohesive
material. Their use has been mainly for road, rail and water tunnels, although they will probably be extended in
the near future to sewer tunnels. An alternative bolted or grouted lining should always be available for use if there
is a risk o f encountering difficult ground. The expanded concrete linings are more difficult to waterproof than
bolted rings as no effective flexible caulking material is yet available, the degree of watertightness therefore
depends o n the surrounding ground conditions.

10.2.6 Expanded grouted concrete linings: In weak to moderately strong rock, a hand or mechanical
shield may excavate a smooth profile with only a small amount of overbreak. This form of lining may be expanded
against the rock and grout used t o seal the voids.
10.2.7 Steel liner plate linings: These have been used successfully as temporary support for small diameter
tunnels as a n alternative t o timber headings and their application in this connection will probably increase. As
temporary linings they may be used as laggings for colliery arches in weak t o strong rock and, when galvanised or
protected with bitumen, as secondary linings in aggressive ground conditions. In mining areas short lengths have
been used as flexible internal primary linings as discussed in Section 10.3.2.

10.2.8 Steel circular membranes: These are normally used in high pressure water tunnels where the depth
of overburden is insufficient to take the hydrostatic pressure in the tunnel.

10.2.9 Bolted and expanded steel linings: Fabricated steel bolted linings have been used for tunnels in
preference t o grey iron linings where large forces have been exerted from the shield during construction. Spheroidal
graphite iron will probably be preferred for future tunnels of such type. Fabricated steel bolted segments are used
above and below openings in cast iron tunnels and for special sections. Expanded steel linings have been used for a
number of medium and large diameter tunnels in London Clay where large eccentric loads were expected and where
the ground had t o be supported as quickly as possible; here again, future tunnels will probably be constructed in
spheroidal graphite iron.
10.2.10 Cast in-situ concrete linings: These linings have been used for sewer, water road and rail tunnels in
most rock conditions. The lining is normally cast well back from the face or on completion of a drive, although for
a small number of road tunnels, a shield has been used, shoving against the recently cast concrete lining. The linings
should n o t generally be used in weak t o moderately strong rock, where the temporary rock loads are high or are a
large percentage o f the design load unless the lining is cast close to the face. Ground support may be carried out
with colliery arches and laggings, or shotcrete and rock bolts, the scheme being selected in relation to ground loads,
conditions o f rock jointing, the presence of water and other factors.

10.2.1 1 Sprayed concrete or gunite linings: These linings normally serve as ground support in weak to
strong rock, where they also prevent ravelling and weathering of the rock face. They may be used in conjunction
with rock bolting. In sound strong to extremely strong rock, sprayed concrete may act as a permanent support.

10.2.1 2 Rock bolting: Rock bolting may be used as a temporary support in weak to strong rock, with or
without sprayed concrete. In sound competent rock and around tunnel portals rock bolting may be used as a
permanent support.

10.2.13 Pipe jacking: The use of pipe jacking is increasing not only for short but also for longer tunnels.
The technique may be used in most drift materials; problems may arise in loose ground, in the presence of water
or when jacking too close to the ground surface.

10.3 Special ground conditions


10.3.1 Aggressive ground conditions: Where tunnels are constructed through soils or groundwater of an

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aggressive nature, particular attention must be paid to the lining. Water and soil samples will establish the sulphate
content and the pH value. The cement chosen for concrete linings should be in accordance with Table 49 of the
Generally, however, only Portland cement or sulphate
British Standards Institution Code of Practice CP1
resisting cement should be used for precast primary linings.
The use of high alumina cement for primary linings in aggressive conditions is not generally recommended
.although there may be occasions when its use will be necessary. However, the full implications of the use of the
cement must be understood and adequate precautions taken in the casting and curing of the segments. During the
construction of a tunnel the temperature is generally high, in particular next to the compressed air pipes, and water
is often present; both of these conditions are likely to accelerate the conversion of high alumina cement. In general,
however, the factor of safety of the concrete lining in place is high and thus some reduction in strength will not
affect the adequacy of the lining. If acid or alkali attack is also likely the lining may deteriorate. Faced with these
conditions the first step is to attempt to change the alignment of the tunnel, horizontally or vertically, to avoid
traversing the area. If the chosen alignment cannot be altered, forms of lining other than concrete may be necessary,
such as cast iron or brick. A thin external lining of fibre or resin base material may serve either t o protect a
structural concrete lining or to provide a structural lining in its own right.

10.3.2 Mining areas: In mining areas where the further extraction of coal or minerals is foreseen the lining
must be capable of accepting the temporary settlement wave.as the extraction progresses. This will entail both
compression and tension of the circumferential joints. One of the following alternative linings may be selected but
each scheme should be considered separately on the nature, extent and degree of movement anticipated.
The possible linings are:
a)

the Spun Concrete Extraflex lining, described in Section 5.6 and Appendix 4 which has a cellular
rubber strip with neoprene skin in the joint and locating pins which will allow a horizontal strain of
0.8 per cent and a maximum horizontal movement between adjacent rings of 5 mm without decompressing the foam joint.

b)

a bolted concrete lining with a foam type seal between the circumferential flanges - with the bolts
only partly tightened to allow for the required compression and expansion of the joint. An internal
lining of steel or fibre based material may be used which is free t o move inside the primary lining.

c)

a flexible steel r i e r plate lining over the areas where maximum differential settlement is anticipated.

All circumferential joints must be designed to take the maximum anticipated movement. As the linings are
erected the compression of the jointing material must be accurately carried out to allow for the future tension or
compression without opening or closing the joint completely. The design of these joints is briefly discussed in
Section 8.4.

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11. COSTS
The costs o f driving tunnels increased considerably in 1974175 mainly on account of the general inflation and the
decreasing demand for tunnels, which was very low at the end of 1973 and early 1974 on account of the economic
climate, high increases in labour cost and, for the sewer and water market, the local government reorganisation. In
the latter part o f 1974 the market for this latter sector picked up as discussed in Section 3.2. In addition on account
of much o f the new work being located in a small number of areas the extent of these increases in costs differed
from locality to locality being in some instances between 2 0 per cent and 5 0 per cent above those let twelve
months previously. Over a hundred tunnels are under construction at any time - of varying length and size, spread
over t h e country, b u t mainly in the vicinity of the large conurbations. There is however, always a fluctuating level
of demand in each area from year t o year, thus necessitating the movement of the work force across the country
t o other areas. In the mid 1960's, much of the work force was based on London but, with the increased use of
tunnels for the sewer market and the consequential increase in labour rates in the provinces, the work force was
scattered around the country. In t h e last few years the centre of gravity of this work force has moved northwards
and eastwards; there are now large concentrations of work in the South East of Scotland, around Edinburgh, in
t h e North East o f England, i n t h e vicinity of t h e Tyne and the Tees, and in the Midlands.
The cost of tunnels varies with the diameter and the ground conditions. For a particular diameter the
variation due to ground conditions may be nearly twelve-fold for large diameter tunnels and 3 to 5 times for small
and medium diameters. This is well illustrated b y the cost of road tunnels which at January 1976 costs may vary
from &2.4m per k m for a tunnel in London clay to &24m or more per km for a tunnel in waterbearing ground 142.
Fig. 23 shows the total cost of road tunnels since 1956 updated to January 1976 costs. This method of presentation does not show the technical advances which have been made and which may have reduced the cost of
tunnels substantially in real terms. Fig. 2 4 shows how between 1950 and 1976 the lower end of the road tunnel
construction costs remained fairly constant143, until the early part of the 1970's when it increased with the recent
rapid inflation.
Fig. 25 shows a graph of the spread of cost of sewer tunnels at January 1976 prices, which will give a guide
t o present day costs. However, as this is based o n up dating old prices, considerable variation may exist from tunnel
tender prices.
For sewer tunnels the cost of a bolted concrete lining with a secondary cast in-situ concrete lining will
normally be similar t o a smooth bore concrete lining with no secondary lining; any additional costs of the smooth
bore lining being offset b y the reduction in excavation and the omission of the secondary lining.

A number of different methods are used b y contractors to spread their costs amongst the several items in
the Bill o f Quantities. Fairly accurate costs can be obtained from the Bills for the total cost of constructing a
tunnel broken down into unit lengths but the accurate subdivision.of these costs into excavation, erection of the
lining and grouting is much more difficult. The unit cost of the lining in the Bills will normally only contain a
small element of contractor's profits or oncosts. It is not therefore possible to subdivide the costs to give the value
for the erection of the lining but only the lining cost as a percentage of the whole cost. The time taken to erect the
lining compared with the excavation for the tunnel has been discussed above, and it would therefore be possible
t o carry o u t a distribution of the cost on a time basis although it should be born in mind that in many instances
the two operations overlap or are coincident.
For a bolted concrete lining in LondonClay the range of the division of cost of a small diameter tunnel is as
follows:

Lining
Excavation, erection and grouting
Caulking
Secondary lining
The cost of compressed air may add a further 20 per cent to the cost of the tunnel.

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For tunnels with cast iron linings the percentage of the cost of the lining will be higher rising t o 50 per cent
when excavation costs are low. With expanded linings, rates of progress may be high and therefore reduce
excavation costs; consequently the cost of the lining may increase to between 15 and 35 per cent of the total cost
of the tunnel.

11.1 Unit cost of linings


11.1.1 Precast concrete linings: The unit costs of precast standard linings remained fairly constant during
the 1950's and 1960's mainly on account of the improved methods of casting, reduced overheads, and of increased
production. In the 1970's, however, the unit costs increased in step with inflation and have doubled in the last
three years. It must always be borne in mind that at any particular time there are variations in price to meet
demand. Fig. 26 shows a typical graph of the variation of cost of a 2.45 m internal diameter bolted reinforced
. manufacturers will supply budget prices for bolted or smooth
concrete ring for the period 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 7 6 ~ ~All
bore linings on request which will allow for transport to the site. The actual tender price may vary slightly from
the budget price, however, as supply conditions may be different at the time of tender. As a rough guide the unit
cost of linings at January 1976 prices falls into the following ranges:

Type of lining
Bolted Concrete Linings
Smooth Bore Linings including
loan of erector former rings

Cost per m3 of concrete in the


lining including reinforcement
if present
100- 150

80-130

The smaller diameters of lining are normally more expensive than the medium diameters, although there are
variations within the whole range.
When discussing the unit cost of special linings, only a small number of which have been used in the last 10
years, a number of factors must be taken into account, which generally give a higher unit cost than for similar
standard linings.
The three main components of concrete lining production are:
a)

moulds

b)

reinforcement

c)

concrete

The majority of segments for the standard bolted and smooth bore linings are cast horizontally and the cost
of the individual moulds will be in the range 100 to 250. The cost of a complete ring of moulds may be between
400 and 2500, depending on the size, complexity and number of segments in the ring. These moulds are used an

economic number of times, usually about 250-350 and individual parts, such as joint formers, may be used 1000
or more times. All the development costs will have been included in the initial contract for each individual diameter
and thus the mould cost per ring of tunnel lining will be fairly small, in the range of 1.25 t o lO,representing some
5 per cent t o 1 0 per cent of the cost o f the ring.

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For solid segments with plane o r tongue and groove circumferential joints the segments may be cast vertically
in pairs, fours or sixes with corresponding reductions in the cost of the moulds and in the space required for
casting. When grout o r other radial holes are required the segments may only be cast in pairs. The principal use of
t h e vertical method of casting is for the Wedge Block lining, which can be taken as a standard, rather than a special
lining and for which the cost of the moulds represents only 1 per cent to 2 per cent of the cost of the lining.
When a new special lining is designed there will be considerable developnient costs which, in general, are
spread over only a relatively small number of moulds. These costs will vary from lining to lining and will be
particularly high where close tolerances are specified. In general the total cost of a ring of moulds will increase
with the number of segments in the ring and thus the cost of the concrete moulds for a ring of 10 segments may
b e two thirds of the cost for a ring of 2 0 segments.
When calculating t h e cost of moulds per ring of tunnel lining the main factor will be the number of uses of
each mould. The economic number will usually be between 250 and 350 but for many special linings the number of
rings of moulds and therefore the number of uses will be dictated by the rate of production required for the tunnel
driving. In a number of recent cases the moulds have been used only 100 to 150 times, and thus the cost of the
moulds has represented 25 per cent t o 35 per cent of the cost of the lining. Thus if the number of uses has been
doubled at 2 0 0 t o 300, considerable savings could have been made.
The cost of reinforcement in a tunnel lining is generally higher than for other reinforced concrete structures
o n account of the short lengths of steel used and thus the increase in bending and fixing costs per tonne of steel,
and the increased cost of casting the segments. The cost per tonne of reinforcement will vary in each case but will
b e in the range of 250 t o 350 at January 1976. In a number of recent schemes the cost of reinforcement in lining
has been between 2 0 per cent and 5 0 per cent of the total cost of the lining. These are very high percentages and
thus in the design of a lining, comparable estimates should be made between reinforced and unreinforced segments,
including the cost of the extra excavation, or any other expedient to allow the steel to be omitted, before choosing
t h e final design.
The costs of moulds and reinforcement discussed above are of course interdependent, since a ring with a
large number o f segments may require n o reinforcement and one with a small number may well require reinforcement, for handling if not for the loading in service.
Standard segments are generally cast of concrete of characteristic strength of 40-45 MN/mZ . For many
special linings, it is found expedient to design for higher stresses and thus the characteristics strengths are increased
~ . site cast segments this will only increase the cost of the lining by the increased cost of
t o about 55 M N / ~ For
concrete, but for special linings cast at a manufacturer's yard an additional cost will be added on account of
production difficulties with two types of concrete.

11.1.2 Cast iron linings: During the last decade the cost of cast iron linings has increased considerably and in
1 9 7 6 was four t o five times the cost in the early 1960's. This compares with only a doubling or trebling in the cost
of the standard precast concrete lining. The main increase has been in the material cost of the cast iron which
accounts for approximately 6 0 per cent of the total cost of the lining. Spheroidal graphite iron has been introduced
over the last few years and used mainly in small quantities therefore no long term cost statistics are available.

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The number of schemes lined in cast iron rings is relatively few and thus-pricingfor new schemes is difficult.
At present the foundry production lines are not working at a high capacity and the opportunities have been taken
to improve casting methods. Two years ago the cost per tonne of spheroidal graphite iron was up to 5 0 per cent
more than grey iron. This differential has, however, decreased considerably over the last two years. Previously
spheroidal graphite linings were not economical for diameters below 5 or 6 m as the saving in the material did not
outweigh the additional cost of material. Over the next few years it may well be more economifal t o cast all
metal linings in spheroidal graphite rather than grey iron. The cost of cast iron, both grey and spheroidal graphite,
at January 1976 prices is in the range 250 to 350 per tonne.
Grey iron segments are generally of similar lengths for most diameters of lining, although of different flange
depths. Small surface undulations or distortions may exist which are removed when the flanges are .machined.
Although the cost of this machining adds 5 per cent to 10 per cent on the cost of the lining, it is unlikely, except
perhaps for the smaller segments in spheroidal graphite iron, that it will be feasible to omit the machining. The
cost of a master for an iron segment is of the order of 3000 to 5000. One master is required for each type of
segment and therefore for short lengths of tunnel in a special lining the costs of the lining will reflect this outlay
in a similar way to the moulds for special concrete segments.

11.1.3 Secondary linings: There are large differences in the costs of the different secondary linings available
and thus any figures quoted should only be taken as a guide. The figures below are the range of percentages of the
total cost of a tunnel attributable to the cost of the respective secondary linings.
Secondary Lining
Cast in-situ concrete
Brick
Infill panels
Thin cement mortar linings
Sprayed mortar
Glass reinforced linings
Other forms

Percentage of total cost of Tunnel

12. MAINTENANCE

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Many tunnels in use today, especially railway and sewer tunnels which were constructed in brickwork, are 100
years t o 150 years old with ever increasing maintenance requirements. The cast iron lined tunnels, many of which
are 75 years to 1 0 0 years old, have in general required minimal maintenance. Cast in-situ concrete lined tunnels
and precast concrete lined tunnels are considerably younger and to date have generally required little maintenance.

All tunnels and shafts should be regularly inspected and records kept of any signs of deterioration, bulges,
cracks and leakage. Where pumping records are available a close check should be kept so that an inspection can be
made if quantities of water o r sediment content change suddenly. Where running water penetrates the lining of a
tunnel in fine-grained material a void can quickly be formed behind the lining which is very likely to lead to
instability. Systematic grouting should be carried out when such problems threaten t o develop.
The methods commonly used for the repair of tunnels are discussed briefly in the following sections.

12.1 Road tunnels


The majority o f road tunnels in the United Kingdom have been constructed in cast iron segmental linings,
concrete segmental linings or cast in-situ concrete. The only repairwork which has been necessary to date has been
grouting, recaulking and maintenance t o the secondary or internal lining.

12.2 Railway tunnels


The majority of railway tunnels were constructed in brickwork or masonry and it is only in the last 30 t o
5 0 years that cast in-situ or precast concrete has been used. The main difficulties of maintenance and repair of
railway tunnels concern the limited clearance between the structure and loading gauge and the short periods
available at night or at weekends when unrestricted work can be carried out. In emergencies, however, one or
b o t h tracks may have t o be closed. For the old brick tunnels many of the records of the construction have not
been preserved (if they existed) and only the original plans with typical cross-sections are available.
The most general defects associated with brickwork railway tunnels are deterioration of the mortar,
crumbling of the brickwork, cracks and bulges. Roman and lime mortars were the most commonly used and the
latter has been the one most prone t o deterioration helped by sulphate attack. The bricks were often made from
the excavated material from the tunnel or from local quarries which did not necessarily produce the best quality
bricks for the purpose. I n some instances the first two courses of brickwork have had to be replaced while in a
few tunnels whole arches have been replaced where defective brickwork has been found behind. The spalling,
bulges and cracks more often occur in the crown and haunches and t o a lesser extent in the walls. The reasons
for The deterioration of the brickwork may be put down t o a number of factors including steam engine fumes,
running water and dampness. When timber has been used for the temporary support behind the lining, it has
sometimes rotted when leakage o f water has allowed it to dry out, causing voids and exposing the timber to the
atmosphere. Where tunnels have n o structural invert, inadequacy or silting up of the drainage system are often the
initial causes of damage. In tunnels in stiff clays an invert should always be provided initially although it is often
not necessary structurally for several years.
The methods commonly used for the repair of railway tunnels include repointing of the brickwork, rebuilding 1 or 2 courses of brickwork, sprayed mortar or concrete over mesh fixed to the brickwork, or more
recently sprayed concrete with steel fibres (see Section 6.3) and rockbolting (see Section 6.2). Where falls of weak
rock may occur protective canopies such as structural steel work or steel corrugated sheeting may be used with

cement or chemical grouting to fill voids and seal the tunnel. Several tunnels have been relined with reinforced
concrete segments or with precast or cast in-situ invert arches, during short or long-term possessions of the tunnel.

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12.3 Small diameter tunnels


Small diameter tunnels include tunnels for sewers and for water, accounting for several thousand kilometres
of tunnel in the United Kingdom. The older sewer tunnels, many of which have been in service for more than 100
years, are lined in engineering brick with some sections in cast iron. The brick lined tunnels are in many cases in
need of repair and in London alone over 150 km will probably require to be replaced or relined in the next ten or
twenty years. The more recent sewer tunnels have been constructed with precast concrete linings, either of the
bolted or smooth bore type. The bolted type when first introduced was lined in brick but more recently cast insitu concrete has normally been used. Sewer tunnels receive a considerable amount of wear in the invert. Brick
internal linings have proved themselves over the last 100 years; cast in-situ concrete internal linings have only
been common for the last 20 or 30 years. No sign of excessive erosion has yet been found but it could well be that
without surface treatment their life will not be as long as for the brick linings.
Measures which have been used for the repair of brick-lined sewers include repointing of the brickwork,
where there is little superficial damage, or constructing an internal lining inside the sewer which will take part or
all of the structural load. These internal linings should have low surface roughness and be thin in order t o
minimise any reduction in the cross-sectional area of the tunnel. Suitable materials include thin precast concrete
segments, sprayed mortar linings, glass reinforced fibre linings and resin felt linings (see Appendix 2). These
internal structural linings are also suitable for damaged cast in-situ linings.
Additional grouting to the back of the original lining may also be required to fill voids behind the lining and
thus improve stability.
In the past, water tunnels were sometimes constructed through rock and left unlined. Where erosion has
taken place or where the rock has deteriorated over half a century or more, remedial measures including new
structural linings may be required. These may be of cast in-situ concrete if the reduced cross-section area is
acceptable or of a structural canopy of steel, aluminium or other material which will protect the roof of the
tunnel, and thus prevent the rock falling into the invert to obstruct the passage of water.

13. RECOMMENDATIONS
13.1 Standardisation

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It is generally agreed within the industry that standardisation of tunnel linings is long overdue and that
there are too many diameters of tunnel linings available, especially in the precast concrete standard ranges. The
present method of specifying tunnels is by the internal diameter, which is the diameter required by the user,
(and will not correspond t o the internal diameter of the primary lining where a secondary lining is needed). From
the construction point of view the external and the excavated diameters are the more important, especially for
shield driven tunnels.
The present ranges of standard concrete linings are now specified as metric conversions of the old imperial
sizes. During the next few years metrication will provide a convenient time to introduce a new range of diameters
with convenient metric increments or t o reduce the number of diameters in the present range. Standardisation
should also be extended into the special precast concrete and cast iron lining sectors to enable shields and segment
moulds t o be used for several contracts. In the next 10 t o 20 years casting techniques will be improved with the
introduction of new methods, such as the pressing of segments where the cost of a set of moulds is very large
when compared with conventional moulds, and the need for standardisation will become more compelling.
A major change, such as standardisation, cannot be carried out by sectors of the industry, but will require
t h e cooperation of all parties, including local statutory and consulting engineers, contractors and lining and shield
manufactures. The Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) Committee on Underground Construction has included standardisation on its projected list of priorities, a working party was formed in
late 1975 and CIRIA report No 66 was published in the summer of 1977.

13.2 Specifications
Many of the specifications drawn up for standard bolted reinforced concrete linings are based on those
supplied by one of the manufacturers. These are not fully comprehensive, and cover only general items of concrete
reinforcement and tolerances on dimensions. In several cases, the linings have been specified in tender documents
by particular trade name, or 'similar approved'. It is generally agreed within the industry that there are considerable
differences between the products of different manufacturers and it is therefore recommended that a performance
specification for minimum requirements be drawn up t o provide adequate standards as a basis for control that the
client or consulting engineer may exercise on design and quality of the lining supplied.
At present there are some half dozen manufacturers of precast concrete tunnel linings and in addition a
number of contractors may elect t o cast segments at the site of the works. The types of standard linings which are
available fall mainly into two groups, the bolted concrete linings and the smooth bore linings. The former group
which account for the majority o f the standard market are all of similar form and are manufactured by most of the
manufacturers. For the latter group, each manufacturer has a different lining which is normally protected by
patent rights.
The bolted form of lining is reinforced for the temporary condition of transporting, handling and erection:
this reinforcement may or may not be required for the permanent condition. Although manufacturers will produce
reinforcement drawings on request, in the majority of contracts the standard segments from the lowest tenderer
will b e accepted with little questioning. In a number of contracts it has been found that the flanges of the segments
have been damaged during handling or the skin cracked due to excessive stress during the shoving of the shield. It
is recommended that any new specification should include the design criteria for the lining, such as depth of tunnel,

shield thrusts and other special conditions, and require the manufacturer to produce calculations t o show the
adequacy of the lining against such criteria. At present the thickness of sections of bolted segments and the extent
and disposition of reinforcement vary between manufacturers. Again the quality of the concrete and the dimensional accuracy of casting segments vary between manufacturers and should be adequately covered by the
specification. In general, the tolerances should be related to construction requirements, recognising the additional
costs for high accuracy.

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For special linings the design is carried out by the consulting engineer or promoter who will specify requirements for the lining. The specification in these instances will normally be more comprehensive covering quality,
strength, dimensions and even the manner of casting.

13.3 Development of linings


The present methods of lining tunnels have been discussed in Chapters 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 and 10, and it has been
shown that in general these are conservative methods which have been used for several decades. The main exception
has been the use of expanded linings. In Section 10.1 the cycle of excavation and erection of the lining has been
discussed, which illustrates that for hand excavated tunnels the lining erection is the shortest operation in the cycle.
There has been a general trend in the last decade towards mechanical excavation. For longer and larger diameter
tunnels in stiff to firm clays and weak to moderately strong rock full face machines have been increasingly used.
With these mechanical methods of excavation, erection of the lining may become the longest operation in the cycle.
The new linings which have been designed during the last decade have either been for specific schemes where
the linings have evolved from previous schemes, or, in one or two instances, for standard production. The specific
schemes are usually large and thus the high development costs have easily been absorbed in the overall costs. The
development and marketing costs for new standard linings are high and it may be several years before the lining is
used for a tunnel contract and several more before the lining is in full production. For a new lining t o be viable it
must offer advantages over the existing linings and therefore one important criterion will be the time and method
for the erection. If this can take place simultaneously with the excavation considerable savings will accrue. The
design of a new lining may therefore require the development of a special tunnel shield or machine. Such a
development was made with the Mini Tunnel but if the lining is to cater for the whole range of standard linings,
after standardisation of diameters, the development costs will be very large. The present tunnel lining market, as
discussed in Section 3.2 and in Appendix 2, fluctuates considerably according to the state of the economy and is
thus not the ideal place for a tunnel lining or shield manufacturer to put aside large capital sums on development.
It is therefore recommended that consideration should be given to grants, possibly subsequently repayable,
to manufacturers of linings and shields or other organisations who wish to develop innovatory lining systems, in a
similar manner to the development of the bentonite shield. Great care would be needed in choosing such schemes,
and assessing their viability and long term profitability.
In 1973, the recent peak year of tunnelling demandthe total turnover of lining manufacturers was of the
order of a m . , two-thirds of which was for precast concrete linings. The total length of tunnel constructed in that
year was 120 km, over 90 per cent of which was in precast linings. This is equivalent to an average cost of 75 per
metre and represents less than 10 per cent of the total tunnelling costs. Tunnelling costs are predominantly time
dependent and therefore a substantial increase in the rates of progress with a new lining, say 25 per cent, would
soon recover the development costs.
The forms of linings and the materials which merit consideration are briefly given below:-

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1)

The development of the use of expanded linings in strata other than stiff to firm clays and the method
of sealing the joints.

2)

Investigation o f the merits o f deformable precast linings which are more compressible circumferentially

3)

Investigation of other forms of continuous erection of precast concrete or cast iron linings, and the
improvement of the present methods of erection.

4)

An investigation of new materials such as glass reinforced plastic (GRP), or concrete (GRC), or resinimpregnated concrete. Although the production of linings in these materials may not be economic in
the foreseeable future design studies should continue. As the present cost of the material is high, a
completely new approach will be necessary rather than the development of existing forms in these new
materials. Development in the United States is considerable in this field and should be monitored
although n o economic lining has yet resulted. Present tunnelling in the United Kingdom is predominantly in soft ground and therefore the continuous extrusion of cast in-situ concrete behind a shield is
unlikely t o be developed in the next few years.

5)

The optimum size of segments for manufacture, erection and material components need to be studied.

6)

There may be justification for carrying out further lining trials in a deep tunnel for which purpose
commercially justified tunnels might be driven in advance of their need.

7)

There is still a great need for studying improved support methods for jointed rock formations in
Britain and for improved means of assessing the tunnelling problems for economic investigations.

8)

Present research at BRE and TRRL in the methods and control of sprayed concrete will be of great
importance in furthering its use taking account of controlled use overseas. Further rock bolting studies
need t o be carried out t o improve design methods.

When new linings are developed some form of testing of the lining is necessary as discussed in Chapter 7.
Testing of individual segments has often been carried out and occasionally the loading of rings. The monitoring
o f , and research into,the stresses and deformation associated with a complete ring of segments is important. Such
work requires a substantial approach where full size or scale model rings can be assembled and loads applied to the
periphery t o simulate the actual ground conditions including variation in the horizontal pressures. Testing of a
spheroidal graphite lining was considered recently but the costs were found t o be prohibitive for an individual
scheme.
The potential and cost of a laboratory testing rig with a capacity to simulate actual ground conditions at
considerable depth needs t o be investigated. Such an apparatus could be used for commercial testing and for
research into ground lining interaction and lining behaviour.

13.4 Waterproofing
Flexible caulking compounds have been discussed in Section 9.4 with particular reference to expanded
concrete linings. The caulking trials which have been made with a variety of flexible compounds in a number of
tunnels, have been o n a relatively small scale and often at the initiative of the manufacturer of the caulking
compound. The trials in the ideal conditions of the laboratory have often been successful, but have failed in the
tunnel where conditions are often damp, wet and dirty. Most of the compounds tried to date have been materials

used for sealing joints in slabs, where the main movement has been in the longitudinal direction causing the
compounds to compress or elongate; water pressures, if any, have been minimal. In a tunnel the main purpose of
the seal is to hold back the water pressure which tends to tear the jointing material away from its bond to the
lining.

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Caulking of a tunnel lining is labour intensive with the material cost of cement based compounds relatively
small. Flexible materials are likely to be considerably more expensive and thus new quicker methods of application
are required to offset these additional costs, if the new materials are t o be considered for all forms of lining. The
cost of caulking represents approximately 10 per cent of the tunnelling cost per metre and thus represents several
million pounds worth of work in a year.
Expanded concrete linings, which represent up to 20 per cent of the total length of tunnels constructed, have
been used mai'nly in firm to stiff clays which, except for a relatively small proportion of the length, have not
required caulking. Future applications of these linings may be in water-bearing strata and thus it is essential that
one or more satisfactory caulking compounds are found.
The present methods of waterproofing tunnels include sealing strips in, or painted compounds on, the joints
which help to reduce the quantity of water entering through the joint. However, the main seal to prevent the
ingress of water is the caulking of the joint at the inside of the tunnel. New methods, and in particular the German
practices, need to be considered for sealing the water at the back of the joint or in the depth of the joint where
any build up of pressure will compress the material in the joint into a wedged shaped profile. Most of the present
caulking grooves are parallel sided which depend on adhesion of the material to the sides. Wedge shaped grooves,
which have been specified for cast iron linings and some special linings could also be considered although there
may be greater difficulty in using the caulking tools.
For new compounds to be successfully introduced for the present forms of lining, trials will be required
over relatively long lengths of tunnels, in addition to the present trials confined to a few rings. Such experiments
could be carried out in two stages. Firstly, in the laboratory where a satisfactory material and method of application would be obtained in a simulated tunnel environment; secondly, on a long length of tunnel, where the
work could be carried out without interference from other tunnelling operztions.
The introduction of new waterproofing techniques at the back of, or in the joint, will require fundamental
alterations to the design of the joint. Some consideration should be given to the German practice where the
preference is to the use of linings, in spheroidal graphite cast iron or concrete, made to very tight tolerances, and
relatively high cost but achieving a notably high standard of finish with waterproofing by waterbars bonded into
the segments. The meeting faces of the segments have direct contact and adjustments to the line and level of the
rings are made with taper rings. This principle of tapered rings has been used for a number of tunnels with cast
iron linings designed in the United Kingdom for a home and foreign market.
If the circumferential flanges of the segments are not in direct contact the successful material must be
capable of sealing gaps up to 25mm wide, the thickness of which may vary from segment to segment. Any sealing
technique must be quick and 'miner proof.
Several new methods have been investigated during the last few years for waterproofing cast iron linings, in
particular by the manufacturers, but these have not reached the production stage. New methods for concrete
linings need to be investigated.

13.5 instrumentation, monitoring and research


The major part o f the effort and resources for research and instrumentation in tunnelling is now channelled
through Department of the Environment (DOE) Research Organisations; TRRL and BRE. In the longterm TRRL
will take over responsibility for all DOE research in tunnels. Some instrumentation will, however, still be financed
through contracts, especially for the larger schemes.

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In Chapter 7 the various forms of instrumentation and monitoring of tunnel linings and ground movements
have been discussed t o illustrate the small amount of information which is available generally, except perhaps for
tunnels in London Clay. A programme needs t o be drawn up for research during the next 5 to 10 years, which will
cover most ground conditions.
Further information is required on surface and subsurface ground movements associated with tunnels of
different diameters at different depths and varying cover to diameter ratios, in most ground conditions. Where
possible such monitoring should include the measurements of porewater pressure in the ground.
More data is required on hoop loadings in tunnel linings at selected locations and on the deformation of
linings as loads build up.
Instrumentation o f lining stresses has shown that the stress in the lining may approach the overburden
pressure as discussed in Section 7.5. The method and accuracy of the erection of the lining has a considerable
effect on these stresses. For example if a flanged lining is built such that, at a particular joint, the load is taken on
the internal edge of the flange due t o "bird's-mouthing" of the flanges, different stresses will occur than if the
flanges were in contact over their length. Studies of the effect of these conditions on the stresses in a lining would
be beneficial to establish the additional factor of safety required to allow for building inaccuracies.
The parallel work of laboratory experiments and the analysis of tunnel behaviour needs to continue, with
the use o f centrifugal model testing. These tests will provide not only a means of understanding scale effects but
will also provide an essential link between model and prototype behaviour. Theoretical analyses based on tunnel
data and laboratory testing will help t o obtain a better understanding of the changes in stress associated with
tunnelling .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The work described in this Report was carried out for the Tunnels Division of the Structures Department
of TRRL.

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The authors are grateful to TRRL for the opportunity to carry out this survey and for the assistance given
by members of the Tunnels Division. In particular the authors wish t o thank Mr M P O'Reilly, Head of the
Division, Mr B Boden, Dr M Dumbleton, Dr J A Hudson and Dr R G Tyler who have during the course of the
survey given valuable assistance, advice and encouragement, and Dr S D Priest for his valuable assistance during
the final stage of the preparation.

14. APPENDIX 1
List of organisations consulted
Discussions were held with many organisations concerned with tunnelling, a large number of which were visited
on one or more occasions during the course of the survey. The Authors and the Transport and Road Research
Laboratory are very grateful for the cooperation and helpful assistance given by all consulted. On account of the
large number of organisations concerned with tunnelling only a relatively small but representative cross-section
could be contacted.

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Visits and correspondence were held with the following organisations.

Local and Statutory Authorities


Corporation of Blackpool
City of Birmingham
City and County of Bristol
British Railways
Central Electricity Generating Board
County Borough of Derby
Corporation of Edinburgh
Corporation of Glasgow
Greater London Council

City of Manchester
Milton Keynes Development Corporation
Northumbrian Water Authority
North of Scotland Electricity Board
Sandwell Metropolitan Borough
Southend Borough Council
City of Stoke
Thames Water Authority

Consulting Engineers
Babtie Shaw and Morton
D Balfour and Sons
Binnie and Partners
C H Dobbie and Partners
Oscar Faber and Partners
Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners
Sir William Halcrow and Partners

Charles Haswell and Partners


Howard Humphreys and Sons
G Maunsell and Partners
L G Mouchel and Partners
Mott Hay and Anderson
J D and D M Watson
Sir Owen Williams and Partners

Civil Engineering Contractors


Amey Roadstone Construction Ltd
Balfour Beatty and Co Ltd
Bovis Civil Engineering Ltd
Charles Brand and Son Ltd
Cementation Mining and Civil Engineering Co Ltd
Leonard Fairclough (Buchan Division) Ltd
Foraky Ltd
Kinnear Moodie (1 973) Ltd

Sir Robert McAlpine and Sons Ltd


Miller Bros and Buckley Construction Ltd
Edmund Nuttall Ltd
Mini Tunnel International
Rees Hough Ltd
Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd
Thyssen (GB) Ltd
A Waddington and Son Ltd

Primary Lining Manufacturers


Anglian Building Products Ltd
Armco Ltd
C V Buchan (Concrete) Ltd
Charcon Tunnels Ltd
Commercial Hydraulics Co Ltd
Costain Concrete Co Ltd
Croxden Gravel Ltd

Empire Stone Co Ltd


Head Wrightson and Co Ltd
Redpath Dorman Long Ltd
Scottish Construction Ltd
Silverton Associates (Bemold System)
Spun Concrete Ltd
Stanton and Staveley Ltd

Shield Manufacturers

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R L Priestley Ltd

Stelrno Ltd

Other Specialist Contractors


Sprayed and Mortar Linings
Caledonian Mining Co.
Cementation Ground Engineering
Centreline Ltd

Stabilator Ltd
UK Pressure
Whitley Moran Ltd

Caulking
Chemical Building Products Ltd
Colebrand Ltd
Deepseal Ltd

Expandite Ltd
Servicised Ltd
Vandex Ltd

Secondary Lining Manufacturers


Charcon Composites
Mortabond Ltd
Redland Pipes Ltd

Grouts and Admixture Specialists


Colcrete Ltd
Pozament Ltd

Research Establishments, Universities, Colleges and Associations


Building Research Establishment
Concrete Pipe Association
Pipe Jacking Association
Sunderland Polytechnic

University of Cambridge
University of Durham
University of Glasgow
University of Newcastle-upon-tyne

15. APPENDIX 2
Primary and secondary linings

general

15.1 Tunnel lining demand, 1970-1 976

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For the OECD Advisory conference on tunnelling held in Washington, USA, in June 1970, statistics were
drawn up, based o n the replies t o a questionnaire sent to each country, concerning the demand for tunnels in the
period 1960 t o 1969 and the future estimates for the period 1970 to 1979. When the results were presented it was
stressed that there were important gaps in the information received, and therefore the data should be taken only
as a n indication o f the magnitude of the demand.

~
out an assessment of the likely extent of future tunnelling and
In 1972 t o 1973 BRE and T R R L ' ~carried
the types of ground involved for the immediate term, 0 t o 5 years, the medium term, 5 to 15 years, and the long
term, 15 t o 30 years.
During this survey it has been possible, with the cooperation of the tunnel lining manufacturers, to establish
the approximate lengths and volumes o f tunnels and shafts constructed for civil engineering purposes during each
of t h e calendar years for the period 1970 t o 1976. For the UK such estimates are somewhat simplified by the fact
that at least 9 0 per cent of all tunnels use preformed linings.

15.1.1 Collection of data: At any one time a hundred or more tunnels are under construction throughout
the country. O n most sites the working area is relatively small and there is only storage capacity for a few weeks
supply of segments. The information obtained from the manufacturers of concrete and cast iron linings was the
total number o f rings delivered t o all sites of each diameter in each of the calendar years 1970 t o 1976, which it
was estimated would give a figure close t o the actual length of tunnels and shafts constructed with these linings.
I t was not possible t o prepare statistics for the years prior t o 1970 as records were not available from all manufacturers.
Where segments were cast on site, accounting for a relatively small number of contracts, the actual length of
tunnel constructed in each calendar year was obtained from the consulting engineer or the contractor and for rock
tunnels which were left unlined or lined in cast in-situ concrete the lengths excavated in each calendar year were
obtained from the user, consulting engineer or the contractor. For this latter category of lining, less than 10 per
cent of all tunnels, details of tunnels had t o be obtained from many sources all over the country. The estimated
length may therefore be slightly o n the low side, but this will not affect the total of all tunnels b y more than 1 or
2 per cent. The total lengths of tunnels and shafts d o not, however, include pipe jacking and timber heading,
which may account for a further 5 per cent to 10 per cent, nor for mining shafts and roadways,which are greatly
in excess of civil engineering tunnelling.

15.1.2 Total length of tunnels constructed: Fig. 27 gives the total annual length of tunnels and shafts
constructed, divided into the several forms of lining, for each of the calendar years 1970 to 1976. The figure
shows a peak in 1973 with a sharp reduction in 1974, due partly to the reorganisation of the local authorities and
partly to the economic situation. Since this drop in 1974, however, the annual length of tunnels constructed has
been virtually constant. The concrete bolted and smooth bore linings, which are predominantly for the sewer
market with short lengths for water, cable and transport tunnels, sustained a severe set-back in the early part of
1 9 7 4 while for the other three forms of linings this did not occur until the latter part of 1974. The expanded
concrete, cast in-situ concrete and cast iron lined tunnels are usually large capital projects, spread over several
years, and therefore the main effects of financial restraints do not normally occur for 1 to 2 years. The length of

tunnels constructed with these latter forms of linings was, however, at a nadir in 1971. Many of these recent
contracts commenced in 1971 and 1972 with tunnelling completed by early 1974 and thus the effects have been
felt earlier than might be expected with only a few contracts let to replace them.

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Fig. 28 gives the percentages of the total length of tunnel constructed in each form of lining and shows that
the bolted and smooth bore linings account generally for between 70 per cent and 80 per cent of the total length.
In 1975 this percentage rose to 90 per cent as relatively little tunnelling was carried out with the other forms of
lining.

15.1.3 Total excavated volume of tunnels constructed: Fig. 29 gives the annual volume of excavation
for tunnels and shafts constructed with each form of lining during each of the calendar years 1970-76. An
additional subdivision has been included for road tunnels lined with precast concrete lining. The lengths of these
road tunnels in concrete lining, the Mersey Kingsway 2B Tunnel and the Dartford Duplication Tunnel, which are
included in the bolted and smoothbore linings, are relatively small, while the excavated volumes are comparatively
large. The percentage volumes for each form of lining are given in Fig. 30. The annual variation in the volume of
excavation is similar to that (see Fig. 27) for the length of tunnel, with the exception of 1971 which was influenced
by the Mersey Kingsway Tunnel. The bolted and smooth bore linings account in general for between 45 per cent
and 60 per cent of the total volume. The percentages of volume for the other three forms of lining fluctuate more
dramatically than the percentages of length.
15.1.4 Average external diameters of tunnels: Table 17 shows the average external diameters of each type
of lining based on the annual lengths and volumes. The weighted overall average is based on the total length and
volume of all linings. The weighted diameter for 1971 is affected by the Mersey Kingsway Tunnel, which is
omitted from the figure in brackets at the bottom of the column. The surprising conclusion from this table is the
very low average diameter for the precast concrete bolted and smooth bore linings which give average external
diameters of 2.4 rn to 2.6 m or equivalent average internal diameters of only 2.1 m to 2.3 m. The weighted overall
average diameter is likewise relatively small. The fluctuating figures for the cast in-situ concrete lined and cast iron
lined tunnels make little difference to the overall average on account of their relatively small percentage of the
length of tunnel.
TABLE 17
Average external diameters
Year
Concrete bolted and smoothbore (A)
Expanded concrete
(B)
Weighted average of (A) and (B)
Cast in-situ lined or unlined
Precast concrete road tunnels
Cast iron
Weighted overall average

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

2.4
2.8
2.5
5.4
11.0
10.1
3.0

2.5
2.8
2.5
7.7
11.0
8.4
3.6
(3.2)

2.6
2.8
2.6
4.2
11.0
4.4
2.9

2.4
3.3
2.6
4.6

2.5
3.2
2.6
4.9

2.5

5.3
3.1

5.6
3.1

2.6
3 .O
2.6
3.6
11.0
5.5
2.8

2.5
4.7
11.0
5.4
3.1

Fig. 31 shows the range of the cumulative percentages of total lengths of tunnels lined with precast concrete
segments for the period 1970 to 1976 plotted against internal diameter. This again shows the small diameter of
tunnels, 50 per cent of whlch are below approximately 2 m and 90 per cent below approximately 3 m.

15.1.5 Tunnelling in 1976-1980:

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The demand for bolted and smooth bore linings, which account for over
70 per cent of the market, is increasing and if the financial climate improves as it appears likely to, this demand will
continue t o increase during the period 1976 to 1980. For the remaining 25 per cent to 30 per cent,however - the
expanded concrete, cast in-situ concrete or unlined tunnels and cast iron lined tunnels - there must be some
reservations. There are at present fewer schemes under construction or consideration than during the 1970 to 1974
period, especially for expanded concrete and cast iron lined tunnels which accounted for 67 km and 12 km
respectively of tunnel during the 1970 to 1974 period. For cast in-situ lined or unlined tunnels, which accounted
for 3 3 km for the last five years, there will be a large increase mainly due to the Tyne-Tees aqueduct, of 32 km, and
the Dinorwic tunnels both of which commenced in 1975. Unless several more large schemes are started in the latter
part of the period there is unlikely to be a continued sustained increase in the overall length of tunnels using these
three forms of lining, which accounted for 112 km in the 1970 to 1974 period.
The total length of tunnels constructed in 1975 and 1976 was very similar to that in 1974 and thus any
estimates for the 1976 t o 1980 period based on the 1970 to 1974 period must be considered in the light of the
present financial conditions. Allowing an overall annual increase over the period of 3 per cent to 7 per cent the
estimated length of tunnels constructed in the period would be 475 km t o 575 km, but any large injection or
reduction of finance could alter these figures considerably. Any prediction for the 1976 to 1980 period based on
schemes under consideration is outside the scope of this survey.

15.1.6 Tunnel usage: The concrete bolted and smooth bore tunnel linings are predominantly for the sewer
market, the proportion for sewers fluctuating from year t o year between 85 per cent and 95 per cent of the total
lengths of tunnels. The remaining percentage includes cable, water, service, pedestrian and railway and other
associated tunnels. The expanded concrete, cast in-situ concrete and cast iron linings are easily subdivided on
account of the small number of schemes. Tables 18 and 19 give the percentage of the total length and volume of
tunnels for each tunnel usage for each of the years 1970 to 1976 and the average for the period. The bolted and
smooth bore concrete linings have been subdivided where possible but some small errors may exist between the
sewer, water and cable tunnel percentages. In general, two-thirds of the length of tunnels is for the sewer market
and between 40 per cent and 5 0 per cent of the volume. There are however considerable fluctuations for the
other usages of tunnels from year to year.
TABLE 18
Tunnel usage - percentage of total length
TUNNEL USAGE

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

Sewers
Cable
Water
Rail and Associated tunnels
Road
%other than sewers
% road and rail

67.7
3.2
27.5

67.4
5.8
23.7
0.2
2.9
32.6
3.1

70.8
4.8
19.6
4.6
0.2
29.2
4.8

70.9
0.8
13.2
13.7
1.4
29.1
15.1

74.6
1.3
15.4
8.0
0.7
25.4
8.7

87.7
5.0
5.0
2.0
0.3
12.3
2.3

80.0
1.2
14.4
3.7
0.7
20.0
4.4

1.6
32.3
1.6

TABLE 19

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Tunnel usage - percentage of total volume


TUNNEL USAGE

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

Sewers
Cable
Water
Rail and Associated tunnels
Road
% other than sewers
% road and rail

46.1
3.1
32.2

28.1
4.7
42.1
0.6
24.5

48.9
0.4
13.8
35.4
1.5
51.1
36.9

52.7
0.5
15.6
29.1
2.1
47.3
31.2

71.5
5 -0
5.0
14.0
4.5
28.5
18.5

47.5
1.1

58.5
4.4
21.4
14.1

18.6
53.9
18.6

71.9
25.1

1.6
41.5
15.7

32.6
9.6
9.2
52.5
18.8

15.2 Secondary linings


In Table 2, in the main Report, the use of bolted and smooth bore linings is examined in conjunction with
the need for a secondary lining. For sewer or water tunnels the secondary lining provides a smooth finish to the
tunnel, prevents erosion and may act as a corrosion barrier. Secondary linings are briefly considered in this Report
in order that cost comparisons can be made between the different forms of primary linings, only some of which
require secondary linings. The different forms of secondary lirung are given in Table 20 and briefly discussed in the
following sub-sections.
For road tunnels, passenger concourses and pedestrian subways, the secondary lining serves as a waterproofing
(or shielding) membrane, as partial insulation against noise and as an aesthetic finish. It is beyond the scope of this
Report to give details of the many materials and methods of application available. For road tunnels the lining must,
in addition, be durable, offering a high resistance to corrosion, be easy to clean, have a good reflective surface and
present an acceptable fire rating. For reference, however, the secondary linings used for bored road tunnels
recently constructed are briefly listed in Table 21.

TABLE 20
Secondary linings for sewer and water tunnels

Secondary lining
Brick (CR)
Cast in-situ concrete
Infill panels
Thin cement mortar
Sprayed mortar
Steel
Glass fibre reinforced cement (CR)
Glass fibre reinforced plastic (CR)
Resin felt (CR)
Epoxy tar (CR)
Bitumen (CR)
NOTES:

SEWER TUNNELS
Bolted
Smooth bore
Plate no.
linings
linings
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
-

*
;h

*(2)

WATER TUNNELS
Bolted
Smooth bore
linings
linings

*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*
*
*

1. Secondary linings marked (CR) are resistant to many acids and alkalis.
2. Secondary linings marked (2) require a smooth bore finish to the primary lining of in-situ

concrete or infill panels.

TABLE 21
Secondary linings for driven road tunnels
Date

Primary lining

Secondary lining to walls

Dartford

1956-63

Cast iron

Concrete t o ceiling level with


38 mm square opaque glass mosaic.

Clyde

1957-64

Cast iron

PVC sheeting on extruded


aluminium frame.

Blackwall Duplication

1960-67

Cast iron

Aluminium sheeting with PVC


coating.

Tyne

1961-67

Cast iron

Concrete t o axis. Light steel vitreous


enamelled panels with double coated
light textured finish.

Crindau Newport

1963-67

Cast in-situ concrete

Concrete dado 1.5 m high with


PVC sheeting supported on extruded
aluminium alloy bars.

Gibraltar Hill
Monmouth

1965-67

Cast in-situ concrete

PVC sheeting.

Heathrow Cargo Tunnel


London

1966-68

Precast concrete

PVC sheeting on extruded aluminium


alloy bars.

Mersey Kingsway
Tunnels

1967-74

Precast concrete or
cast iron

Steel sheets cast onto precast concrete primary lining, coated with
epoxy paint. For cast iron sections
similar steel sheets supported from
the cast iron lining.

Birmingham Gt.
Charles Street

1968-70

Cast in-situ concrete

A thin trowelled finish.

Fort Regent Jersey

1968-70

Cast in-situ concrete

No secondary lining.

Dartford Duplication

1972-78

Precast concrete or
cast iron

Steel sheets cast onto precast concrete


primary lining, coated with epoxy paint.
For cast iron sections similar sheets
supported from the cast iron lining.

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Tunnel

15.2.1 Brick lining: As discussed in Section 3.3.2 the use of brick as a primary lining has reduced considerably
during the last t w o decades. Similarly the use of brickwork as an internal secondary lining to bolted cast iron or
concrete linings has also reduced, mainly because of the increased cost of materials and labour when compared with
the cost of other forms of secondary lining, which in turn has caused a scarcity of experienced skilled labour. As an
alternative t o a complete brick lining an invert of brick with a cast in-situ concrete lining above may be used. Brick
linings or inverts in brick are still used in certain conditions where the effluent is likely t o be aggressive, where
scour o r high fluid velocities are expected, or for durability (see Plate 44).
A brickwork lining is smooth and durable, being one of the best available wearing surfaces for sewers. For
brick linings in sewers, the internal ring should be built in the best-quality, low absorption, engineering bricks
available. The bricks, without frogs, should be in accordance with British Standard BS 3921 - Bricks and blocks
o f fired brickearth, clay or shale. For small diameter tunnels radiused bricks should be used.

98

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With bolted primary linings the brickwork may be built up clear of the internal diameter of the primary
lining and the void behind filled with concrete as the work progresses. Alternatively precast infill panels (see
Section 15.2.3) may be used to give a smooth internal bore to the primary lining, the void between this surface
and the brickwork being filled with mortar. For large diameter sewers the top arch will require supporting on
timber laggings until the arch is complete. Grouting behind the secondary lining t o fill any voids should b e
carried out at a later date. The weakest link in the ring, however, is the mortar between the bricks which will not
take tension. Investigations have recently been carried out by the Northumbrian Water Authority for the new
Tyneside sewerage scheme to obtain a ring with an adequate bond between the bricks, using an epoxy resin
joiniing material. This lining has been designed for tunnels of 2 m diameter and over. Tests were carried out in
the laboratory with an epoxy resin joint between engineering bricks which showed that the jointing material was
stronger than the bricks. This form of internal lining will be used for a number of contracts during the next few
years. The primary lining will normally be of bolted cast iron or concrete segments. The internal brick skin will
either be built up clear of the lining and the void backfilled with concrete as the work progresses or infill panels
will be fitted to the segments to give a smoothbore finish and the internal skin erected close t o this surface with
a rubber latex base between. The latex has been designed to set under damp conditions. This type of brickwork is,
however, expensive and requires highly skilled bricklayers.

15.2.2 Cast in-situ concrete linings: Cast in-situ concrete is at present the standard internal lining for
sewers with primary bolted cast iron and concrete linings and has taken over almost completely from the brick
internal lining. The invert level can easily be adjusted to correct the inaccuracies of the construction of the tunnel
to give a smooth finish. The concrete may be 100 mm to 150 mm thick inside the flanges of the primary lining t o
allow for the tolerances in the construction of the tunnel. Although it is normal t o cast the secondary lining
concentric with the primary lining some local authorities prefer to have a larger thickness in the invert t o give
longer protection against scour. Invert finishes may be of lugher grade granolithic concrete or of brickwork, set
into a recess cast into the secondary concrete lining. The characteristic strength specified is normally in the 2 0 to
28 MN/m2 although higher grades have been used; these latter require tight concrete control and supervision a t the
surface and in the tunnel where vibration of the concrete will be necessary. Timber laggings are the common
method of shuttering for small diameter tunnels although segmental steel shutters are occasionally used. For
larger diameter tunnels travelling shutters may be used. The shutters are normally 3 m to 5 m long and, depending
on the size of tunnel, up to five lengths are cast on a one day shift. If a two shift system is worked the shutters may
be removed on the night shift or early on the next day shift. If adequate precautions are taken in sealing the shutter
joints to avoid loss of grout with steel shutters, the finish may be better than that obtained with timber laggings.
Back grouting may also be necessary. These cast in-situ linings have only been used for the last 2 0 t o 3 0 years and
no assessment has been made of their useful life though repair of these linings will be more difficult than for brick
linings (see Plate 45).

15.2.3 lnfill panels: The standard precast concrete bolted linings manufactured all differ slightly in their
cross-section and thus different infill panels are required for each lining to give a smooth bore finish. These infill
panels consist of accurately shaped precast concrete units designed to fit into the recesses between the flanges and
the ribs of the segments with a nominal 6 mm clearance. The panels are bonded with a cement/pulverised fuel ash
mortar mix. The installation is quick and normally cheaper than a cast in-situ lining (see Plate 46).
The 'Bucfil' panels manufactured by C V Buchan (Concrete) Ltd are made of lightweight aggregate, sand,
pulverised fuel ash and ordinary Portland or Sulphate resisting cement. Load tests have been carried out on the
bond between the segments and the panels. To avoid the possible debonding of the units in the crown, good
control of the workmanship is essential. There have been no cases, however, of debonding following the
commissioning of a tunnel. These panels are used mainly for water tunnels or stormwater sewers and it is not
recommended that they be used for effluent sewers unless special primary lining segments are cast with larger
cover to the reinforcement than standard segments.

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Panels in ordinary Portland Cement or Sulphate resisting cement with normal aggregate are available if
required t o fit both the Buchan and Charcon bolted segments.

15.2.4 Thin cement mortar linings: Thin cement mortar linings applied by centrifugal force from
electrically driven equipment have been used in the United Kingdom since the mid-1 950's. Their use has been
mainly for lining new cast iron or steel pipes and for relining old pipes. The process has been used for a number
of water tunnels constructed for the Thames Water Authority (formerly the Metropolitan Water Board). These
1 the
~ ~ late 1950's and the 19 km Southern Tunnel,
tunnels include the 27 km Thames to Lee Valley ~ u n n e in
first stage, which has recently been completed. In both cases a thickness of 13 mm was applied. A 9.5 mm thick
' . form of lining is now mainly
lining was used for the 1.8 km steel section of the Cross Hands ~ ~ u e d u c t ~This
used as an internal lining in conjunction with precast concrete lined tunnels for filtered water tunnels where it is
essential t o prevent the ingress of ground water (see Plate 47). The process, which is at present applicable to
tunnels up t o 4 rn internal diameter, involves the application of a thin mortar lining, up to 19 mm thick in one or
two layers, using a centrifugal pump rotating at up to 1500 revolutions per minute. The materials, which are normally
mixed above ground t o give good quality control and to avoid congestion in the tunnel, are supplied to the pump
through a screw worm feed. The surface is given a smooth finish by trowels rotating at speeds of 5 to 25
revolutions per minute a t the back of the machine. Where two coats are applied the first coat is not normally
floated. The lining bonds well t o the primary concrete or steel lining but as the lining acts as a continuous ring in
compression very small unbonded areas will not affect the lining strength.
On the ground surface where the materials are mixed good quality control is essential. The gradings of the
cement and sand and the quantity of water must be kept between very fine limits to give a satisfactory
application in the tunnel. The mix varies between 1 : 1 or 1 :2 cement to sand with a water:cement ratio b e h e e n
0.35 and 0.4. Admixtures may be added. Before applying the materials the tunnel must be cleaned of all grease
and oil. Although the mortar can be applied over some small damp areas, any larger areas or running water must
be temporarily dried or sealed. After application, the mortar lining is cured in a (dampatmosphere with a small
depth of water in the invert. The lining can be applied at 100 to 500 m per week.
The coefficient of friction of the finished surface is equivalent to a c value, in the Hazen-Williams formula,
of 120 to 140, which compares well with shuttered concrete.

15.2.5 Sprayed mortar or gunite linings: The principles of sprayed linings are discussed in Sections 6.3
and 18.3.
Sprayed mortar has normally been used for relining old tunnels, which have deteriorated during the years,
although there are a small number of instances where it has been used as a secondary lining for new tunnels. Its
use for repairs t o old tunnels is discussed in Chapter 12. In new tunnels sprayed mortar was used for a number
of sewers in the 1950's and 1960's where the primary lining was of bolted concrete segments (see Plate 48). The
pans to the segments were first filled with cast in-situ concrete before applying a sprayed mortar finish 25 to
5 0 mm thick. Mesh reinforcement was used and the suiface was screeded and trowelled to give a smooth finish.
Sprayed mortar was also used in the 1960's as a secondary lining for the top 240' of a sewer tunnel after casting
a n in-situ concrete lining in the invert.

15.2.6 Steel linings: Steel internal linings have generally been used for water and road tunnels. For water
tunnels the steel linings are used for high pressure shafts and tunnels to resist the bursting pressures of the
water carried in the tunnel, particularly where the cover t o the tunnel is low. The lining may also be required to
resist the external pressures when the tunnel is empty. In addition the internal steel lining gives a smooth lowfriction surface and acts as a waterproofing membrane to prevent the ingress of ground water into the tunnel and

seepage out of the tunnel. The lining is usually fabricated in lengths of pipe and the individual lengths joined by
site welding in position. To ensure complete watertightness, the site welding must be inspected and tested. The
void behind the steel linings is backfilled with concrete and back grouted (see Plate 49).

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A steel internal lining was used for the experimental length for the Thames to Lee
water tunnel
with a cement mortar internal face. Following investigations carried out in the m i d - 1 9 5 0 ' s ~subsequent
~
water
O Section 18.1.3) a steel
tunnels in the London area have not been lined in steel. For the Cross Hands ~ u n n e l ~(see
lining was used at the two ends for a total length of 1.8 km where the cover to the tunnel was not sufficient to
take the internal pressures. In the Foyers pumped storage scheme steel linings were used for the high pressure
tunnels and shafts. The thickness of the steel pipes varied from 18 mrn to 35 mm and the grout holes were predrilled. All longitudinal welded joints and 10 per cent of the circumferential joints were x-rayed.

15.2.7 Glass reinforced linings: There are two forms of glass reinforced linings which have been used in
tunnel linings; fibre reinforced cement (GRC) and glass reinforced plastic (GRP).
Fibre reinforced cement panels manufactured by Charcon Composites Ltd using Cem-Fil fibres have
been used in a number of tunnels as a secondary lining or for relining old tunnels or shafts. In the first application,
for a new tunnel in London, a thickness of 16 mm was used but subsequently the thickness has been reduced to
10 mm.The material is light and can be manufactured to any shape or size to suit the actual tunnel and the ease
of access into the tunnel. The properties can be varied by altering the type of cement used - this is normally
rapid hardening Portland Cement. In general it has a good resistance to acids and alkalis, although it is essential to
examine likely effluents to confirm suitability. It has a high impact strength and a low absorption and permeability.
The surface is smooth with a low coefficient of friction compared with concrete, except for the invert section which
has an antiskid surface, to help maintenance staff during their routine inspections (see Plate 50).
For new tunnels the lining is fitted to a smooth bore lining or a bolted lining with cast in-situ concrete or
infill panels. The GRC panels are lapped and located using wedges before fixing with screws or nailed with an
impact gun and grouted. Sewer entries are formed during the erection and troughs in the level of the primary
lining invert removed to avoid ponding. The process is similar for relining old sewers.

A fibre reinforced concrete lining is also manufactured by K.W.-Revai Chemicals Ltd, called the Mortabond
System. This lining, which consists of panels 12 to 18 mm thick, is moulded to the shape of the tunnel by a
moulding process, a patent for which has been applied for. The lining, which has been used to reline a long eggshaped sewer in Jersey, where progress of 10 m per eight hour shift has been regularly attained,can also be used
for lining a new tunnel. The invert segment is normally 1.0 m long and the remaining segments 0.5 m long. The
joints between the lining are ogee joints. Any type of surface can easily be provided. The segments are erected
and the void between the old lining grouted. A steel fabric reinforcement can be positioned behind the lining if
necessary and entries can easily be cut into the sheeting.
Glass reinforced plastic is manufactured from E-fibre glass reinforcements and resin by Redland Pipes Ltd.
The type of resin can be altered to suit the conditions likely in the tunnel. The.10~duty linings will be unaffected
by the normal effluents permitted, but for more aggressive effluents the higher duty resins should be used. The
material can thus be designed to ensure resistance to most of the acids and alkalis likely t o be encountered. It is
light and of thicknesses varying from 5 to 19 mm depending on the diameter, and has abrasion resisting characteristics comparable with other secondary sewer liners (see Plate 51).
GRP has normally been used for relining old tunnels but may be used for secondary linings in new tunnels.
GRP, with 100 mm smaller internal diameter than the tunnel, is normally supplied in pipes up to 3 m in length

and inserted in the tunnel, and the void between the primary lining and the new lining filled with PFA/Cement
grout. The joints are normally of the spigot and socket type.

15.2.8 Other forms of secondary linings:

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Resin felt: A new form of lining developed by Nuttall Insituform Ltd has been introduced in the last few
years for relining old sewers, but t o date it has not been used as a secondary lining for a new sewer. The lining,
which consists of polyester felt, u p t o 19 mm thick, impregnated with polyester resin, is prepared in the factory in
tube form with a skin of polythene, to the correct circumference to suit the profile of the tunnel. Lengths of the
lining are transported t o the site in a refrigerated vehicle t o delay setting. The lining material is introduced into the
tunnel by conveyor and winched t o the location. The tube is inflated to take up the internal profile of the tunnel
with the aid of a double skinned inflatable tube, which allows storm water to pass through the central section
during installation. The resin is cured by introducing steam into the outside of the tube (see Plate 52).
The material is tough and abrasion resistant and is chemically inert to virtually all likely trade effluents. The
surface is smooth, with a low friction resistance, although if adequate precautions are not taken, some folds may
occur at bends. Openings can be cut into the material during curing.

Epoxy tar: A new secondary lining has been developed by Spun Concrete Ltd consisting of fibre glass tissue
sandwiched between two layers of epoxy tar. The material, which is 0.5 mm thick, is applied by trowel to the
internal face of the concrete segments at the factory. During construction the surface material needs to be protected
t o avoid damage. The lining has been used to date in only one tunnel where the invert segments were protected with
rubber conveyor belt material. Site application of the material is required at the joints between segments and at
position of grout holes and where the coating has been damaged (see Plate 53). The material has a high resistance
t o abrasion and t o chemical attack.

15.3 Developments overseas


This section covers briefly some of the foreign developments in tunnel linings which may be instructive to
those familiar with British practice. It is not comprehensive but shows, to some extent, where we may learn from
their techniques especially from the larger diameter, high capital cost, schemes. In the United Kingdom tunnelling
is predominantly in soft ground and weak to moderately strong rock and it is in these fields that our tunnelling
methods have improved in the last two decades. For many foreign countries, on the other hand, rock tunnelling
predominates with only a small proportion in soft ground. The British manufacturers and contractors are moving
into the foreign field although, with only one or two exceptions, the lining methods used have been the conventional methods used in this country. The one main exception has been the spheroidal graphite linings, manufactured by Head Wrightson,which have been designed for schemes in North and South America in a form of cast
iron little used in the United Kingdom for tunnel linings.

15.3.1 Concrete linings: In many European countries the difference in the cost of cast iron lined and
concrete lined tunnels is considerably smaller than in the United Kingdom, often only 10 to 15 per cent, and thus
cast iron is often preferred for waterproofing or other reasons. The cost of cast iron and steel, however, is
increasing faster than concrete and thus concrete linings are likely to be used more in the future. There are
generally n o standard concrete linings, such as the bolted and smooth bore linings available in the United Kingdom,
and thus most concrete linings are specially designed, although they may be used for several schemes.
The concrete linings often consist of wider rings; 1.0 m width has been used for many tunnels of medium and
large diameter and generally are of fewer segments. In several instances rings of four segments, sometimes with a

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key segment, have been used for diameters up to 8.5 m, and three segment rings have been used for diameters of
3 to 4 m. These segments are large, cast in reinforced concrete, with sophisticated methods for the erection. In
the United Kingdom segments of comparable width have been used in two instances, the Mersey Kingsway
Tunnels (1.2 m) and the Channel Tunnel service tunnel (1.2 m). With the exception of the Channel Tunnel
service tunnel, which had a five segment ring with a key segment, the methods of erection used in this country
have been based on the conventional erector arm.
In a small number of schemes in Europe, hexagonal segments have been used with four segments t o the
ring 6. At Hamburg the circumferential joirit was perpendicular to the centreline of the tunnel while at Berlin
and Munich spiral linings with hexagonal segments were used. With the spiral lining the segments may be erected
while the excavation is in progress with the shield shoved forward on the other three segments. In all these
instances the segments were bolted to the previous segment or ring with longitudinal steel bars or bolts (see
Fig. 32).
Expanded concrete linings of the form used in this country have only been used in a few instances - these
include the use of the Don-Seg lining for several tunnels in firm clay in Antwerp. Prestressed linings, where the
segments are erected within a hoop of wire, expanded and then grouted, have been used for medium diameter
tunnels (Dusseldorf). Articulated joints, usually of the concave/convex form, have been used but restraint of
movement at the joint has often been incorporated, such as dowel bars or, in one or two cases, high tensile bars
stressed across the joint. Both these methods, although improving the stability of the lining in case of collapse,
will increase the bending moments in the lining. At Heitersberg a relatively thin, 250 mm, precast concrete
lining was used of five segments with articulated joints for an 11 m diameter tunnel. The lining acted as the
ground support during the construction and on account of its thinness some cracking was allowed to occur t o
increase the flexibility. A cast in-situ concrete internal structural lining was cast at a later date.
Although precast concrete linings of the bolted form, similar to those in the United Kingdom, have been
used the bolted linings have normally been solid smooth bore segments with recesses for the bolts. Many such
linings are much more costly than the UK corresponding ones and incorporate neoprene seals requiring greater
precision in construction. For many tunnels the precast concrete linings have been the primary lining or method
of ground support and in-situ concrete linings cast inside, as internal linings, have often been included for waterproofing reasons. Additional waterproofig measures have also been taken with the insertion of a membrane
between the two linings.
For large diameter tunnels in rock cast in-situ concrete linings have often been used in Europe. The designs
in some instances have incorporated two forms of structural lining with a waterproofing membrane between the
two (in the Alpine tunnels also to protect against icing). The thickness of the combined linings has thus been
considerable and probably wasteful. On the other hand the methods of casting the concrete have often employed
a considerable quantity of sophisticated equipment of large capital cost which has enabled high rates of progress
to be attained.

15.3.2 Cast iron linings: Several of the cast iron linings designed in Europe in the last decade have differed
considerably from the conventiona1.bolted cast iron lining. The introduction of spheroidal graphite iron has
enabled more economical sections to be designed as discussed in Section 4.1.2. At the same time some European
design methods have been modified to give lighter sections 14'. The lining for the Elbe tunnel is of a hollow wave
shape and of thinner cross-section than conventional cast iron linings (see Fig. 33). The segments have machined
joint faces which are bolted accurately to give face contact. As discussed in Chapter 9 grooves are machined into
these faces and neoprene seals inserted which protrude about 2 mm which are compressed when the bolts are
tightened thus forming a seal. The cast iron linings are often wider than conventional linings, 1.0 m to 1.2 m wide,
thus giving fewer joints in the tunnel to be sealed.

The Pont-a-Mousson lining for the French section of the Channel Tunnel which incorporates the use of
small spheroidal graphite segments which are joined together to form larger segments with an epoxy resin has
been discussed in Section 4.1.2. This method is based on the principle that smaller segments, which are easy to
handle and require no machining, can be cast at a faster overall rate and with fewer scantlings than large segments.
These forms of linings require more skilled erection in the tunnel with accuracy of erection being more
important than speed of erection. This is partly offset, however, by the use of sophisticated mechanical methods
of erection where the labour force may be fitters rather than conventional miners.

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15.3.3 Steel linings: In the United States where rock tunnelling predominates, steel liner plates are
commonly used for ground support. These methods have also been employed considerably for soft ground or
weak rock tunnelling with purpose made shelds. These techniques have been introduced into Europe where they
are now used considerably. For tunnels in waterbearing strata neoprene gaskets are used in the joints which
compress when bolted t o give a tight joint as discussed in Section 4.2.3.
Fabricated welded linings, in special corrosion resistant steel, have been used for tunnels in soft ground
where large bending moments are expected or where their cost has been competitive with conventional grey iron
linings. The introduction of spheroidal graphite iron, however, may reduce the use of steel as discussed in Section
4.1.2. Steel linings were used for the BART underground system in the United States where they were competitive,
on account of new fabrication methods, with concrete linings. In Vienna the linings were used for tunnels of 5 m
t o 8 m diameter with sophisticated mechanical methods of erection covering the full 360 degrees. The station
tunnel linings, of 7.45 m diameter, were 1.I25 m wide with 200 mm structural depth.

15.3.4 Other forms of lining: The use of shotcrete with mesh reinforcement or rock bolts is little used in
this country as discussed in Section 6.3 but has been used extensively in Europe. Research is in progress on
automatic methods of spraying where the rock is sprayed from within or behind the shield or tunnelling machine
thus giving an immediate ground support with a thin lining which in suitable circumstances prevents weakening
of the rock face. A thicker lining may then be applied at a later date after the rock has deformed thus reducing
the ultimate loadings. It is perhaps in this field that there is greater need to extend the use of support systems
which are lighter and cheaper than the steel arch system used nearly everywhere in British rock tunnelling until
a few years ago. British engineers have had considerable experience of these support methods overseas such as
the Kariba Tunnels and the Orange Fish Tunnel.

16. APPENDIX 3
Cast iron and steel tunnel linings
Two forms of cast iron are now available for tunnel linings, grey iron and spheroidal graphite iron. These
materials and their manufacture are discussed below.

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16.1 Grey iron


Grey iron, which has been used for tunnel linings since 1869, has a high compressive strength and a high
resistance to corrosion. Grey iron derives its name from the grey crystalline appearance of its fractured structure
due to the presence of free flake graphite. Tensile strength depends upon the thickness of the section cast, on
account of the rate of cooling following casting - the thicker the section the lower the tensile strength (see
Fig. 34).
Until recently the grade of grey iron used for tunnel linings was Grade 10, but Grade 12 is now usually used
having better strength characteristics, although higher grades are sometimes specified. The mechanical properties
of grey iron are given in British Standard 1 4 5 2 : 1 9 6 1 ' ~ ~an. extract of which is given in Table 22. These
properties are those for round bars of 30.5 mm diameter or plates of approximately 15 rnm thickness.
The corrosion of grouted grey iron in tunnel linings is usually very slow and is thought t o have a negligible
effect on the strength. During the last 10 years several of the tunnels constructed during the period 1880-1905
have been inspected or dismantled during the construction of new works and in all cases, with the exception of
the Beaumont Channel Tunnel discussed below, the linings have shown no signs of corrosion. The majority of
these have been tunnels in London Clay but in the case of the first Blackwall Tunnel, which was constructed in
1892-97, the tunnel was driven in clays, silts and gravels using compressed air. The Tower Subway under the
Thames, built in 1869 in London Clay, showed no signs of corrosion when a section was reconstructed after
bomb damage in late 1940 47.
Grey iron tunnel linings were originally coated for protection with Dr Angus Smith's compound - coal dust in
anthracine oil - and the machined faces coated with red lead. Both of these coatings are now seldom used and the
segments are usually dipped in a form of bituminous paint and the machine faces left uncoated except for oil, wax
or grease which can easily be applied on site. Bitumen paint has been shown, in laboratory tests on pipes, t o extend
the life of cast iron considerably. In overseas contracts more stringent and expensive paint specifications are often
called for, including heavy duty bitumen paint with epoxy resin primer on the external surfaces and zinc silicate
primer on the internal faces. The alkaline environment of the cement (or lime) grout on the outside of the lining
is found to neutralise much of the corrosiveness of the ground conditions, and inhibits the activity of sulphate
reducing bacteria associated with anaerobic corrosion.
Although cathodic reactions can occur between iron and the free carbon this process is thought to be
comparatively slow with tunnel linings. Graphitic corrosion, which is the corrosion of the iron particles in the
cast iron leaving a graphitic corrosion residue has, however, been recorded on a number of occasions with cast
iron pipes. The outward appearance of the cast iron is changed little and with no apparent wasting but the soft
black graphitic residue can be readily scratched away. Tests have been carried out on samples with various
concentrations of acid to accelerate this process. Although many tunnels have been constructed with grey iron
linings in a sea water environment and a number have been inspected after periods of up to 70 years, only one
case of graphitic corrosion has been recorded. The Beaumont Tunnel for the Channel Tunnel scheme, constructed

TABLE 22
Mechanical properties of grey iron 146

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Property
(stresses and moduli
in M N / ~ ~ )

Tension
0.01 % proof stress
0.1 % proof stress
Ultimate stress
Strain a t failure
Compression
0.0 1% proof stress
0.1 % proof stress
Ultimate stress
Elastic modulus E
Shear modulus G
Poisson's ratio

Grade

10

12

14

17

43
100
155
0.6% t o
0.75%

51
120
185
0.5% to
0.7%

60
140
216
0.4% to
0.65%

74
171
263

87
200
620

102
240
690

120
280
765

145
343
875

103000

1 12000
45000
0.26

120000

130000

48000
0.26

52000
0.26

4 1000
0.26

0.58%

in the early 1880's, was dewatered in 1974 for instrumentation work on the Stage 2 Channel Tunnel contract.
The single cast iron rings spaced at intervals along the tunnel were foundafter analysis,to have traces of graphitic
corrosion. These rings are believed t o have been placed in the tunnel for additional support in 1890 and were not
grouted. The outer and inner surfaces showed little corrosion but an area in contact with the chalk marl showed
considerable corrosion along the edges of the flanges.
Grey iron is a brittle material which cannot take high tensile stresses. Once the lining is in its permanent
position and fully grouted, the tensile stresses are insignificant and the ring is mainly in compression, except in
very poor ground near t o the ground surface (h < d). During the temporary stages of stacking, transporting,
handling and erecting of the segments, and while the shield is shoved forward much more severe stress conditions
can occur causing damage t o the segments. The percentage of breakages is small, however, less than 1 per cent,
for medium and small diameter tunnels and even less for large diameter heavy segments which are not manhandled
a n d which require mechanical means of erection.
Sound grey iron lining is impervious and ingress of water is normally confined to the joints although
occasionally blowholes can occur particularly at the corner between the skin and the flange, allowing water to
enter the tunnel. The joints can be caulked to give a substantially dry tunnel which in most circumstances would
be drier than a tunnel constructed with other forms of precast lining. Methods of sealing these joints are discussed
in Chapter 9.
Failures of grey iron linings in the permanent condition seldom occur mainly on account of the high factor
o f safety, normally 4 t o 1 0 , inherent in the permanent condition, as a result of the design requirements for the

temporary conditions, for handling and shoving of the shield. Any damage normally occurs at the flanges often
on account of birds-mouthing at the joints due to incorrect building since the lining is not designed as a rigid ring
and the load is then taken in compression in the skin, similar to an articulated lining.

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Normally remedial measures can be carried out to repair damaged flanges but in the very rare cases of a
cracked skin it may be necessary to replace the segment. When, during the construction of adjacent works i t is
anticipated that possible damage may occur, the lining may be temporarily supported or in the case of possible
severe deformation, the bolts may be slackened under strict control t o form a lining with articulated joints (see
Section 7.2). Alternatively, the lining may be infilled with concrete t o increase its rigidity and the joints sealed
with glass fibre reinforced resins or other waterproofing sealers.

16.2 Spheroidal graphite iron


The techniques of manufacturing spheroidal graphite or ductile iron were developed in the late 1940's as a
result of metallurgical research. The chemical composition is similar to grey iron except that the impurities of
manganese, sulphur and phosphorus are reduced. The flake graphite form of grey iron is changed to spheroidal
graphite by the addition of very small proportions of cerium or magnesium.
Table 23 gives the mechanical properties148 and the matrix structure of spheroidal graphite iron for the
grades most suitable for cast iron linings.
Spheroidal graphite iron has the mechanical properties of steel and is easy to cast and machine. It has a
slightly higher compressive strength than grey iron but its tensile strength is much superior, being similar t o its
compressive strength. The material is less brittle than grey iron.
The linings may be designed to take advantage of the tensile strength of the material t o give a balanced
economic section in its permanent condition in contrast to the high proportion of low stressed areas found in
grey iron linings. The conventional channel section for grey iron can thus be much improved. Care must be
taken, however, to avoid reducing the sections beyond the limit required for other factors such as buckling or
overstressing at the base of the flanges. The handling and erecting stresses are not so critical with spheroidal
graphite iron and breakages can be assumed to be very small. The main problems have been in the design for the
shield thrust. The final section may be dictated by the minimum casting thicknesses to allow the material t o flow
in the mould.
Spheroidal graphite iron has been shown in laboratory tests t o have a higher corrosion resistance than grey
iron. However, the short period since its introduction has not yet permitted long term assessment. The manufacturers, however, are confident that the life of spheroidal graphite iron, after allowing for the reduced section
thickness, will be similar to that for grey iron due to the higher corrosion resistance. The improved mechanical
properties would moreover help to redistribute the stresses due to any localised corrosion and also allow the
material to deform plastically without failure.

16.3 Manufacture of cast iron linings


Traditionally green sand moulding methods have been used for the manufacture of cast iron segments with
cast iron master patterns (see Plates 54 and 55). More recently larger segments or tubbings which require more
rigid moulding materials have been cast using self setting sands based on furan resins or sodium silicate used in
conjunction with carbon dioxide 1497150.Both these methods are applicable to grey iron or spheroidal graphite
iron. With the introduction of spheroidal graphite iron more precise methods of testing raw materials and molten
iron are required to obtain the purer material.

TABLE 23
Mechanical properties of spheroidal graphite iron 148
Property,
Stresses and
Moduli in MN/m2
Ultimate stress

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Matrix structure

50017

60013

70012

Mainly Ferrite
some Pearlite

Mainly Pearlite
some Ferrite

Pearlite

Tension
Limit of proportionality
0.1 % proof stress
0.2% proof stress
0.5% proof stress
Elongation at failure

194
32 3
339
359
7%

208
346
372
409
3%

231
385
416
462
2%

Compression
Limit of proportionality
0.1% proof stress
0.2% proof stress
0.5% proof stress

272
340
35 1
3 60

288
360
382
414

3 18
39 7
425
468

169000
450
0.275

174000
540
0.275

176000
630
0.275

Elastic Modulus E
Shear strength
Poisson's ratio
Note:

British Grades
BS 2 7 8 9 : 1 9 7 3 l ~ ~

The matrix structure shows the form the carbon takes on forming with the pure iron. The structure
contains white Ferrite and dark Pearlite. With the introduction of more carbon the strength increases
and the matrix becomes darker.

For grey iron castings the moulds after casting are cooled for half an hour before demoulding. With spheroidal
graphite this c o o h g period may be longer depending on whether artificial cooling methods are used, to avoid distortion of t h e thinner, and often larger, segments. The segments after fettling are dipped and stored if necessary
ready to be machined. The radial flanges of the segments are machined singly or in groups of three, the circumferential flanges, if required, being machined singly. Bolt holes are drilled singly using preset formers or alternatively
using special machines capable o f drilling half the holes on all four flanges simultaneously. Countersinking can be
done simultaneously or as a separate operation.
With grey iron segments only a small percentage of the castings are inspected and checked using a template,
b u t with the thinner sections in spheroidal graphite iron it is essential t o ensure that no defects are present within
the casting. Magnetic crack detectors and ultrasonic testing are now specified for the inspection of spheroidal
graphite iron.
The tolerances specified for cast iron linings are generally more stringent than those associated with other
cast iron products. Templates are normally used for measuring these tolerances which due t o difficulties in
specifying the datum surface require a lengthy and complicated specification. The basic orders of the main
tolerances are given below b u t these d o not constitute a specification as such:-

Length of segment
Width of segment

+ 0.5 mm
+ 0.5 mm for machined surfaces
+ 1.5 rnrn for cast surfaces

Depth of segment

+-

3 mm up t o 6 m diameter

+ 5 mm above 6 m diameter
In addition, tolerances are specified for thickness of metal, bolt holes, pitch circle diameter and for the
master ring. The tolerance for the diameter of rings built on master rings is +- 6 mrn for rings up t o 6 m diameter
and + 10 mm for above.

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16.4 Steel linings


Structural steel is generally available in three forms, mild steel, high yield steel and weather resisting steel,
the first two of which are the only forms likely t o be used in tunnels. The physical properties of mild steel and
high yield steel are
YIELD POINT
Mild steel
High Yield steel

240 M N / ~ ~
345 M N / ~ ~

ULTIMATE

DENSITY

43015 10 MN/m2
4901620 MN/m2

7.85 Mg/m3
7.85 Mg/m3

YOUNG'S MODULUS
200,000 MN/m2
200,000 M N / ~ ~

Steellinings can be caulked or waterproofed as effectively as cast iron linings. In dry environments, welding
of adjacent flanges, although expensive, will form a watertight seal. The steel segments themselves are impermeable
except when faulty welding occurs during fabrication. The grout around the periphery of the bolted form of lining
gives an appreciable water barrier as in other forms of bolted lining.
Fabricated bolted steel lining can be erected in a similar manner t o cast iron linings with some saving in time
on account of their slightly reduced weight. The damage to the segments during handling or erection is negligible.
With steel liner plates, which are much thinner than the fabricated bolted steel lining and act only as a temporary
lining, the erection times are quicker due to the reduced weight of the segments.
In general, the steel linings used in the United Kingdom have been subsequently encased in concrete. The
main exceptions have been the expanded linings used in the LTE Victoria Line, as discussed in Sections 4.2.2 and
16.9 and the special bolted segments at openings. On the outside of the bolted linings the grout acts as a protective
coating. There is little direct information concerning corrosion of steel tunnel linings since very few of the older
tunnels were constructed with this material. In general, unprotected steel will corrode at the same rate as
unprotected cast iron, although there may be a protective skin on the surface of the cast iron which will reduce the
internal attack.
Steel linings require, therefore, to be painted or coated if left exposed to,damp or corrosive conditions in
the tunnel. This treatment is costly and time consuming and may well be the critical factor in the production of
the segments. Different treatment may be required to the flanges and to the main body of the segment and
additional protection may be required in the tunnel. No comment is made here on the paint specification as these
are covered by other publications and are always being updated due to improved methods. When liner plates are
not encased in concrete and form a structural lining these should be galvanised or painted with a protective coating.
Where treatments are used thought should always be given to damage during construction and its means of
rectification in-situ.

Steel segments are normally fabricated from sheet metal and welded and thus their manufacture is more
labour intensive than cast iron segments. The liner plates are formed from sheet steel in a three stage process. In
t h e first stage the corners and bolt holes are punched out of the flat sheet, which is then followed by the formation
of the corrugations on the skin of the segment and the forming of the flanges by pressing the flat sheet onto a
master former. The third stage entails pressing the liner plate to the correct radius.

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16.5 Bolted grey iron linings


Cast iron linings, of grey iron, were first used as permanent linings in shafts some 75 years before they were
used as permanent linings in tunnels. In 1795 "tubbings in circles" were used for the first time for a shaft lining at
e l ~the following year tubbings made of grey iron lined the shaft at Percy Main
the Walker Colliery on ~ ~ n e s i dand
Colliery. Grey iron tubbings or segments have subsequently been used for many shafts in waterbearing strata.
Clearly the name tubbings derives from the replacement of timber staves with walings.
Marc Isambard Brunel in the patent151 for his shield in 1818 proposed that it be used in conjunction with
a cast iron (grey iron) lining.
". . . . The body o r shell of the tunnel may be made of brick or masonry but I prefer t o make it cast
iron, which I propose t o line afterwards with brickwork or masonry."

The cross-section of Brunel's Thames ~ u n n e l atl ~Rotherhithe constructed during the periods 1825 to 1828,
and 1835 t o 1 8 4 3 was rectangular. The first scheme proposed was of a circular cross-section and a cast iron (grey
iron) lining would have been preferred if the scheme had been adopted.
In 1 8 6 4 P W ~ a r l o w " took o u t a patent for an improved method of constructing railways in tunnels using
a shield moving forward in one unit.
". . . . The earth is continuously removed from within the cylinder (the shield) and the cylinder is from
time t o time forced forward a short distance t o admit a ring of iron being put together within the inner
end of the cylinder, such iron rings being of strength suitable for forming a permanent lining to the
tunnel."

". . . . The space, as it is left between the earth and the exterior of the tunnel may be filled by injecting
or running in fluid cement."
This was the first mention of a cement grout t o fill the void between the lining and the ground. When a
tunnel was constructed using a shield it was found that a brickwork or masonry lining was not ideal due to the
time required for the lining t o obtain sufficient strength not only for the ground load but also for the shield ram
forces. In contrast the cast iron (grey iron) lining was t h n n e r , quicker and easier to erect and was capable of
taking the radial and longitudinal forces immediately.
The cast iron (grey iron) lining was first used in a tunnel as a permanent lining in 1869 in the construction
of the Tower Subway under the Thames 16,147. This form of tunnel lining has now been used for over 100 years
and the details of many grey iron linings today are very similar to those develaped for the first few tunnels,
although the joint details continued t o evolve during the first 50 years.

A number of tunnelling schemes using cast iron (grey iron) linings are briefly mer-.tioned below to illustrate
t h e development of the lining details. Data for many of the linings are given in Table 24.

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TOWER SUBWAY (1869)


The Tower Subway 16y147was constructed using a shield propelled by screw jacks designed b y J H Greathead,
the contractor, from an original design by P Barlow and was the first use of a shield of circular cross-section. The
tunnel which was of 2.42 m internal diameter was h e d in rings 0.51 m wide consisting of three long segments and
a key segment (see Fig. 35). The circumferential flanges were 7 6 m m deep while the radial flanges were 102 m m
deep. The average daily progress of the tunnel construction was 2.6 m. The grouting o f the void between the ground
and the lining was carried out using a hand syringe with lime and water mixed in a t u b . The results were not thought
at the time to be satisfactory as the grout was too fluid, to enable it t o flow through the syringe, and the pressure
was insufficient to obtain a complete envelope around the tunnel. When, during late 1940 and early 1941, the tunnel
was repaired following bomb damage the grout was found in nearly all cases to have formed a complete envelope t o
the lining 147.
STUBDEN RESERVOIR OUTLET (Late 1870's)
The Stubden reservoir16 was constructed in about 1860 with a culvert outlet. I n the late 1870's this culvert
was abandoned and a new tunnel constructed through the millstone grit and shale beds. The excavated diameter
was approximately 2.6 m vertical by 2.2 m horizontal with an internal grey cast iron lining of internal dimensions
approximately 1.7 m by 1.4 m with 0.31 m thick peripheral concrete on the outside of the lining. O n the external
face of the lining 51 mm deep circumferential flanges were provided t o key the lining t o the concrete (see Fig. 36).
The lining, which consisted of four segments with machined radial flanges, was a structural lining although acting
as a permanent shutter for the concrete.
CHANNEL TUNNEL (1 882 to 1883)
Grey cast iron was used as a temporary support in the construction of the Beaumont pilot tunnel for the
ChannelTunnel. Rings,singly or in pairs at intervals down the tunnel and made up of four segments and a key
are reported to have been used to seal the ingress of water at fissures in the chalk. At a later date, about 1890,
rings were used to act as additional supports t o the timbering already in position. These rings, of 2.14 m internal
diameter, were 0.61 m wide and consisted of four segments but with n o key (see Fig. 37). The rings were
uncovered recently when the Beaumont tunnel was opened up during the Stage 2 works for the Channel Tunnel.
THE CITY AND SOUTH LONDON

RAILGAY(1 886 t o 1907)

l'
designed b y Greathead and
The shields for the construction of the City and South London ~ a i l w a ~ were
were the forerunners of what we now know as the "Greathead" shield incorporating many of the essential features
which have survived to the present day. The running tunnels, which were 3.1 m and 3.2 m internal diameter, were
lined in grey cast iron, the shafts mainly in cast iron and the stations entirely in brickwork.
The. segments were cast in compressed sand moulds in specially designed machines using hydraulic presses
each of which was capable of manufacturing 1 3 or 14 segments, about two rings, per hour. The segments after
casting were dipped in hot pitch and tar. The flanges were not machined and the circular bolt holes were cast into
the flanges (see Fig. 38).
The rings were erected by hand with soft pine timber packings, 6 mm thick, in the longitudinal joint and
with a rope of hemp or hard wood packing in the circumferential joint. In waterbearing strata the joints were
caulked with "iron cement" while in London Clay they were pointed with cement. On curves, iron packings were

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TABLE 24
Conlparison of cast iron linings

Date

Tunnel

Length
111

Sn~allDiameter (up to 3 n ~ )
Tower subway
Abcrdccn Dee T u n ~ ~ e l
London Transport for
vec~tilationand other
small dianleler tunnels
Victoria Line
Fleet Line
Medi~rntDion~eter(3-6 m )
City and South London

1869
1904--09

403
101

Strata

Cover
m

Internal
Diameter

Ring
width

flange

Width of
flange

Thickness
of
flange

mm

mm

mm

Depth
Of

No. of
circle
bolts

Dia.
of
bolts

No. of
segments

Wt.per
metre
run
tonnes

7-20
15

LondonClay
Alluvial clay

2.18
2.34

0.46
0.46

76,102
I27

20.5-23.8
31.6-38.1

23.8
25.4

43
21

19
25.4

3+key
5 +key

1.47
2.93

19
22

56
24

19
20

6 +key
6 t key

1.54
1.60

47
47
29
46
57
57

6tkey
6tkey
6tkey
9 +key
7 +key
7 +key

2.8
2.8

53
47

19
I9
22.2
25.4
25.4
25.4
22.2
22.2
34.9

7 t key
8 t key

3.9
4.61

1963-69
1972-75

London Clay
London Clay

2.13
2.25

0.51
0.60

102
100

22.2-25.4
22-25

1886-90

4030
6340

25
25

London Lea out fall sewer


Clasgow Underground
Waterloo and City

1891-92
1892-95
1894-95

1895-1900
1899-1906
1899-1901

3.1
3.2
3.5
3.56
3.7
3.88
3.56
3.66
3.58

0.48
0.51
0.51
0.46
0.51
0.51

Central London
Baker Street and Waterloo " 1
Greenwich

London Clay and


waterbearing gravels
Ballast Peaty clay
Alluvial deposits
London Clay
Waterbearing ballast
London Clay
Waterbearing gravels
Waterbearing ballast,
sand mottled clay

0.51
0.46

114
114
111
152
130
130
124
124
152

28.6-31.8
28.6-31.8
25.4-28.6
25.4
28.6-31.8
28.6-31.8
28.6-31.8
34.9-38.1
28.6-38.1

London Transport
Victoria line
Fleet Line

London Clay
London Clay
Woolwich and
Reading beds

3.83
3.85

0.51
0.60

102
110

28.6-31.8
25-30

25
25

36
32

22.2
24

6tkey
8 t key

3.26
3.24

7.72
Ballast
London Clay
7.63
8.45
Clay,sand.sandy
clay and gravel
13.4
Bunter sandstone
Glacial deposits
Chak. alluvial deposits 8.6
Sandstone, shale,
9.0
Boulder clay, silt and
sand
Woolwich & Reading 8.6
beds, London Clay,
gravel
Coal measures and
9.5
glacial deposits
Buntersandstone,
9.54
Boulder clay
Chalk, alluvial
9.5
deposits

0.76
0.76
0.76

254
305
356

38.1-56.5
50.8-76.2
50.8-69.7

70
70
79

38.1
38.1
38.1

14 +key
14 t key
16 t key

19.5
13.9
23.7
25.0

0.61
0.46
0.46
0.76
0.46

341

96

38.1

38.1

48

38.1

24 + 2
keys
12 +key

360

38.1-63.5
41.3-66.7
38.1-50.8

38.1
50.8
44.5
50.8
38.1

330

38.1-54.0

38.1

72

44.4

15 +key

26.0

0.46
0.76

360

38.1-50.8

38.1

48

38.1

I 2 + key

0.46
0.76
0.61

364

38.1-50.8

38.1

56

38.1

I4 + key

22.4

356

38.1-50.8

38.1

64

31.8

16tkey

21.7

0.60

305

39-60

36

16 +key

0.51
0.61

305
315

41.3-50.8
or 54.0
39-55

111
72

31.7
36

16tkey
24 +key

21.6
22.6

6000
5491

6-25
20

19000
12200
361

3-17

1963-69
1972-75

1892-97

950

2-25

Rotherhilhe

1904-08

1125

3-17

Mersey Queensway *2

1925-34

1587

17-34

1)artford

1956-63

1429

6-2 1

Clyde

1957-64

2x760

6-40

Blackwall Duplication

1961-67

1 173

6-2 1

I'ylle Tu~lnel

1961-67

1688

6-33

Mc~scyKingswaytu~~ncls

1967-74

I);II tforrl 1)uplicalion

1972-78

2x420
C1
273/Cl

7-30

London Transport
V~ctoriaLine
I:lcet Line

1963-69
1972-75

Large Diantivc,r (6
Ulackwall

*I

11,

25
22-24
22.2
19-25.4
22.2
22.2
22.2
25
31.8

The special linlng for the waterbcaring strata.

London Clay
London Clay,
Woolwich and
Reading beds
'2

9.14
9.50

The main section of tunnel.

41.3
40

33.5 rnlmonth

3.6
3.6

8 mlweek
3 mlday

abovc)

30

Progress

1.5 nllday
3 rnlday max.
10 ~nlweek
average

used. The void between the lining and the ground was grouted using a compressed air grout pan patented by
Greathead in 1886 and very similar to that in use today.

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In 1900 part of the original tunnel between the Monument and the south side of the Thames was reconstructed to improve gradients and curves in 3.5 m internal diameter giey cast iron lining. Extensions were
constructed to the north to Euston and to the south to Clapham Common during the next seven years in the
original 3.2 m internal diameter lining. The station tunnels were constructed in 6.7 m and 9.15 m internal diameter
grey cast iron linings.
In 1922 to 24 the tunnels were enlarged to 3.56 m internal diameter and a number of stations enlarged in
length and diameter. Those sections of 3.1 m internal diameter were lined in new 3.56 m grey cast iron lining
while for those of 3.2 m internal diameter the old lining was reused with five small castings in the joints (see Fig. 39).

VYRNWY AQUEDUCT UNDER RIVER MERSEY (1888- 1892)


~ ' originally
~
commenced without a shield and was abandoned after
This tunnel under the River ~ e r s e was
18 months when only 18 m had been driven. A shield was then used and the tunnel relocated but this was abandoned
after only 49 m. The shield was then reconstructed and the tunnel of 243 m in length completed under the direction
of the Engineer, J F Deacon. The tunnel of 2.74 m internal diameter is of interest mainly for the details of the
flanges, (see Fig. 40), and the thin skin thickness of 17.5 mm,which is thin for grey iron segments which are
normally of a minimum of 19 mm. The segments were also cast with a larger curvature fillet than normal between
the flanges and the skin.
EDINBURGH MAIN DRAINAGE (1 890)
' ~ of a circular cross-section with the exception of a short
The interceptor sewer constructed at ~ e i t h was
length at Leith Docks which was in bad ground and subject to internal pressures due to tidal action. This section
was egg-shaped, 2.29 m by 2.82 m and made up of five cast iron segments, the bottom three with their flanges
inwards and infilled with concrete and the top two with their flanges outwards. The lining was backed with concrete
(see Fig. 41).
THE BLACKWALL TUNNEL (1892- 1897)
The Blackwall Tunnel 17 was constructed from four shafts, without a pilot tunnel, in ballast, London Clay
and chalk with the use of shields and compressed air. The tunnels were lined with 8.23 m external diameter grey
cast iron lining using a light section of 7.72 m internal diameter for the length under the land and a heavy section
of 7.63 m internal diameter for the length under the river (see Fig. 42). The segments were 0.76 m wide. The
segments were cast in machine moulds f i e d with sand and had a capacity of between 3 0 and 36 segments per day.
The joints were machined and had caulking grooves which were sealed with iron filings and sal-ammoniac. The rings,
which took approximately 1%hours to erect, were not rolled so did not break joint.
THE GLASGOW UNDERGROUND (1892-1895)
Those sections of the underground149 in soft material were lined in cast iron of 3.36 rn internal diameter.
Yach ring, 0.46 m wide, was made up of nine segments and a key; the segments being shorter in circumferential
length than previous linings approximately 1.2 m long. The longitudinal and circumferential joints were not
machined, being cast with a small fillet at the back of each joint. Soft wood packings were used in the joints and
when not completely watertight the joints were wedged with oak wedges.

The tunnels were constructed using a shield and compressed air and the forward heading process was used
with excavation being carried out for one t o three rings at a time.
T H E WATERLOO AND CITY RAILWAY (1894-1895)

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This section o f the London underground16 was constructed in 3.7 m internal diameter cast iron lining
between Mansion House and the South Bank of the Thames and in 3.88 m internal diameter grey cast iron lining
in waterbearing strata from there t o Waterloo Station. The station tunnels were of 6.46 m'and 7.07 m internal
diameter.
The running tunnel lining which had machined longitudinal joints only, had no caulking groove for those
sections in London Clay and a 19 m m deep groove for those sections in waterbearing strata. In London Clay the
circumferential joints were made with tarred hemp rope and creosoted timber packings which were later pointed
with neat Portland Cement; in waterbearing strata the joints were made with 19 mm diameter rubber packings and
soft wood packings which were later removed and caulked with neat cement. The bolt holes both in the longitudinal
and circumferential flanges were cast elliptical (see Fig. 43). Each ring was erected in about 20 minutes.
T H E CENTRAL LONDON RAILWAY (1895-19 12)
This section of the London underground from Wood Lane to Liverpool Street was opened in stages from
1 9 0 0 t o 1912 1 6. The running tunnels of 3.56 m internal diameter had unmachined flanges with creosoted pine
timber packings in the longitudinal joints and tarred hemp rope in the circumferential joints. The joints were later
pointed with cement mortar (see Fig. 44).
One of the tunnel drives in 1897 was excavated using a Price's bucket machine in the face of the shield but
d u e t o electrical and other faults the overall progress was n o greater than that of the hand excavated tunnels
although the machine had a capacity t o excavate the tunnel in about half the time of that for hand excavation.
O n curves steel packings, two per segment, were used.
The station tunnels were generally 6.47 m internal diameter and were excavated using a shield and lined in
grey cast iron. Wood packings were used on curves. The longitudinal joints were machined without a caulking
groove while tarred hemp rope was placed in the circumferential joint and pointed with cement mortar. It was
specified that the longitudinal joints for both the running and station tunnels should break joint. This was the
first time this had been written into a contract.
T H E GREAT NORTHERN AND CITY RAILWAY (1898- 1904)
This underground railway between Moorgate and Finsbury park16 of 4.9 rn internal diameter grey cast iron
and brick lining was opened in 1904. The lining was unusual being made up of eight segments and two keys, one
in the crown and one in the invert (see Fig. 45). The longitudinal flanges were n'ot machined and soft wood
packings were inserted in the joints.
After building a section fully lined in grey cast iron, the lower half of the cast iron lining was removed in
stages and, after excavating for a further 102 t o 127 mm in depth, three rings of brickwork were built to complete
the ring with an internal diameter reduced below axis by approximately 105 mm. Base plates were fitted to the
cast iron lining at t h e junction between the cast iron and the brickwork. Although there was a considerable saving
in grey cast iron, this was probably more than offset by the additional cost of excavation and brickwork. There
was little reduction in the levels of noise and vibration set u p by subsequent traffic. The crossover tunnels were

constructed in 9.1 5 m internal diameter flat bottomed grey cast iron lining - a ring with a larger radius for the
lower half than the top half - with both flanges machined. This was the first time that the flat bottomed lining
was used.
THE BAKER STREET AND WATERLOO RAILWAY (BAKERLOO) (1 899- 19 15)

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This section of the London Underground l63ls2 between Queens Park and the Elephant and Castle, south
of the Thames, was opened in stages from 1906 to 19 15. The running tunnels of 3.66 m internal diameter were
mainly in London Clay with one section under the Thames in waterbearing gravels.

In the London Clay a standard 0.61 m wide ring was used while for the river section a special lining was
designed of 0.5 1 m width. For the west tunnel, the first to be driven, this special lining had machined longitudinal
and circumferential flanges. The longitudinal joint had a caulking groove of a constant depth while for the
circumferential joint the groove was taken down behind each of the bolts in turn (see Fig. 46). For the east tunnel
the joints were redesigned mainly to improve the caulking details. The longitudinal joints were then machined with
a caulking groove taken down behind each bolt in turn, similar to the circumferential joint for the west tunnel.
Where the circumferential joint was not machined creosoted pine packings, shaped t o fit behind the bolts, were
used, tapered from 13 mm to 16 mm. All caulking grooves were later sealed with rust. The machined faces were
painted with red lead and Stockholm tar.
The lower segments were not provided with grout holes, which made it difficult t o seal the periphery of the
lining in waterbearing strata; additional types of segments were therefore required.
THE GREENWICH TUNNEL (1899- 1901)
The Greenwich16 footway tunnel of internal diameter 3.58 m was driven through waterbearing ballast, grey
sand and mottled clay. The lining was heavier than for other similar tunnels and with larger diameter bolts (see
Fig. 47). The flanges were machined with caulking grooves on the internal edges which were sealed with lead wire
and rust. The bolt holes were machined with bevelled ends and lead washers were placed below the bolt washers,
which extruded into the bevelled ends of the hole, to seal the ingress of water. The washers and lead wire worked
effectively and very little recaulking was required when the compressed air was taken off. The quantity of water
pumped from the tunnel when the caullung was complete was between 750 and 1100 1 per day, equivalent to
between 0.18 and 0.27 l/m2 of tunnel per day. The rings were erected t o break joint.
THE ROTHERHITHE TUNNEL (1 904- 1908)

otherh hit he'^^

road tunnel under the River Thames between Stepney and Rotherhithe was built in
The
8.45 m internal diameter grey cast iron lining with an internal concrete lining of 8.24 m internal diameter. The
grey cast iron lining was similar in many respects to the Blackwall Tunnel and with the same width of ring, 0.76 m.
The lining for the land section of the tunnel had a 44.5 mm thick skin and for the river section a thickness of
50.8 mm (see Fig. 48). The tunnel was constructed mainly in the Woolwich and Reading beds. For curves, tapered
rings were used; these were machined to give a variation in width of 28.6 mm on the diameter.
The flanges were all machined with caulking grooves on the internal edges which were sealed with lead wire
and rust. The bolts were bevelled, similar to the Greenwich Footway Tunnel, and soft lead washers inserted t o seal
the bolt holes. When the caulking was complete approximately 2 150 1 were pumped daily from the tunnel, which
is equivalent to approximately 0.072 l/m2 of tunnel per day. For the Blackwall Tunnel, where no lead washers
were used and the caulking was with rust, the equivalent figure was 0.27 l/m2 of tunnel per day. On the Holborn

tramway tunnels constructed at the same time, this method of sealing the bolts was not initially successful and all
the bolts were resealed with tarred yarn grurnmets and soft lead washers.

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The tunnel was constructed with the aid of a 3.82 m internal diameter pilot tunnel, 0.6 m below the crown
of the main tunnel, the latter being excavated with a mechanical shield manufactured by Messrs Price and Reeves.
A band of rock was encountered during the drive which slowed the progress, but an average of 4.1 m of tunnel
was lined per day with an excavation rate of 2 0 minutes per ring in good ground rising t o 45 minutes per ring
when rock was encountered. Similar Price machines, which were originally introduced for the construction of
underground railway running tunnels from Charing Cross to Hampstead (1903-1907) reached a maximum rate of
progress of 5.2 rn of tunnel per day.
MERSEY QUEENSWAY TUNNEL (1925-1934)
The under river section of the Mersey ~ u e e n s w ~a ~u n n e lwas
l ~ lined
~ in 13.4 rn internal diameter grey cast
iron lining while the land sections were of semicircular upper section in grey cast iron - or steel ribs and concrete with a flat bottom concrete invert. The branch tunnels were of 8.1 m internal diameter grey cast iron lining or of
steel ribs and concrete with a concrete invert. The lining was 0.61 n~wide except at special sections where it was
0.46 m wide and both the longitudinal and the circumferential flanges were machined and caulking grooves
provided. The skin was 38.1 m m thick and n o feathers were cast t o strengthen the flanges (see Fig. 49). As the
upper half of the lining was erected first the lining had two solid keys, one in the crown and one in the invert.
RECENT ROAD TUNNELS
Six road tunnels under rivers have been constructed during the last fifteen years or are under construction
in the UK using cast iron lining for part or the whole of their driven length. These are the Dartford Tunnel 155
(1956-63), the Clyde ~ u n n e (1957-63),
1 ~ ~ ~
the ~
Blackwall
~ ~ Duplication
~
~ u n n e l " (1961-67),
~
the Tyne
~ u n n e l " ~(1961-67) with grey cast iron linings for the whole driven length of the tunnels and the Mersey
Kingsway Twin Tunnels 8*160,1 61 (1 967-74) and the Dartford Duplication Tunnel (1972-76) with grey cast iron
linings for part of the driven length.
All these linings had machined longitudinal and circumferential flanges with caulking grooves on the internal
faces. The thickness of the skin in all the linings was 38.1 m m , but the width of the rings varied from tunnel to
tunnel within the range 0.46 m t o 0.76 m. Feathers were provided in all instances between bolt holes t o stiffen
the flanges. Details of these linings are given in Table 2 4 and Figs 50 to 53.
LONDON TRANSPORT EXECUTIVE MORE RECENT SCHEMES (1935-to date)
The LTE carried out a large programme of reconstruction between 1935 and the early 1940's which included
the Ilford extension of the Central ~ i n ethe
~ extension
~ ,
of the Bakerloo Line north of Baker Street to Stanmore
and the extension of the Northern Line north of Archway t o High Barnet, only certain sections of which were
below ground level. The running tunnels were generally in 3.6 m internal diameter cast iron lining except for 4.4 km
of bolted concrete lining (see Section 5.4). The station tunnels were generally of 6.46 and 7.07 m internal diameter
grey cast iron.
l , constructed, one part in expanded
In 1960-61 the experimental length of the Victoria ~ i n e ~was
concrete lining, the other in expanded grey cast iron lining. This was followed in 1963-6919>22j23,162 by the
Victoria Line and Brixton Extension. Those sections of the running tunnel in conventional grey cast iron bolted
linings were of 3.71 m or 3.83 nl internal diameter. For these linings only the longitudinal joints were machined

The statioii tunnels were generally 6.46 m internal diameter. Two types of lining were available for all tunnels
above 3.8 m, one with machined circumferential flanges, the other with unmachined circumferential flanges.

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When the LTE tunnel linings were redesigned to metric sizes for the first stage of the Fleet Line and the
the~ opportunity
~
for more standardisation was taken. The width
extension of the Piccadilly Line to ~ e a t h r o w
of all rings was increased to 0.60 m which enabled a reduction to be made in the weight of grey cast iron per metre
of tunnel for the larger diameters (see Table 25). The running tunnels were 3.85 m internal diameter and the
standard station tunnel 6.5 m internal diameter. These linings were designed to be machined on both the longitudinal and circumferential flanges but due to programme difficulties the circumferential flanges were machined on
a relatively small number of rings. Details of the metric linings used in the first stage of the Fleet Line are shown in
Table 25 with details of the joints in Fig. 54. Tapered rings are available for many of the diameters.

TABLE 25
Standard metric linings for LTE tunnels
INTERNAL DIAMETER

EXTERNAL DIAMETER

TAPERED RINGS
INTERNAL DIAMETER

(m)

(m)

(m)

1.75
2.25
3.00
3.85
4.50
5 .oo
5.75
6.50
7.50
8.25
9.00
9.50
10.00

1.93
2.45
3.21
4.07
4.80
5.33
6.1 1
6.90
7.98
8.79
9.60
10.13
10.66

2.25
3 .OO
3.85
4.50
5.75
6.50
7.50
8.25

10.00

CABLE, SEWER AND OUTFALL TUNNELS


A number of cable, sewer and outfall tunnels have been mentioned above but generally grey cast iron
linings have only been used for lengths of tunnels in poor and waterbearing ground or for special sections such
as chambers. In general, the standard linings used for the LTE tunnels have been employed except where a
heavier lining was required. The cost of special linings is usually very high and uneconomical unless a large
number of rings are required which willoffset the cost of manufacturing the pattern.

16.6 Bolted spheroidal graphite iron


The techniques for the manufacture of ductile or spheroidal graphite cast iron were developed in 1947 and
subsequently the material has been used extensively for the manufacture of pipes. In 1967, Stanton and Staveley,
following development during the previous few years in collaboration with BRE
approached the LTE with
a suggestion that a short length of running tunnel should be constructed using spheroidal graphite iron and that
tests be carried out by BRE to establish its performance relative t o the traditional grey iron lining.
20y77

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Following agreement on the design of the lining some 29 rings of 3.86 m internal diameter and 0.61 m
width were used in June 1968 for the first two pilot tunnels driven for later enlargement to a 9.1 5 m internal
crossover tunnel. The rings, see Fig. 5 5 , were wider and had a shallower flange depth than the conventional grey
iron lining and consisted of 12 segments and 1 key compared with 6 segments and 1 key in grey iron. One ring of
conventional grey iron, one ring of the experimental lining and a second ring of the experimental lining with a
3 m m wide slot cut a t the centre bolt hole of each segment for the full depth of the flange, were monitored with
vibrating wire gauges and Demec strain gauges. Changes in the horizontal and vertical diameters of the ring after
building and during the driving of *kc second pilot tunnel were also measured (see chapter 7). The rings were
removed when the enlargement was carried out some eight months later. Table 2 6 shows details of the lining.
The results of this experiment showed that the material was highly suitable for tunnel segments, especially
in locations where steel segments might otherwise be used.
Following the experimental length the spheroidal tunnel lining was not used in the United Kingdom until the
construction of the BR Liverpool Loop Railway. In this scheme the linings are being used at two of the stations
where there are large spans t o be supported on arches between two concrete walls. At Moorfields station 71.4 m
of tunnel with an arch of radius 5.7 m and arc subtending angles between 94' and 127' has been constructed.
A t Birkenhead station 34.8 m of tunnel with an arch of radius 7.5 m and arc subtending angles between 100'
and 110' has also been constructed.
For the construction of the Channel Tunnel Stage 2'l it was intended to use 4.79 m internal diameter
spheroidal graphite cast iron for sections of the service tunnel a t the location of cross passages and if sections of
bad ground were encountered. This scheme was, however, abandoned and only a short length of tunnel was
constructed. Spheroidal graphite linings are at present being used on the BR Tyne Wear Metro for tunnels over 5
t o 6 m in diameter (see Fig. 56). Spheroidal graphite cast iron was also used for the lower part of the section in
Bunter sandstone of the Mine Construction Consortium North York Potash deep shaft of 5.54 m internal diameter
~ ~ , a total of 3900 tonnes were cast (see Fig. 57).
a t ~ o u l b ~forl which
A grey iron lining was specified for the Sao Paulo ~ e t r o " O and an alternative lining of bolted spheroidal
graphite iron was proposed by Head Wrightson. Several widths of lining were designed and the final lining was.
1.0 m wide. The shape of the lining was generally similar t o the conventional grey iron lining. For the Washington
Metro, Head Wrightson again proposed an alternative design in spheroidal graphite iron to the grey iron specified 150 .
The lining is 1.2 m wide and is shown in Fig. 58. The lining is remarkably thin, with a general skin thickness of
only 14.2 mm. To improve the moment of resistance there are two intermediate flanges and the tips of the circumferential flanges are returned some 7 6 m m t o prevent buckling during shoving the shield.

16.7 Bolted steel linings


In only one recent scheme have long tunnels been constructed with bolted steel linings; the outfall and inlet
tunnels for the Dungeness Power Station.These linings, shown in Fig. 5 9 , were very similar in form to the
conventional bolted grey cast iron lining. Tapered rings were used for the horizontal and vertical curves.
In the mid 1960's Sir William Halcrow and Partners designed a steel lining for twin railway tunnels for the
projected Amsterdam Metro. These tunnels were to pass under the River Ij in very soft Eem Clay and
would be subject t o considerable loading and unloading during construction of the tunnels. A stiff lining was
designed t o prevent the collapse of the lining in the very weak ground which allowed an approximate distortion
of 0 . 3 per cent of the diameter giving very high stresses in the lining of the order of 150 MN/m2. Details of the
lining are given in Table 2 7 and in Fig. 60.

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TABLE 27
Details of bolted steel linings
DUNGENESS

AMSTERDAM

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'A'
Date
External diameter
m
Internal diameter
m
Length
m
Cover
m
Ring width
mm
Thickness of flanges mm
Thickness of skin
mm
Circumferential bolts
Number
Diameter
mm
Number of segments per ring

1963-64
4.56
4.27
800 and 200
20 to 25
507
38.1
19.1

1967-68
4.50
4.26
810 and 220
20 to 25
610
28.6
19.1

Feasibility Study only


5.54
5.25
1060
15
500
20
15

16.8 Expanded grey iron lining


16.8.1 Articulated grey iron lining: In 1949 experiments were carried out directed towards the developm e n t of an expanded grey iron lining for use with a tail-less shield mainly in London Clay
The conventional
grey iron lining without the bolts was used but it became clear that a new type of articulated joint had to be
designed t o ensure even bearing while at the same time allowing some rotation of the joints. During the next 10
years the articulated grey iron lining was evolved and the opportunity was taken in 1958 to construct an
experimental length of tunnel of 20 rings of 4.27 m internal diameter. The tunnel in London Clay formed part of
t h e shield driven cooling water tunnels for the CEGB Belvedere generating station, on the Thames east of London.
T h e trial demonstrated the practicability of the lining and the method of erection whilst suggesting minor improvements in the provision for handling and jacking the segments.
19921.

In 1960-61 this form of lining was used for a section of the twin 3.86 m internal diameter tunnels for the
experimental length of the L T E ~ 'Victoria Line. The lining, which consisted of six segments, each weighing
approximately 280 kg was expanded below axis at the knees with jacks of 15 tonnes capacity with 44 mm diameter
pistons, t o give a load of approximately 12 tonnes in the lining with the jacks operated from a single pump. In the
gaps between the t w o horns forming the jacking pockets (see Fig. 61) of the adjacent jacking segments grey iron
packing assemblies were inserted between each pair of horns consisting of one approximately semi-cylindrical
knuckle piece and two 1 in 8 taper packings (see Fig. 61). The knuckle pieces were supplied in four different
thicknesses of 2 2 , 27, 3 2 and 36.5 mm t o allow for the different ground conditions. In this experimental length of
t u n n e l the middle two of the range of knuckle pieces were used in approximately 8 0 per cent of the length of
tunnel. After inserting the packing assemblies the jacks were removed and the pockets subsequently filled with
concrete or with a concrete block set in expanding mortar. The taper packings were spot welded to the adjacent
segments a t a later date.
The ends of each of t h e segments, except those at the jacking positions, were provided with semi-cylindrical
bearing faces, accurately machined in parallel, alternately concave and convex t o form knuckle joints. The
machining of these contact faces enabled the length of the segments t o be kept within the specified tolerances and
t h e ring t o be erected undistorted and in plane. The circumferential joints were not machined and 9.5 mm thick

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creosoted softwood timber packings were inserted between the faces of adjacent rings t o distribute the pressures
from the shield rams uniformly. The lining was designed to be interchangeable with the 3.71 m conventional
bolted grey iron lining. The width of the ring was, however, increased from 0.5 1 m t o 0.61 m and the
depth of the flanges reduced from 127 mm to 63.5 mm while the skin thickness was increased from 22.2 mm t o
25.4 mm. The weight of the.ring was 1.64 tonnes which was very similar t o that of the bolted grey iron lining
which was of shorter width. Details of the lining are given in Tables 28 and 29.
The lining was erected in a conventional manner directly behind the tail-less shields but without the use of
an erector arm. The upper segments were winched into position and held temporarily o n tubular bars extended
from the shield. After initial troubles with the digger shield the rate of progress steadily increased t o a maximum
of 230 rings (143 m) per week. The maximum advance in an eight-hour shift was 1 8 rings (1 1 m). The lining took
10 to 12 minutes to erect. Monthly readings of the horizontal and diagonal diameters were taken; the results are
discussed in Appendix 6. The erection tolerances specified for the lining in the experimental length were k 44.5 m m
which was larger than that for other forms of lining but this was possible due t o the additional clearance provided
by the reduced thickness of the flanges of the lining.
For the Victoria Line the lining was only altered in minor detail to improve the packing assemblies 19.
During the construction of the experimental length it was found that the wedges projected inside the internal
diameter of the ring. It was therefore decided t o try to reduce the number of wedges required t o be cut off for the
future length of tunnels by keeping the knuckle piece at constant section by varying the thickness of the wedges t o
suit the ground conditions and the variations in the size of the bead on the front of the shield. Although this was
generally successful a small percentage of wedges had to be cut off, after the tunnelling was completed. In the
Victoria Line between Warren Street and Victoria the tunnels lie under exceptionally valuable property where the
LondonClay is less homogeneous than usual. The expanded grey iron lining was therefore used for this section
whenever the ground conditions were suitable in preference to the expanded concrete or the bolted grey iron
linings. High rates of progress were again attained using a mechanical shield. Several lengths were constructed using
hand shields.
The rates of progress attained for the lining were slightly higher than those for the expanded concrete lining
but overall the cost per metre of tunnel was considerably higher on account of the initial costs of the segments.
In several instances cracks appeared in the lining near the crown which required remedial works after the tunnelling
was complete and in one or two instances complete rings were replaced. In general, grey iron is not an ideal
material for an expanded lining. However, spheroidal graphite iron, with its tensile characteristics, should be more
suitable, although costly. Details of the lining and of the tunnels with this form of lining are given in Tables 2 8 and
29.

TABLE 28

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Details of LTE expanded grey iron lining


Internal diameter
Width of segment
Depth of flange
Thickness of flange
Thickness of web
Number of segments
Weight of ring
Iron
Joints
Caulking
Excavation

3.86 m
0.61 m
63.5 mm
25.4 mm
25.4 mm
6 of 4 different types (280 kg)
1.64 t o m e s
Grey iron grade 12
Knuckle form radial joints, plane circumferential joints.
No caulking groove but lead caulking can be used.
Hand or mechanical shield.

TABLE 29
Details of LTE tunnels with expanded grey iron lining
EXPERIMENTAL LENGTH

VICTORIA LINE

Dates
Strata

1960-61
London Clay

1963-66
London Clay

Maximum cover
Length
Average ring cycle
Average building time
Progress maximum

Mechanical Shield

25 m
1.9 km
30 minutes
10-1 2 minutes
142 m/week

Mechanical Shield

100 m/week

30 m
3.4 km
30 minutes
7-1 2 minutes
143 m/week
40 m/week
100 m/week
32 m/week

Average

Mechanical Shield
Hand Shield
Mechanical Shield
Hand Shield

16.8.2 Expanded bolted grey iron lining: Investigations were carried out during the construction of the
LTE Victoria Line t o see if the conventional bolted grey iron lining could be expanded and therefore left
ungrouted for sections of running tunnels which were later to be dismantled during enlargement for other tunnels.
This, it was thought would reduce the amount of settlement at the ground surface and increase the rates of
progress for the mechanical shields. In practice there was little reduction in settlement. Two methods of expansion
were tried: the one, which was the method used, involved the use of a ring of ordinary segments (instead of the
usual four ordinary segments, two t o p segments and one key) with 38 mm thick packings in all longitudinal joints 22
(see Fig. 62). The other method entailed 19 mm thick packings in the longitudinal joints adjacent to the key and
38 m m packings in all the other longitudinal joints.
During the erection of the lining with the first method described the packings were omitted at the knee
joint t o enable the ring t o be assembled and the bolts fitted in the other four longitudinal joints and the circumferential bolts in the bottom two segments. The ring was then jacked at the knees and pairs of folding wedges
inserted at the leading and trailing edges of the joints. The remainder of the joint was filled with an expanding

mortar and the circumferential bolts in the top four segments inserted. During the jacking of the lining, care had
to be taken to ensure that the circumferential bolts in the invert segments were loose to avoid shearing them.
This form of lining was also used for temporary pilot tunnels for the crossover at Heathrow Central station on the
LTE Piccadilly Line Extension to Heathrow. Details of the lining are given in Table 30.

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Initially this form of lining was used with hardwood packings and wedges for the pilot tunnels for the
station tunnels. Following the use of the lining for several lengths of pilot tunnel this form of lining was used for
a number of lengths of permanent tunnel when the heavier grey iron lining was desirable in preference t o the
thinner special articulated grey iron lining discussed above. In these permanent linings steel plates and wedges of
cast iron machine packings and cast iron wedges were used. Subsequently a number of rings of 3.84 m internal
diameter were expanded to 3.92 m using the same method.
In a number of instances cracks appeared in the flanges at the bolt holes and remedial measures were needed
when tunnelling was complete. This again showed that grey cast iron was not a suitable material for an expanded
lining, except for temporary conditions such as for pilot tunnels.

TABLE 30
Details of expanded bolted grey iron lining
Length of tunnel
Depth
Internal diameter
Width of segment
Depth of flange
Thickness of flange
Thickness of web
Number of segments
Weight of ring
Iron
Joints
Caulking
Excavation
Average ring cycle
Average building time
Progress maximum
Average

Total length 1.2 km in 6 drives. Part of which was pilot tunnel.


30 m
3.71 m expanded to 3.84 m and 3.84 m expanded to 3.92 m
0.51 m
127 mm
28.6 mm
22.2 mm
6 '0' plates t 4 No. packings and 4 No. pairs of wedges
1.62 tonnes
Grey iron grade 12
Plane joints
Caulking grooves
Hand shield and Mechanical shield
45 minutes
15-20 minutes
7.5 m/12 hour shift
51 m/week

16.9 Expanded steel linings


Expanded flanged steel tunnel linings were used for special section on two contracts for the LTE Victoria
Line 23. The details of the lining and the construction are given below.
OXFORD CIRCUS STATION
The southbound station tunnel, of 6.48 m internal diameter, passed only a metre or so below the third
basement of Peter Robinson's store. The estimated loadings from the footings were of the order of 390 kIV/m2.
Several construction methods outlined below were employed to prevent possible settlement of these footings.

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a)

An expanded lining was designed to shorten the period between excavation and the lining taking a
substantial part of the loading. As cast iron would not be capable of taking the large jacking forces a
fabricated steel lining was designed.

b)

The third basement was underpinned with a prestressed concrete raft in the form of a saddle over the
tunnel t o spread the loads around the tunnel. As the shield did not cut a true circle with no overbreak
through the lean concrete back filled below the saddle the lining was grouted in the crown and subsequently back grouted to fill any voids.

c)

The tunnel shield was provided with face rams with a combined total force of 800 tonnes from 12 face
rams. These rams were hydraulically connected to the 24 shove rams to maintain a constant force on
the face. The shield had no bead but holes were provided through the skin for injecting a lubricant if
this became necessary.

In the event the measured settlement was only of the order of 1-2 mm (see Section 19.1).
At the end of the drive, a shield chamber of 7.93 m internal diameter (in which to dismantle the shield) was
constructed in a similar form of expanded lining. The excavation for a ring of the shield chamber lining was carried
out in front of the shield and the lining erected. The invert was then concreted in fondu cement to form a cradle
for the shield. The shield was then shoved forward and the 6.48 m internal lining erected and expanded at the rear.
The process was repeated until the complete shield chamber was constructed. Details of the 6.48 m internal
diameter lining are given in Fig. 63.
KING'S CROSS STATION
At King's Cross Station the Victoria Line tunnels pass below the Metropolitan and Circle Line tunnels and
over the Northern Line and Piccadilly Line tunnels. Fig. 6 4 shows the congestion of tunnels in the area and the
difficulties encountered when planning new underground works. This type of situation was similar to other stations
on the Victoria Line. The clearance from the crowns of the Victoria Line northbound station tunnel and the concourse tunnel, t o the brick arches of the Metropolitan and Circle Line and the British Railways Midland curve was
of the order of 1.5 m.
The expanded steel lining designed for the northbound station and the concourse tunnels had a lower half
similar t o the Oxford Circus lining but with the upper half designed to withstand the large concentrated loadings
applied t o the lining by the footings above. As the tunnels crossed at an oblique angle these loads could be
expected at varying positions above the tunnel. The upper half was designed as a semicircular two-pinned arch and
analysed for five cases of loading from the footings above. The resulting bending moment diagram contained both
hogging and sagging moments of maximum value of the order of 135 kN/m and 105 kN/m respectively. The
joints between the segments were designed t o maintain full continuity of section. The segments were deepened
locally at the joints and two rows of three 44.5 mm diameter high tensile bolts provided. Taper rings were used on
the curve at the southern end of the station, one ring in four for the northbound tunnel and each ring in the concourse tunnel. The taper was 2 5 mm on the diameter (see Fig. 64).
For the construction of the tunnel the shield was designed to maintain a constant force on the face, and
face rams similar t o those for Oxford Circus were provided. 800 tonnes force was provided for the station tunnel
and 600 tonnes for the concourse tunnels.

One of the lower machine chamber tunnels, 7.91 m internal diameter, was also designed with an expanded
steel lining. This short length of tunnel was hand driven and thus a smooth excavation was not possible in which
to expand the lining. The lining was erected in the conventional manner but not expanded. The void between the
lining and the excavation was then grouted and the lining expanded before the grout had set.

16.10 Steel liner plates


Two forms of liner plates are available in the United Kingdom though they have been used for only a small
number of schemes. These systems are discussed below.

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16.10.1 Arrnco liner plates25: The Armco liner plates have been used extensively in the United States and
in Europe for railways, pedestrian subways and other tunnels since the 1930's but only for a few schemes in the
United Kingdom. The liner plates are avaiiable in circular, horseshoe or oval shape or combination of shapes and
are in three standard lengths, 1034, 1194 and 1353 mm and 458 mm wide. The plates are available in thicknesses
from 2.7 rnm to 6.1 mm. The plates have two corrugations equivalent t o the full depth of the flanges which are
between 43 and 46 mm deep, the variation being due t o the differences in thickness of the metal.
The liner plates are hot galvanised and used in most schemes as permanent primary linings. In cases where
strong alkali or acids are likely to be in contact with the sheets they may be stoved at the factory with a bitumen or
epoxy coating. The individual segments are lapped and bolted in the longitudinal direction t o form rings and the
circumferential flanges are bolted together to give continuity in the longitudinal direction. The segments may be
erected in the crown immediately after excavation to give protection during the remainder of the excavation (see
Fig. 65). Grout plugs are provided where required and a cement mortar grout injected t o fill the void behind the
sheeting. The lining size is specified by the neutral axis diameter. Sealing strips may be used between the joints
for waterproofing the lining. Details of the lining are given in Table 3 1.
In the United Kingdom liner plates have been used mainly for the repair of old tunnels or for secondary
lining to new tunnels. A number of these cases are discussed below. A second form of lining is available called the
multi-plate lining, which has four corrugations and no flanges and which is usually used for the repair of old
tunnels. The segments overlap and are bolted. The void behind the lining is grouted with mortar or concrete. In
these 'repair' conditions the liner takes only a portion of the structural load.
BRITISH RAILWAYS - SOUTHERN REGION - HIGHAM AND STROUD TUNNELS (197 1-74)
These tunnels were originally constructed in 1824 as a single canal tunnel which was later divided in two
sections by a 70 m long cutting 16? The tunnels were taken over by the Southern Eastern Railway Company in
1840 and the first train ran in 1846. The 1390 m long Higham Tunnel, and the 2090 m long Stroud Tunnel, were
constructed through chalk at a maximum depth of 55 m. One third of the Higham Tunnel and two thirds of the
Stroud Tunnel were lined in brick, the remainder was unlined. During steam train running a soot crust was formed
over the chalk which occasionally loosens and falls due t o vibration or seepage of water. Two small rock falls, of
500 to 800 kg have occurred during the last seven years which have delayed trains. Regular inspections are carried
out and soft or unstable areas of chalk are dislodged and removed.
Over one length near the Stroud end, seepage water had affected the stability of the chalk. The first length
was protected with a steel portal frame with steel laggings in 1971-72. The remaining 32 m of tunnel was
protected with a D-shaped Armco steel lining in 1972-74. Concrete bases were cast at either side of the tunnel
and the steel lining erected to form an arch 8.13 m wide and 5.59 m high. The galvanised corrugated sheeting was
460 mm wide and 6.1 mm thick, and bolted together radially and longitudinally. The void between the chalk and
the sheeting was backfilled with a sharp sand, flyash, Lytag cement mix and subsequently grouted.

STOKE-ON-TRENT - LONGTON CEMETARY SEWER RECONSTRUCTION (1967-69)


This 1.37 m finished internal diameter sewer was constructed with Armco liner plates of 6.1 mm thickness
for a length of 360 m in an area where mining of the coal beneath would be carried out at a later date 164. The
lining was designed t o be flexible t o withstand predicted subsidence. A brick invert was constructed inside the
plates t o springing level.

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STOKE-ON-TRENT - HANLEY MAIN OUTFALL SEWER (1967-69)


Three sections of the total 7 10 m length of this sewer were lined with Armco liner plates of 2.5 m and
2.34 m diameter to the neutral axis. The plates were 2.75 mm and 3.5 mm thick 1 6 4 . ~ h esheets, which were not
galvanised, were painted on site with bitumen and an internal lining of Rapid smooth bore segments erected.
Subsidence due t o mining was again expected.

TABLE 31
Details of liner plate linings
Armco lining
1.22 - 4.57
to neutral axis

Commercial Hydraulics lining


1.68 - 6.10 to
external diameter

Specified diameter

Width of segment

mm

45 8

406 or 610

Depth of flanges

mm

7 3 - 76

51 - 6 3

Thickness of metal

mm

2.7 - 6.1

2.5 - 9.0

Weight of segments

kg

15 - 41

Number of segments per ring

4 - 11

Number of bolts per segment


radial
circumferential

6-8

Diameter of bolts

mm

5
15 - 19

10 - 36 for 406 mm width


and 1 4 - 51 for 610 mm width
5% - 20

3
4
12.7 or 15.1)

Waterproofing

Bitumen gasket

Neoprene gaskets up to
12 mm thick in joints.

Curved ring

Available if
required

Available if required.

16.10.2 Commercial hydraulics liner plates26: The Commercial Hydraulics liner plates have been used
extensively in the United States and in Europe but only in a few instances in the United Kingdom. The linings
were originally designed for soft ground but have been used in a large variety of ground conditions and tunnelling
techniques. The plates, of standard lengths, or subdivisions, are available in a range of thicknesses from 2.5 mm to
9.0 mm and in two widths 610 mm and 460 mm. The plates are available to form circular, horseshoe or oval
tunnels. The linings are normally used as a temporary lining to support the ground for the short term conditions
and subsequently lined with cast in-situ concrete. For permanent linings whlch are not encased in concrete the
plates should have a protective mating. The joints are usually staggered from one ring to the next. The segments
consist of an indented skin with flanges on all four sides which are bolted together in the longitudinal and radial
directions. The linings are specified by external diameter (see Fig. 66).

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The liner plates can be erected either from the invert or, in difficult ground where the crown requires
immediate support, from the crown as soon as enough span for one plate has been excavated. The liner plates may also
be used in conjunction with steel arches when additional strength is required. Although the liner plates can be
placed between the ribs it is usual for the ribs to be placed inside the ring of liner plates. The void behind the lining
may be filled with pea gravel and grouted later or grouted after erection. Sufficient grout holes should be provided
in the lining. The maximum allowable deformation of the liner plate tunnels is of the order of 3 per cent of the
diameter.
In poor ground the lining can be used in conjunction with poling plates 1.2 m to 1.5 m long which are jacked
forward into the face to hold the crown as the excavation proceeds. The linings can be used behind a shield, but
additional temporary strengthening with steel angles welded between the circumferential flanges is required t o
transfer the shoving forces to the adjacent rings. In compressed air or in waterbearing ground neoprene gaskets may
be used which are compressed when the bolts are tightened t o give a waterproof seal. The neoprene is attached t o
each of the four flanges of the segments before they are taken down the tunnel. Details of the lining are shown in
Table 3 1.
Although there has been some instrumentation of steel liner plates in the United States little research has
been done to date in the United Kingdom (see Section 19.2).
The use of the linings in the United Kingdom has increased during the last few years but is still o n a very
small scale and in all cases the linings have been encased subsequently in concrete. There are a number of future
schemes in which this form of lining may be used. The more recent schemes are briefly discussed below:
WARRINGTON - MERSEY OUTFALLS INTERCEPTING SEWER (197 1-72)
A section of this 2.2 m internal diameter sewer passed through an area where the groundwater was highly
alkaline, probably from an old chemical waste tip 16'. The tunnel was lined with bolted precast concrete segments
and various internal linings were considered for this particular length of tunnel. Steel liner plates were chosen
partly on account of the small flange thickness which did not require a reduction of the internal diameter of the
tunnel. 2.13 m external diameter liner plates 4 mm thick were used for a length approximately 160 m long. The
lining was erected inside the bolted lining and the void grouted with a PFA grout. The joints were sealed with a
bitumen sealing strip. A cast in-situ concrete lining was subsequently constructed.
BRISTOL-MALAGO INTERCEPTOR SCHEME (1 972- 74)61
The twin horseshoe tunnels, 3.73 m by 4.55 m excavated size, were constructed in the Keuper Marl and
sandstones with Dosco roadheader machines and temporarily supported with steel arches and ribs and subsequently
lined with cast in-situ concrete. Steel liner plates were used for two short lengths of the tunnels.
The tunnels passed below the main railway line from Bristol to Exeter in a deep cutting near the Parsons
Street Station with a cover of the order of 6 m. The steel liner plates were proposed by the contractor and used
in conjunction with steel arches to give a complete lining to the roof and the walls of the tunnel. The void between
the outside of the lining and the excavation was filled with pea gravel and grouted later with cement grout. The
liner plates were 4 mm thick and 10%plates formed a horseshoe to fit the excavation. The length of each tunnel
lined in steel liner plates was 35 m.
A similar type of construction was used for 100 m of tunnel at the outfall end of the tunnel where there was
little cover and poor ground conditions. Tunnelling caused settlement in this area.

TYNESIDE SEWERAGE SCHEME - SOUTH SHIELDS INTERCEPTOR (1973-75)


One section of this contract, which was mainly in open cut with 450 mm pipes, passed through poor ground
at a depth of some 7.5 m 166.Conventional heading methods were considered but the contractor proposed laying
the pipe in a tunnel lined in steel liner plates. The tunnel, 174 m long, was lined in 1.3 m external diameter liner
plates 3 mm thick, and grouted. After laying the pipe the remainder of the tunnel was filled with concrete.

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TYNESIDE SEWERAGE SCHEME - STONEYGATE LANE TO MULGROVE TERRACE (1974-75)


On this contract approximately half the sewer was specified in heading and the contractor proposed using
liner plates and encasing the pipes in concrete 66. Ten drives of average length 125 rn were constructed using
1.52 m and 1.83 m external diameter liner plates of 3 mm thickness.

17. APPENDIX 4
Precast concrete tunnel linings

17.1 General

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Precast concrete segments are generally cast under factory conditions either in manufacturer's precasting
yards or in special casting areas on or near the site. Good quality control and adequate precautions for the curing
of the concrete and the regular checking of the moulds can produce accurately cast segments of consistent
concrete strength.
Concrete is well suited for resisting compressive stresses but will only take small tensile stresses. It is a
relatively brittle material which requires to be handled more carefully than cast iron t o avoid spalling of the edges
or cracking. Reinforcement is often used to prevent damage during the temporary stages of handling and erecting
the lining. Precast concrete is a relatively impermeable material and, following erection, any ingress of water will
therefore normally be at the joints between segments or at any cracks in the concrete. Steam cured concrete has a
slightly lower coefficient of permeability than dry cured concrete of the same strength.
Chemical attacks on precast concrete is either by direct attack on the concrete or attack o n the reinforcement through cracks in the concrete. The chemical attack which may occur in tunnel linings is caused either by
sulphates in the ground in the vicinity of the tunnel or for sewer tunnels, by aggressive agents in the liquids within
the tunnel. Tests should be carried out on soil and water samples and the type of cement, ordinary Portland or
sulphate resisting, used in accordance with Table 49 in BS Code of Practice CP1 10141. Internal corrosion resistant
linings are available as discussed in Section 15.2. Where linings are in a sea water environment, the cover t o reinforcement should be 25 mm to 40 mm and dense concrete should be used. Where steel fibres are used the cover will be
reduced virtually to zero, since research for marine structures and sailing boats which have been cast or sprayed in
steel fibre concrete or shotcrete has shown that little corrosion occurs in the absence of cracks.
Precast concrete segments are generally available in ordinary Portland Cement but all manufacturers will
produce segments in sulphate resisting cement when specified. It is then often the practice t o manufacture all
segments of the specified diameter in sulphate resisting cement t o avoid confusion between the different types.
Some manufacturers however cast all segments in sulphate resisting cement. Characteristic concrete strengths will
~ 45
~ M N / at
~ 28
~ days, although for a small number of contracts
now generally be specified at 40 M N / to
~ 2~8 days. Although theoretically these increased
special segments have been cast with strengths up to 55 M N / at
strengths should produce a more economical design it is not generally the case, except on occasions where the
thickness of the lining is already fixed and additional hoop load capacity is required. A small increase in the thickness of the lining would not generally affect the cost of the moulds for special segments and the cost of the
additional concrete would be more than offset by the additional cement in the higher grade concrete and the
manufacturer's inconvenience of having different concrete strengths batched by the concrete plant. This is
discussed in Chapter 1 1.

17.2 Manufacture
The production of concrete segments in the 1930's to the mid 1960's was generally carried out in the open
air with the moulds assembled on benches which were then moved to the concrete filling point by a locomotive
before returning to the bench for curing. The moulds were struck the next day, cleaned and reassembled before
repeating the process. This system was affected by the weather and was wasteful in the space required. The daily
production was only five segments per man.

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During the mid to late 1960's these production methods were greatly improved and now the majority of
segments are cast under cover. The moulds are moved on bogies on a closed circuit from an assembly position to
the concrete filling and vibrating tables and then to the curing area, before being demoulded and removed for
stacking in the open. Alternatively the moulds can be kept fixed and the concrete conveyed by mobile hopper or
on travelling rails t o the moulds. Vibration methods have been improved in recent years and new manufacturing
methods have increased the daily production rates t o 15 t o 30 segments per man thus reducing production costs
and increasing utilisation of plant and space. The larger bolted segments are still generally cast on fixed beds due
t o t h e difficulty of movement of the moulds, while the larger special segments, such as the Mersey, Dartford and
Channel tunnels are always cast o n level fixed beds t o enable the tight tolerances t o be maintained. In the past a
number of casting yards have used steam curing of the concrete which gives a strength of 7 MN/m2 after a few
hours and the required concrete strength at 3 t o 7 days. This enables the moulds, if required, to be used twice
daily. However, only a very small proportion of segments are now steam cured.
Most casting yards have special measures available to allow casting during cold weather such as steam pipes
or individual canopies; during hot weather segments can be sprayed or covered with wet hessian before demoulding.
Spraying of the segments during hot weather is often carried out in the stacking yard t o help curing of the
concrete. T h e percentage o f segments rejected at the casting yard is probably between 0.5 per cent to 2 per cent.
The pressing of precast concrete units, such as paving slabs and kerbs has been carried out for a number of
years. During t h e last ten years a number of manufacturers considered this process for concrete segments but only
the small solid type of segments are at present suitable for this process and in addition some complications exist if
there is a tongue and groove joint in the lining. The first segments t o be manufactured using this process were
(see
~ ~Sections 5.5
manufactured by John Mowlem and Co., for the LTE Piccadilly Line extension to ~ e a t h r o w
and 17.7). The segments were pressed with a 400 tonne press on a three position circular table at a capacity rate
of 4 0 0 segments per 12-hour shift. The strength of the concrete when the segments were removed on suction pads
was about 1.4 MN/m2. The process is ideally suited t o the small type of solid segment but involves high developm e n t costs t o obtain a satisfactory mix design with very precise quality control. When using this process the volume
and consistency of concrete delivered is critical t o avoid variations in the thickness of the segment. Segments cast
b y this method can be considerably cheaper than by conventional methods, particularly when the total number of
segments required t o be cast is large, offsetting the high capital cost of the press. The larger solid segments, which
would require a press of considerably higher capacity and also a linear production process, are unlikely to be
manufactured b y this method for some years. The process has also been used for development trials of the Wedge
Block h i n g .
After casting with conventional methods, segments are removed for curing in the open air in stacking yards
and generally after a minimum of 2 8 days are transported t o the site. A manufacturer will normally organise his
programme t o give this minimum of 2 8 days and often has storage capacity for up t o two months production.
Occasionally d u e t o production difficulties or changes in contractors' programmes, segments have been delivered to
sites within 2 8 days of casting. Opinions vary on the necessity of this 28 day period. In warm summer weather the
strength of the concrete can reach the minimum required in 3 to 7 days while in winter it may take 14 to 21 days
although the segments may be more brittle than at 2 8 days. It is not recommended that a reduction in the 28 day
period is specified in contract documents. If, however, due to unforeseen circumstances, the manufacturer is
unable t o deliver segments o f the required curing duration and can show to the Engineer that the strength of the
batch of concrete has already reached the required value, it is reasonable for the Engineer to accept the segments
subject t o a minimum curing period of 14 days during the summer months, say April to September, and 21 days
during the rest of the year. This has been the practice on a number of occasions in the past but on a number of
other occasions the segments have been rejected.

Segments are not generally stacked in rings although on a number of contracts, segments have been loaded
directly onto pallets at the casting yards and remained on the pallets until arrival at the face.
Only one manufacturer (Charcon Tunnels 3 1) of standard segments specifies tolerances in their brochure.
These tolerances are as follows:

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Length of segment
Width of segment
Depth of segment
Diameter of ring

+ 1 mm
+ 1 mm
+ 3 mm
+ 3 mm

These are tight tolerances and should only be taken as a guide to the accuracy of the precast standard tunnel
linings.
Most of the special linings are expanded or grouted unbolted linings and incorporate radial plane joints,
concave/convex or convex/convex joints. The specifications and tolerances for these forms of joints are individual,
very tight and complicated due to the three-dimensional aspect. In particular, a very high degree of accuracy is
required for the convex surface forming the articulated joints. There is a special need for the orientation of these
cylindrical surfaces to be correct in order to avoid high local loading and thus overstressing when the lining is
erected in the tunnel. Very accurate methods are necessary for the measuring of these surfaces. The tolerances for
the main dimensions of the ring are normally specified to the nominal surface profile, in contrast t o the standard
linings. Typical tolerances for the main dimensions are given below:
Extrados and intrados
Length of segment
Circumferential surfaces

k2

mm of nominal
+ 2 min of arc
+ 2 mm of nominal

17.3 Moulds
Little information is available on the manufacturing details of the early McAlpine lining. In 191 1 for the
construction of the 2.9 m internal diameter subway in Croydon the segments were cast in grey cast iron moulds
on a "shaking table". For the largest scheme in which the McAlpine lining was used, the West Middlesex main
drainage scheme in 1931-35, the segments, of diameter ranging from 1.22 m to 3.20 m, were cast in steel moulds 50 .
For the 3.74 m internal diameter bolted concrete lining which was originally designed for the LTE eastward
extension of the Central ~ i n steel
e ~moulds
~
were used, although grey cast iron moulds were considered preferable
on account of rigidity but were rejected on cost, delivery dates and overall weight of the moulds. The segments
were cast with the convex side upwards and the moulds were attached to high frequency vibrating tables or shock
tables. During the 1939-45 war various types of moulds were considered for the bolted segments. Initially timber
moulds were used, with an arch base and fixed ends and loose sides, bolted to a vibrating table. The moulds were
checked daily and signs of warping and shrinkage occurred causing the joints to twist due t o the weight of concrete,
vibration and the weather. All-steel moulds consisting of steel channels and side plates with fixed steel ends but
removable sides were tried but a slight twist occurred due to faulty slinging during handling. The steel moulds gave
an excellent finish. A third method which proved successful and which was used for many of the segments cast
during this period used a precast concrete mould with sides and ends of timber which fitted in grooves in the base.
High frequency electrically operated vibration tables were used.

The present standard bolted concrete linings are mainly cast from granite concrete moulds with timber sides.
These timber sides give fewer castings but can be renewed. One manufacturing method for the concrete moulds is
outlined below and shown diagramatically o n Fig. 67.

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From a full-size drawing of the segments a timber master is made which is filled with concrete to form a
concrete master die mould 28. This master die is polished and checked for accuracy and any necessary alterations
made t o the master. This master die is then surrounded by a timber shutter and a concrete master base cast. This
is again polished and checked for accuracy. The master base is then surrounded by a shutter and a number of die
moulds cast t o suit the production programme. These are polished and then surrounded by a shutter and the
requisite number of production moulds cast, which in turn after curing are polished and assembled with the timber
sides ready for production. Similar methods are used for the manufacture of the concrete vertical moulds for the
solid segments, singly or in pairs, fours or sixes.
Steel moulds which are used for only a small quantity of bolted and smoothbore segments and for the large
special segments are individually fabricated. Aluminium castings may be incorporated for flanges and bolt holes.

17.4 Reinforcement
The use of reinforcement in precast concrete tunnel linings falls into two categories:
(a)

Internal reinforcement cast into the segments, t o take temporary stresses due to handling and erection
or for the permanent load condition, and,

(b)

external reinforcement which is used during the erection of the lining.

In the former category are the bolted concrete linings and the special lining for the LTE Victoria Line - Mott
Hay and Anderson lining, the Fleet Line, the Mersey Kingsway Tunnels, the Dartford Duplication Tunnel and the
Channel Tunnel Stage 2 works, while in the latter category are the McAlpine lining and the Charcon Universal
lining. Details of the reinforcement in these linings is discussed in the following sub-sections.
BOLTED CONCRETE LININGS
Bolted concrete linings which are of a similar cross-section, although thicker, t o the bolted cast iron lining
require reinforcement mainly for the temporary condition of handling and erection and for the shoving of the
shield, although some reinforcement may be required for the permanent ground load conditions. The first bolted
. final design, the
concrete lining was designed for the Ilford extension of the LTE Central Line in 1 9 3 9 ~In~ the
volume of reinforcement was equivalent to 2.1 per cent of the volume of concrete (see Fig. 68).
The volume of reinforcement in bolted concrete linings is now generally between 1 and 2 per cent of the
volume of the concrete, depending upon the diameter and the design loadings and, in the case of the special bolted
linings for specific contracts, the thickness of the web and the flanges. The outside cover to the main reinforcement
is generally between 1 3 m m and 25 mm for standard linings but larger for the special thicker linings. There is some
small variation in the quantity of reinforcement per ring between manufacturers.
MERSEY KINGSWAY AND DARTFORD TUNNELS
For the Mersey Kingsway tunnel18, the reinforcement was partly to secure the internal steel facing plate,
which is attached t o the segment, and partly for handling and erection. In addition, the concave/convex joint was
reinforced (see Fig. 69). The steel plate was attached to each of the segments above 'roadslabs' level with 12 mm
diameter hooked bars at 1 3 0 rnm centres. The total volume of reinforcement was approximately 0.3 per cent of

the volume of the concrete. The outside cover to the reinforcement was 38 mm while that in the concave joint
was 25 mm.
The details of the reinforcement for the Dartford Duplication tunnel were similar.
LONDON TRANSPORT EXECUTIVE - VICTORIA LINE, MOTT HAY AND ANDERSON LINING

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' ~ reinforced in the concave part of the


The Mott Hay and Anderson Lining for the Victoria ~ i n e was
concave/convex joint and in the vicinity of the jacking points. The cover to the reinforcement was 37 mm. The
volume of reinforcement was small and represented less than 0.1 per cent of the volume of the concrete (see
Fig. 70).
LONDON TRANSPORT EXECUTIVE - FLEET LINE
The lining for the Fleet Line is discussed in Section 17.7. Tests were carried out on the double convex joint,
which gives a point load contact, and it was found that, with the small circumferential length of the segment, high
tensile stresses occurred near the centre of the segment. For lengths of tunnel at depths in excess of 2 0 m, two
reinforcing stirrups of high yield steel were cast into the segments t o take these stresses (see Fig. 71). The volume
of reinforcement was a little over 0.9 per cent of the concrete volume and the cover was 2 0 mm.
CHANNEL TUNNEL STAGE 2 - SERVICE TUNNEL
The lining for the Stage 2 works for the Channel Tunnel service tunnel consisted of five segments and a key
in the crown. The segments were reinforced for handling and erection and for the concave/convex joint detail.
The volume of reinforcement was 1.6 per cent of the volume of concrete and the cover was 60 mm (see Fig. 72).
McALPINE LINING
For the McAlpine Lining the segments thinner than 127 mm,ie those for the smaller diameters, were lightly
reinforced for handling and erection purposes 49'50. During the erection of the lining two semi-circular bars were
inserted in the circumferential joint which increased the strength of the lining (see Fig. 73). The diameters of the
bars varied with the diameter of the lining from 15 mm to 28.5 mm. After pointing the joints the lining was
grouted.
CHARCON UNIVERSAL LINING
In the Charcon Universal Lining two hoop bars are inserted through sleeves cast in the segments and coupled
together at each of the segment joints in the ring47 (see Fig. 74). The bars act mainly as temporary supports
during the erection of the ring, although they give increased stability of the ring if the lateral pressure on the lining
is removed or reduced at some later stage as in the case of a subsequent excavation close t o the tunnel. Complete
grouting of the bars within the segments may not always occur.

17.5 Joints
The types of joints commonly used have been discussed in Section 5.3 and Table 32 below gives details of
the individual joints for concrete linings illustrated in Fig. 5.

TABLE 32
Details of joints in precast concrete linings
Type of Lining

Circumferential
Joint

Remarks

Plane

Bituminous felt
in radial joints

Don-Seg

Plane

Bituminous paint
on radial joints

Wedge Block

Plane

Rubber Bitumen
emulsion on radial
joints

BR
Greenwood t o
Potters Bar

Tongue and groove

Bituminous paint
on radial joints

LTE
Victoria Line Experimental length

Stepped

Bituminous paint
on radial joints

Halcrow Lining

Stepped

Bituminous paint
on radial joints

Mott Hay and Anderson


Lining

Plane

Bituminous paint
on radial joints

Fleet Line

Plane

Wedge only painted


with bituminous
paint

Piccadilly Line
Extension

Plane

Wedge only painted


with bituminous
paint

BAA Heathrow Cargo Tunnel

Plane

Bituminous paint
on middle third
of radial joints

BOLTED LININGS

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EXPANDED LININGS

GROUTED SMOOTH BORE


LININGS
Mc Alpine

Tongue and groove

Spun Concrete Flexilok

Concave/convex

Rubberised bituminous reinforced strip


in both joints

S p u n Concrete Extraflex

Plane joint with


nylon dowels

Rubberised bituminous reinforced strip


in radial joint.
Cellular rubber strip
with neoprene cover
in circumferential
joint.

Charcon

Tongue and groove


Tongue and groove

Rapid
Universal

Mersey Kingsway

Plane

TABLE 32 (Contd)

Type of Lining

Radial Joint

Circumferential
Joint

Dartford Duplication

Concave/convex
Radius 534 mm and 814 mm

Plane

Rees Mini

Concave/convex

Concave/convex

Concave/convex
Radius 2400 mm

Plane

Remarks
-

Uncured rubber
strip in both joints

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EXPANDED GROUTED
LININGS
Channel Tunnel Stage 2

17.6 Bolted and dowelled concrete linings


In 1937 investigations were started into the design of a precast reinforced concrete lining of a similar form
to the traditional cast iron lining which lead in turn to the present generation of bolted concrete linings 29. This
lining was designed to be used for sections of the LTE running tunnels in London Clay, instead of the cast iron
linings which were in short supply on account of the rearmament programme.

17.6.1 LTE - Central Line extension: The design of the lining29 was generally similar to the cast iron
lining with four ordinary segments, two top segments and one key. In the first design the two types of linings had
the same internal and external diameters and ring width to enable the linings to be interchanged.
In the first design the skin thickness was 44.5 mm with the flanges and the central circumferential rib
76.2 mm thick. The circumferential flanges and central rib were reinforced with two 9.5 mm diameter bars, while
the radial flanges were reinforced with three 9.5 mm diameter bars. The longitudinal stiffeners which tapered from
50.8 mm to 114.3 mm were reinforced with two 9.5 mm diameter bars (see Fig. 75). The locations of the circumferential bolts were similar to those for the cast iron lining with the exception of the crown bolt which was omitted
due to the solid key, while the radial joints had two bolts. To strengthen the bolt holes mild steel ferrules were
cast into the segments to form the holes.
Exhaustive tests were carried out on the prototype lining and the future modified linings. A small number
of 3.66 m internal diameter rings were cast, using timber moulds. Three of the rings were tested in conjunction
with three cast iron rings in a trial tunnel with 0.76 m cover. The ground surface was loaded to approximately
190 kN/m2 at which stage both linings had squatted some 25 mm and two of the cast iron rings had cracked in
the crown while only one fine crack was apparent in the three concrete rings. Similar tests were carried out with
three rings of 2.44 m concrete and cast iron linings which gave similar results. In the latter case'the concrete lining
regained its shape after the removal of the load. One ring of the lining was then tested behind a shield in one of
the running tunnels which was under construction. To produce high shove pressures the excavation was not
trimmed to the cutting edge of the shield and a total thrust of approximately 450 tonnes was'applied t o the lining
at which thrust the lining failed badly.
The lining was then redesigned to provide greater strength in the longitudinal direction. The circumferential
flanges were increased in thickness to 102 mm with four 9.5 mm diameter reinforcing bars and the central rib
omitted. The skin was increased to 50.8 mm thick while the number of reinforcing bars in the radial flanges was
reduced to two (see Fig. 68). The number of bolt holes was reduced from 52 to 3 1 and the solid key replaced by

a longer flanged key. This lining was similarly tested behind the shield with satisfactory results. Details of the
lining and the tunnel are given in Table 33.

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The internal diameter of the final lining used in the scheme was increased t o 3.74 m to accommodate the
signalling equipment etc. which would otherwise have obstructed the structure gauge. All segments, with the
exception of the key had grout holes and the rings were grouted with ordinary Portland cement. Although there
was n o dangerous concentration of sulphates in the clay the backs of the segments were heavily coated with
bituminous emulsion. Additional care was required for stacking, handling and erecting the segments and no more
damage occurred than t o cast iron segments. The rings took approximately 20 minutes to erect. The linings were
inspected in 1974 and n o deterioration was apparent.
The linings were further developed during the early years of the war. The mild steel ferrules, which were
very expensive, were omitted and the haunches at the ends of the segments were removed. During the war linings
t o t h e same basic design were used in a number of schemes, two of which are described below:

17.6.2 Deep tunnel air raid shelters in London: In the early years of the war eight deep tunnel air raid
shelters were constructed in London, four t o the north of the Thames and four t o the south. These shelters and
associated tunnels were adjacent t o existing London Transport Stations and were designed for possible connection
into t h e system. Each of the shelters consisted of twin 5.03 m internal diameter tunnels 430 m long. Cast iron
linings were used for approximately one-third of the total length of these shelters to obtain an earlier starting date
for t h e construction, the remainder being in bolted concrete segments.
The tunnels were constructed by hand excavation without a shield, except in one contract in which a
rudimentary shield was fabricated o n site, made up of four 5.03 m internal diameter rings bolted together with
packings in the joints t o give 5.07 m internal diameter. A 2 5 mm skin was attached t o the outside circumference.
Without the use of this shield, on average, two rings per eight-hour shift were built, and with the use of a shield
four rings per eight-hour shift were built. Details of the lining are given in Table 33.

TABLE 33
Details of bolted concrete lining for LTE Central Line
extension to Ilford and for London air raid shelters

1
Internal diameter
Width of segment
Thickness of flange
Weight of ring tonnes
Number of segments

m
m
mm
tonnes

Moulds
Minimum concrete strength MN/m2
Total length of Tunnels
km
~oints
Notes:

LTE Central Line

1'K'
Steel
41.4
4.4
plane(1)

Air raid shelters


5.03
0.5 1
152
2.44
6'0'
2 'T'
1 'K'
See Section 17.3
2.3

(1)

For the LTE tunnels, 3 m m bituminous packings with a matrix of hessian were inserted in the
radial joints. Creosoted wood packings were used in the circumferential joints.

(2)

For the air raid shelter tunnels, 3 mm bituminous packings were initially inserted in the joints but
as these tended t o flow under pressure, creosoted wood packings similar to the circumferential
joints were later used.

17.6.3 Defence installation - Dorset coast: A series of tunnels27 were constructed at depths of 35 t o
40 m in the Kimmeridge Clays on the Dorset coast of 2.44 m, 3.74 m and 5.03 m internal diameter in bolted
concrete linings. With the exception of a short length of 2.44 m diameter pilot, the 5.03 m diameter tunnel was
constructed full face.

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The segments, cast in moulds with concrete bases and timber ends and sides, were in high alumina cement
due to possible attacks from the sulphur compounds in the Kimmeridge Clays. The segments after demoulding
were immersed in water for a period of 48 hours.
The linings for the 2.44 m and 3.74 m tunnels were erected by hand, but due t o the weight of the 5.03 m
segments, 310 kg, and the additional height of the stage, a travelling erector was designed from a semi-circular
ladder with revolving steel tube treads and with a small air hoist. The segments were rolled by two bolt holes per
ring. For the 2.44 m and 3.74 m tunnels bituminous packings were used in the radial joints and 25 mm diameter
tarred hemp rope in the circumferential joints. For the 5.03 m tunnel 6 mm thick creosote wood packings were
used in the radial joints instead of the bituminous packings. After every third ring had been erected the joints
were pointed with cement mortar and then grouted with high alumina cement when the mortar was set. As the key
segment had no grout hole, a hole was drilled in these segments. It was found that some 2 1 days after grouting the
bituminous packings started to flow due to the build up of load on the lining. After a further three t o four days
no additional movement occurred. The squeezing of the packings sealed many of the joints between the segments
which had previously developed leaks.

17.6.4 Standard bolted concrete linings: A standard range of bolted concrete linings was introduced after
the war by Kinnear Moodie Ltd, now Charcon Tunnels Ltd, and similar segments were cast by a number of other
precast concrete manufacturers. The standard range of diameters now available is manufactured by three main
firms:31 C V Buchan (Concrete) Ltd, Charcon Tunnels Ltd (formerly Kinnear Moodie Concrete Ltd) and Costain
Concrete Ltd. A number of other manufacturers will produce segments for specific contracts but d o not manufacture a standard range. These linings have been used in many hundreds of kilometres of tunnels in all types of
strata, but mainly in soft ground and soft rock tunnels. The extent of their use is discussed in Sections 3.2 and
5.4. Taper rings or solid tapered packings for curves are available. The linings are generally suitable for tunnels up
to 30 m depth but as this depends on the ground conditions, calculations should be made for depths below 25 m
to verify their suitability (see Fig. 76). Details of the linings are given in Table 34.

TABLE 34
Details of standard bolted concrete linings
-

Internal Diameter

Width of Segments
Thickness of Segments
Weight of Segments
Number of Segments

1.52 m to 10.7 m although diameters up to 38.1 m have been manufactured for


shafts and tunnels.
152 mm increments generally up t o 3.05 m and 254 mm increments to 4.57 m
but some intermediate diameters are available. (See note).
The diameters above 4.57 m have no standard increments but were originally
cast for specific contracts.

TABLE 34 (Contd)
Moulds

(a)
(b)
(c)

Concrete moulds with timber or steel sides


Aluminium moulds with timber sides
Steel moulds

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All segments cast horizontally


Average concrete strength

41.4 M N / ~ ' to 45 MN/m2. Ordinary Portland cement or sulphate resisting


cement.

Caulking grooves

Cast in both radial and circumferential joints.

Joints

All plane. 3 mm thick bituminous felt in radial joint.

Erection

No erector arms or former ring required for small diameter tunnels. Bolts in
radial and circumferential joints used t o support segments.

Note:

The number of diameters in the range is likely to be reduced to conform with recommendations in the
recently published CIRIA Report No. 66.

The standard linings have been used since their introduction mainly for small diameter tunnels, up to 4 m,
with a few short lengths of 4 t o 5.3 m diameter. The larger diameters have usually been used for shafts. During the
last few years the diameters in the range 4 to 6 m have been used more often but mainly for tunnels in soft or
medium rock. When bolted linings are used in shield driven tunnels fractures or excessive shove pressures may
cause damage t o the skin of the lining, leading t o difficulties in waterproofing. This is more critical for the larger
diameter tunnels where the ram pressures may be larger and therefore special bolted concrete rings are often cast
for these projects designed t o suit the individual requirements. A number of these linings are detailed in Table 35.

TABLE 35
Details of tunnels with special bolted concrete linings

Thames Cable Tunnel

1967-1969

Date

Severn Cable Tunnel

1969-1972

External diameter

3.40

3.40

Internal diameter

3.08

3.08

Length

1586

3680

Cover

40

45

Ring width

mm

7 62

7 62

Thickness of skin

mm

37.5

37.5

6 + Key

6 + Key

Number of segments

For water or sewer tunnels, o r other tunnels requiring a smooth bore, a secondary lining is necessary. The
secondary linings available are discussed in Section 15.2.
SOLID INVERT BOLTED CONCRETE LININGS
C V Buchan (Concrete) Ltd have recently introduced an alternative design for the bolted lining with a solid
invert with locating dowels and sockets for the interlock between rings. For a ring with an odd number of ordinary

segments the invert segment and the bottom one or two pans of the two adjacent segments are cast solid while for
a ring with an even number of segments the bottom two pans of each of the two invert segments are solid. In one
contract all the ordinary segments were solid. These infill segments reduce the time and therefore the cost of
clearing out the tunnel at the end of the drive. In addition little damage is likely to occur, due to excessive ram
pressures in the invert, when the shield is corrected for level (see Fig. 77).

17.7 Expanded concrete linings

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Details of the types of expanded concrete linings used in the United Kingdom are outlined below with
details of the tunnels constructed:

17.7.1 Don-Seg lining: The Don-Seg lining was first used for an experimental tunnel for the Metropolitan
~ has subsequently been used in four schemes as
Water Board's Thames-Lee Valley tunnel in 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 ~and
detailed
(see Table 36). The total length constructed is approximately 30 km.
The lining, which is shown in Fig. 78, is erected with alternate segments ( 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 and 9) with the wide end
adjacent to the last erected ring and the remainder ( 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 and 10) approximately 100 mm forward of the last
ring erected to allow sufficient space for the last segment (6) to be placed in position. The sequence of shoving
segments 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 and 10 to close the ring varied from contract t o contract but in the Thames-Lee Valley tunnel
one of the lower segments (2 or 10) was usually shoved last.
In the experimental tunnel the segments for the first 39 rings were cast with a theoretical diameter 1.6 mm
greater than the excavated diameter. It was found that these formed a ring which was too large for the excavation
and was difficult to close. The remainder of the rings were therefore cast with the theoretical diameter 1.6 mm
smaller than the excavated diameter.
The ram pressures required to close the ring, which is essential for all the joints to fit due to the taper of the
segments, varied from 1.4 MN/rn2 to 25 MN/m2 (equivalent to a force of up to 60 tonnes) in the experimental
and the Ashford Common tunnels. In the Thames-Lee Valley tunnel the specified minimum and maximum ram
pressures were 3.5 MN/rn2 and 14 M N / ~ ~ .
In order to overcome variations in ram pressures due to changes in the properties of the clay it is necessary
to change the relative diameter of the tunnel excavated by the shield and the external diameter of the lining.
This may be done by either changing the thickness of the bead with a clip-on adjustable bead on the cutting edge
of the shield or by using a closing segment (6) of shorter or longer circumferential length. When building the ring,
care must be taken to ensure that the circumferential face is plane and that all segments are properly aligned and
in contact before the last segment is shoved. Average rates of progress of 46 m per week were obtained on
several contracts for hand sheld drives and 63 m for partial or full face machine drives with maximum rates of
55 m and 110 m respectively.
The segments have to be accurately cast on account of the twist in the joint faces to avoid damage when the
alternate segments are shoved. From the manufacturer's point of view, however, an attractive feature of the DonSeg lining lies in the single type of segment; thus the storage of moulds and segments is simplified. Increased labour
and handling charges may make this feature more significant in the future. When the lining is erected the tunnel is
complete, except for caulking if necessary, since no spaces require to be filled. In the Post Office Waterloo
contract a special length of 20 rings was cast with semi-circular grooves on all joints which formed a continuous
circular duct. This duct was subsequently injected with a mixture of bentonite and cement which formed an
effective waterproofing barrier.

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TABLE 36
Details of tunnels with Don-Seg linings
-

POST OFFICE

METROPOLITAN WATER BOARD


Tharnes-Lee
Experimental Tunnel

MINISTRY
OF DEFENCE

Waterloo
(cable)

Thames Lee

Ashford Common

--

Date

1950-5 1

1952

1955-59

1969

1970-72

Internal Diameter

2.29 m

2.53 m

2.63 below 44 m
2.70 above

2.29 m

1.37 rn

Depth

32 m

27 m

20-58 m

26-46 ni

Length

300 ni

570 m

27 km

1.5 krn

Number of Segnients

10

10

12

10

Width of Segment

0.53 m

0.53 m

0.6 rn

0.51 m

0.3 m

Thickness

151 mm

152 rnm

190 rnm below 44 rn


152 rnrn above

150 mm

124 rnm

1 in 10

1 in 10

Caulking
Moulds

470 rn
-

Radial joints coated with bitumen

Joints
Taper

1 in 10

1 in 10

No groove

No groove

Concrete moulds outside face uppermost

1 in 10
Short section
only with groove

Caulking groove

Concrete moulds cast vertically

A modified Don-Seg lining has been used in Belgium on five schemes under the River Scheldt at Antwerp
since the mid 1960's. A key of smaller circumferential length was provided t o reduce the weight for handling
purposes. The internal diameter is 3.53 m and 12 segments form the ring.

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The introduction of the Don-Seg lining was a major development in the methods of lining tunnels in stiff
cohesive soils which led in turn to other similar forms of lining and a considerable increase in the rate of driving
tunnels. Following the introduction of the Wedge Block lining by the Metropolitan Water Board, the Don-Seg
lining has been seldom used and has probably been underrated.

17.7.2 Wedge Block lining: The Wedge Block lining was developed from the Don-Seg lining by t h e MWB
~ l 1952. In the Don-Seg lining alternate segments
following the construction of the Ashford Common ~ u n n e l in
are forward of the last ring erected so that the closing segment can be inserted. To close the ring some movement
of these segments is essential although, as there is little load in the ring until the last segment is closed, it is
unlikely that much friction will have built up. The Wedge Block lining41 has avoided this movement b y having a
single tapered key in the crown, each of the other longitudinal joints being parallel t o the centreline. The key is
inserted longitudinally from within the shield requiring a special recess in the shield. All segments are placed
directly against the clay and there is little movement during the closure of the ring. In the original design the key
segment was 25 mm less in width than the adjacent segments but this has been increased t o 5 0 mm t o give more
latitude in stressing the ring, while the longitudinal joints of the wedged shaped key which were originally parallel
are now radial. The specified ram pressure is usually 13.8 M N / ~ ' for the closing of the ring and this figure is
normally attained.
~ . the
The lining was first used for an experimental length of the Thames-Lee Valley tunnel in 1 9 5 5 ~ For
main tunnel the lining was specified as the alternative to the Don-Seg but in all contracts the successful contractor
preferred to use the Don-Seg lining. Subsequently, however, the Wedge Block lining has been used wherever possible
in all the Board's tunnelling schemes. The total length constructed for the Board is 50.2 km. In addition the lining
has been used for five schemes under licence to the Board for a total length of approximately 4 5 km giving a total
length constructed of approximately 95 km (see Tables 37 and 38).
The lining has been used in London, Lias and Gault clays, some sections of which have been of very stiff
material with bands of rock or claystones and others of very soft material. In one recent contract special key
segments were required of standard width but with variations in the circumferential length of +15 mm, +10 mm,
-15 mm and -25 mm to allow for variation in the ground conditions (see Fig. 79).
The longitudinal joints are painted with three coats of a paste formed with rubber bitumen emulsion,
Portland cement and water to improve the stress distribution and t o seal the joint. Caulking grooves are only cast
on the circumferential joints.
Outstanding rates of progress have been attained with the 2.5 m internal diameter lining for both hand and
mechanical shields. The record progress rate for a mechanical digger shield is just over 300 m per five-day week
and 435 m per seven-day week. The lining is quick to erect, taking an average of some four minutes, with four
face workers but without a shield erector arm.

TABLE 37

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Details of Wedge Block lining

Internal diameter

2.03 m

2.54 m

2.73 m

Length constructed

5.3 km

86.7 km

0.9 km

Number of segments per ring

10

12

12

Weight of segment

128 kg

178 kg 226 kg

192 kg

Thickness of segment

128 mm

140 mm
(Depth 45-60 m)
178 mm
(Depth > 60 m)

140 mm

Width of segment

0.6 m until 1960


0.686 m since 1960

Moulds

Concrete moulds. Segments cast vertically.

Joints

Plane radial joints painted with 3 coats of a paste formed with


rubber bitumen emulsion, Portland cement and water.

Caulking

Caulking grooves cast in segments when required in circumferential


joint.

Average ring cycle time

Digger Shield

10- 12 minutes

Hand Shield

1 hour

Building time

Average 4 minutes

Jacking load

Up t o 4 0 tonnes into the ring

TABLE 38
List of tunnels with Wedge Block lining
METHOD O F EXCAVATION
Date

Strata

Int. Dia.

Maximum
Cover

Length

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krn

Thames-Lee37

1955

HS

London
Clay

Walton

1957-59

HS

London
Clay

Staines Bypass

1959-60

HS

London
Clay

Staines Kempton

1960-63

MS

London
Clay

Coppermills

1966-68

HS
MS

London
Clay

Datchet to Wraysbury

1967-69

HS
MS
BS

London
Clay

Sunbury Cross

1967-68

HS

London
Clay

Coppermills

1969-70

HS

London
Clay

MS

London
Clay

Southern Tunnel
(Ashford to Merton)

0.88

Total length

SCHEMES UNDER LICENCE TO MWB


Ely-Ouse Tunnel
(Water)

1968-71

MS

Gault
Clay

Three Valleys Tunnel


(Water)

1971-72

MS

London
Clay

Prittle Brook
(River Division)

1972-73

MS

London
Clay

Nene and Welland,


Empingham Reservoir Tunnel
(Water)

1972-74

MS

Lias

Isle of Grain CEGB (Cable)

1973-75
Total length

Note:

HS
MS
BS

Hand shield
Mechanical shield
Boom Cutter in shield

17.7.3 Greenwood to Potters Bar Tunnels: Three tunnels, two short and one long, of total length 1.67 km

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were constructed for this scheme in 1955-59 for British Railways Eastern Region 35 .The tunnels are parallel to
the existing main line tunnels at a distance between centrelines of 15 m (see Fig. 80). The tunnels, of internal
diameter 8.08 m , were the first large diameter tunnels to be constructed with an expanded lining. Cast iron linings
were used for short lengths at each of the six portals where there was reduced cover. Details of the lining and
tunnels are given in Table 39.
The reinforced invert blocks were manufactured at one of two precasting factories on the site in rapidhardening Portland cement and the other unreinforced segments at the second factory in metallurgical supersulphated cement imported from Belgium. Supersulphated cement was specified to avoid possible attack by
sulphuric acid from the steam engines using the tunnels and other gases emitted from diesel engines when they
replaced the steam engines.
Staggered refuges, 0.9 m wide, were provided in the tunnel at 20 m centres on each side of the tunnel. The
design of these refuges, required the load in the rings incorporating the refuge to be transferred to the two rings
o n each side of the refuge through concrete shear pins and post tensioned bars. Six special rings were therefore
required for each refuge with sixteen standard rings between refuges. In addition, two openings were constructed
for passages t o ventilation shafts in the long tunnel. Although standard rings could have been designed thinner
than the special rings adjacent t o openings, this would have required additional moulds, irregularities in the tunnel
internal profile and would have affected the rates of construction of the tunnels. The linings were, however, thicker
than would be used today for a similar tunnel but this was the first large diameter tunnel constructed in expanded
linings prior t o the advances in technology during the last two decades. The stresses in the lining were designed
generally t o be a maximum of 7 M N / ~ 'and 14 M N / ~ 'at the joints.
The rings were expanded with 20 tonne jacks positioned at axis level of the tunnel and the space between
the horns of the adjacent jacking segments was filled with dry pack concrete (see Fig. 80). Ten pairs of jacks were
used and, with an average rate of progress of three rings per eight-hour shift, the jacks were removed after a
minimum of 2 4 hours in a continuous cycle. The remaining jacking space was then filled with dry pack concrete
t o complete the ring. A two man gang was employed on each shift carrying out this concrete filling work.
In the precasting factories, steel moulds were provided for a rate of production of 10 rings per day. The 15
ordinary segments subtend each a nominal 14' arc, but the moulds for these segments were reduced in arc by
approximately 0.1' which was the calculated possible overall increase in circumferated length of the ring allowing
for the cumulative effect of plus tolerances, thickness of biturnastic paint and possible dirt in the joints. In practice
only part of this tolerance was taken up in building the rings.

17.7.4 LTE running tunnels: The first expanded concrete tunnel lining used in the LTE running tunnels was
in the experimental length for the Victoria Line in 1960-61. Subsequently this form of lining has been used for
sections of the Victoria Line (1963-69) and the Fleet Line and Piccadilly Line extension to Heathrow (1972-74).
Four separate linings have been designed and used in these schemes l9>*l. The rates of progress attained with
these linings are discussed in Section 10.1.
The total length constructed using these linings is some 26 km. Details of the linings are tabulated at the end
of this sub-section (see Table 40).

TABLE 39
Greenwood to Potters Bar tunnels

DETAILS OF LINING

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Dates
Strata

London Clay

Internal diameter

8.08 m

Cover

3-27.5 m

Length

Hadley South 351 m (incl. 16 C.l rings)


Hadley North 3 12 m (incl. 2 1 C.l rings)
Potters Bar 1110 m (incl. 32 C.l rings)

Number of blocks

0.75 tonnes
15 MK 1 14'
3.5 tonnes
1 MK 2 83'
0.75 tonnes
4 MK 3 16'
Jacking space 2 x 1%'

Thickness of block

0.685 m

Width of block

0.46 m

Moulds

Cast aluminium and steel moulds; 10 rings of moulds,


800 uses. Segments cast on the site on their sides.

Concrete

Invert block - Reinforced concrete with Rapid


Hardening cement. All other blocks - Metallurgical
Supersulphated cement.

Joints

75 mm tongue and groove radial and circumferential


joints coated with bituminous paint.

Caulking

No caulking groove

Average ring cycle time

2 hours

Average building time

50-60 minutes concurrent with excavation

Progress

Maximum sustained

29 m/week, 3 rings18 hour shift

Average

18 mlweek
16 men in face

Excavation rate

0.76 m3/man hour

Excavation

Hand shield and clay spades

EXPERIMENTAL LENGTH O F VICTORIA LINE

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For the experimental length of the Victoria ine el^?^' a new type of radial joint was designed with concave
and convex faces t o reduce the bending moment in the segments and spalling at the edges of the segments. The
circumferential joints were stepped b y 38 mm. The ring was designed to be jacked in the crown, but the contractor
proposed a n alternative method of expanding the ring using a pair of reinforced concrete folding wedges. This
latter method was employed and the second wedge was driven home with a special ram to 10 tonnes producing an
expanding force of 2 5 tonnes. It was found possible t o predetermine the width of wedges to enable full length
wedges to be driven. Some minor spalling of the segments occurred but only 10 our of 33,000 were seriously
damaged. A short experimental length with a lining 1 1 4 mm thick showed that a thinner lining could be used (see
Fig. 81).
VICTORIA LINE
For t h e Victoria Line two concrete linings were designed, the one by Sir William Halcrow and Partners and
the other b y M o t t Hay and Anderson 19. These linings incorporated similar lengths of segments including two
special invert blocks b u t had different jointing and jacking details (see Figs. 82 and 70).
The expanding of b o t h rings was below axis, at the knee joint, with 2 0 tonne jacks. In the Halcrow lining a
special jacking frame was designed (see Fig. 83) to transfer the jacking loads t o the two jacked segments. The ends
o f the frame sat in pockets cast into the face of the segments. The space between the two jacking segments, after
stressing, was filled with a concrete block to a close fit. The range of concrete blocks varied in increments of 1.5 mm
in thickness, b u t generally only t w o or three different blocks were required at the face. A shorter circumferential
length of block was used for the first few rings after the weekend and in a few areas of soft clay, it was necessary to
shave off a thin layer of clay before erecting the lining.
The m e t h o d of expanding the Mott Hay and Anderson lining was similar t o that used for the expanded cast
iron lining, described in Section 16.8 where jacks were inserted to expand the ring and cast iron knuckles with
concrete packers inserted between the horns on either side of the jacks. A selection of packers was provided of
varying circumferential length as in the Halcrow lining. Concrete blocks were also used to fill in the jacking
pockets. In practice some small reduction of the load in the ring took place following the jacking with both these
systems.
During the experimental length of tunnel it was seen that during erection the segments did not centre themselves, even w i t h the application of friction reducing bitumen paint, and that these slight inaccuracies of erection
caused large eccentricities in the line of contact in the joints of the completed rings. To avoid this and possible
spalling, the convex/convex joint was introduced into the Halcrow lining, which was the first time this type of
joint had been used.
In the Mott Hay and Anderson lining the joints were concave/convex with a small cage of reinforcement
provided in t h e concave joint t o prevent spalling. If spalling did occur, remedial measures were required to protect
the reinforcement.
Both t h e Halcrow and the Mott Hay and Anderson linings had a length t o thickness ratio of 7.2 which was
a little high a n d some damage occurred to the segments during handling and after erection due to excessive ram
forces from the digger shields. As in all expanded linings, if the circumferential face was out of plane there was a
tendency t o crack a segment when t h e shove rams were applied.

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TABLE 40
Details of expanded linings for LTE running tunnels
LONDON TRANSPORT EXECUTIVE RUNNING TUNNELS
VICTORIA LINE
Experimental
length lining
Date

1960-61

Internal Diameter

3.81 m

Halcrow
lining

Mott Hay and


Anderson
lining

FLEET LINE/
PICCADILLY LINE
EXTENSION
Halcrow lining

4.03 m (trial length)


Depth

20-40 m

20-40 m

Length

1.46 km (incl.
30 m trial length)

11.4 km

6.3 km plus
0.6 km (used in
Piccadilly Line Ext)

Number of segments

14 t 1 pair of
reinforced wedges

11 t 2 blocks

12 t 2 knuckle pieces
and packers

20 t 2 wedges
blocks

Width of segment

0.6 m

0.6 m

0.6 m

0.6 m

Thickness of segment

229 mm
114 mm (trial length)

152 mm

152 mm

168 mm Fleet Line


152 mm Picc. Line

Joint

Concave/
convex

Convex/
convex

Concave/
convex
102 mm Radius

Convex/
convex Radius
19000 mm Fleet Line
11250 mm Picc. Line

Caulking
Moulds

Joints caulked where necessary


Steel moulds

Steel moulds

Steel moulds

Fleet Line - Concrete


moulds
Picc. Line - Pressed
segments in steel
moulds

Subsequently, some rings of the Mott Hay and Anderson lining have been used for the first section of one of
the drives for the Piccadilly Line extension t o Heathrow. These segments, which were originally cast for the Brixton
section o f the Victoria Line, were hand picked from a large stock pile in one of the Board's Depots. These rings
built well, and little damage occurred during handling and erecting.
FLEET LINE AND PICCADILLY LINE EXTENSION

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For the Fleet Line and the Piccadilly Line Extension to ~ e a t h r o w


a new
~ ~ lining was designed t o try to
reduce the damage during handling, erecting and shoving of the shield. The ring of 20 segments and two wedge
keys was expanded with a load of 2 0 tonnes in a similar position, a t the knees, as for the Victoria Line linings but
with tapered wedges 1 0 0 m m narrower than the standard ring (see Fig. 84).
T h e longitudinal joint was convex/convex but in addition was convex/convex in the longitudinal direction,
thus giving a nominal point load o n the segment t o avoid loading near any edge. The circumferential joint was
plane. F o r rings a t depths of more than 20 m, reinforcement was provided at the centre of the segments.
The new features o f the lining have reduced the amount of damage to the segment. The existence of 22 point
loads requires additional care during the erection t o build the rings true. When rings are out of plane and the point
loads between segments move a few centimetres from the centre of the joint, there is a slight tendency for minor
tension cracks t o occur a t the ends of the segments during shoving for subsequent rings.

17.7.5 Heathrow Cargo Tunnel: The Heathrow Cargo Tunnel, of internal diameter 10.29 m, was constructed
in 1966-68 for t h e BAA and is the largest diameter tunnel lined with an expanded lining43. The rings were cast in
steel moulds in a casting yard o n the site (see Table 41).
T h e tunnel passes below one of the two main runways at Heathrow Airport at a minimum depth of 7.0 m.
Precautions described in Section 7.3.3 had t o be taken t o limit surface settlement. An erector arm was provided,
fitted with vertical and inclined rams, to enable the t o p half of the ring t o be erected only five minutes after the
shove rams in t h e t o p half of t h e shield had been retracted. These segments were loaded on to the lowered erector
arm during the excavation for the ring. The felt packings in the circumferential joint for the top half of the ring
were fixed to the segments b y heat treatment before being delivered to the face, while those for the lower half of
the ring were placed in position during erection of each segment (see Fig. 85).
The ring was expanded b y jacks positioned at axis level with a load of 25 tonnes. Adjustment in the roll of
the t o p half of the ring was carried o u t , if necessary, after the first 25 per cent of the load had been applied by
increasing the load in the appropriate jack first. The time taken to erect and expand the ring was approximately
3 0 minutes. The space between the horns of the jacking segments was filled with dry pack concrete (see Fig. 85).
Twelve pairs of jacks were used, equivalent t o a progress of three t o four rings for each shift of eight hours.
When the jacks were removed after 2 4 hours the remaining space was filled with dry pack concrete to complete
the ring. T h e dry pack concrete was mixed and placed by one man working on the day shift.
O n e hundred and twenty steel moulds were provided in the casting yard, equivalent to four rings plus 12
ordinary segments. A total of approximately 2 4 0 uses was obtained with only slight deterioration. Out of just
under 28,000 segments cast only 139 or approximately 0.5 per cent were damaged or broken. The invert segments, which weighed 1.1 tonnes, had the largest percentage of breakages at 2.4 per cent. A number of segments
received superficial damage during handling and erecting.

TABLE 41
Details of expanded concrete lining for Heathrow Cargo Tunnel

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DETAILS OF LINING
Dates

1966-68

Strata

London Clay

Internal diameter

10.29 m

Cover

7.0 - 7.9 m

Length

Tunnel 625 m
Cut and Cover 136 m and 126 m

Number of segments

22 MK 1 12Yz0 0.56 tonnes


1.1 tonnes
1 MK 2 25'
0.63 tonnes
4 MK 3 14'
Jacking space 2 x 2'

Thickness of segment

0.3 m

Width of segment

0.6 m

Moulds

Steel moulds. 120 number. Segments cast on site


singly on their sides.

Concrete joints

~ 2~8 days.
Ordinary Portland cement. 41.4 M N / at
Convex/convex radial joint of radius 3.1 75 m.
Middle third coated with bituminous paint. Plain
circumferential joint with pre-shaped bituminous
felt 3 mm thick.

Caulking

No caulking groove.

Average ring cycle times

2 hours 30 minutes.

Average building time

30 minutes concurrent with excavation

Progress

Maximum sustained

3 1 mlweek

Average

18 m/week

3 ringslshift

Excavation rate

1.2 m3 /man hour

18 men in face

Excavation

Hand shield with clay spades.

17.7.6 Collins lining: This lining, which was used for an experimental length of tunnel for a sewer in Stoke-

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on-Trent in 1974, may be used in both an expanded and a bolted


The experimental length of lining was
later dismantled. The lining is not yet, however, generally available. The lining which has been developed from the
Don-Seg lining, consists of tapered wedge shaped segments of two types which differ slightly over the arc length.
The segments of longer arc length are designed t o form a ring which can be erected without a tail to the shield and
expanded t o the excavated diameter, while the shorter segments will form a ring which may be built within the
tail of a shield, bolted and grouted. In the expanded lining a number of smaller segments may be used to cater for
changes in ground conditions witho~rtaltering the size of the bead on the shield. Details of the segments are shown
in Fig. 86.
The longitudinal joints are of the convex/convex type and two longitudinal holes are provided through the
segments as shown. Steel tubular links are provided which are inserted in the leading and trailing edge of each ring
and steel lead bars inserted into the two tubular links to give longitudinal continuity between the adjacent rings.
With the expanded form of the lining the tubular links without the lead bars may also be used where overbreak
occurs.
For the trial length the segments, 610 mm long and 114 rnrn thick, were cast in concrete and timber moulds.
The taper was 1 in 10, similar t o the Don-Seg lining. Two grouted rings were erected and a series of experiments
carried out with the expanding lining, using different numbers of the larger and smaller segments. Two rings were
partly expanded within the tail of the shield before expanding the rings against the ground. In the first case there
was some difficulty in controlling the ring when the shield was shoved while in the second case, when the tubular
links were used, the part expansion and subsequent shoving of the ring out of the tail of the shield was successful.
The experimental length showed that the rings could be easily interchanged although some further development would be required.

17.8 Grouted smooth bore tunnel linings


17.8.1 McAlpine lining: The McAlpine lining was first used in 1903 for an experimental tunnel for the
w ~segments,
~ .
which were 114 rnrn thick, were individually reinforced but as it was
Corporation of ~ l a s ~ o The
thought that the lining had a weak longitudinal joint two courses of brickwork were constructed as an internal
lining, some 3 t o 4 m behind the face. The lining was further developed during the next few years and in 191 1
several tunnels were constructed of sizes ranging from 0.61 m by 0.76 rn egg-shaped to 2.9 rn internal diameter 49 .
The 'new' design incorporated a steel reinforcing hoop bar of 15 to 28 rnrn diameter in the circumferential joint
and had staggered longitudinal joints. The lining changed very little between 191 1 and 1961 when the lining was
last used (see Fig. 7 3 and Table 42).
In 1927 the lining was erected in compressed air for the construction of a tunnel in limestone under the
River Liffey in Dublin. The largest scheme in which the lining was used was the West Middlesex Main Drainage
Scheme in 1931-35 in which a total length of 38.6 km was constructed
The lining was used in 11 schemes
between 1936 and 1961.
The lining, which has been developed and used only by Sir Robert McAlpine, consists of a number of
similar concrete segments with a small key segment, which is placed from the face, to complete the ring. The
thickness of the segments varied from 102 mm t o 153 rnrn and segments of 127 rnrn and thinner were reinforced.
The joints were tongued and grooved both longitudinally and circumferentially and the longitudinal joints were
staggered. Two semi-circular hoop bars were placed in the circumferential joint and fixed in small stop blocks
cast into the groove at axis level. Splicing bars were also cast into the two segments at axis level. The joints were

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pointed immediately after erection and then grouted after the mortar had set. Grout holes were provided in the
segments t o the back of the lining and t o the groove. Rings subsequently dismantled at manholes showed that
the grouting was satisfactory a n d t h a t the reinforcing bar was completely surrounded. Trials were carried out in
the mid 1930's using the lining for a shield driven tunnel of 2.45 m internal diameter with a 178 mm thick lining
which showed that the segments could sustain a pressure of five to six times that of a conventional shield ram.
The lining has probably not been used subsequently with a shield. The lining was originally used in conjunction
with an internal lining of brickwork but in the more recent contracts the brickwork has been omitted. The
number of segments per ring of lining is similar t o the bolted lining and thus to reduce the weight of the solid
segments the ring width has been kept below 380 mm.
For the West Middlesex Main Drainage schemeSo the segments were cast on site in steel moulds. Rates of
progress for this scheme ranged from 2.8 to 3.7 m per twenty-four hour day, but few details are available of the
progress rates in the other schemes.

17.8.2 Spun Concrete Flexilok lining: The Flexilok lining was the first standard range of grouted smooth
. ~ ~ .
bore tunnel linings t o be manufactured and was developed in the 1950's after discussion with B R E ~ ~The
lining was first used for a sewer scheme for the Borough of Ealing in 1958 and has subsequently been used in
several hundred schemes in the United Kingdom for lengths varying from 140 m to 6.5 km. These tunnels have
been mainly for sewers but include cable, gas main and pedestrian tunnels and have been constructed in the
whole range of strata from soft silts to hard rock. The maximum depth of tunnel constructed t o date is approximately 25 m.
The lining is erected on a steel 'former' ring, the segments of which have machined radial faces and whose
radial joints coincide with the joints in the concrete rings. The steel and concrete key segments have parallel and
not radial joints. The longitudinal and circumferential joints have a tongue and groove, of knuckle form, over the
centre half of the joint and a caulking groove on the internal edges (see Fig. 87). The segments are cast with a
grout hole and a screw threaded bolt hole and locating socket for the former ring attachment.
On the ground surface, some 24 hours before the segments are required in the tunnel, a 3 mm thick,
50 mm wide, rubberised bituminous reinforced strip with bitumen primer is applied to the grooves and the steel
former ring segments screwed t o the concrete segments.
In the tunnel the 'former' ring segments, attached t o the concrete segments, are bolted together to form the
ring, the first segment being placed in the invert symmetrically about the centreline. The bolts are not fully
tightened during the building operation to allow the key segment to be sprung into position. When the bolts are
tightened the bituminous strip in the radial joint is compressed to 1.5 mm thickness forming a substantially
watertight joint and a line contact along the joint thus reducing point loads on the segments. The bituminous
strip in the circumferential joint is compressed either by the shield rams during the jacking operation or by tie
rods tightened t o the adjacent former ring. The rings are grouted either at the end of the shift or earlier if the
ground moves o n t o the lining - when the grout is set the former rings are removed. The joints are not usually
staggered. The lining can be used behind a shield but ram pressures must be kept to a minimum to avoid damage
t o the segments. In practice about 5 0 per cent of the tunnels are shield driven. Curved rings are available (see
Table 43).
The rubberised bituminous reinforced strip and primer are supplied with the rings; the former ring, bolts
and tie rods are hired t o the contractor. These charges are included in the price of a ring.

TABLE 43

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Details of Spun Concrete Flexilok lining


Internal diameter

4 f t Oin(1.2m) to 1 2 f t Oin(3.658 m) i n 6 i n (152mm)


stages, and also 5 ft 9 in (1.753 m) and 6 ft 9 in (2.057 m)(see note)

Width of segment

2 ft (610 mm)

Thickness of segment

3% in (82.6 mm) t o 7 in (177.8 mm)

Weight of segments

61 kg to 136 kg

Number of segments to ring

Note:

Moulds

Steel moulds with serial numbers

Minimum concrete strength

41.4 M N / Ordinary
~ ~
Portland cement unless specified.
High frequency vibration.

Caulking grooves

?4 in (13 mm) to % in (19 mm) in both joints

Joints

Tongue and groove over middle section radially and


circumferentially. 50 mm wide 3 mm thick rubberised
bituminous reinforced strip + primer in joints.

Erection

Steel channel former ring

Curved rings

4 ft 6 in - 50 ft (15.24 m) to 450 ft (137.16 m) radius


to
10 ft 0 in - 50 ft (15.24 m) to 1000 ft (304.8 m) radius

The number of diameters in the range is likely to be reduced t o conform with recommendations in the
recently published CIRIA Report No. 66.

The lining generally forms an accurately built tunnel with few steps between adjacent rings if the rings are
tightened back correctly. In small sized tunnels the lining is erected in about 20 minutes rising t o 45 minutes for
the larger diameter tunnels. The steel former rings and bolts must be kept well serviced and free from dirt. The
bituminous strip is fairly soft and may extrude under heavy loads. Although the segments are slightly thinner
than other smooth bore linings, which are designed to be interchangeable with bolted concrete linings, they are
suitable for the whole range of depths at which these small diameter tunnels are generally constructed. The
handling stresses should also be similar to other smooth bore linings as the segment length to thickness ratios are
in the same range.

17.8.3 Spun Concrete Extraflex lining: The Extraflex lining was developed in the middle 1960's
specifically for the construction of tunnels in mining areas where it is expected that the extraction of minerals
will be carried out in the future. Following discussions with various organisations, including the National Coal
Board (NCB), a lining was designed capable of withstanding a horizontal strain of 0.8 per cent which is the
maximum strain likely to occur due to future mining46. For a ring of width 610 mm this is equivalent to a
movement of approximately 5 mm at each circumferential joint (see Fig. 87).
To allow for the future settlement of the tunnel and the accompanied strain, the circumferential joint of
the Flexilok lining has been redesigned and the tongue and groove omitted. Spigot nylon pins, slightly tapered at
one end, are used for the longitudinal interlock between rings. Two pins per segment are inserted in holes in the
circumferential joint of the leading edge of the ring; these mate with slotted holes in the trailing edge of the next
ring.

T o obtain a waterproof seal in t h e joint special sealing strips are provided. When large strains are anticipated
a double flanged moulded cellular rubber strip with a neoprene protective skin is used of 16 mm thickness which
fits over the spigots. The joints are staggered from the segment joints to improve the watertightness. The compression range of the seal is approximately 1 3 mm. When small strains of the order of 0.2 per cent are anticipated
a sealing element of synthetic rubber is provided.

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l ~Nottingharn~
The lining was first used in 1967-68 for a sewer tunnel in Bunter sandstone at ~ a n s f i e l d in
shire and has subsequently been used in two schemes for a total length of 1.34 km. At Mansfield, coal mining has
subsequently taken place and relatively little deformation of the lining has occurred. Details of the tunnels are
given in Table 44.
The lining is available in the standard range of internal diameters for the Flexilok lining but is developed and
cast for each particular contract.

TABLE 44
Details of tunnels with Extraflex linings

Scheme

Date

Internal
diameter
m

Length
m

Strata

Depth
~n

Rate of progress

Method of
excavation

1.5

730

Sandstone

18.3

3 m / l shift day

Hand. Some
blasting.

197 1

1.37

500

Shales, clay
and marl

15

2.4 m/ 1 shift day

Hand. Some
blasting.

1973

1.5

115

Coal measures

15

2.4 m / l shift day

Hand. Some
blasting.

Mansfield

1967-68

Wrexham
Dudley

17.8.4 Charcon Tunnels Rapid Lining: The Rapid Lining was introduced in the early 1960's for use mainly
in soft ground and soft rock, as an alternative to the bolted concrete lining, to give an overall reduction in the cost
of tunnelling 47. The lining was first used for a sewer tunnel in 1963 and has subsequently been used in a large
n ~lining
~ ~ has
. been used in most ground conditions but
number of schemes throughout the United ~ i n ~ d oThe
only occasionally in waterbearing strata. The lining is designed to be used at depths of up to 4 6 metres although it
has rarely been used at depths greater than 2 0 to 25 m. When the lining was introduced tests were carried out to
compare the stability of the lining with bolted concrete linings, which showed very little difference in deformation
under heavy loads (see Fig. 88).
The lining is erected o n a 'former' ring which consists of a number of steel segments with machined faces,
the joints of which are staggered with the concrete segment joints and thus each steel segment is bolted to two
concrete segments. The 'former' rings are attached t o the segments in the tunnel.
The segments are cast horizontally in concrete moulds in a similar manner t o the bolted lining. The circumferential joints are tongued and grooved while the radial joints are of knuckle form over the full width of the
segment. Caulking grooves are provided on all internal edges. The segments are cast with a grout hole and two sets
of wing nuts and plastic tube distance pieces for the attachment of the former ring (see Table 45).
The ring is erected with a longitudinal joint on the centreline of the tunnel. The small key, of circumferential
length of approximately 1 0 0 mm, is the last segment to be inserted and is not attached to the former ring, the top

segment of which is attached to the two top concrete segments. The tongue and groove circumferential joints are
closed either by the shield rams or by tie rods fixed to the adjacent former ring. The former rings are removed
after the grout has set.

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The lining generally forms an accurately built tunnel with few steps between adjacent rings if the rings are
tightened back correctly. The erection times vary between 20 minutes and 45 minutes for the range of diameters.
Although the inside and outside diameters are similar to a bolted lining of the same internal diameter (and are
therefore interchangeable), the number of segments is larger with different shove ram positions. If different linings
are used on a drive care must be taken when shoving the shield. The former ring, bolts and tie rods are sold t o the
contractor at the beginning of the contract and the contractor is credited an appropriate proportion o n return.

TABLE 45
Details of Rapid Lining
Internal diameter

Segment width
Segment thickness
Weight of segment
Number of segments
Moulds

I
1

1
1
I

Characteristic concrete strength


Caulking grooves

Joints
Erection
Curved rings
Note:

I
1

4ftOin(1.2m)to8ftOin(2.44m)in6in(152mm)
increments, except for 6 ft 5 in (1.96 m ), and 9 f t 0 in
(2.74 m) and 10 ft 0 in (3.05 m) (See note).
2ft(610mm)
4 inches (101.6 mm) to 6 inches (1 52.4 mm)

77 kg to 203 kg
9 to 14
Concrete moulds. Cast vertically.
41 MN/m2. Ordinary Portland cement unless specified.
Normal curing methods.
In both joints.
Tongue and groove circumferential joint knuckle joint
over full width of radial joint.
Steel channel former ring
50ftOin(15.2m)to300ftOin(91.5m)Radius

The number of diameters in the range is likely to be reduced to conform with recommendations in the
recently published CIRIA Report No. 66.

17.8.5 Charcon Tunnels Universal Lining: The Universal Lining was introduced in 1970 in two forms, a
grouted and an expanded lining, for use in most ground conditions and which could replace three types of linings,
the grouted bolted lining, the grouted smooth bore lining and the expanded lining, and thus reduce manufacturing
and mould costs47. For the expanded lining the two top plates and the key require t o be replaced to enable a
plane sided wedge to be used to expand the lining. If the change over from the bolted lining t o the expanded lining
occurs in the middle of a drive minor modifications are required. The slight change in the internal diameters of the
two sections could be streamlined with an epoxy mortar, granolithic concrete or other material. The lining, which
is not strictly an articulated lining due to the hoop bars, was first used for a section of the Greater London Council
Roding Valley scheme in 1972-73 and has subsequently been used in a number of schemes and has an expanding
market (see Fig. 74 and Table 46).

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The segments at present are cast horizontally due to the difficulty of access, when casting in the vertical plane
caused by the former for the groove of the tongue and groove circumferential joint. This tongue and groove joint,
extends around the whole of the ring with the exception of the key. The longitudinal joints are radial and plane.
Caulking grooves are provided on all internal edges. The segments are cast with grout holes and sleeves for the hoop
bars. The grouting chases for the sleeves are ground after removal of the mould.
The two hoop bars onto which the segments are built consist of a number of steel bars curved to the correct
radius and threaded at the ends. These bars, which are slightly shorter than the length of the segments, are joined
together with toggles. When the number of segments, including the key, forming a ring is an odd number there is a
joint in the invert on the centreline of the tunnel and a double length bar is used to speed the erection. The first
segment or two segments are placed in the invert and the bars inserted in the sleeves, the toggles and washers are
screwed onto both ends and tightened. The two bars for the next segment are then screwed onto the toggles and
the next segment lifted and the bars inserted into the sleeves and the segment lowered into its correct position.
The next toggles are then screwed o n t o the ends of the bars and tightened and the process repeated until both top
segments are in position. A flanged key segment is used with bolts having internal threaded holes which screw onto
the threaded bars in the top segments. During erection care must be taken to ensure that the circumferential joints
are in a plane and the toggles fully tightened, otherwise there may be some difficulty in placing the key segment
which may require the ring t o be dismantled to rectify the fault. After grouting, an infill panel is fitted into the
key segment.
If a shield is used there is little difficulty in closing the circumferential joints, but without a shield the segments must be pushed to a close fit at the time of erection. The depth of the tongue and groove has recently been
increased t o 25 mm which allows the tongue to be located in the groove when packings are used around curves.
The recent modification of the continuous tongue and groove over the major part of the ring also allows the
rings t o be rolled if required. In the Roding Valley scheme the rates of progress with a shield were comparable
with those for a bolted concrete lining although the lining took slightly longer to erect. The time to erect the 1.5 m
and 1.75 m rings in tunnels constructed to date have varied between 25 and 45 minutes.

TABLE 46
Details of Universal Lining
Internal diameters

1.SO m to 3.0 m in 250 mm increments (See note).

Segment width

0.60 m

Segment thickness

125 mm to 150 mm

Weight of segments

153 kg t o 2 4 0 kg

Number of segments

7 to 1 3

Moulds

Concrete moulds. Cast horizontally.

Characteristic concrete strength

41.4 M N / ~ '

Caulking grooves

Note:

in both joints

Joints

Plane radial joints, tongue and groove


circumferential joints

Erection

Segments threaded onto steel hoop bars

The number of diameters in the range is likely to be reduced to conform with recommendations in the
recently published CIRlA Report No. 66.

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17.8.6 Rees Mini Tunnel: The mini tunnel was introduced in 1969 as the first fully integrated tunnelling
system in the United ~ i n ~ d o The
m ~first
~ . tunnel was constructed in 1970 and by December 1971 2.5 km of
tunnel has been constructed proving the method. The system has now been sold to licensees who are the agents in
the areas into which the United Kingdom has been divided. The total length constructed t o the end of 1976 is
approximately 29 km in some 80 schemes of length varying from 30 m to 1200 m. The tunnels, which are always
constructed with the special shield, have been in strata ranging from soft silts to sandstones but mainly in clays
and soft ground. The system has not been used in compressed air to date, although this is under consideration.
A number of attachments are available for the front of the shield for tunnelling in different ground conditions. A
prototype of a rotating drum digger shield is at present being tested. The tunnelling drives are between manholes
which are normally 100 to 150 m apart. Although longer lengths are possible they become uneconomic as the rates
of progress reduce due to delays caused by the increase in the time taken to reach the face t o deliver or remove
materials. The maximum depth of the tunnels driven to date is approximately 25 m.
The lining was introduced to compete with open cut methods of construction and for the initial prototype
the internal diameter was 0.9 m. It was soon found that a 1.0 m tunnel could be constructed at the same cost and
the standard range is now, 1.O, 1.2 and 1.3 m internal diameters. The ring consists of three 120' unreinforced
segments divided into five sub-segments with 5 mm deep V-notches on the internal and external faces of the
lining which act as stress inducers (see Fig. 89). The radial and circumferential joints are of a knuckle form with
caulking grooves. An uncured rubber strip 3 mm thick is placed in the joints to reduce point loads on the segments
due to overburden and jacking loads. The segments are cast vertically in a casting machine which compresses the
concrete and enables the segments to be demoulded in 5 to 10 minutes (see Table 47).
Following the excavation for a ring the shield is shoved forward on six rams and pea or other gravel is
forced, under compressed air, into the void left by the tail of the shield behind the previous ring erected. The pea
gravel, which is stored on the surface near the shaft, is piped t o the face, and inserted via the grout holes in the
segments and into the crown from within the shield. A sealing ring on the tail of the shield prevents the pea gravel
from entering into the shield. The three segments for the next ring are brought from the shaft on a small battery
powered motor and bogie. The first segment is placed in the invert on hardwood packings positioned at the knees
and in the invert to support the segment at the correct level. The second segment is then positioned on the right
hand side and held in place by an arm from the shield, and the third segment is then positioned on the left hand
side and the second segment sprung back to complete the ring. When the shield is shoved forward the hardwood
packings are brought forward by the sealing ring on the tail to be re-used for the building of the next ring. The
grouting of the tunnel is carried out at the end of the drive with a flyash grout. The shield and associated
equipment can be set up and the first few rings erected within a week and the maximum sustained rate of progress
reached early in the second week. The tunnelling is normally carried out on a one shift basis and rates of progress
of 3 to 10 rings per shift have been obtained. The erection of the ring is completed in a few minutes. With a
rotating drum digger rates of progress of 20 to 30 rings per shift should be obtained.
The jacking loads should be kept to a minimum to avoid damage to the segments. The segments must be
handled with care and stacked correctly taking account of the high length to thickness ratio.

TABLE 47
Details of Mini Tunnel Lining
Internal diameter
Thickness of segment
Width of segment
Weight of segment

mm
mm
mm
kg

1000
67
600
105

1200
80
600
150

1300
89
600
18 1

17.8.7 Mersey Kingsway and Dartford Duplication tunnels: In 1966-74 the Mersey Kingsway twin

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tunnels were constructed about 1.6 km downstream of the Mersey Queensway tunnel 18,160y161. A new form
of concrete lining was designed for the major part of the tunnel which was in sound rock, the remainder being
lined in conventional grey cast iron. The same concrete lining, with minor modifications, has been used for the
Dartford Duplication tunnel which is at present under construction under the Thames. In this latter instance the
lining has been used in the chalk whilst grey cast iron has been used where the tunnel is wholly or partially in
alluvial deposits (see Table 48).
The lining ring for the Mersey tunnel consists of 10 segments, the heaviest of which is four tonnes, with
concave/convex joints. The segments above the roadslab were cast with an integral 6 mm thick internal steel
facing plate, curved t o the radius of the tunnel. This plate was secured t o the concrete by 12 mm diameter welded
anchors at 130 m m centres and the back face was painted with bitumen to prevent bonding. After grouting and
caulking of the lining, steel cover plates were welded over the joints and the voids behind grouted to give a substantially watertight tunnel. The steel plates and cover strips were later painted to form the internal secondary
lining of the tunnel. The invert segment had a flat upper surface which was used as a roadway during the
construction (see Fig. 69).
The segments, which were lightly reinforced, were cast in steel moulds in a special casting yard near the site.
In the original design the segments were 915 mm wide but this was later increased to 1220 mm, at the contractor's
request, thus reducing the number of joints t o be caulked and welded.
For the erection of the lining the contractor devised a method of longitudinal threaded steel rods which
passed through holes cast into the segments and connected t o couplings, screwed to the ends of the rods in the
previous ring (see also Section 17.7.3). Twenty-two rods were used around the circumference of the ring. To
improve the erection techniques the tolerances for the casting of the segments were halved and, with slight
"bird's-mouthing" between segments, the time of erection was decreased to about two hours. A similar lining has been
used for the Dartford tunnel. The width of the ring is 0.85 m thus reducing the weight of the segments. In
addition the number of longitudinal bars has been increased to give more control of the plane of the ring and thus
speed the erection.

TABLE 48
Details of Mersey Kingsway and Dartford Duplication tunnel linings
DARTFORD

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MERSEY KINGSWAY
Dates

1966-74

1972-78

Strata

Triassic Sandstone of
Bunter pebble beds wet
and stratified, overlain
by boulder clay

Alluvial deposits overlying chalk

Internal diameter

9.63 m

Cover

11 m to 27 m, 38 m to MHWS

Length

2 x 2012 m concrete lined


2 x 210 m cast iron lined
Standard ring
1 MK A
3.95 tonnes
1 MK B1 4.03 tonnes
1 MK B2 4.03 tonnes
4 MK C
2.60 tonnes
2 MK D
2.90 tonnes
1MKK
1.10tonnes

Segments

Total weight 29.3 tonnes


Thickness of segment

0.30 m

Width of segment

1.22 m

Moulds

Steel moulds. Segments


cast vertically in pairs
in a yard near the site.
14 rings of moulds.

Minimum concrete
strength

34.5 M N / at
~ 28
~ days

Joints

Concave/convex radial joint

Caulking

Caulking grooves cast into


segments

Building time

2 hours

Progress

Average

No. 1 16 m/week
No. 2 32 m/week
Maximum No. 1 63 m/week
No. 2

Method of excavation

Pilot - blasting
Main drive - mechanical
shield

18 m to 30 m, 32 m to MHWS
605 m concrete lined
273 m cast iron lined
1 MK A
1 MK B1
1 MK B2
1 MK C
2 MK D
1 MK K

2.75 tonnes
2.80 tonnes
2.80 tonnes
1.8 1 tonnes
2.02 tonnes
0.77 tonnes

l ~ o t a weight
l
20.40 tonnes

Steel moulds. Segments


cast vertically in pairs
on site. 4 rings of moulds.

34.5 M N / at
~ 28
~ drys
Concave/convex radial joint
Caulking grooves cast into
segments

Pilot - shield with impact


hammer
Main drive - shield with 4
impact hammers

17.9 Expanded grouted concrete tunnel linings


The 4.50 m internal diameter service tunnel for the Stage 2 contract for the Channel Tunnel was lined with
an expanded grouted form of lining
The segments were cast with four pads on the back face which were
thrust against the excavated tunnel. Subsequent grouting was carried out in order to seal the fissures, fill any
outbreak and help t o seal the ingress of water. The lining consists of five reinforced concrete segments and wedge
key in the crown (see Table 49 and Fig. 72).

TABLE 49

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Details of Channel Tunnel Stage 2 lining

Date

1974-75

Strata

Lower chalk

Internal diameter

4.50 m

Maximum cover

80 m chalk, 20 m water

Length

230 m

No. of segments

5 +wedge 2
2
1

Thickness of segment

360 mm

Width of segment

1.26 m

Moulds

Steel moulds, 14 sets of moulds with segments cast


vertically in a special casting yard.

Characteristic concrete strength

40 M N / ~ '

Joints

Concave/convex radial joints

Caulking

Caulking groove on radial faces and on 1 circumferential


face

Average cycle time

1.7 hours over 24 hour period

Building time

24 minutes over I week period

Progress Maximum

0.74 m/hr over best 24 hour period

Average
Excavation

Type 1
Type2
Type 3
1 key

0.23 m/hr over 2 week period


Mechanical shield

3.1 tonnes
3.2 tonnes
3.8 tonnes
0.5 tonnes

18. APPENDIX 5
Cast in-situ concrete tunnel linings and teniporary ground support

18.1 Cast in-situ concrete tunnel linings


Details of a number of tunnels lined in cast in-situ concrete are discussed in the following sections.

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18.1.1 Road tunnels: Four large diameter road tunnels have been constructed in the UK during the last
fifteen years with cast in-situ concrete linings. These tunnels are briefly discussed below and further data given in
Table 50.
NEWPORT - CRINDAU TUNNELS (1%2-66)
The Crindau twin tunnels at 14.6 m centres on the M4 motorway Newport Bypass run beneath the populated
Crindau Ridge between the River Usk and the Malpas Valley. The tunnels were driven through Devonian Marls and
Sandstones with some limestone beds which had suffered extensive faulting55 (see Fig. 90).
The tunnels were commenced in 1962 when a pilot heading was constructed in the westbound tunnel. In
1963 the excavation for the main tunnel commenced on a halfbench with the upper half of the excavation in
advance of the lower half. The ground was supported with stiff steel ribs at 0.6 m centres. Difficulties were
encountered in the excavation and ground support causing large overbreak. Only slow progress was made on all
four faces during the next 12 months and it was then decided that alternative methods of tunnelling were required.
A crown shield was designed with three horizontal working platforms which allowed excavation at a full face
to be carried out and the original design of concrete lining to be cast immediately behind. Two shields of 1.5 m
length were installed in mid 1965 with hydraulic rams to support the face and nine shove rams, five of which
could thrust against the lining when this had reached sufficient strength. The remaining four rams transmitted
thrust forces along horizontal steel box columns to a point 9 m back where the thrust could be taken on the
matured concrete through a transverse beam lodged in special pockets cast into the concrete. Trailing tapered bars
supported the roof between the shield and the concrete. Where falls occurred the rock was shotcreted to prevent
deterioration of the surface before concreting. Two pilot tunnels were constructed for each main tunnel, one at
each side of the tunnels to provide support and guide rails for the shield.
Two further shields were installed in mid 1966 and the primary lining of the tunnels was complete at the
end of 1966. The installation of the shields permitted steady progress and protection for the construction of the
tunnels and at the same time limited the extent of falls. The reinforced concrete invert was constructed as a
separate operation. With the use of the shields 1 to 5.5 m of tunnel were constructed per week per face in 0.9 m
lengths.
GIBRALTAR HILL MONMOUTH (1966-67)
The Gibraltar Hill twin tunnels lie on the outskirts of Monmouth on the Mitchell Troy section of the A40
improvement scheme 56. The tunnels were driven through sandstones and marls with minor faulting. The
specification allowed for the use of drilling and blasting and a temporary support of steel arches and laggings.
During the initial excavation for the portals it was found that, on account of natural fissuring, large blocks of
several tons could be disturbed by the excavator and it was thought that there would be difficulty in supporting
the full width of the excavation in the tunnel, especially with the flat circular arch (see Fig. 9 1). A steel shield

was therefore proposed and accepted for each tunnel which would give immediate support and protection over
t h e sides and t h e crown and which would be shoved forward off the cast in-situ concrete. Trailing headboards
were provided for temporary support during shuttering and concreting.
Two pilot tunnels were constructed at the sides of each of the two tunnels in which were laid rails set in
concrete for t h e shield t o run on. The two shields were driven concurrently but staggered by a minimum of 18.3 m.
T h e shield 5.6 m long, was shoved forward in increments of 1.22 m b y rams anchored onto a structural beam,
which formed a stop end for the concreting, and therefore distributed the forces t o the full cross-sectional area of
the lining.

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The sequence of operations was


a)

The face was drilled to give 9 0 t o 100 holes while concreting of the lining was in progress

b)

When concreting was completed the face was blasted, pulling 1.22 m.

c)

The rock was then excavated and the periphery trimmed

d)

The shield was shoved forward

e)

The reinforcement and shuttering were fixed.

Three shutters were provided, t o be struck after 30 to 4 0 hours. It was estimated that at 40 hours the concrete
strength was of the order o f 13.8 MN/mZ. The invert was concreted as a separate operation following on behind the
shield, initially o n t h e last three shifts of the week. After the invert had been cast for 18 m in the east tunnel and
2 9 m in the west tunnel it was found that, in the short term, the arch did not require the support of the invert and
the construction of the inverts was suspended until the drives were completed.
The concreting was carried out using two pneumatic placers, one on each side of the tunnel and the concrete
was placed at three levels, 1.8 m above the invert, 1 m above springing level and in the crown above the trailing
headboards. Shutter vibrators were used together with poker vibrators for the walls. The shield was shoved forward
between 2% and 4 hours after concreting.
Forty-five metres behind the face grouting was carried out with a PFA Grout at pressures up t o 138 k ~ / m ~ ;
for a number of sections secondary grouting was necessary.
BIRMINGHAM - GREAT CHARLES STREET TUNNEL (1967-69)
The Great Charles Street twin tunnels at 10.3 m centres were the final link in the Birmingham Inner Ring
R o a d scheme and pass beneath the southern half of Great Charles Street and Paradise Circus 57. The tunnels were
driven through soft sandstone with layers of marl and perched water tables. The tunnels, which had a common
central wall, were constructed in stages as follows (see Fig. 92):
a)

A t o p heading l(a) for the central wall was excavated, using a Greenside McAlpine tunnel heading
machine advanced at 6.1 m per day, and supported by colliery arches and concrete poling boards.

b)

This was followed by the excavation by the machine of the bottom heading I(b) which required no
temporary support except at locations of fissures. The central wall was concreted in two stages some
way behind the excavation at an average rate of 11 m per week.

TABLE 50
Road tunnels with cast in-situ concrete linings

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Newport
Crindau

Monmouth
Gibraltar Hill

Birmingham
Gt. Charles Street

Jersey
Fort Regent

Date

1962-67

1966-67

1966-69

1968-70

Strata

Devonian marl and


sandstone with
some limestone

Sandstone and
marls, minor
faulting

Soft sandstone with


layers of marl

Fractured
Granophyre

twin7.6x9.1

6.65 x 8.85

Internal
Diameter

twin 7.2 x 10.1

twin8.0x10.67

Cover

3-36

4.6-30

Length

2 x 360
tunnel 2 x 280

2 x 198
tunnel 183,188

2 x 273
tunnel 2 x 230

253

Minimum
thickness
of lining

mm

0.45-1.5
See figure

840-1070
See figure

610

380

Shutters

Steel

Steel

Steel

Steel

Minimum
concrete M N / ~ ~
strength

24

26

21

Joint
spacing

0.9
base slab 3.0

1.22

Crown and central


wall
6.1
walls 3.0

Progress

m/week

1-5

7-12

see text

Method of excavation

Drill and blast

Drill and blast

Greenside
McAlpine
Hymac and hand
excavation

Drill and blast

Temporary support

horseshoe shield
with travelling
headboards

horseshoe
shield with
travelling
headboards

steel arches and


concrete laggings

not required

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c)

When 1 2 m of the central wall were complete, excavation by hand for the crown of the west tunnel
commenced, with the ground supported on steel arches generally at 0.76 m centres. These were
bedded at the one end in the concrete wall and at the other on concrete blocks and concrete poling
boards. The average rate of progress was 10.6 m per week. At Lancaster House, where the crown of
the tunnel was only 1.5 m from the foundations, the steel arch spacing was reduced to 0.61 m. The
crown (2) was concreted in 6.1 m lengths some 18 to 24 m behind the face at a rate just under 10 m
per week. The crown was later grouted with a cement flyash grout. The excavation for the crown of
the east tunnel followed some 6 m behind the west tunnel.

d)

The dumpling was then excavated using a Hymac excavator. Following this the side was concreted in
two stages (3) and (4), in 3 m lengths with the joints staggered with those in the crown to keep
adequate support for the crown. The rate of progress for the concreting was just under 9 m per week.

e)

When the side walls were nearly complete excavation for the invert was carried out, which was concreted in two stages of 0.6 m and 0.75 m (5).

f)

The concrete road slab (6) was then placed.

JERSEY - FORT REGENT TUNNEL (1968-70)


The Fort Regent tunnel at St Helier, Jersey, was constructed through Mount Bingham to connect the two
parts of the town. The tunnel was driven through granophyre, a hard, fine-grained rock, which was highly fractured
but with very little water. The tunnel was constructed at a full face by blasting using a twin articulated arm drilling
machine for the charge holes. The excavation was self-supporting and no temporary supports were necessary.
When the excavation was complete the wall kickers were cast, followed by the mass concrete lining of
380 m m minimum thickness in 9 m lengths. Steel travelling shutters were used. The invert was cast separately.

18.1.2 Railway tunnels: Very few new main line railway tunnels have been constructed during the last two or
three decades and with one exception, the Greenwood to Potters Bar tunnel which was in London Clay and lined
with an expanded precast concrete lining, these tunnels have been in rock and lined in cast in-situ concrete. These
latter tunnels are discussed briefly below (see Table 51):
WOODHEAD NEW RAILWAY TUNNEL (1949-53)
The Woodhead new tunnel on the Manchester to Sheffield railway through the Pennines was constructed to
replace the 100 year old twin single line tunnels whose linings had deteriorated 58. The twin track tunnel passed
through shales with some sandstones which were jointed and fissured and of variable hardness. Water was
encountered but was only a major problem in one section of the pilot tunnel where saturated sandstone bands
overlay the shales. The new tunnel, however, which is located with its centreline 30 m to the south of the centreline of the nearest of the old tunnels, was within the drainage draw down of the old tunnels (see Fig. 93).
The contractor drove a 3.65 m by 3.65 m pilot tunnel from each portal and from a central shaft at a rate of
27.5 m per week per face. The shale generally required steel ribs for support while the sandstone required no
support.

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The contractor planned to enlarge the pilot tunnel from the portals only, using radial drilling from the pilot,
thus maintaining continuous working. However, radial drilling and blasting proved to be impractical due t o the
nature of the shale and was abandoned. With longitudinal drilling from the four possible faces the progress would
be too slow and additional faces were required to maintain satisfactory progress. The invert of the pilot tunnel
was then lowered 1.8 m to the invert of the main tunnel to allow muck trains to pass and additional faces t o be
worked. When this lowering was nearly completed a large fall occurred, 3 0 m long and 21 m high, in two stages
over a 2% week period, near the Woodhead end of the tunnel which had been enlarged a few weeks previously.
This fall caused some six months delay. A by-pass tunnel was constructed to maintain the progress on the tunnel
and as this was successful, additional by-pass tunnels were constructed, to a total length of 2900 m which enabled
a total of nine faces to be worked.
The majority of the enlargement was carried out fullface with a steel gantry, running on rails at the sides of
the completed excavation, which carried the drilling platform and the steel rib handling equipment. The irregular
overbreak made the packing behind the steel ribs difficult. To help this packing problem, concrete filling was
carried out to the back of the ribs, where required, for the sides, shoulders or for the complete arch. Average overbreak was some 450 m outside the theoretical concrete profile. In poor ground, the packing concrete was required
to be placed as close to the face as possible.
The contractor planned to concrete at a rate of 36.5 m per week from the two ends of the tunnel. However,
due to the altered sequence of working this was impractical and the progress was too slow. A new shutter system
was designed to enable the whole arch to be concreted. Two shutters, 24.4 m and 30.5 m long, were used for the
concreting operation with a theoretical number of uses of five per fortnight. In practice this was not always
maintained, but over a seven month period an average of 2.12 uses per shutter per week was obtained, equivalent
to a total of 120 m of tunnel. The concrete was dry batched at the portal and transported down the tunnel in
0.4 m3 bottom-opening hoppers to the location of the shutter, where five or six mixers were mounted. After
mixing, the wet concrete was taken in wet-mix hoppers and hoisted and tipped into a re-mixer above the pump
input. The concrete was pumped using five or six 102 mm diameter pumps at a continuous rate of between 4
and 5% m3/hour per pump. The average pouring rate was 23 m3/hour per shutter and the system had a
capacity of 30 hours uninterrupted supply. On account of the long length of shutter, horizontal placing was not
possible and the method employed was inclined placing of the concrete. The concrete was grouted at.a later date.
Two interesting possibilities were considered but not implemented for the construction of the tunnel. The
first would have allowed the concrete arch to be cast close to the face, perhaps with a hooded shutter or movable
poling boards to act as a protective shield. This, it was thought would reduce the over-break and the steel
temporary support required. This system has been used subsequently for road tunnels, as discussed above. The
second possibility was to spray the exposed shales with gunite to prevent weathering. It was thought at the time
that this would have had little advantage since it would not have prevented the falls that occurred though it
would have delayed progress of the tunnel. Recent developments of this system might have been successful.
LIVERPOOL LOOP AND LINK (1972-76)
o is an extension
o
~ to the ~Mersey ~Railway~ which at present terminates
The Liverpool Terminal Rail ~
at Central Low Level Station. A new single line tunnel from James Street Station connects new stations at
Moorfields and Lime Street to Central Low Level Station, and then along existing track to James Street Station
to form the Loop. A burrowing junction is also under construction at Hamilton Square o n the Birkenhead side.
The link consists of 1 km of twin tunnel and 1.8 km of surface track which will connect the existing lines now
terminating at Exchange Station under the city with the route of the old Central Surface Level railway.

TABLE 51
Railway tunnels with cast in-situ concrete linings

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Woodhead

Harecastle

Liverpool Loop

Liverpool Link
1973-76

Date

1949-53

1965-66

1972-75

Strata

Shales and
sandstone

Coal measures

Triassic Sandstone, Bunter and Keuper

Internal
Diameter

horseshoe
6.9 x 8.2

horseshoe
5.8 x 8.8

Cover

15 t o 180

18

17-38

Length

4889

Tunnel 2 18

Running 2855*
tunnels

Portal to 255
portal

i
{

Running tunnels
Station 4.7 x 7.3
tunnels

mm

Shutters
Minimum
concrete
strength
Joint
spacing
Average
progress
concreting

MN/~'

m/week

Method of excavation

535

535

660

Running tunnels
Station tunnels

I
I

Running 1562
tunnels
Station
tunnels

270

200
500

Steel

Steel

Steel

Steel and timber

19

21

22.5

24.4, 30.5

23

12

119

55

Drill and blast

Drill and blast

Dosco roadheader machines with some


hand excavation

Steel arches

Steel arches where required for stability

I
Temporary support

25

Station
tunnels
Minimum
thickness
of lining

4.7
Station 5.5 x 7.5
tunnels

Steel arches

22.5

12

1875 m was lined with cast in-situ concrete. the remainder shotcreted.

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At tender stage it was envisaged that the Loop tunnel would be constructed using a mini-mole type of
machine through the Triassic Sandstones but the successful contractor proposed modified Dosco roadheader
machines. The tunnel was constructed in two stages, the top half of the horseshoe was excavated by machine and
the invert was excavated either by machine or by hand. Where required, colliery arches at 0.6 t o 1.8 m centres
were used for temporary support and these sections were later lined with precast concrete invert segments and a
cast in-situ concrete lining of horseshoe section. Where no temporary steel supports were required the lining was
of shotcrete.
The Loop Station tunnels were enlarged by machine from the running tunnels and temporarily supported
with extensive steel arches. All the station tunnels were lined in cast in-situ concrete. The passages, escalators and
concourse tunnels were excavated by hand and supported on steel arches. The lining was generally cast in-situ
concrete except for large crown spans which were supported with arches of spheroidal graphite cast iron on
concrete walls.
For the Link contract the running tunnels were also excavated using modified Dosco roadheader machines
for both stages of the cross-section of the tunnel. The tunnels were lined either in bolted precast concrete
segments or cast in-situ concrete and invert segments similar to the Loop tunnel. Where the tunnels passed above
the Mersey Queensway tunnel and below a sewer on that same line, with only a metre clearance, cast iron rings
were used. Measures were taken to protect the two existing structures but no movement was recorded.
HARECASTLE TUNNEL (1965-66)
The Harecastle new tunnel169 was constructed in the mid 1960's to replace the existing tunnel when the
electrification of the London Midland line from London to Crewe was in progress. The tunnel was constructed
through the Coal Measures by drill and blast methods with temporary support from steel colliery arches, 254 mm
by 152 mm, at 0.45 to 0.9 m centres with laggings. The overbreak was large and extended on occasions 6 m above
the crown. The voids were backfilled with lean concrete mix.
The nominal thickness of the reinforced cast in-situ lining was 535 mm. An adjustable steel framed shutter,
23 m long with plywood and steel facing was used for the construction of the lining, with a turn round time of
approximately 48 hours (see Fig. 94).

18.1.3 Water tunnels: Many water tunnels have been constructed this century with cast in-situ concrete
linings. Two recent schemes are discussed below:
CROSS HANDS TUNNEL - RIVER TOWY TO FELINDRE AQUEDUCT (1968-72)
The 6.4 km Cross Hands tunnel forms a part of the River Towy to Felindre Aqueduct 60. The 2.4 rn
nominal external diameter tunnel was excavated through the Coal Measures by drill and blast methods and
temporarily supported with 90 mm by 90 mm and 100 mm by 100 mm steel arches and steel laggings. Some
35 per cent of the tunnel did not require support while some 44 per cent had ribs at 1.3 m centres and 2 1 per cent
at 1 m centres or closer. When approximately % of the tunnel had been excavated, with drives from both ends
of the tunnel, a moderately severe squeeze occurred over a length of 500 m, which reduced the width over a 30 m
length, to less than 2 m. Remedial measures delayed the drive but when these were nearly complete a roof fall
occurred with a large rush of water, further delaying the progress.
The tunnel was lined in 1.72 m internal diameter steel pipes for lengths of 363 m at the northern end and
1484 m at the southern end where the rock cover was equivalent to less than half the internal working pressure.

The pipes were rolled from 9.5 mm thick steel in lengths of 9.2 m. Concreting was carried out after two lengths
had been welded in the tunnel. Between 10 and 17 pipes were installed per week. A 9.5 mm thick cement mortar
lining was applied t o the pipes. The cast in-situ concrete lined section of 1.93 m and 1.98 m, internal diameter was
reinforced for 1322 m, in areas of bad ground, with 25 mm bars at 100 mm to 450 mm centres. Before concreting
began the tunnel was cleaned out and a sub-invert cast. Two steel shutters were used, and the overall average for
concreting of the lining was 120 m per week. For the mass concrete section, the average -with one shutter of 45 m
length - was 175 m per week with a maximum of 330 m. Grouting materials were delivered to the tunnel through
two boreholes drilled from the surface, which enabled the concreting and grouting processes to run concurrently.

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FOYERS PUMP-STORAGE PROJECT - LOCH NESS, SCOTLAND (1969-74)


The original Foyers power scheme was constructed in 1895 by the British Aluminium Company to provide
energy for the smelting of aluminium. The scheme used the head of 110 m between the top of the Foyers Fall and
Loch Ness. The flow was regulated by a reservoir at Loch Mohr.
The new pump-storage scheme was designed in the late 1960's and constructed between 1969 and 1974 59.
The reservoir at Loch Mohr was nearly trebled in area with water diverted through a 3.1 km horseshoe tunnel,
3.3 m by 2.9 m or 3.1 m by 2.6 m, from the River Fechlin. This tunnel was mainly unlined with a concrete invert.
From Loch Mohr the water passes down a 2.8 km low pressure concrete lined tunnel of horseshoe shape, 6.9 m
by 6.3 m, t o an 18.6 m high pressure surge shaft. A short length of the aqueduct was in steel pipeline where it
crossed the faulted valley at Glen Liath (see Fig. 95). Below the surge shaft the water passes down a 7.3 m
diameter shaft t o a 7.3 m high concrete lined pressure tunnel which bifurcates into twin 4.9 m diameter steel
lined pressure tunnels. These lead into 4.6 m diameter steel lined shafts which taper to 3.1 m entries into 19.4 m
machine shafts. In addition drainage and access shafts and tunnels were constructed, details of which are given
at the end of this sub-section.
The low pressure tunnel was generally driven through good stable granite except for two fault areas where
rock bolts were used t o support the roof. Drill and blast methods were used. Steel arches were used when patches
of poor ground were encountered. Average weekly progress was approximately 36.5 m with a maximum of 46 m.
The low pressure tunnels were lined in 0.3 m cast in-situ concrete which was poured in 3 1 m bays with a steel
shutter.
The access adit, shafts and high pressure tunnels were constructed using drill and blast methods and supported
with steel arches when required in poor ground. In some sections of poor ground very substantial temporary works
were required. The concrete in the concrete lined section of the high pressure tunnel was 0.61 m thick and was cast
with a timber shutter in 9 m lengths. Where steel lined, the steel in 9 m lengths was welded to form 27 m lengths of
tunnel with a minimum of 0.45 m of cast in-situ concrete behind.
The sizes and lengths of tunnels and shafts are as detailed in Table 52:

TABLE 52
Water tunnels in Foyers scheme with cast in-situ concrete linings

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Tunnels

Internal diameter
m

Total length
m

Lining

Lower control works

5.32

44

Concrete

Cross Gallery

2.06 x 1.37

31

Concrete

Drainage Gallery

1.98 x 1.37

31

Concrete

High pressure drainage tunnel

5.18 x 5.18

146

Concrete

Drainage tunnel

2.28 x 2.28

288

45% concrete lined

High pressure tunnels 2 No.


2 No.
1 No.

4.88
4.58
7.3 1

457
191
122

Steel and concrete


Steel and concrete
Steel and concrete

Surge chamber adit

2.75 x 2.75

88

17% concrete lined

Surge chamber gallery

6.92 x 6.33

23

Concrete

Low pressure tunnel

6.92 x 6.33

2850

Concrete

Glen Liath adit

2.44 x 2.44

122

Concrete

Fechlin tunnel

3.28 x 2.9
and 3.15 x 2.59

3120

SHAFTS
Lower control works
Machine shafts

Surge chamber

5.32

6% concrete lined
Concrete invert throughout

72

Concrete

19.4

98

Concrete

18.6

84

Concrete

High pressure drop shaft

7.3 1

116

Concrete

Low pressure drop shaft

7.31

31

Concrete

18.1.4 Sewer tunnels: In the past five years a number of larger diameter sewer tunnels have been constructed
in soft to medium rocks and lined with cast in-situ concrete linings. In the smaller diameters, precast linings have
normally been used in these conditions. A number of schemes are described below with further details in Table 53.
BRISTOL - EAST SEWER (1971-74)
This scheme which is a continuation of the Northern stormwater interceptor170 was constructed through an
area where coalmining had been carried out at shallow depths in the 1920's and which had never been mapped.
The strata consisted of Triassic Keuper marls and sandstones overlying the Coal Measures. The tunnel was aligned to
be in the best tunnelling medium whenever possible. The excavation was carried out with a Dosco roadheader
machine except for a short length, in ground seriously weakened by a worked-out coal seam, where hand excavation
was used. The ground was supported with steel colliery arches, generally at 0.9 m centres and steel laggings. In poor

TABLE 53
Sewer tunnels in cast in-situ concrete linings

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Edinburgh
Outfall

Bristol
Malago

Bristol
East Bristol Sewer
Date

1971-74

1972-75

1973-76

Strata

Triassic marl and


sandstone overlying
coal measures

Keuper marl
and sandstone

Coal Measures

Internal
diameter

horseshoe
2.59 x 2.21

horseshoe
2 x 3.9 x 3.08
3.9 x 3.38

horseshoe
3.95 x 3.95

Cover

9-2 1

7 - 30

20-45 to sea bed

Length

1280

2 x 2475
588

2800

Minimum
thickness
of lining

mm

Joint spacing

300 inside
arches

Steel

Steel 1 per
tunnel

Steel

bIN/mZ

25

25

21

20

20

20

18.3

40
80-140 per tunnel

25-30

Dosco roadheader
machine

Dosco roadheader

Drill and blast

Steel arches and


laggings

Steel arches and


laggings

Shutters

Minimum
concrete
strength
at 28 days

299 inside aiches


giving 330

235 and 350


including arches
see figure

Average progress
Excavation m/week
Concreting m/week
Method of excavation

machine

I
Temporary support

Steel arches and


laggings

ground conditions, the spacing was reduced to 0.61 m centres and for the sections with hand excavation t o 0.46 m
centres. An invert slab of 152 mm to 203 mm thickness with mesh reinforcement was cast each week, or more
often in poor ground to act as lateral support to the arches and as a base for the track and other equipment (see
Fig. 96). The average rate of progress for the excavation with the roadheader was 18 m per week with a maximum
of twice this figure. The tunnel was lined with cast in-situ concrete, 229 mm thick inside the steel arches giving an
effective minimum of 330 mm. The concrete was delivered to the site by ready mix lorries and pumped to the
location of the shutter. The travelling shutter ran on rails and five sections were cast per week under normal
conditions.

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BRISTOL - MALAGO SCHEME (1972-75)


The Malago scheme6' will drain a large area to the south-west of Bristol. One tunnel, which will take the
Pigeon House stream to the Malago, incorporates a small foul sewer and two tunnels from the Malago to the Avon,
one tunnel incorporating the foul sewer. For normal flow only one tunnel will be used. The tunnels pass through
the Keuper marls and sandstones which overlie the Coal Measures, some seams of which have been worked. Two
thirds of the tunnel are in marls with occasional lenses of sandstone, the remaining third being completely in
sandstone. Dosco roadheader machines were used for the excavation and the ground was supported with steel
colliery arches generally at 0.46 to 0.91 m centres. A cast in-situ concrete invert of 150 mm thickness was cast
every week to act as transverse support for the arches and as a roadway. The cast in-situ concrete lining was of
325 mm minimum thickness and cast in 20 m bays (see Fig. 97). The concrete was mixed at the portal, delivered
to the location in agitator cars and placed with pneumatic placers. The turnround time for a shutter was 24 hours;
two shutters were used. The rates of progress for the excavation ranged from 20 m t o 50 m per week.
EDINBURGH - OUTFALL CONTRACT (1973-76)
The Edinburgh Sewer intercepter62 scheme connects all the existing nine outfalls to a new treatment works
with a single outfall into the River Forth (see Fig. 98). The outfall was being constructed in the Coal Measures
through sandstones, shales and mudstones, using drill and blast methods. Forward probing and grouting are
carried out at weekends. The ground support was colliery arches at 1.0 m to 2.0 m centres and corrugated steel
laggings. The 0.3 m thick cast in-situ concrete lining has recently been cast in 20 m bays. The average excavation
rate was 25 to 30 m per week.
MANCHESTER (1970-7 1)
A number of schemes were constructed using colliery arches and cast in-situ concrete linings in the early
1970's in Manchester 171. The excavated diameters ranged from 2 m to 3.35 m with 230 mm of cast in-situ
lining. A brick internal lining was normally used. The tunnels, of total length of some 2.5 km, were constructed
through very hard grey mudstones, and supported with colliery arches. Average excavation rates were 2.5 to
3.7 m per shift.

18.2 Rock bolting


Rock bolts fall into two groups, depending on the type of anchor, the mechanical and the resin, (see
Fig. 99); these are discussed briefly below 63,65,128

18.2.1 Mechanically anchored bolts: The mechanical anchor was first introduced as a simple wedge in
which the bolt was hammered against the bottom of the hole thus driving a wedge into the slot at the base of the
bolt. Although this was further developed it was overtaken by the introduction of the "shell" type anchor which

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is now the main form of mechanical bolt. This bolt consists of an outer shell of steel feathers, the number, length
and shape of which differ depending on the bolt design or type of strata. The feathers are wedged apart by a
tapered nut which is pulled into the anchor by rotating or pulling the bolt. The anchor may be conical or parallel
sided. These bolts were very popular in the 1950's in the coal mining industry but in that application have been
virtually superseded by the resin bolt.
For a permanent structure the life of the bolt must be similar t o that of the structure itself. It was found
that with these mechanical bolts, which are anchored at one end, there was some shedding of the load with time
caused by creep slip of the anchorage or by spalling of the rock. In some rocks there was also difficulty in
obtaining adequate anchorage or pretensioning of the bolt. In addition there is the possibility of attack by
aggressive water. These difficulties were overcome by grouting the bolts with cement grout, which in addition led
t o grouted reinforcing bars being used as rock reinforcement. The main difficulty of grouting is the satisfactory
removal of the air, which is difficult for bolts in a tunnel crown. Special air tubes are normally provided and the
bolts should be grouted without the release of the tension - though this is not always practical.

18.2.2 Resin anchored bolts: The cement grouted mechanical bolt was further developed with the injection
of a polyester resin, which in turn led t o the resin anchor bolts with the resin placed in a capsule. The capsule
consists of an outer case, sheath or skin which encloses the resin and filler, and an inner case with the catalyst.
Two main systems are used in the United Kingdom. In one system the inner and outer sheaths are separated by an
internal plastic film sheath, while in the other system the resin and the catalyst are filled into the same skin which
allows a local reaction between the catalyst and the resin which forms a diaphragm between them. After drilling
the hole the capsule is inserted and the bolt rotated at a high speed which mixes the two parts and starts the curing
process. The formulation of the materials dictates the duration of the curing which can be as low as 30 seconds
for the gel stage, five minutes before the resin hardens, and 24 hours before full hardening. The use of these types
of bolts is increasing annually. Two basic types are available, the full column resin bolt and the point anchor bolt
where only the base of the bolt is anchored.
18.2.3 Other forms of anchor: Several other forms of anchor have been introduced to support the face
while at the same time allowing machine excavation to take place - a feature not possible for the anchor bolts
described above.
In coal mines, wooden fully grouted dowels, which use the same principle as resin bolts, are widely used.
Immediate support can be given to the face and the cost is considerably reduced. The dowels, which are normally
less than 2 m long, have rarely been used in tunnels.
Long hole dowels which are 9 t o 12 m long and filled with resin or fibre-glass and resin are also being used
in increasing quantities in mines for reinforcing weak strata. The dowels may be used in the coal face to resist the
forces producing fracturing or in the roof to support broken strata during extraction. One example of this type of
rock reinforcement was for the Mersey Kingsway Tunnels 16'j1 61 where it was found that rock falls occurred at
some locations when the main tunnel was enlarged from the pilot tunnel. The rock falls were generally of medium
size pieces. A lattice work arrangement of inclined hollow bamboo rods was placed and grouted over the difficult
sections ahead of the mole. The 38 mm diameter bamboo rods 4.5 m long were placed in 55 mm diameter holes
at 1.2 m centres and proved successful.

18.3 Sprayed concrete tunnel linings

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Sprayed concrete or mortar consists of a mixture of cement, sand and aggregate, and water which is
pneumatically applied at high velocity onto a surface. The sandlaggregate cement ratio is normally about 4: 1
with a water cement ratio in tunnels of 0.35 to 0.4. This is a lower ratio than for other applications due t o the
many vertical or overhead surfaces. Most applications in the United Kingdom use sandlagregate of less than
5 mm, although aggregate up to 25 mm have often been used. Admixtures may be used, including accelerators for
areas where, due to the inflow of water, a quick setting material is required to seal the face before the general
application 66,67,68
Sprayed concrete may be applied by either the dry process or the wet process. In the dry process, which
is the one generally used in the United Kingdom, the cement, sand and aggregate when mixed are fed into a
pressurised mechanical feeder and then into the delivery hose to the nozzle, where the water and liquid additives,
if necessary, are added in the form of fine jets. The quantity of water added is gauged by the nozzleman to give a
satisfactory application and to avoid sloughmg. In the wet process all the materials and the required amount of
water are fed into the mixer before being conveyed to the nozzle where the air pressure is applied 68.
In tunnels the quantity of rebound will vary from 10 per cent to 20 per cent for sloping or vertical faces
and up to 40 per cent for overhanging faces in the crown. The percentage will vary considerably between different
equipment, materials and the mix design, the thickness, and above all the operators. The rebound, being richer in
the coarser aggregates, is poorly graded with a low cement content and should not be reused. The rebound for the
first 25 mm of layer will be higher than for the remainder of the application. The introduction of steel fibres into
the sprayed concrete may affect this rebound. Certain published literature quotes very low percentages of
rebound, 5 per cent to 10 per cent, when steel fibres are used but there have been cases where there was no
significant change in the percentage of the rebound. However, the rebound does contain a higher percentage of
fibres than the original mix with a corresponding reduction in the reinforcement on the face. It has been suggested
that the fibres in the rebound may be removed by magnet but this is unlikely to prove economic 69.
The average compressive strengths of sprayed concrete will normally be in the range of 40 to 55 M N / ~ ~ ,
but considerably higher strengths have been obtained for small applications. These high strengths are partly due
to the lower aggregate cement ratio on the face than the mix design, on account of the rebound, the low cement
water ratio, and partly the compaction. With steel fibres only a small increase in compressive strength normally
occurs, although due to the greater ductility there is a larger load carrying capacity of the material after 'failure'
when compared with ordinary sprayed concrete due to the random orientation, mainly in two dimensions, of the
steel fibres in the cement matrix 69. The flexural strength of fibre reinforced shotcrete is, however, considerably
increased.
For applications of sprayed concrete greater than 25 mm to 50 mm a mesh reinforcement should normally
be used. When steel fibres are included a greater thickness may be applied without mesh reinforcement. The
percentages of fibres vary between 1 per cent and 6 per cent but are normally in the range 2 per cent t o 3 per cent.
The fibres may be 0.25 mm to 0.38 mm diameter and 25 mm long.

18.4 Temporary arch and lagging supports


18.4.1 Steel arches: Various forms of temporary support using steel arch ribs are available but the ones used
in the United Kingdom fall mainly into one group - the continuous arch rib. The forms as described in the
literature7' are:

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a)

The continuous rib

two segments or more with a joint in the crown.

b)

The rib and post

two segment arch on vertical columns.

c)

The rib and wall plate

two segment arch on wall plates.

d)

The rib, plate and post

the combination of (b) and (c).

e)

The full circle rib

used in squeezing ground.

The continuous rib (see Fig. 100) may be of two segments which are bolted together in the crown or of a
number of segments with a corresponding increase in the number of bolted connections. The shape of the support
may be arched with vertical horseshoe shaped legs. It is not usual in the United Kingdom to use invert struts but
these are often desirable in weak rock and precautions must anyway be taken to prevent the foot of the arch
tilting inwards. The base plate welded to the foot is normally supported and wedged on wood or concrete blocks
and a sub invert concrete base may be cast t o give lateral support - at the same time acting as a roadway for the
tunnelling operations. In many conditions when the vertical loads are predominant there will be little tendency
for the foot t o move inwards, b u t if lateral forces build u p this may occur.
The bolted connections may be made by one of the following methods7 1
a)

a steel fish plate which is bolted t o both sections of the rib, with a total of four bolts. This is a
strong connection and is the usual method used in the United Kingdom. It is easy and quick when
the arch is made u p of two segments but is time consuming with more segments.

b)

b u t t plates welded o n t o the two ribs which are bolted together with two or more bolts depending
on the cross-section of the rib. The butt plates for the crown joint are normally fabricated to give
a small bird's m o u t h which is closed t o give full bearing when the ribs are wedged. The butt plates
at other locations give initial full bearing.

c)

Pinjointed connections, which are the quickest and the easiest to erect but which give a weaker joint.

The longitudinal struts between ribs may be-either (i) steel rods cut t o the required length, threaded and
bolted t o allow tension or compression, or (ii) steel angle spreaders with angle cleats bolted to the ribs. The laggings
may be placed inside or outside the ribs and be made of timber, concrete, steel beams or channels, corrugated
galvanised sheeting steel sheeters or liner plates (see Fig. 101). The use of porous bags pumped with grout is at
present being investigated.

18.4.2 The Bernold system: The Bernold System has been used for several years on the continent but, with
t h e exception of a short experimental length for the British Railways Liverpool loop, has not been used in the
United Kingdom 72. The sheets have recently been used however as ground support for short lengths of tunnel in
poor ground conditions for the NWA Kielder aqueduct. The system was initially used for rock conditions where
the rock could remain unsupported for two o r three days. It has subsequently been extended to weak rock and
soft ground conditions. Following the excavation of a length of tunnel, arches removed from the previous length
of concreted tunnel are erected inside the line of the final profile of the tunnel onto which the Bernold sheets
are erected o n the outside. These sheets, which are profiled to the shape of the tunnel, have corrugations and
perforations (see Fig. 102) which are lapped by 120 mm or a multiple of 120 mm. A stop end of perforated
sheeting is fitted at the tunnel face end of the section and concrete is pumped into the space between the sheeting
a n d the rock in 2 m lifts until the crown is concreted. The minimum thickness for operating and construction

reasons is 150 mm to 200 rnm. The design of the thickness is based on principles similar to those used in the New
Austrian Method. See Section 8.1.2. The concrete is vibrated so that it just protrudes out of the holes in the
sheeting. 5 or 6 rn of tunnel are normally concrete in one section and the cycles can be repeated every two to four
hours if necessary. In soft rock it may be necessary to shotcrete the roof immediately after excavation t o give
temporary support. A crown shield of steel lances, which are jacked forward individually, is available for soft
ground conditions. The sheeting is erected and the concrete cast within the protection of the shield. An alternative
method of support for the sheeting is to attach it to the rock with rock bolts thus avoiding the use of the arches.

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The sheets which are available in 1320 mm by 1200 mm and 1080 mm by 1200 mm sizes and of thickness
of 1 , 2 or 3 mm, act partly as a shutter and partly as reinforcement to the inner face of the concrete. A final
sprayed concrete or other finish may be applied for aesthetic reasons or for a smooth finish.

19. APPENDIX 6
Instrumentation, monitoring, research and development

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19.1 Instrumentation and monitoring


Laboratory and site testing during the development of linings was first carried out at the beginning of the
century. The instrumentation and monitoring of tunnel linings, however, was first carried out in the United States
of America in the 1930's and in the United Kingdom in the early 1940's. Since the 1940's a considerable number
of tunnels have been monitored and much of the data have been published. Short summaries of many of the
schemes are given below together with a note of the type of instrumentation in Table 54.
gives data on
many of the tunnels overseas.

19.1.1 LTE - Central Line extension to Ilford (1942): The instrumentation for the Central Line was the
first instance of strain gauge readings being carried out in a tunnel in the United Kingdom. The 3.65 m internal
diameter tunnel was at a depth to axis of 33 m. Two top segments were instrumented with gauges at three points
o n one cross-section on each of the two segments. The monitoring was carried out for a period of 4 6 days. The
combined stresses built up to the equivalent of the overburden stress in 10 days and increased by a further 10 per
cent over the remainder of the period. In the one segment fairly consistent readings were obtained for stresses in
the flanges and skin b u t in the other segment the stress in the trailing flange was four times that in the leading
flange. This particular scheme emphasises the large variation in stresses across a segment when the rings are erected
without all the longitudinal flanges in contact. It should also be noted that the stresses were only measured in the
two t o p segments and not over the full ring. The work was carried out by BRE95 .

19.1.2 MWB - Ashford Common tunnel (1952): The Ashford Common tunnel which was at a depth of
approximately 27 m was lined with a 2.54 m Don-Seg expanded concrete lining4'. The instrumentation carried
out was as follows:
1)

Two rings with hydraulic radial pressure gauges in alternate segments around the 10 segment ring.

2)

Two rings with vibrating-wire radial pressure gauges in alternate segments around the ring.

3)

One ring with vibrating-wire radial pressure gauges in all segments around the ring.

4)

Two rings with pairs of vibrating-wire load gauges in two split segments. Hydraulic radial pressure
gauges were also inserted in alternate segments around the rings.

5)

Two rings with one split segment with a pair of hoop load gauges and one split segment with
facilities for jack loading.

6)

In three rings, facilities were provided for measuring the rate of intrusion of the clay.

7)

Changes in the diameter of a number of rings were monitored.

The results of the monitoring while the tunnel was empty and during the filling operation were given by
Tattersal et al4'. It was found that the distribution of pressure remained irregular and the average radial pressure

TABLE 54
List of instrumentation in UK tunnels
Scheme
LTE Central Line
Extension

Lining
stresses

Hoop-load
measurements

Radial
pressures

Diameter
measurements

Sub-surface
movements

Water
pressures

MWB Ashford

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Common Tunnel
LTE Underground
Tunnels (1952-56)

River Clyde Water


Tunnel

Shell Building
construction over
LTE Tunnels

MWB Tunnels

Clyde Vehicular
Tunnel

CEGB Sizewell
Tunnel

LTE Victoria Line

Elephant and
Castle scheme
above LTE Tunnels

BAA Heathrow
Cargo Tunnel
Mersey Kingsway
Tunnel

x
x

Ely-Ouse Tunnel

LTE Fleet Line


Stage I

CEGB Severn-Wye
Tunnel

x
x

Cleveland Potash

BR Liverpool Loop

NWA Tyneside
Sewerage Tunnels

Kings Lynn Tunnel


x

TRRL Chinnor trials

Warrington Sewer
Channel Tunnel
Stage 2

x
x

LTE Fleet Line


Stage 111

NWA Kielder Scheme

x
x

was generally between 0.24 and 0.35 MN/m2 , between 5 0 and 75 per cent of the overburden pressure. The
changes in the diameters were small with a decrease in the vertical diameter of 1.5 mm and an increase in the
horizontal diameter o f 0.5 mm. The water pressure in the tunnel increased the diameter by less than 0.5 mm.

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19.1.3 LTE - underground tunnels (1952-1956): Between 1952 and 1956 BRE carried out instrumentation of a number o f tunnels between 3.5 m and 7.0 m internal diameter for the LTE.
In 1 9 5 2 BRE monitored the stresses in four 7.65 m internal diameter adjacent station tunnels at a depth to
axis o f approximately 3 0 m 977172.In the outer two, the stress built up to approximately 5 0 per cent of the overburden pressure while in the middle two tunnels it built up t o approximately 100 per cent. The vibrating-wire
strain gauges were placed three each on six segments around the ring of 1 4 segments. In addition observations of
t h e water pressure o n the ring showed that it was negligible.
Between 1 9 5 4 and 1 9 5 6 BRE carried o u t the instrumentation of a number of rings in existing tunnels up to
5 5 years old at four sites on the Underground system where new access tunnels were to be constructed. In three
cases where existing complete rings had t o be removed vibrating-wire gauges were installed prior to the linings
being dismantled 96.
At the first site there were four 3.8 m external diameter running tunnels at 15 to 18 m below ground level
constructed in 1925-26; the two outer tunnels were instrumented. The average direct hoop stresses were of the
order of 9 0 per cent o f the equivalent overburden stress in both tunnels although there were bending moments
causing combined stresses 1.5 times the overburden value in one of the tunnels.
At the second site there were two 3.8 m internal diameter tunnels at 5.0 m centres constructed in 1903 and
a t a d e p t h of 2 1 m. The stresses in t h e second tunnel constructed were consistent with the equivalent overburden
stress. In the tunnel which was constructed first squatting took place during the construction of the second tunnel
and, high stresses were measured at axis, equivalent to 1.5 - 2.0 times the overburden pressure. After the
excavation of the adjacent material the rings relaxed with an increase of 4 mm in the vertical diameter and a
reduction o f 1.5 m m in the horizontal diameter.
At the third site the two 3.8 m external diameter tunnels were constructed in 1904 at 12.2 m centres and at
a d e p t h of 2 6 m . For the first tunnel the skin stresses were equivalent to the overburden stress while that for the
flanges was 1.5 t o 2.0 times the overburden stress. The vertical diameter decreased by 1.5 mm after the removal of
the clay around the tunnel. Similar results were obtained for the second tunnel.
At the fourth site the monitoring was for one of two tunnels of 6.85 m external diameter at 11.3 m centres
constructed in 1904. These results showed that the flange stresses were several times the equivalent overburden
stress.

19.1.4 River Clyde water tunnel (1953-1955): The 3.65 m internal diameter cast iron lined tunnel was
constructed under the River Clyde partly in stiff clay and partly in sand at a depth of approximately 25 m 100.
Five rings, three at o n e location and two at another were instrumented with vibrating-wire gauges by the Civil
Engineering Department at the University of Glasgow. In addition, diameter readings were taken and water
pressure gauges located at positions around the tunnel. The combined stresses in the lining were approximately
equal t o the equivalent overburden stress.

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19.1.5 Shell building (1957): During the construction of the Shell building on the South Bank of the
Thames in London, a large excavation 200 m by 110 m and 12 m deep was taken out, part of which was above
e
were instrumented by BRE to monitor the deformations and stresses in
the LTE Bakerloo line 1 6 9 . ~ h linings
the lining. The two 3.8 m internal diameter tunnels were lined in cast iron in 1901 and 1902. The crown of the
Southbound tunnel was generally 1.2 m below the excavated level although at the enlargements the cover reduced
to 0.6 m.
Measurements were taken on twelve rings in the tunnel. Prior to the excavation the horizontal diameter was
found to be larger than the vertical diameter in all cases by 23 to 80 mm. After the excavation was complete the
invert of the tunnels had risen by 12 to 19 mm while the crown in the one tunnel had moved upwards by 25 mm
at the periphery of the excavation but at the centre there was only 12 mm of upward movement. In the other
tunnel the crown moved little at the ends but rose by 12 mm over the majority of the excavation. The total
distortion was small and there was no interruption of the normal operation of the tunnel.

19.1.6 MWB tunnels (1955-1 975): Various measurements have been taken by the MWB during the
construction of these tunnels in London clay7'. These measurements have included:
a)

Build up of stresses in the Wedge Block lining and the relaxation when filling the tunnel.

b)

Deformation of the lining.

c)

Settlement readings at the surface.

d)

Distortion of one tunnel when a second tunnel is driven within a distance less than one diameter
from the first tunnel.

These results have shown that the combined stresses build up generally to between 5 0 per cent and 80 per
cent of the equivalent overburden pressure and that the overburden pressure has seldom been exceeded. The :
deformation of the lining is small. The settlement at the surface due to construction of a 2.5 m diameter tunnel
at 30 to 50 m depth is negligible (1 to 2 mm). The distortion of the lining due to the construction of a tunnel
close by was less than 10 mm. The results of this work have not been published to date.

19.1.7 Clyde vehicular tunnel (1954-1961 ): During construction of the pilot tunnel and the maintunnel, instrumentation of the linings was carried out by the Civil Engineering Department of the University of
Glasgow 76. Three rings of the 3.6 m internal diameter pilot tunnel were instrumented at two locations with
vibrating-wire strain gauges at three positions in each ring with four gauges at each position. The tunnel was a
drumlin at the one location and in soft to firm laminated clay with silt and fine sand at the second. One ring of
the main tunnel was instrumented at each of the same locations. Three vibrating-wire strain gauges were positioned
at 15 locations around each of the rings. Diameter readings were also measured. The cover to the pilot tunnel was
13 to 15 m and to the main tunnel 7 to 9 m. The tunnels were constructed in compressed air.
The results showed that in the pilot tunnel in the drumlin the combined stresses built up to 35 per cent of
the equivalent overburden stress before dropping and then gradually rising to 45 per cent of the stress. For the
main tunnel the combined stresses followed a similar path rising to 80 per cent of the equivalent overburden stress
at 14 months. At the second location the combined stresses in the pilot rose to 35 per cent of the equivalent overburden stress while for the main tunnel the average direct stress rose to 70 per cent before reducing to about a fifth
of that figure. The results have not yet been published.

19.1.8 CEGB, Sizewell Power Station cooling water tunnels (1962-1963): Two rings were
o w ~the
~ construction of
instrumented by t h e Civil Engineering Department of the University of ~ l a s ~ during
the 3.35 m internal diameter tunnel. The tunnel at a depth of 12 m was constructed in sand with compressed
air. Four vibrating-wire strain gauges were located at each of 10 positions around the rings and in addition
diametral deformation of the lining was measured.

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The results, which have not been published to date, showed that the combined stresses in the two rings rose
t o 80 per cent and 1 1 0 per cent of the equivalent overburden stress after six and nine months. Bending stresses
equivalent t o 2% times the hoop stress were measured. The two rings distorted with the vertical diameters
increasing by 1 mm and 8 mm respectively.

19.1.9 LTE Victoria Line (1960-1968):

Instrumentation of the 3.86 m internal diameter expanded


grey iron lining and of the 3.81 m internal diameter expanded concrete lining were carried out by BRE during
construction of the experimental length for the Victoria Line. For the cast iron lining 12 vibrating-wire strain
gauges were positioned spaced equally around the circumference. For the concrete ring four vibrating-wire strain
gauges were fitted t o each of the 1 4 segments. Deformations of the diameter of the rings were also measured.
The concrete and the cast iron linings squatted with an increase in the horizontal diameter of 10 mm and a
similar decrease in the vertical diameter. The average combined stress in the concrete lining was 65 per cent of the
equivalent overburden stress after a period of 2 1 months. In contrast the combined stress in the cast iron ring was
approximately equivalent t o the overburden stress after 3% years.
In addition t o the stresses and deformations of the lining various load tests with trains positioned in the
tunnels were carried out. Two unlined shafts of 1.8 m diameter were sunk 0.9 m clear of the tunnel. After 24
hours the tunnel linings had only distorted 1.5 mm. Two further shafts were constructed 0.5 m from the tunnel.
After six days the maximum increase in the horizontal diameter of the concrete lining was 2.7 mm and of the cast
iron lining 3.4 mm. The decreases in the vertical diameter were approximately 2/3rds of these values.
For the Victoria Line, further instrumentation was carried out as outlined below

19,20.

a)

At King's Cross and Oxford Circus expanded steel linings were used for certain tunnels. One ring in
each tunnel was provided by Sir William Halcrow & Partners with datum points set in the faces of the
skin and the flanges for measuring strains using a Demec gauge. At Oxford Circus the hoop load was
found to be 9 0 per cent of the equivalent overburden load while at King's Cross it was only 75 per
cent after the same period. At Oxford Circus the maximum settlement was only 1.5 mm while at
King's Cross, partly due t o the number of tunnels constructed, it was 35 mm.

b)

At Netherton Road and Gibson Square hoop load tests and, in addition at Netherton Road ground
movement tests were carried out by Sir William Halcrow & Partners. The hoop load at 17 m depth
was approximately 5 0 per cent of overburden. The ground movements at various distances from the
tunnel were measured and are detailed in Tables 7 and 8 in Section 7.3.1.

c)

Long term measurement of the tunnel lining deformation showed that the movements were less than
1.5 mm.

d)

Settlement readings above the tunnels showed that values of 5 mm to 15 mm of settlement could be
associated with each tunnel which passed in the zone of influence of a particular point.

e)

At Brixton, BRE monitored ground movements, deformation and stresses for the grey iron lining and
the experimental spheroidal graphite lining. The ground movements are detailed t o Tables 7 and 8.
The deformations and stress measurements have been detailed by Thomas 2 0.

19.1. I 0 Elephant and Castle shopping centre (1963-1965):

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Part of this large complex of buildings was


constructed over the LTE Bakerloo Line tunnels. The tunnels, which were lined in cast iron, were in the waterbearing sand layer of the Woolwich and Reading beds at a depth of approximately 2 0 m. The maximum excavation
to formation level was 10 m and the weight of the building was less than the weight of the ground removed. The
maximum heave of the tunnel crown was 13.5 mm which reduced t o 11 mm after construction of the building 173.

19.1.11 BAA - Heathrow cargo tunnel (1968): During the construction of the 10.3 m internal diameter
Heathrow Cargo tunnel in London Clay instrumentation of the ground movements and of the linings was carried
out by Sir William Halcrow and Partners 43.~histunnel was constructed with a cover of only 7 m. In the early
stages of the drive surface settlement readings were recorded on the ground transverse t o and along the centreline
The ground movements were recorded in boreholes drilled from the surface. Three 5 0 m m holes were drilled t o
different depths and steel rods anchored at these depths to measure vertical movements on the centreline of the
tunnel. Two 200 mm boreholes were drilled just outside the line of the tunnel and the horizontal movements
measured with a plumb bob. In the tunnel, four photoelastic load cells were installed in one ring and diametral
measurements taken for three rings along the tunnel.
The surface settlements were limited, on account of special measures taken t o support the face, t o 11 mm
and there was little variation in settlement with depth to the crown, the maximum being 1 4 mm. The vertical
heave in the invert was 7.5 mm and the horizontal movements a t axis were also 7.5 mm. The changes in the horizontal diameters were found to be relatively small; 5 mm after four years. The load at axis level of the tunnel after
four years was equivalent to approximately 55 per cent of the overburden pressure.

19.1. I 2 Mersey Kingsway tunnels 2A and 2B (1968-1972): Instrumentation of the two Mersey Kingsway tunnels was carried out by the Department of Mining Engineering of the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
The tunnels of 9.63 m internal diameter were at 27.5 m centres and a? a maximum depth of 3 8 m t o the level of
mean High Water Spring Tide.The instrumentation for the second drive was installed ahead of its construction
mainly from the first tunnel 106.
The instrumentation carried out was as follows: 1)

The stresses adjacent to the tunnel were measured in a horizontal borehole from the mid-river pump
room, some 1.2 m from the periphery of the excavation and parallel to the centreline of the tunnel
2A. A pair of hydraulic stressmeters were installed and the rock stresses measured during excavation,
erection of the lining and grouting.

2)

The interaction of the rock stress pattern due to the proximity of the two tunnels was investigated by
drilling a series of holes from the pump room to depths of some 1 4 m and installing pairs of stressmeters to measure the stresses between the two tunnels and ahead of the second tunnel. At this stage
the pilot for the second tunnel had been driven and the main drive for the first tunnel completed.

3)

The disturbance of the rock due to tunnelling was investigated by drilling a number of holes radially
from the pilot tunnel and inserting displacement gauges outside the periphery of the excavation for
the main drive and measuring the relative movement of the end gauges and thus the movement above
the crown.

181

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4)

The deformation of t h e lining following its erection was measured by trilateration methods for a
series o f points mainly above axis level.

5)

The strains in the lining were measured in rings in both tunnels at different locations with vibratingwire strain gauges cast in pairs into a number of segments in each ring. The gauges were located near
the inner and outer faces o f the segments. Water pressure readings were recorded to compare with
tidal effects.

19.1.13 Ely-Ouse water tunnel (1969-1973): During the construction of the 2.54 m internal diameter
Wedge Block lined tunnel, six rings were instrumented by Binnie and Partners 9 8 . ~ h etunnel was constructed
mainly in t h e Gault clay and excavated with a full face machine. Two rings were instrumented with two load cells
at four positions a t each of three locations at approximately 27 m , 55 m and 8 2 m depth. Piezometers were also
installed a t two locations along the tunnel at 1.5 m and 3.0 m from the periphery of the tunnel. Diameter readings
were taken in a number o f rings.
The h o o p loading in the lining was found t o vary between one-third and two-thirds of the equivalent overburden load. In some rings there was a considerable variation between the load at the leading edge of the ring and
that in t h e trailing edge. The maximum difference was found to be a load in the trailing edge three times that in
the leading edge. The results have not yet been published.

19.1.14 L T E Fleet Line at Green Park (1972-1 973) : Vertical and' horizontal ground movements were
measured b y the Engineering Geology Laboratory of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University of
at three cross-sections during construction of a 4.146 m external diameter running tunnel. The
Durham
tunnel was constructed at a d e p t h t o axis of 3 0 t o 32 m. The vertical displacements were measured on magnetic
rings o n the outside of inclinometer tubes while the horizontal movements were measured down the inclinometer
tubes.
79780

T h e average surface settlement was 6.1 m m with a trough of settlement extending 3 0 to 35 m on either side
of the tunnel centreline. The volume of the trough was 0.196 m3/m equivalent to 1.5 per cent of the area of the
face o f t h e tunnel. A slight heave was noticed ahea'd of the tunnel. Sub-surface movements were a maximum of
1 6 m m t o 1 8 m m at 1.5 m above the crown of the tunnel, which, if extrapolated, is approximately 22 mm at the
crown. T h e sub-surface profile o f settlement tailed off quickly with distance from the tunnel.
When the face passed t h e point of observation on the centreline of the tunnel 45 per cent to 60 per cent of
the surface settlement had occurred while larger percentages had occurred off the centreline. Between 85 per cent
and 1 0 0 per cent of the settlement had occurred when the face was 30 m beyond the point of observation. 8 0 per
cent t o 1 0 0 per cent of the sub-surface movements immediately above the crown occurred as the tunnel advanced
a distance o f 2 0 m in the vicinity of the point of observation.
The measured horizontal movements were small, with only 3 mm movement parallel to the tunnel. The
transverse movements a t axis level were 6 mm t o 8 mm at a distance 1.5 m from the tunnel. The calculated rate of
settlement was 0.0055 mmlmin a t the surface and 0.036 mm/min 1.5 m above the crown.

19.1.15 CEGB Severn-Wye cable tunnel ( 1972-1 973): During the construction of the Severn-Wye cable
on two
tunnel a series of load, pressure and hoop strain measurements were taken by C K Haswell and

reinforced concrete bolted rings. The tunnel of 3.0 m internal diameter was constructed through mudstone, sandstone and limestone at depths up to 45 m. The normal radial load and pressure acting on the rings were measured,
with specially designed instruments, and hoop strain measurements were taken on the inner surface of the two
rings.
Strains were measured and extremely high loads have been inferred from these results. The difficulties of
relating strain to stress in this situation render the results difficult to interpret. The point loads inferred on the
concrete lining would normally have caused some signs of compression failure.

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19.1 -16 Cleveland Potash: Boulby Shaft (1973-1975) : Inward ground movements have been measured
by the Department of Mining Engineering of the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne during the construction of a
shaft for the Cleveland Potash mine at Boulby lo? At a depth of 1050 m very weak ground was encountered.
Following excavation of the next section of shaft, six boreholes were drilled outward from the periphery a distance
of 4.5 m and four anchors installed at different depths. The 0.6 m cast in-situ concrete lining was cast with a
225 mm void between the excavation and the ground.

19.1.17 BR Liverpool Loop-Moorfields Station (1973-1 975) : Ground movements were measured
during the construction of a large concourse tunnel at Moorfields by the Mining Engineering Department of the
University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne g7. Vertical and horizontal surface and sub-surface movements were measured
at a number of boreholes. The concourse, 10.3 m wide, has a cover of only 6 m of made ground and boulder
clay below which is weathered sandstone. The tunnel was constructed in several stages and ground movements
were associated with each stage. The maximum settlements were 40 mm at the surface and 45 mm at depth.
In the tunnel, which was of a horseshoe shape with concrete walls and cast iron arch segments, a number
of segments were fitted with acoustic strain gauges and earth pressure gauges were inserted behind the lining.
In addition the loads in several of the bolts were measured.

19.1.18 LTE - Fleet Line at New Cross (1973): During construction of the experimental section of
the LTE Fleet Line at New Cross using the bentonite shield, TRRL installed instrumentation t o measure ground
movements and porewater pressure changes associated with tunnelling g6. The tunnel was constructed at a depth
of about 10 m in sandy gravels, coarse sands and clayey sandlsilts. Vertical and horizontal surface and subsurface ground movements were recorded at eight boreholes, direct anchor vertical movements at four boreholes
and piezometer porewater pressure readings at three boreholes.
The results showg6 how the bentonite holds the face, thus reducing the ground movements into the tunnel.
The maximum surface settlement was 21 -5 mm while the maximum ground movement was limited t o 27.5 mm
about 3 m above the crown. Below this depth the movement was less.

19.1.19 LTE - Fleet Line at Regents Park (1973-1974) : When the Fleet Line was constructed under
Regents parkg1 the opportunity was taken by TRRL to take ground movements around the tunnels, which were
lined with an expanded concrete lining, to compare with those at Green Park at a similar depth and lined in cast
During construction of the first 4.15 m external diameter running tunnel in London Clay at a depth
iron
of approximately 34 m, vertical and horizontal ground movements were measured at nine boreholes on one crosssection and porewater pressure readings at one borehole. When the second tunnel was constructed at a depth of
20 m, similar readings were taken in the eight boreholes and, in addition, porewater pressure readings were taken
in an additional three boreholes. In the tunnel, one ring was intrumented with three load cells and four earth
pressure cells and in addition diameter readings were monitored for a number of rings.
793g09g1.

The surface settlements were between 5 mm and 7 mm with a maximum settlement 1.5 m above the
shallower tunnel of 1 6 m m and h a similar position above the deeper tunnel of 11 mm. These values were in
general less than those for the grouted cast iron lined tunnel. The horizontal movements were small. For the
deeper tunnel large changes in the porewater pressure were recorded as the tunnel went past rising from 17 m to
19 m as the face approached before falling to 5 m as the shield passed and then gradually recovering during the
subsequent 18 months. The results of the instrumentation ring showed that after six months the hoop loads in
the lining were 3 0 t o 5 0 per cent of the equivalent overburden load.

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19.1.20 NWA Tyneside sewerage scheme - Hebburn contract (1973-1974) : Ground movements
were measured b y the Engineering Geology Laboratories of the Department of Geological Sciences of the
'
the construction of a 2.024 m external diameter tunnel, at a depth to axis of
University of ~ u r h a m ~during
7.5 m , in soft, normally consolidated laminated clay. Vertical and horizontal surface and sub-surface movements
were measured, in a similar manner t o that used on the LTE Green Park contract, at 12 boreholes, six of which
were along the centreline of the tunnel. In addition ground anchors were installed in the line of the tunnel from
a shaft put down in advance and face intrusion measurements were measured at the face during weekend stoppages.
The average settlement at the surface was 7.86 mm and the settlement trough was 22 m wide. The volume
of the trough was 0.0774 m3 /m equivalent t o 2.4 per cent of the area of the face of the tunnel. The surface
settlement commenced when the face was one or two times the depth of the tunnel from the point of observation
and was complete when the face was approximately the same distance past the point of observation. 40 to 50 per
cent of the movement occurred before the face passed the point of observation. The sub-surface results showed
steeper curves of settlement - as was the case at the LTE Green Park contract. The average maximum measured
settlement above the crown was 12 mm.
The horizontal movements b o t h parallel to and along the centreline of the tunnel were 2 mm when the face
passed but then decreased. The maximum radial horizontal movement was 12 mm at axis level. The rate of clay
intrusion was calculated t o be 0.002 mm/min at the surface and 0.0035 mm/min at the soffit of the tunnel.

19.1.21 N WA Tyneside sewerage scheme - Ty ne Syphon (1974) : Measurements of ground loadings


and lining stresses were taken by t h e Engineering Geology Laboratories of the Department of Geological Sciences
of the University of ~ u r h a m ' " during construction of the 3.43 m external diameter cast iron lined tunnel. The
tunnel was constructed mainly in the Coal Measures at a depth of approximately 40 m. In the free air section and
in the compressed air section pressure cells were installed in the grout surrounding the lining and, in addition,
vibrating-wire strain gauges were installed at six locations around the ring.
19.1.22 NWA Tyneside sewerage scheme - Willington Gut (1974-1975): Measurements of surface
and sub-surface ground movements were made by the Engineering Geology Laboratories of the Department of
Geological Sciences of the University of ~ u r h a m
at four
~ ~ boreholes during construction of the external diamete~
tunnel in silty clay. The tunnel, which was at a depth of 17 m at the location of the instrumentation, was constructed in compressed air.
Horizontal and vertical surface and sub-surface ground movements were measured at four boreholes at one
cross-section. Pneumatic piezometers were also installed to measure changes in porewater pressure. 220 days after
the tunnel passed the maximum settlement on the centreline was 66 mm with a settlement trough 60 m wide,
4.5 times the depth of the tunnel at axis level. The calculated rate of intrusion at the face was 0.01 mm/min. The
piezometer water level rose by 1.2 m of water as the face passed.

19.1.23 Kings Lynn mini tunnel (1974): During the construction of a 1 2 m diameter mini tunnel in silt
in Kings Lynn, horizontal ground movements were measured by Binnie and Partners 8 2 . ~ h etunnel was at a depth
to axis of approximately 5 m. The horizontal movements were measured in inclinometer tubes installed in boreholes 1 m and 2 m from the tunnel. Movements of the order of 10 rnm were recorded.

19.1.24 NWA Kielder scheme (1974): An experimental tunnel was constructed for the Kielder aqueduct

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in 1974. The instrumentation was carried out by BRE in association with Babtie Shaw and Morton 70-An adit,
inclined at 1 in 3, was constructed to enable further adits to be driven into each of the three main rocks in which
the main tunnel will be driven. The three adits were in the Four Fathom Mudstone, the Four Fathom Limestone
and the Nattrass Gill Hazle Sandstone.
In the mudstone, the excavation for the first part of the adit was carried out using drill and blast methods
while for the second part a Dosco roadheader machine was used. Different linings were used for sections of both
parts of the adit and instrumentation was installed to enable comparisons t o be made not only between the
linings but also the effects of blasting and mechanical cutting of the rock.
In the drill and blast section an approximately 3.35 m diameter tunnel was excavated and lined with four
different linings:
a)

Steel arches and laggings

b)

Fully bonded resin anchor bolts, 1.8 m long at 0.9 m centres

c)

Resin anchor bolts as (b) with 100 m of shotcrete and mesh over an arc of 240'

d)

100 m shotcrete and mesh over an arc of 240'.

In the machine driven section a similar diameter tunnel with a flat bottom for the machine to run on was
excavated; the linings were:
a)

Fully bonded resin anchor bolts 1.8 m long at 0.9 m centres and shotcrete over an arc of 240'

b)

Thin steel liner

c)

100 m shotcrete and mesh over the full circle

d)

The final section was left unsupported.

At two or three locations in each section five holes were drilled six metres into the rock above the crown and
shoulders and extensometers inserted at five different ievels to measure the differential rock movements. Double
vibrating-wire strain gauges were fitted at six locations around the ring to measure stresses in the linings.
Only blasting trials have been carried out to date in the limestone and sandstone adits which have not been
lined.
Two deep boreholes were put down at different locations on the centreline ahead of the adit and special
extensometers inserted at levels in the vicinity of the adit to measure rock movements as the face approached.

19.1.25 T R R L Chinnor trials (1974): A considerable quantity of instrumentation was carried out during

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t h e T R R L mechanical excavation trials in chalk at Chinnor 8589*108~109.~hese


included:-

a)

the advance construction of a 3 m shaft, 1.75 m clear of the line of the 5 m external diameter tunnel.
The shaft was lined with mesh and rock bolts. The vertical and horizontal movements of the shaft
were measured as the tunnel passed.

b)

four horizontal boreholes were drilled from the shaft, two above the line of the tunnel and two below.
The vertical movements o f the ground were measured with a specially developed horizontal inclinometer.

c)

vertical and horizontal ground movements were measured at a number of boreholes during the
construction of the tunnel. The vertical sub-surface movements were measured with inclinometers
and wire extensometers anchored into the ground.

d)

Ground movements were measured in an instrumented trench excavated across the tunnel line. The
vertical faces of the trench were instrumented with Demec points and the movements measured with
a Demec gauge.

19.1 -26 Warrington sewer ( 1975-1978):

Measurements of vertical and horizontal surface and sub-surface

ground movements are being taken b y T R R L in boreholes during the construction of this sewer with the bentonite
shield. In addition, porewater pressure readings will be taken. The tunnel of 2.8 m external diameter is at a shallow
depth.

19.1.27 Channel Tunnel Stage 2 (1974-1 975): The testing programme during the Stage 2 Contract for
the 5.28 m external diameter service tunnel for the Channel Tunnel was carried out by the Channel Tunnel Consultants and t h e Department of Mining Engineering at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 914. The test
programme included: a)

The intersection of Colonel Beaumont's tunnel with the new tunnel provided a unique opportunity
t o install instrumentation ahead of the advancing tunnel. Ground movements were measured and
seven rings were instrumented. Vibrating-w,ire load cells were installed in one ring, photoelastic stress
meters,vibrating-wire strain gauges in segments and anchors for measuring the deformation of the
lining were also used.

b)

A number of rings were modified with compressible inserts in the radial joints to give a slower build
u p of load in the lining.

c)

Six rings in the machine chamber, constructed in spheroidal graphite, were instrumented.

19.1.28 Tunnels crossing at right angles or on the skew: There are a number of case histories of tunnels
crossing above or below existing tunnels at right angles or at a skew angle. In many of these cases special precautions were taken t o restrict any movement of the existing tunnel. These may include keeping the face boxed
when excavation is not in progress, working round the clock while the tunnel passes, grouting after each ring,
chemical consolidation of the ground or using an alternative lining in the vicinity of the existing tunnel.
O n a number o f schemes tunnels have passed with the clear distance between them less than 1 m. The
distortion, settlement or heave of the existing tunnels have varied between 15 and 25 mm causing little distress to
t h e lining. In several instances the movements have been limited to 5 mm.

19.1.29 Settlement at the surface: In addition to the instrumentation discussed above, ground surface

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settlement readings have been taken on several occasions. Where large diameter tunnels or a number of tunnels
are constructed under built up areas, ground surface readings are often taken before tunnelling t o establish the
surface movement during construction. A number of these cases are discussed below: a)

Settlement above a single 4.1 1 m external diameter running tunnel for the LTE Victoria Line at a
depth of 22 m in London Clay was found to be 10 mm with a trough approximately 30 m wide. When
a second running tunnel was constructed at 25 m, the maximum settlement was approximately the
same. If the tunnels had been closer, the two individual settlement troughs would have overlapped
causing a maximum settlement of 20 mm 92 .

b)

Settlements were measured over a series of tunnels iti London Clay consisting of one 6.0 m external
diameter concourse tunnel and two 6.98 m internal diameter station tunnels constructed using 4.1 m
internal diameter pilot tunnels 92.~hesetunnels were generally at a depth of approximately 1 8 m t o
axis level. The tunnels were at 10 m centres. Settlement during excavation of the pilot tunnels was
10 mm, as (a) above, which increased to 50 mm at the centre of the trough after the five phases of
tunnel construction.

c)

LTE Victoria and Fleet Lines. All sizes of tunnels were constructed under these schemes and on many
occasions the tunnels were in close proximity. The levels were generally taken on road surfaces, kerbs,
footpaths and door steps and there was a considerable variation in the results. As in (b) above the
settlement over a number of tunnels in close proximity was approximately equal to the number of
tunnels times the settlement over one tunnel. For a single tunnel the settlements did not generally
depend upon depth, diameter or rate of progress but more on the condition of the clay. In general
the settlement over one tunnel was found to be between 5 and 15 mm 19.

d)

in boulder clay with


During the construction of the 9.5 m internal diameter Tyne Road Tunnel
pockets of sand at a depth of 10 to 15 m, settlement readings were taken at the surface. At the
commencement of the drive the settlement was 75 to 100 mm with a trough symmetrical about the
centreline. When the compressed air was put on the settlement for the remainder of the tunnel was of
the order of 10 to 15 mm.

e)

Tyne Cable Tunnel. The 2.13 m internal diameter cable tunnel passed at a depth of 6 m under a BR
goods yard, which was constructed mainly on fill material. The maximum recorded settlement was
100 mm although the general settlement over that section was 30 to 5 0 mm 175.

f)

Irvine Sewer Tunnel. The 2.45 m internal diameter sewer was constructed using compressed air in
water bearing sand under open ground with a cover of approximately 6 m 93. Precise levelling along
the centreline and along transverse sections showed that the maximum settlement was 12 to 15 mm.
There was negligible movement when the compressed air was turned off.

g)

Grangemouth. A 1.7 m internal diameter sewer was constructed at Grangemouth in silt at a depth
to invert of between 7.5 and 10 m 176.~uringthe initial drive in free air, settlement of the order of
100 m was recorded. Following the introduction of compressed air the initial settlement during the
driving of the tunnel was 25 mm which increased to 100 mm when the compressed air was taken off.
Similar readings were obtained during the construction of the NWA Tyneside Willington Gut tunnel.

929174

h)

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i)

Glasgow M9 Stormwater Sewer. The 2.6 m internal diameter tunnel was constructed at a depth of
5 m in silt and stiff laminated clay in compressed air76. The embankment upon which the levels were
taken had been constructed the previous year and was still consolidating. The maximum settlement
attributed t o the tunnel drive alone was 3 0 mm.
Sunderland Polytechnic have carried o u t a number of settlement surveys as part of M.Sc. studies9 4 .
In one case, settlement readings were taken over a 1.0 m external diameter thrust bore at a depth of
approximately 5 m in grey boulder clay. The settlement profile at a section near the start of the drive
was symmetrical about the centreline and, after the face had passed by some 1 0 m, the maximum
settlement on t h e profile reached 12 mm. For the remainder of the drive the settlement continued to
increase at a constant rate per metre of pipe thrust of 1 mm per 3 m of tluust. At the end of the drive
the total settlement was 2 0 mm. The settlement at a section at the centre of the drive was 5 mm and
a t t h e end of the drive 7.5 mm. The latter profile was very similar to the first cross-section. This
particular settlement record shows the effect of drag along the pipe.

19.2 Research
The main research carried out b y universities and research establishments has been described in Section 7.7.
These are:
a)

Examination o f bolting and lining stresses in cast iron and liner plate linings b y the Civil Engineering
Department of the University of Glasgow 7 6 .

b)

Laboratory testing of spheroidal graphite iron lining by BRE 20.

c)

Stresslstrain laboratory testing of spheroidal graphite iron at the Department of Mining Engineering
of the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 106.

d)

Laboratory extrusion tests, to assess ground movements near a tunnel face, at the Engineering Geology
Laboratories at the University of Durham 8 8.

e)

Model testing of ground movements at the University of Cambridge 110,111,112

19.3 Development
The testing o f linings during their development has been discussed in Section 7.8. The particular testing
described here is that associated with the development of the concrete joints of the concave/convex or convex/
convex form.
For t h e LTE Victoria Line, tests were carried out a t the Kinnear Moodie yard at Fairlop t o measure the
rotation o f the joints. These showed that the strength of the convex/convex joint decreased with an increase in
the angle o f rotation. For a 3' angle the strength was less than half that at a zero angle. This joint was convex/
convex with a radius of 3.2 m 137.
For the Fleet Line and for the Piccadilly Line extension to Heathrow, similar testing was carried out.
Initially, scaled down tests were undertaken which were followed by full scale tests at Fairlop using the same
testing rig as that used for t h e Victoria Line segments. These tests showed that the configuration of the joint gave
a n elliptical contact area and that for the Fleet Line, where the tunnels were up to 4 0 m in depth, the segments
needed t o b e reinforced.
Similar types of tests were carried out for the Channel Tunnel lining with the concave joint reinforced
t o avoid cracking. These tests concluded that thejoint indeed needed to be reinforced and that the joint was then as
strong as t h e segments.

188

20. APPENDIX 7
Design methods
The design methods have been briefly discussed in Chapter 8. The methods are described in more detail in the
following sections.

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20.1 Bull's Method


Bull's ~ e t h o d l 'developed
~
the previous design theories which had disregarded the deflection of the lining
and therefore led to excessive values of the bending moments. The theory however requires the solving of a number
of simultaneous equations which can be very laborious. Computer methods of solving these equations are of a considerable benefit if a number of calculations have to be made.
The theory divides the ring into 16 equal divisions with the external loads combined to give 16 point loads,
one acting upon each of the divisions.
Then it can be shown that
Pv (for points 1 to 4)

Pv = 0.063(Hn -

P, (for points 5 to 8)

Pv = -0.100%-0.1

Ph = 0.100 Y,
3
where

+ 0.063(Hn

G)
25(Hn

Hw)

h)

H, equals the depth from the surface t o the point

% equals the depth to the water table.


1

ThusPvand Ph can be calculated together with the weight


of the lining for each point.

16

Point loads

Pr = PvCosy + PhSinr and Pt = the weight of the lining x Siny


Five complicated simultaneous equations are then developed for the soil reactions F.
The bending moments and thrusts can then be determined for the active and soil reaction forces, using
constants given by Bull and summated to give the total values at each point and thus the bending stresses.
As can be seen this method is complicated and has thus seldom been used in the United Kingdom.

20.2 Morgan's ~ e t h o d ~ O
Deformation of tunnel lining and ground
A tunnel subjected to ground loadings deforms to an ellipse causing bending moments in the lining. By
conventional beam theory

M axis = - M crown = 36EI

where

6 is the distortion
E Young's Modulus of the lining
I Moment of inertia of the section of lining per unit
width
a The radius of the tunnel

Considering the stress in the ground set up by the deformation and assuming no strain along the line of the
tunnel i.e. pr + pg = constant, where pr is the radial stressand pg the circumferential stress, the incremental radial
loading pa where r = a is given by

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pa = K6Cos28 where K =

3Ec
a(l +V )

where

Ec

is the mean elastic modulus


Poisson's ratio

the coefficient of ground reaction

The effect of this loading on the lining stresses can then be assessed from the changes in the horizontal and
vertical load due t o pa thus the bending moment M' = k
m
1+w
Similarly for a tunnel subjected to an active radial loading (p) p = % ( l - Cos 28) increasing from 0 at axis
2
t o po in the crown the bending moment M" = k
6

w2

For a continuous lining E is replaced by E/(1 - p2)

where p is Poisson's ratio of the lining.

The hoop loads in the lining are then


Crown

poa
-

Axis

2 poa +
3

4K&
3

+ pwa

2K6a + pwa
3

The extreme fibre stress is then

where

pw is the pressure due to the water

A
Z
For other forms of active loading similar equations can be obtained.

Stability of the lining


For an articulated lining it may be necessary t o consider the stability of the lining. The critical external
pressure p is 3EI for a thin tube. At the state of collapse of a tunnel
a3

Effect of consolidation for a tunnel in clay

For a tunnel in clay the ultimate state will involve the effects of consolidation and swelling of the surrounding
ground. For a saturated clay the consolidation settlement (pc) for no strain is

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where

A is the porewater coefficient


Mv the coefficient of compressibility from the
oedometer test
pa' the extreme value of the final radial increment
of stress in the ground due t o the tunnel

This consolidation settlement will reduce the radial load between the tunnel and the lining by
pa'' COS20 where pa'' = 9EI pc
a4

- (24)

but
pa'' = Pa - pa' thus the ultimate stress can be calculated from equations (15), (23) and (24).
Bending Stresses

From equation (15) the moments can be calculated assuming full overburden pressure for po less that due
to water. The hoop loads in the crown and at the axis can then be calculated from the equations given above,
and the extreme fibre stresses from

A factor of safety of 4 is generally used on these stresses.


The following graph150 illustrates how the bending moments developed in a rigid lining vary with the
Modulus of Elasticity of the ground and shows the considerable saving in the cost of the lining, on account of the
reduction in bending moments, by taking the elasticity of the ground into account.

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Modulus of elasticity for soils, Ec


( k ~ l r n(log
~ scale))

20.3 Muir Wood's Method


Muir wood's1 l 9 design method corrects a basic error in Morgan's design method (Fig. 17) and updates the
theory from further experience.
Bending in the elliptical mode
The stress in the ground is calculated using the same method of approach as Morgan but with different
boundary conditions. A three dimensional stress condition is considered rather than a plane stress and plain
strain condition. The value of K the coefficient of ground reaction becomes

compared with Morgan

if v equals 0.5 this value of K is twice Morgan's


0.35
three times
The maximum moments then become

where

ro is the external radius of the lining


% the radius of the lining at the centroid to that at the extrados.

For a continuous lining E is replaced by E/(1 - p;)

wherep is Poisson's ratio of the lining.

Introducing the stiffness ratio Rs, the ratio of the stiffness of the ground (to deformation i n the 'elliptical
mode) to that of the surrounding ground

where

Rs = 3EI(1 + Q )(5 - 6 ~ =)
3 E c s 3ro3

9EI

Kq, 3r03

thus if the stiffness of the lining is matched t o that of the ground ie Rs = 1 the bending moment in equation (18)
is half that in equation (16).

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Effect of shear forces between ground and lining


The introduction of the shear force between the ground and the lining leads t o a further reduction in t h e
maximum bending moment in the lining. It is shown that K becomes

where

p is the maximum value of the difference between the normal pressure between t h e ground a n d
the lining and the mean value.
T is the shear stress at axis.

Direct compression of the lining


The stress around a circular tunnel causing a change in the uniform normal groundllining pressure, and thus
the radial deflection, will give rise t o compression in the lining. If Rc is the compressibility factor and defined as
the compressibility of the tunnel in relation to that of the surrounding ground then

and

Ap =

p/(l + R ~ )

where

j5 is mean value of the normal pressure between the ground and the lining
Ap
Uniform variation in p

- (37)

Groundwater
When the permeability of the tunnel is effectively less than the ground, it must directly support the full
hydrostatic pressure. When it is greater it is possible to determine the loads transmitted t o the tunnel o n account
of the ground water. It can be shown that where K is unaffected by changes in ground loading

where

k is the permeability
q is the discharge of water per unit area of ground in unit time.

Application o f the method


For the bending moment in the lining (16) a conservative analysis would be to use the initial conditions of
vertical and horizontal ground loads. Consideration could be given to investigating upper and lower limits for the
particular conditions t o establish how they affect the analysis. Consideration of

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should be considered.
Where the stiffness of the lining can be controlled equation (18) should be used and in the future when
methods of controlling the compressibility rates are developed equation (36) and (37) should be introduced.
For a lining of several segments the stiffness at the joint may be appreciably less than that of the lining,
thus
Ie =

+ ($1)'

Ij

where Ie b I
n >4

where

Ie is the effective value of I


Ij is the effective value of I at the joint
n is the number of segments.

thus where Ij < 1


I for an eight segment ring.
Ie = 4
The hoop loads and stresses can then be calculated as for Morgan (see Section 20.2).
curtisl2' when discussing the method developed different equations for the moment with no shear between
the lining and the ground.

= 2

[P+-

(3 - 4 u )
Cos2O]
5 - 60 + 4Q2

and with shear

the differences are shown o n the graph


the general equation for K is developed by Curtis
to show that

where Snc, Stc are normal and shear stresses

where

= Ec
1
ro3
E ( l + v ) ' m

A (12)

Curtis modifying Muir Wood's equations shows that when considering groundwater the hoop thrust in the lining
becomes

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and the flow into the tunnel

where Ho is the water head at radius r3


where r3 > rO.

20.4 Schulze and Duddeck Methods


Schulze and ~ u d d e c k developed
l~~
a design method based on the elasticity theory. The method takes into
account the tangential forces acting on the lining which have a large influence on the bending moments. This
increase is given by
=

k(p+pt)

where

is a function of p + pt and of p.

k~

x is in the range of 1.5 to 1.7.


H
It is shown that a = Ro

where a is the ratio between the radius of the tunnel and the overburden.

Considering the loading on the lining and the bending the differential equation is developed
W(s) +2W(3)+a2Wl =

!$- (Pt - p l )

Cb
a2 = 1 + R4
B

where

where

w
R
B
Cb

is deformation
the radius at the neutral axis
the reducing bending stiffness factor
the coefficient of soil reaction

Considering vertical and horizontal pressures


pv =

y(H - RoCos$) and ph = Apv

it is shown that
p

Pt -

7 k [(l - A)or - 0.3(3 + A)] Cos2@


2

Ro

72 (1 - h)aSin2@and p0 = 7 -(H

-0 . 3 R 4 - p )
+

A)

R4 (pt - p) = 18K Sin 2@


then B

?%
!!

where

then

Cb = k

36

[3(1 - A) a - 0.6(3

+ A)] R4
B

where

Ro

Es is the Modulus of Elasticity of the ground.

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Considering diagrams 7 , 9 and 1 0 in Schulze and Duddeck's paper coefficients can then be obtained for n ~ ,
n and L
' in the equations.
for MF at the crown and Mu the maximum bending moment
Ms at the invert.
for NF the ring load in the crown,Nu the maximum ring load
-

Ns at the invert.

2K

then N

No+N

and

for the deformation in the crown and a t the point of maximum moment and
in the invert.
where No = -Rpo not including that load due to
compressed air.

hence NF and Nu can be calculated


then CF =

N~+"J

A'

Where

zo

N u + M- u
A'

z1

C is maximum stress under loading conditions


T is minimum stress under loading conditions
A is Area of lining per unit length

and squat =

-f

+ --s.

Duddeck later discussed the design of tunnels. The tangential stress component depends upon many constructional factors and the percentage to be included is difficult to assess. It is probable that 5 0 per cent to 75 per
cent o f the value should be included in the above theory but each case should be considered individually.

20.5 Peck's Method


design methods utilises the strength of the surrounding soils and considers four separate steps.
The provision of adequate hoop load in the lining
of the anticipated distortion due to bending
of buckling
of other external loads not included in the above.

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The hoop stress can be cilculated using conventional methods


D
Ring stress = p, x 2

where

p, is the vertical pressure at axis = y,

From the known distortions of tunnels an estimate can be made of the likely distortion of the tunnel under
load. Thus the bending moment due to stress distortion can be calculated by conventional theories.
For the consideration of buckling Peck uses the formula

which is more conservative than Morgan's method.


In the fourth steps consideration should be given to any known condition not already considered such as
the construction of adjacent tunnels of basements to buildings or other structures. This may normally be provided
for by increasing the factors of safety if there is no provision for immediate structures.
From the addition of these conditions the stress can be calculated.

20.6 Temporary design conditions


During the handlingloading, transporting and stacking of segments on the surface and down the tunnel and
during the shoving of the shield high stresses may be developed in the segments. In many cases these may be higher
than the permanent conditions.
Stacking and handling segments
Calculate the weight of the segment and assuming it is resting with the back face on the ground the bending
moment in the segment can be calculated for the self weight and thus the stress in the lining, b y conventional
beam theory.
For the stacking of segments on top of each other, 4 segments may be placed at any one time, thus the
weight of 4 segments plus a dynamic effect equivalent to their weight should be allowed for. Half this total load
may then be taken to fall in one side of the segment resting on the ground. Using this method the stacking stresses
may be up to 15 times the stresses due to the self weight of the segment.

Shove force from the shield


Calculate the number of rams that could act on one segment and the maximum force from each ram:
Calculate the moment of inertia of the segment cross-section.
Thus direct compressive force

force
area

and %L for the extreme fibre points


1
I
thus the combined stresses in compression or tension.

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bending stresses are

3 1 ,

Calculate the shear stress for loading directly onto, and for the rams positioned midway between any transverse ribs or gussets in the segment.

20.7 Terzaghi's ~ e t h o d "


The first rational method of evaluating rock loads appropriate to the design of steel arches was formulated
b y Terzaghi. It is generally accepted that although it may be on the conservative side there exists no better system
of rock load assessment. The method applies to tunnels excavated by conventional drill and blast methods where
steel arches are set up a few metres from the face and blocked against the walls and roof. Steel arches permit some
loosening of the rock and they are therefore designed t o support that loosened mass.
Terzaghi's rock classification and rock load heights are given in the table below

Rock load H in feet of rock on roof of support in tunnel


P
with width B (ft) and height Hp(ft) at depth of more than 1.5 (B + Ht)'
Rock condition

Rock load Hp in feet

1. Hard and intact

zero

Remarks
Light lining, required only if spalling or popping
occurs.

2. Hard stratified or
schistoseZ

0 to 0.5 B

Light support.

3. Massive, moderately
jointed

0 t o 0.25 B

Load may change erratically from point to


point.

4. Moderately blocky
and seamy

0.25 B t o 0.35 (B + Ht)

No side pressure.

5. Very blocky and seamy

(0.35 t o 1.lo) (B + Ht)

Little or no side pressure.

6 . Completely crushed

1.10 (B

+ Ht)

Considerable side pressure. Softening effect of


seepage towards bottom of tunnel requires
either continuous support for lower ends of ribs
or circular ribs.

but chemically intact

+ Ht)

7. Squeezing rock,
moderate depth

(1.10 t o 2.10) (B

8. Squeezing rock,
great depth

(2.10 t o 4.50) (B + Ht)

Heavy side pressure, invert struts required.


Circular ribs are recommended.

9. Swelling rock

Up t o 250 ft. irrespective


of value of (B + Ht)

Circular ribs required. In extreme cases use


yielding support.

Table (contd)
Notes:

1. The roof of the tunnel is assumed to be located below the water table. If it is located permanently
above the water table, the values given for types 4 to 6 can be reduced by fifty per cent.

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2. Some of the most common rock formations contain layers of shale. In an unweathered state, real
shales are no worse than other stratified rocks. However, the term shale is often applied to firmly
compacted clay sediments which have not yet acquired the properties of rock. Such so-called
shale may behave in the tunnel like squeezing or even swelling rock.
If a rock formation consists of a sequence of horizontal layers of sandstone or limestone and of
immature shale, the excavation of the tunnel is commonly associated with a gradual compression
of the rock on both sides of the tunnel, involving a downward movement of the roof. Furthermore,
the relatively low resistance against slippage at the boundaries between the so-called shale and rock
is likely to reduce very considerably the capacity of the rock located above the roof t o bridge.
Hence, in such rock formations, the roof pressure may be as heavy as in a very blocky and seamy
rock.
The rock load or the limit of the rock load can be assessed from the table and thus a load diagram drawn
showing the positions of the blocking points. The vertical loads (W) can then be calculated for'each point and
then resolved to given radial force (F) and the tangential force Ft at 25' to the horizontal unless the tangent is
inclined at less than 25' to the horizontal.

A polygon of forces can then be drawn first on a trial of 80 per cent of Rvt then corrected t o the maximum
value of F in the load diagram.
The rise of arc between blocking points

then bending moment % = h T


Mmax = 0.86 %
T t M max
the stress Fr = A
S

h = R - 4 R3 - _C_
(2

l2

where

C is the chord length


R radius at neutral axis of arch.

where

T is the maximum thrust sealed from the force polygon.

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London, 1973. (HM Stationery Office).

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GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY ENGINEERING GROUP WORKING PARTY. Report on logging of rock cores
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20.

THOMAS, H S H. Structural performance of a temporary tunnel lined with spheroidal graphite cast iron.
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COMMERCIAL HYDRAULICS LTD. Luxembourg. Catalogue.

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McBEAN, R J and D A HARRIES. The development of high-speed soft ground tunnelling using precast
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176. SUTHERLAND, Prof. H B. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Glasgow. Personal communication.

The authors and the Transport and Road Research Laboratory acknowledge permission from the
following organisations to reproduce photographs and figures:

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Anglian Water Authority


Armco Ltd

Institution of Civil Engineers


Greater London Council

Babtie Shaw and Morton

London Transport Executive

Bernold Ltd

Miller Bros and Buckley Construction Ltd

City of Birmingham

Mini Tunnel International

City and County of Bristol

Mott, Hay and Anderson

British Airports Authority

Sir Robert McAlpine and Sons Ltd

British Railways

Mersey Tunnel Joint Committee

British Standards Institution

National Coal Board

British Steel Corporation

North of Scotland Electricity Board

C V Buchan (Concrete) Ltd

Edrnund Nuttall Ltd

Central Electricity Generating Board

Nuttall Insituform Ltd

Charcon Composites Ltd

Northumbrian Water Authority

Charcon Tunnels Lt d

Post Office

CIRIA

William F Rees Ltd

S P Collins

Rio Tinto Zinc Enterprises Ltd

Coriunercial Hydraulics Co Ltd

Redland Fibaflo

Archibald Constable & Co Ltd

Spun Concrete Ltd

Department of Environment

Stanton and Staveley Ltd

Department of Transport

City of Stoke

County Borough of Derby

Thames Water Authority

Corporation of Edinburgh

Tunnels and Tunnelling

Corporation of Glasgow,

Upper Stour Main Drainage Authority

Sir William Halcrow & Partners

Water Power

Head Wrightson & Co Ltd

Sir Owen Williams and Partners

Howard Humphreys and Sons

Key segment

Finished internal
diameter if secondary

Ordinary segment

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Longitudinal joints

of primary lining

Thickness of secondary
lining if required

Thickness of grout
(a)

Cross section through a tunnel

Circumferential

Lonqitudinal and circumferential faces


mayVbeflat or curved (see Section 5.3)

concrete segment

(b) Detail of bolted segmental lining

(c) Detail of smooth bore segmental lining

Solid precast concrete segment

Excavated profile

Longitudinal and circumferential faces


may be flat or curved (see Section 5.3)

(dl

Detail of expanded segmental lining

Fig. 1 VARIOUS FORMS OF TUNNEL LINING

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Curve (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

19th century and early 20th century heavy linings for waterbearing strata
19th century and 20th century light linings
standard imperial linings used since 1930s
metric linings used by LTE on Fleet Line Stage 1

External diameter of lining (metres)

Fig. 3 WEIGHTS OF GREY IRON TUNNEL LININGS

10

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Circumferential joint

Flange thickness

Longitudinal joint
(Both joints made with timber packing)

City and South London Railway (1886-1890)

25.4mm dia bolts

Longitudinal joint
31.8mm dia.
bolt holes

36 No. 31.8mm dia.


bolt holes with 25.4mm
dia. bolts

Unmachined circumferential joint

Section through tunnel

London Transport Victoria Line


Linings (19631969)

Detail of machined circumferentialjoint


for 3.84m i.d. tunnel

Fig. 4 GREY IRON LININGS, 1890s AND 1960s

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Plane joint

(b) Convex/convex joint

(c) Concave/convex joint

7
-

(d) Tongue and


groove joint

Double

joint

Fig. 5 TYPES OF JOINTS FOR CONCRETE LININGS

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195014

195519

196014

196519

197014

Year

195014

195519

196014

196519

1970/4

Year

Don-reg
Wedge Block - MWB contracts

[m

Length of site cast tunnel linings

(2) No. of schemes under construction

Wedge Block - under licence


LTE Running Tunnels

[7 RoadIRail Tunnels
Fig. 6 LENGTHS AND EXCAVATED VOLUMES OF TUNNELS CONSTRUCTED WITH EXPANDED
LININGS DURING FIVE-YEAR PERIODS

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1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

Year
Fig. 7 ANNUAL LENGTHS OF TUNNEL CONSTRUCTED WITH EXPANDED LININGS 1970-76

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Excavated

support, if required

Minimum cover t o /
steel arches 150mm

\ Cast in-situ

--.---

---I--

Invert slab (this may be circular)

Fig. 8 TYPICAL SECTION OF A CAST I N S I T U CONCRETE TUNNEL

Victoria1 Line ~ r i x t o n 7 7
Victoria Line Netherton Road24

0 Fleet Line Green park79


Fleet Line Regents park81

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Heathrow Cargo tunnel43

Distance from periphery of tunnel (m)


(a)

Ground movements at varying distances from tunnel at axis level

Netherton Road

Distance from shield (rn)


(b)

Ground movements at approximately 1.5m from tunnel at axis level

Fig. 9 G R O U N D M O V E M E N T S TRANSVERSE T O TUNNEL CENTRELINE

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Axial movement

Radial movement
0.45m from tunnel

Radial movement
2m from tunnel

0
15.00

16.00

17.00

18.00

19.00

20.00

21.00

22.00

23.00

24.00

Time (hours)
(c)

Horizontal ground movement with time at Netherton Road (4m external diameter)

Fig 9 (cont) GROUND MOVEMENTS TRANSVERSE TO TUNNEL CENTRELINE

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Shield

Distance ahead of hood (m)

(a)

LTE

- Victoria

Line, Brixton - Axial movement towards face

4
,

/
:
/

//

'

--.\
"\'\J
\

'\)/

Periphery

LTE - ~ r i x t o n 7 7

'\

'/4

Centre of face

3/4

Ty neside84

Hebburn

Periphery

Position along axis

(b)

Domed shape of face movement

F i g 10 A X I A L MOVEMENT TOWARDS THE FACE

Position of face

?.;'\

Settleme

\i
\b

\I,,

\\
\

\\
Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

I
(a)

Note
The percentage of the total
movement which occurs before
the face passes the point of
obsevation varies between 10
and 70%with different
strata

Surface

\A'
/

-at

depth
Possible heave in over
consolidated clays

0/

--

0-

-c

above crown

Typical ground movements with depth on centreline of tunnel

\
+-4

Profile a t depth
Note
The ratio of maximum movement
above the crown t o that at the
surface varies between 1.25 and
4 for the tunnels considered in
Table 10
Tunnel

(b)

Typical profile of ground movement at surface and at depth

Surface

Crown
Units of movement

(c)

Typical development of vertical movement with depth


Fig 11 PROFILES OF VERTICAL GROUND MOVEMENTS

D - Depth to tunnel axis


d - External diameter of tunnel

Green park79 (Dld = 7.5)

Heathrow Cargo tunnel43 (Dld - 0.7)

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

81
Regents Park (Dld = 5)

T--81
Regents Park (Dld

- ~ e b b u r n 8 4(Dld = 3.5)
I

8)

Vertical distance above tunnel (m)


(a)

Ground movements on vertical section through tunnel centreline

Distance from face (m)


20

15

10

Face5

10

15

20

2.8m from crown

0.9m from crown

Ground movements for Heathrow Cargo tunnel

(b)

Time (days)
15

10

10

15

1.5m below surface


7rn below surface
5m below surface
(c)

Ground movements at LTE running tunnel at New Cross

Fig. 12 MEASURED VERTICAL GROUND MOVEMENTS

R - Radius of tunnel
D - Depth to axis
i - Distance of point of
maximum curvature
from centre line

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

water table

Sands below
w-ater table

(a)

Relationship of width of trough to depth of tunnel (after Peck 74)

Tail passes point


of observation

Face passes point


of observation
(b)

Typical settlement curve (see Table 10)

Fig. 13 SURFACE SETTLEMENT ABOVE A TUNNEL

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

2
Rate of progress

(c)

Ground movement with rate of progress

Fig. 13 (cont) SURFACE SETTLEMENT ABOVE A TUNNEL

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

1s t
tunnel
2nd
tunnel

Fig. 14 TYPICAL SURFACE SETTLEMENT ABOVE TWO TUNNELS

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Normal typical
section o f curve
Possible additional
settlement due t o
drag

C u t t i n g edge passes
point o f o b s e r v a t i o n

Fig. 15 POSSIBLE SURFACE SETTLEMENT ABOVE PIPE JACKING TUNNEL

A - Massive rock, undisturbed by excavation (competent)

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

B - Jointed rock, disturbed by excavation (incompetent)


1. ab and ac Properly designed support

2. d Radial deformation for stability of unlined in massive undisturbed


rock
3. a b e Support yields before stabilising opening
4. a f Support too flexible

Total radial deformation

Fig. 16 INFLUENCE OF ROCK CONDITION AND EXCAVATION DISTURBANCE ON GROUKD


REACTION CURVE FOR ROCK TUNNELS (AFTER DEERE ET A L ) ~

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Segments removed over width of opening and adjacent rings


Lintel beams and jamb segments inserted
(a)

Portal frame opening with special lintel beams and jamb segments

Special steel segmetns built


into ring connected with
friction grip bolts or with

(b)

Top and bottom lintel beam opening with load transferred t o adjacent standard rings
Fig. 17 OPENINGS I N PERFORMED LININGS

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Shear pins thus formed


with dry packed concrete

10 No. special precast segments


with preformed holes for
shear pins

6 No. segments
removed
at opening

3 No. segments from


each of two rings
removea a t opening
...... ....
. .....
, ...%
.. .

Jacking space filled


with dry packed
concrete

,
Precast concrete lining,
0.61m wide

Shear pinithus formed


with dry packed concrete

SECTION OF TUNNEL AT REFUGE

10 No. special precast segments


with preformed holes for
shear pins
RADIAL ELEVATION OF REFUGE
Showing arrangement of segments

Fig 18 SHEAR PIN OPENING I N EXPANDED CONCRETE LININGS

,Caulking material

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

(a)

Face caulking for cast iron or concrete


lining

(b)

Back of the joint caulking for cast iron


lining

Padding if required

___4\__
Caul king material

,Face caulking

Block joint for cast iron


lining

(c)

Back of the joint caulkingT

Gel grummet

Nut
Washer
Gel grummet (prior t o
tightening the bolt)

Washer
Oyster grummer
compressed in
bolt hole
(e)
Cross section
through oyster
grummet

Oyster grummet tightened


by bolt

F i g 19 CAULKING OF TUNNEL LININGS

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy

Average for Roadheader machine


Expanded concrete lining

.*

\..'"-

..-

/ *

/ **

h A v e rmachine.
a g efor
Expanded
full face

0.

linings

* ' ,

Hand shield
Expanded concrete
lining

/-

/ *
/ *

/*

I'

Isolated point for hand shield,


with cast iron lining

General range for hand


shield, bolted cast
iron lining

neral range for bolted cast


n lining without a shield

I
-

/ *
/ *

'I

/ *-

* rd.--Oa--'m-

150

300

450

600

7 50

900

1050

Length of drive (m)


\

Fig. 20 MAXIMUM SUSTAINED PROGRESS FOR LTE RUNNING TUNNELS

1200

1350

1500

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Full face machines


Expanded concrete linings
A Expanded cast iron linings
0 60% - 70% expanded concrete
and cast iron linings
30% - 40% bolted cast iron linings
Roadheader machines
Expanded concrete linings

Fig. 21 MAXIMUM SUSTAINED RATES OF PROGRESS FOR MACHINE DRIVES FOR LTE RUNNING TUNNELS

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy

Upper limit

Lower limit

Spread of percentages
for 40 drives for LTE
running tunnels

Length of drive (m)


Fig. 22 PLOT OF RATIO OF RATES OF PROGRESS

Maximum sustained rate of progress (mlweeks)

20.4

1841

0)

zuc
0)

Note
Figures in brackets are the percentage
cost of the tunnel structure t o the cost
of the completed Tunnel

0)

17.0
I781

+
It
L

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

6
15.4
I811

E
0)

z'
-2

.-0
.+
.s

--

--

0)

0)

0"

181)

--8
0)

.g

>
10.5
1711

7.8

9
.-

>

5.1

4.4
1861

"
B

0)

-?

P0

3.3
161,

$
g

:'

=8

2.4
1851

yO

Compressed air

Cast iron
Subaqueous

Working
condition

Free air
Concrete

zzd1

zt:
Subaqueous

Concrete

Fzd1 2 ~ ~ ~ 1
Underground

Fig. 23 COSTS O F ROAD TUNNELS A T 1976 P R I C E S ~ ~ ~

Lining type
Situation

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

(70%)

(59%)
I

( ) Figures in parenthesis indicate approximate

I,

proportion of total cost

(48%)

1960
Year

Fig. 24 COSTS OF ROAD TUNNELS AT TIME OF

CONSTRUCTION^^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Internal diameter of tunnel (m)

Fis 25 RANGE OF COSTS OF TUNNELS WITH PRECAST CONCRETE LININGS

I
I

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Construction

Production costs

0
1952

1956

1960

1964

1968

1972

1976

Year

Fig. 26 TYPICAL PRODUCTION COST OF 2.45111 RING, 0.61111 WIDE, PREC-AST REINFORCED
CONCRETE BOLTED LINING (After ~ c ~ e a n ) 2 8

Type of lining

Cast iron
lnsitu concrete or unlined
Expanded concrete
Bolted and smooth
bore concrete

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Site cast (% of all precast


concrete segments in brackets)

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

Year

Fig. 27 TOTAL ANNUAL LENGTH OF TUNNELS AND SHAFTS, 1970-1976

1970

197 1

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

Year

Fig. 28 LENGTH OF EACH TYPE OF LINING AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL LENGTH


1970-1976

Type of lining (% in brackets)


Cast iron
lnsitu concrete or unlined
Expanded concrete
Pre-cast concrete
road tunnels

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Bolted and smooth


bore concrete

1970

1971

1972.

1973

1974

1975

1976

Year

Fig. 29 TOTAL VOLUME OF EXCAVATION OF TUNNELS AND SHAFTS 1970-1976

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

Year

Fig 30 VOLUME OF TUNNEL I N EACH TYPE OF LINING AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL


VOLUME 1970-1976

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Internal diameter (m)

Fig. 31 CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE O F TOTAL LENGTH FOR PRECAST

CONCRETE TUNNEL LININGS

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Four segment ring

Joint perpendicular to tunnel

Spiral joint

Fig 32 FOUR-SEGMENT L I N I N G S ~ ~ ~

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Groove for
sealing strip

rp

1.1
Cross-section

of tubbing

Longitudinal section of a tubbing

Fig. 33 DETAIL OF CAST IRON LINING FOR ELBE TUNNEL

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

15.24

11

19.05
25.4

0.6 0.75
(Equivalent to 1.2 in bar)

Cross-section thickness (rnm)

50.8

76.2

101.6

127.0

152.4

Cross-section thickness (in)

Fig 34 EFFECT ON SECTION THICKNESS O F GREY 1 ~ 0 ~ 1 4 6

177.8

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Skin 22.2mm thick

Circumferential flange
20.6mm to 23.8mm thick

//

Ring 0.46m wide

Longitudinal flange 22.2mm


to 23.8mm thick

19mm dia. bolts

Fig 35 TOWER SUBWAY TUNNEL

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Cross-section through tunnel

Cross section through segment

Fig. 36 STUBDEN RESERVOIR TUNNEL

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Stiffener and lifting


hole at centre

Fig. 37 CHANNEL TUNNEL BEAUMONT TUNNEL

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Internal diameter
3. I m or 3.2m

Cros~sectionthrough tunnel

Soft wood packing

'

Longitudinal joints

31.8mm or 23.8mm
Circumferential joint

F i e 38 LTE CITY AND SOUTH LONDON RAILWAY

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Old tunnel
profile

New tunnel
profile
\ \

A Additional castings
to Same patterns
B Key casting

71

Old key-

C Re-used segments
(see Fig.38)

Fig. 39 MODIFICATIONS TO THE LTE CITY AND SOUTH LONDON RAILWAY LINING
(1922-1924)

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Circumferential joint

Longitudinal joint

Detail of key
Fig. 40 VYRNWY TUNNEL

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Internal profile
2.18m wide by 2.8m high

Skin 25.4mm thick


Bolts 25.4mm diam.

Fig. 41 EDINBURGH M A I N DRAINAGE

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Longitudinal joints

Circumferential joints

Key segment

Detail of heavy lining

Longitudinal joint

Circumferential joints

Key segment

Detail of light lining


Fig. 42 BLACKWALL T U N N E L ~

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Caulking groove

Detail of joint in clay

Detail of joint in waterbearing strata


Longitudinal joint

In waterbearing ground 19mrn


rubber ring positioned at
back of joint. Caulking
groove rust caulked

deal

Cement caulking in clay


Circumferential joint
Fig. 43 L T E WATERLOO A N D C I T Y RAILWAY

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Longitudinal joint

Circumferentialjoint
Detail of running tunnel lining (3.56111 i.d.1
Fig. 44 LTE CENTRAL LONDON RAILWAY

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Fig. 45 THE GREAT NORTHERN A N D CITY RAILWAY

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

34.9mm ,Rust

Profile o f caulking groove

,Rust

Machined face

Fig. 46 L T E BAKER STREET AND WATERLOO R A I L W A Y

LINING^^^

Pine

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Section through segment

Lead washers
Detail of key
Fig. 47 G R E E N W I C H F O O T W A Y T U N N E L

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Circumferential joints

Note: All dimensions in millimetres

Fig. 48 ROTHERHITHE ROAD TUNNEL LINING

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Wrought iron dished


washers with bituminous
washers underneath

Circumferential joint

Radial joint

Note: All dimensions in millimetres

Fig 49 MERSEY QUEENSWAY TUNNEL ~ 1 ~ 1 ~ ~ 1 5 4

Caulking grooves to be
machined out of the solid

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

38.1 38.1

'Machined

faces

Longitudinal joint

Note: All dimensions


in millimetres

Circumferentialjoint

Fig. 50 DARTFORD TUNNEL AND BLACKWALL TUNNEL

LINING^^^

Caulking groove, 25.4 deep


machined from solid

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

. 5 x 6.1 drainage slot

44.5 x 190.5 bolts, grummets


and standard washers

Circumferential joint

Caulking groove, 25.4 deep,


machined from solid

.8wide feather

Machined faces
Note: All dimensions
in millimetres

Longitudinal joint

Fig. 5 1 C L Y D E TUNNEL

LINING^^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Circumferential joint

6.4

Caulking grooves to be

Machined facesf
Longitudinal joint

Fig. 52 TYNE TUNNEL LINING

Note: All dimensions


in millimetres

44

44

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Black bolts M 42 x 190

1-

200

3 3'

Machined faces

Longitudinal joint

Note: All dimensions


in millimetres

Circumferential joint

Fig. 53 MERSEY KINSGWAY TUNNEL L I N I N G ~ ~ O

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

M24 black washfr

fi/&

Creosoted deal
,packing

1
I

Circumferential joint

Caulking groove to be
achined from the solid

Countersunktor grummet
(6~ 4 5 0 )
Note: All dimensions
in millimetres

Machined faces

Longitudinal joint
Fig. 54 L T E FLEET L I N E R U N N I N G T U N N E L L I N I N G

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

_r tI9.
mrn

Fig 55

L T E V I C T O R I A L I N E EXPERIMENTAL SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE


TUNNEL L I N I N G

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

LONGITUDINAL JOINT

I-

120

Note: All dimensions in millimetres


CIRCUMFERENTIAL JOINT
Fig. 56 SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE LINING FOR CHANNEL TUNNEL STAGE 2

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

5537 dia.

5690 di a.
Section A-A

Upper flange of each closure


ring t o have a thickening of
16mm on both sides

Section C-C

Back view of segment


Ten segments per tubbing ring

Section D-D
( w i t h closure ring details
Cementation hole in middle of
segment t o be drilled only in
5 segments of every second ring

Section B-B (Every fourth ring)


All segments of every fourth ring
to have an oblique hole in middle
of lower flange. Remainder to have
rib similar t o upper flange.

Note: All dimensions


in millimetres

Fig. 57 SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE LINING FOR BOULBY POTASH SHAFT

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Note: All dimensions in rnillimetres


Fig. 58 SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE LINING FOR WASHINGTON M E T R O

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

ax.

Detail of Dungeness'A' tunnel lining

34.9 dia. bolt holes


4

fl

Equal

Taper plug 31.75 dia.


B.S.pipe thread
~1
Equal

0.61

Note: All dimensions


in millimetres

Detail of Dungeness 'B' tunnel lining

Fig 59 DUNGENESS T U N N E L L I N I N G

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

II

Key segment

skin

Corss section of completed ring

5x5 chamfers t o
Machined faces

30 dia. x 110 long bolt


in 34 dia. hole
I

Details of longitudinal joint


Note: All dimensions in millimetres

Section A-A

Fig. 60 AMSTERDAM METRO, PROPOSED TUNNEL LINING

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

A
Section A-A

Section through tunnel

Front elevation of jacking pocket

Section C-C

Section B-B

Detail of jacking pocket


Fig. 61 L T E V I C T O R I A LINE - EXPANDED GREY I R O N LININGIS

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

a) Standard 3.71111 internal diameter bolted lining

lT?!37

i3

as detail B

Detail C

Detail B

b) Expanded bolted lining


Fis 62 LTE EXPANDED BOLTED GREY IRON LINING 22

28.6mm dia. B.S.W. bolt


i n 47.6mm dia. hole

48-47.6mm dia. bolt


holes equally spaced
on a pitch circle
6.8m dia.

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

rA
40

Circumferential joint

Section D-D radial joint

LA 31.8 dia.
Cross section through tunnel lining
4%

Elevation at jack recess

Section 6-6

Section E-E

Note: All dimensions in m~llimetres


Section C-C

F i g 63 L T E EXPANDED STEEL LINING FOR VICTORIA LINE - OXFORD CIRCUS STATION^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

General plan of tunnels at King's Cross

Fleet
sewer

Concourse
curve

Hotel
curve
Southbound

Northbound
Victoria Line

Westbound Piccadilly line


Southbound
Northern Line

Northbound
Northern Line

Cross section at King's Cross

Six 44.5mm dia. HT BSW bolts in


47.6mm dia. holes at each radial
ioint

Fi

Wedging space

Three 28.6mm dia. BSW bolts


in 34.9mm dia. holes at
each radial joint

4828.6mm dia. bolts in


47.6mm holes on PCD 6.80m
Details of lining

Fig. 64 PLAN OF LTE STATION AT KING'S CROSS AND DETAILS OF EXPANDED STEEL LINING
FOR VICTORIA LINE STATION^^

TB
- -- ---------------

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Bolts are staggered t o provide more strength

Plan

Covering length
0.96mm 1.12m, 1.28m

Elevation

Minimum radius
0.61m
7 gauge and lighter
5 gauge
0.76m
3 gauge
0.76m

Section A-A

69.8mm
Varies

Section C C
Section B-B
F i g 65 D E T A I L S O F ARMCO LINER P L A T E S ~ ~

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Grout hole

A-A
(406mm L.P.)

C-C
(406-610mm L.P.)

B-B
406-610mm L.P.)

fi
~---%--J

---

----+_-+-_

Note: All dimensions


in millimetres

Fig. 66 DETAILS OF COMMERCIAL HYDRAULICS LINER P L A T E S * ~

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Timber master

Concrete master

-+=

Concrete master used t o manufacture die moulds

Die moulds

6
I

Production moulds

Die moulds used to manufacture required number of production moulds

&

Segments

Fig. 67 DIAGRAMMATIC LAYOUT OF CASTING CONCRETE M O U L D S ~ ~

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Cross-section through tunnel

5.4mm cross wires


8.3mm dia.

/ \

$
I

Radius
0.81m

6.4mm M.S. liner


plate

Caulking groove

Details of reinforcement
Fig. 69 MERSEY KINGSWAY GROUTED SMOOTH BORE CONCRETE

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

LA
Section B-B

LB
Section A-A

Note. 'All reinforcement

1.6mm rad.
nominal

Radial joint

Detail of jacking pocket


showing precast filling
wncrete

Detail of jacking pocket


showing packer

Reinforcement shown is
for all female joints
Section C C

Fig. 70 LTE VICTORIA LINE M O T 1 H A Y AND ANDERSON EXPANDED CONCRETE L I N I N G

".*'

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

20

- 20
cover

20 cover

2 No. stirrups 16 dia.


H.Y.S. bars

2 No. 16 dia. short


bars t o form cage

Section A-A

Elevation

II. a ----.
BI
- - - - - ---- - - - - - - - --------------------=
.=

Note. All dimensions


are in millimetres

-----

Plan on 6-6
Segment type A

Fig. 71 L T E FLEET LINE EXPANDED CONCRETE LINING

Segment
Type 'C'L

Key

Segment
Type 'C'

R
Pad
Chamfer o f
leading edge
o f wedge

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Grouting
holes

Type'B'L

type'^'^

Elevation o f segment
(from outside o f lining)

Pad

Segment

Elevation o f ring

Lifting bar

Detail a t

Taper key detail


(Section along m i d
surface plane)

')('

Elevation o f segment
Elevation of segment
(from outside o f lining) Type 'C'.R
(from outside o f lining)

Plan
Detail o f lining
Transverse steel
8, 10 and 1 2 m m dia.
Circumferential steel
1 0 and 12mm dia.

Section C-C

Stirrups and l i n k
bars 8 m m dia.

Detail o f invert segment reinforcement


Fig. 72 CHANNEL T U N N E L STAGE 2 EXPANDED G R O U T E D CONCRETE L I N I N G

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Reinforcing bar

reinforcing
bar
Cross section

Fig 73 McALPlNE GROUTED SMOOTH BORE LINING FOR DERBY SEWER CONTRACT

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Circumferential bolt
coupled a t each joint
with toggle

-v

Fig 74 CHARCON UNIVERSAL GROUTED SMOOTH BORE CONCRETE

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Cross section through tunnel

"

Allowanc
Allowances for /
3.2mm b
bituminous
~~um~nous
packing in
f
longitudinal
joints

Longitudinal joint

-I\
-I\
a

11-

/ I

4' .!A dLc:/@- - - - --------x"A


- -stirrup?
d L- q @
stirrup?

-----_Y

.,

II

"

Section B-B

L-.

.-

0.5Im
Section A-A

Fig. 75 ORIGINAL DESIGN FOR LTE BOLTED CONCRETE LINING FOR CENTRAL LINE
EXTENSION TO ILFORD24

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Cross section

Detail of longitudinal joint


at key segment

Detail of circumferential
joint

F i g 76 STANDARD BOLTED CONCRETE

LINING^^

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Six segmentslring

Fig 77 BUCHAN SMOOTHVERT CONCRETE

LINING^^

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Section

Elevation

Detail of segment

Exploded section

Elevation

Fig 78 DON-SEG EXPANDED CONCRETE LINING

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Fig 79 WEDGE BLOCK EXPANDED CONCRETE

LINING^^

Precast standard
voussoir blocks

Eleven at i40 = 1540

76mm dia. lifting hole


I

%fj/

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

1 60

Jacking
space

wan

r-0.76

- Trailing
\ face

Section A-A
Cross section through tunnel

Details o f standard Voussoir block

.5mm dia. stirrups

Elevation
Note: All dimensions
in metres

Note. Invert units cast


i n 1.3% Portland
cement concrete

Details of invert unit

Fig. 80 BR GREENWOOD TO POTTERS BAR TUNNELS EXPANDED CONCRETE

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Cross section
segment details

Fig 81 L T E VICTORIA L I N E EXPERIMENTAL LENGTH HALCROW EXPANDED CONCRETE


LINING 19.21

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

between segments

12.7 x 12.7
chamfers
Detail of joint
between rings

Drainage
recess
Note: All dimensions
in millimetres
except where shown

Fig. 82 LTE VICTORIA LINE HALCROW EXPANDED CONCRETE LININGIS

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Section A-A

Elevation B-B

Side elevation

F r o n t elevation

Fig. 83 LTE VICTORIA LINE HALCROW JACKING ME

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Elevation

Details o f segment reinforcement


shown o n Fig.71

Fig. 84 LTE FLEET LINE EXPANDED CONCRETE LINING

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Approximate edge
distance 1 15

Detail of joint between segments


(Except at wedging segments)

25

Detail of joint between rings

Caulking groove

Note. All dimensions


are in millimetres

Developed elevation of
wedging segments

Fig. 84 ( a n t ) L T E FLEET L I N E EXPANDED CONCRETE LINING

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Jacking
recesses

3175 rad.

e;
0

4-I

rad.

5-

25.4 x 25.4
chamfers

L_/

607

305

3175
rad.

Segment Mk. I

Segment Mk.3

Jacking spaces packed with earth


dry concrete in two stages after
stressing, firstly between horns
and secondly in recesses following
removal of jacks

Note: All dimensions


in millimetres

Three dimensional view of jacking space


Fig. 85 BAA HEATHROW CARGO TUNNEL EXPANDED CONCRETE

LINING^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Scale - metres
Caul king

Slot

100

200

Scale- millimetres

Fig. 86 COLLIN'S EXPANDED CONCRETE

LINING^^

Left hand
crown segment

crown segment

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

segments

End ele.vation

Rubberised bitumen
strip In lateral end
ircumferential joints

Former ring
fixing bolts

Special screw bol


for retaining steel former shoes

tie rod rods


former shoes

Details of joint and former ring


(a) Flexilok lining

Neoprene foam rubber


seal 16mm thick

11
Leading edge
of segment

19mm dia. polyacctal pin

Trailing edge of
adjacent segment

(b)Circumferential joint of Extratlex lining


F i g 87 SPUN CONCRETE FLEXILOK AND EXTRAFLEX GROUTED SMOOTH BORE CONCRETE
LININGS~~

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Section A-A

Cross sectional plan

Radiused channel

Plastic tube /
d istance piece

7
I

Detail of segment

dia.1 boogie
hole

Cross section through lining

Fig. 88 CHARCON RAPID GROUTED SMOOTH BORE CONCRETE

LINING^^

- Thickness varies for


Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

each diameter

4and
-1
I

Detail of joint below

\Four

stress relievers
per segment

Section through tunnel

Detail of joint

Fig. 89 REES M I N I TUNNEL GROUTED SMOOTH BORE CONCRETE LINING-

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy

&

of
Grout pipes a t 2 . h tunnels
Steel svmmetric;al

9.5mm dia. mild

76mm blinding layer

-16.458111
Reinforced concrete

mild steel sDacers

Fig. 91 GIBRALTAR HILL TUNNEL CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE

LINING^^

25.4mm dia. bars


at 229mm crs

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

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Maximum width of excavation 9.3m

\
Haunch drain

_I

Centre drain

Fig. 93 BR WOODHEAD TUNNEL CAST I N S I T U CONCRETE LIN 1 ~ ~ 5 8

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Fig. 94 BR HARECASTLE TUNNEL CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE

LINING^^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

n ~ Mohr
h
n O.D.

Low pressure tunnels

erate and breccia


Machine
shafts

Access tunnel

Loch Ness
W.L.n 15.9m O.D.

General plan

NE access road

Surge chamber
access adit.

Lower control w

Access road

Cooling waterchamber
C~o.2
machine
shaft
Line of screen

\
\

Extent of excavatid:d&
in front of screens

I))

X junction
Main access tunnel
High-pressure drainage
tunnel portal

5.95m 'D' shaped


low-pressure tunnel

2.29m 'D' shaped


drainage tunnel

ining wall

0
9.15

Detail at high pressure end


Fig 95 FOYERS SCHEME - LAYOUT

loom

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

2.74 x 3.05m steel arches


Arch section 102mm x 102mm x 7kg

Fis96 EAST BRISTOL SEWER TUNNEL CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE

LINING^^^

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Cross section of twin tunnels between Malago intake and Malago relief culvert

I
Note: All dimensions
in metres

1.693

0.350

0.150 sub base


1

Tunnel section Malago to Pigeonhouse


Fis 97 BRISTOL MALAGO SEWER TUNNELS CAST I N S I T U CONCRETE L I N I N G S ~ ~

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to arch 300mm

3 piece horseshoe
steel arches with
corrugated sheeters

Fig 98 EDINBURGH OUTFALL SEWER TUNNEL CAST INSITU CONCRETE LINING

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Point
anchor

Point
anchor

Wood
dowel

Steel
reinforcement

Woodlsteel
bar

(a) Main types of reinforcement

Resin
bonded

Mandrel
type

Expansion
shell

(b) Main types of anchorage


Fig. 99 TYPES OF ROCK BOLTS

Wedge
and slot

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Joint

Diameter of arch

Diameter of arch

Two-piece arch

Three-piece arch

Width ot base

Width of base

Two-piece arch

Three-piece arch

(a) Standard arch profiles


Fig. 100 TYPES OF STEEL ARCHES (BRITISH STEEL CORPORATION)

Crown length 3658

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Strut holes available

Two or three piece arch

Extra splay-legged arch

T w o- o r three piece arch


Horse-shoe arch

Three, four o r five piece


Circular support

Three o r five piece arch Double radius arch

89 x 89 x 19.35 k g l m

Note: A l l dimensions in millimetres

T w o piece arch

Refuge-hole arcn
(b) Non standard arch profiles

Fig. 100 (cont) TYPES OF STEEL ARCHES (BRITISH STEEL CORPORATION)

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Note: All dimensions in rnillirnetres

(c) Arch sections

Fig 100 (cont) TYPES OF STEEL ARCHES (BRITISH STEEL CORPORATION)

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Bolt fixings if required

Liner plates

Spile lagging

Steel sheeters

Timber or concrete
laggings between f langers
Wedges

Fig 101 TYPES OF LAGGING FOR STEEL A R C H E S ~ ~

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy

Bernold

Ground
supeort concrete

Temporary
,arch

Bernold sheets

Primary
lining concrete
Longitudinal section after primary concreting
Ground support
concrete

sheets

Longitudinal
struts

Typical cross section through tunnel

Longitudinal section of ground support

Fis 102 DETAILS OF THE BERNOLD

SYSTEM^^

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Plate 1 BOLTED GREY IRON LINING FOR LTE

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Plate 4 E X P A N D E D G R E Y I R O N L I N I N G

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Plate 5

LTE PICCADILLY LINE EXTENSION T O HEATHROW EXPANDED


FORM OF BOLTED GREY IRON L I N I N G

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Plate 6 O P E N I N G W I T H F A B R I C A T E D STEEL SEGMEN-TS

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Plate 11 COMMERCIAL HYDRAULICS STEEL LINER PLATES

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Plate 12 TYPICAL CONCRETE MOULD FOR BOLTED CONCRETE LININGS

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"\Ipy.

Plate 18 DON-SEG E X P A N D E D CONCRETE L I N I N G

'30

52357 74

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Plate 20 L T E VICTORIA LINE, HALCROW EXPANDED

CONCRETE LINING

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

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Plate 23 BR GREENWOOD TO POTTERS BAR T U N N E L


EXPANDED CONCRETE L I N I N G

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy

Neg. no. B218b114

Plate 24 BAA HEATHROW AIRPORT CARGO TUNNEL EXPANDED

CONCRETE LINING

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Neg. no. 8391'75

Plate 26 SPUN C O N C R E T E F L E X I L O K G R O U T E D SMOOTH BORE


CONCRETE L I N I N G

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Neg. no. 838175

Plate 27 SPUN CONCRETE EXTRAFLEX GROUTED SMOOTH BORE

CONCRETE L I N I N G

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Neg. no. B519175

Plate 29 CHARCON UNIVERSAL GROUTED SMOOTH BORE CONCRETE LINING

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Neg. no. 8244175

Plate 30 REES M I N I T U N N E L G R O U T E D SMOOTH BORE


CONCRETE L I N I N G

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Neg. no. B1293/74/4

Plate 31 McALPlNE GROUTED SMOOTH BORE CONCRETE L I N I N G

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Plate 36 B I R M I N G H A M GREAT CHARLES STREET TUNNEL


CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE L I N I N G

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Plate 37 BR WOODHEAD TUNNEL, CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE L I N I N G

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Plate 38 BR LIVERPOOL LOOP TUNNEL CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE AND


SHOTCRETE LININGS

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Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

" f f
*

,' f ,
'

Neg. no. B456178

Plate 43 BERNOLD STEEL TEMPORARY GROUND SUPPORT

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Neq. no. R 362/78121 A

Plate 44 BRICK SECONDARY L I N I N G

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Plate 45 SHUTTERING FOR CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE SECONDARY LINING

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Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Neg. no. 821 85174

Plate 47 THIN CEMENT MORTAR SECONDARY LINING

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Plate 49 STEEL SECONDARY L I N I N G

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Plate 52 R E S I N F E L T S E C O N D A R Y L I N I N G I N S M A L L D I A M E T E R PIPE

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

ma

Plate 53 EPOXY TAR SECONDARY LINING

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

(1320) Dd0536316 1,100 8 . 7 8 H P L t d So'ton GI915


PRINTED IN E N G L A N D

ABSTRACT

Licensed copy from CIS: URS, URS Infrastructure, 04/03/2015, Uncontrolled Copy.

A REVIEW OF TUNNEL LINING PRACTICE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM: R N Craig and A M MuirWood (Sir William Halcrow and Parmers): Department of the Environment Department of Transport,
TRRL Supplementary Report 335: Crowthorne, 1978 (Transport and Road Research Laboratory). This
Report outlines the several methods used in the United Kingdom for lining tunnels and gives brief details
of some of the more recent tunnels constructed with each form of lining. The different methods available
for lining tunnels are discussed taking into account the tunnel usage and the ground conditions. Methods
of waterproofing tunnels, use of secondary linings and cost data are included.
The approximate annual length and volume of tunnels constructed for the period 1970-76 are
given, broken down into different types of lining and tunnel usage.
The instrumentation of tunnel linings and of ground movements during the construction of tunnels
have been examined and the design methods are discussed. Recommendations are given for research and
development of tunnel linings.
ISSN 0305-1 3 15

ABSTRACT
A REVIEW OF TUNNEL LINING PRACTICE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM: R N Craig and A M MuirWood (Sir William Halcrow and Partners): Department of the Environment Department of Transport,
TRRL Supplementary Report 335: Crowthorne, 1978 (Transport and Road Research Laboratory). This
Report outlines the several methods used in the United Kingdom for lining tunnels and gives brief details
of some of the more recent tunnels constructed with each form of lining. The different methods available
for lining tunnels are discussed taking into account the tunnel usage and the ground conditions. Methods
of waterproofing tunnels, use of secondary linings and cost data are included.

The approximate annual length and volume of tunnels constructed for the period 1970-76 are
given, broken down into different types of lining and tunnel usage.
The instrumentation of tunnel linings and of ground movements during the construction of tunnels
have been examined and the design methods are discussed. Recommendations are given for research and
development of tunnel linings.
ISSN 0305-131 5