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Properties of reservoir rocks

Porosity
Permeability
Fluid saturation
Mahboob Ahmed

Porosity
 Ratio of the volume of space to the total volume of a rock.
 Porosity of a rock is a measure of its ability to hold a fluid.
 Porosity is expressed as a percentage of the total rock which is taken up by
pore space.
 a sandstone may have 8% porosity.
 This means 92 percent is solid rock and 8 percent is open space containing oil,
gas, or water

Total porosity
 the ratio of the entire pore space in a rock to its bulk volume.

Effective porosity
 percent of bulk volume occupied by interconnected pores spaces.
 A total porosity less the fraction of the pore space occupied by shale or
clay
 In very clean sands, total porosity is equal to effective porosity.

Primary porosity
 porosity of the rock that formed at the time of its deposition.
 primary porosity of a sediment or rock consists of the spaces between the
grains.
 Primary porosity decrease due compaction and packing of grains.
 Intergranular pores of clastics or carbonates.
 Primary porosity less than one percent in crystalline rocks like granite.
 more than 55% in some soils.

Secondary porosity
 develops after deposition of the rock.
 Vugular spaces in carbonate rocks created by the chemical process of
leaching.
 fracture spaces formed due to stress distortion in reservoirs rocks.

Porosity in sandstone

Sandstone usually has regular


grains; and is referred to as a
grainstone.

Porosity Determined mainly by


the packing and mixing of grains.

Fractures may be present.

Porosity in Sandstone
 The porosity of a sandstone
depends on the packing
arrangement of its grains.

Grain-Size Sorting in Sandstone

SANDSTONES POROSITY TYPES


Intergranular (Primary)
Interstitial Void Space Between Framework Grains.

Micropores
Small Pores Mainly Between detrital Framework Grains or Cement.

Dissolution
Partial or Complete Dissolution of or Authigenic Grains (Can Also Occur
Within Grains)

Fractures
Breakage Due to Earth Stresses.

CARBONATES POROSITY TYPES


Interparticle porosity
Each grain is separated, giving a
similar pore space arrangement
as sandstone.

Intergranular porosity
Pore space is created inside the
individual grains which are
interconnected.

Intercrystalline porosity
Produced by spaces between
carbonate crystals.

Mouldic porosity
Pores created by the dissolution
of shells, etc.

CARBONATES POROSITY TYPES


Fractured porosity
Pore spacing created by the
cracking of the rock fabric.

Channel porosity
Similar to fracture porosity but
larger.

Vuggy porosity
Created by the dissolution of
fragments, but unconnected.