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A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Universitatea Dunrea de Jos Galai


Facultatea de Litere, Istorie i Teologie
Catedra de Limba Englez

Ruxanda Bontil

A Student - Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.
(Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams, 1907)
Learn to write well, or not to write at all
(John Sheffield, Essay on Satire, 1680)

Galai
2003

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Concepie i redactare:
Ruxanda Bontil
lector limba englez
Universitatea Dunrea de Jos Galai
Facultatea de Litere, Istorie i Teologie
Catedra de Limba Englez

Au colaborat la capitolul V:
Prof. mentor Irina Scoraru
Prof. mentor Mariana Ziminschi
Prof mentor Georgeta Tofan
Prof. mentor Liliana Groza
Prof. mentor Mdlina Moscu
Prof. mentor Mihaela Neagu
La capitolele VII, VIII, IX, X, au fost utilizate materiale din programul de
mentorat organizat i coordonat de Consiliul Britanic din Romnia.

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

UNIVERSITY DUNREA DE JOSOF GALAI


DEPARTAMENTUL PENTRU PERFECIONAREA
CADRELOR DIDACTICE
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH

Student Teacher (Name and Surname):


Year of study (major/minor; IDD): ..
Mentor (Name and Surname): ...
Teaching Practice School: ....
Date of Teaching Practice (sem. I /sem. II; Univ.Year): ...

Student Teacher Observation Record


No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Date

Class observed

Teacher / student teacher / own

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

36

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Contents
I. Successful TP Policy: some practical advice
II. Record of School Documents/ English Curricula
III. Actual Classroom Practice toward Self-exploration
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.

Foci of observation: class management


Foci of observation: using the board
Foci of observation: teacher talking time
Foci of observation: instructions
Foci of observation: stages of lesson
Foci of observation: error correction
Foci of observation: structure presentation and practice
Foci of observation: introducing vocabulary
Foci of observation: listening/reading
Foci of observation: speaking
Foci of observation: student observation
Foci of observation: 50mins lesson

IV. Describing teacher experience: a bank of valuable ideas


V. Lesson Plans and Outlines: Examples by the mentors
VI. Student teacher Lesson Plans
VII. Self-observation Forms
VIII. Self-evaluation Forms

7
9
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
27
28
29
30
41
45
59
69
73

IX. Mentor Feedback Form

77

X. TP Grade Descriptors

87

XI. Foci of observation: educational class (observarea orei de dirigenie)


XII. Notes on the observed student (observaii asupra elevului studiat)

94
95

XIII. Learner Profile (Fisa psiho - pedagogic)


99
XIV. Samples of valuable materials/tasks/tests
XV. Teaching Practice Final Report
XVI. TP Feedback Questionnaire
XVII. Glossary of ELT terms
XVIII. Select Bibliography

103
109
111
112
115

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

I.

Successful TP Policy: Some Practical Advice

Congratulations on reaching what is to be the truly applied component of the student


teachers educational competencies.
1. Prepare yourself for entering a team of supportive colleagues, mentor and university
supervisor. Remember: your contributions (both in debate sessions and actual
teaching) are equally important to make the team work really profitable.
2. Prepare to observe, firstly, the mentor (approx. 6 classes first two weeks) and,
subsequently, your peer trainees (approx. 36 classes remaining period), since the TP
period consists of 56 hours (4 hours in total, i.e., 3 hours observation + an hour for
reflection and observation feedback, on a weekly basis, and 3 teaching classes + 1
educational class). You have to observe two educational classes before actually
monitoring one. The study of official school documents/records and English curricula
will enhance your insights into actual school life and Ministry of Education cohesion.
3. Feel free to choose any observation sheet from those proposed in this guide, according
to type of lesson observed, your mentors indications or your own teaching intuition.
Remember: learning observation means learning to manage teaching by getting
insights simultaneously into classroom life, live learning and teaching experience
and underlying methodological principles/strategies/concepts.
4. Make a habit to complete observation sheets while observing the class and efface
yourself so as not to distract students or teachers attention (unless your contribution is
required by teacher or even students).
5. Make detailed notes on observation sheets with a view to preparing the ground for the
feedback session with your mentor when lively give and take exchanges are expected.
Remember: be constructively descriptive and not disgracefully judgemental.
6. Be congruent at all times. Speak your mind with self-respect and respect for peers,
always allowing for counter/cross arguments, which prompt understanding, and correct
(self)-assessment.
7. Exercise reflection and communication strategies with your university supervisor too, if
not for sharing impressions and conclusions, for getting hold of some useful
aids/materials, i.e., tapes, textbooks, pictures, etc.
8. Try hard to put yourself into the student/teachers shoes and dont jump to conclusions
until you have pondered all arguments. Remember: common sense, modesty,
politeness and intelligence never go unrewarded.
9. Rules of courtesy also include: punctuality, mobile phone-correctness, fair-play
and sincere commitment among professionals.
10. TRUST YOURSELF, YOUR COLLEAGUES AND FUTURE COLLEAGUES!

GOOD LUCK!
We can never thank enough the mentors whose outstanding competencies and professional
commitment will hopefully convince our students to enter teaching, and honour it.
Its also important to let our students know about the joint efforts of The British Council
from Romania and the Ministry of Education in building a new, trustful professional category, the
mentor, and also in harmonising evaluating criteria/observation sheets/descriptors all over the
country.

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

II.

Record of School Documents/English Curricula


Educaia pentru o munc de calitate trebuie s vizeze dezvoltarea
capacitilor de proiecie i planificare, de decizie i de asumare a
riscului, de colaborare i de evaluare i reevaluare a rezultatelor. Ea
trebuie s stimuleze, n acelai timp, responsabilitatea pentru munca
realizat, nsoit de acceptarea evalurilor obiective. Seriozitatea i
calitatea bun a muncii depuse nu exclud realizarea acesteia ntr-o
atmosfera plcut, destins, stimulant. Aceast atmosfer trebuie
s se ntoarc n slile de clas din ara noastr, astfel nct elevii
s guste plcerea efortului cu sens, dedicaia pentru o chestiune
interesant avantajele muncii n grup, bine coordonate. (Buletin
informativ al M.E.N., no 35, in Supliment, edited by Tribuna
nvmntului, 2 February, 1999)

STANDARDS OF EVALUATION FOR

Based on authentic materials

TEACHING / LEARNING METHODS AND

vocabulary

phonetics / spelling linguistic component:

communicative-functional techniques

discourse grammar

oral communication pragmatic component:

b. speech acts

c. vocabulary and grammar

socio-cultural component
written communication

intellectual skills

cross-cultural representations

communicative competence

DIDACTIC CONSTITUENTS AND SUBCONSTITUENTS

a. topics

c. operational for each teaching sequence

b. skill-based integrated skills

a. general cognitive and attitudinal

LEARNERS/AUDIENCE

ELEMENTS OF THE DIDACTIC ACT

THE STRUCTURE OF THE DIDACTIC MODEL

relationarea interculturala

* intelegerea imaginilor si simbolurilor specifice

* insusirea informatiilor specifice


* constientizarea
spatiului cultural
valorilor, atitudinilor si mentalitatilor
(perspective interculturale)tipice (abordare comparati-va)

STRATEIGES
DIDACTIC AIDS
EACH CYCLE

What aids . . .?
What level . . . ?

5
6

CONTENT

OBIECTIVES

How . . .?

What . . .?

To what purpose?

For whom . . . ?

COORDINATESDIDACTIC

EVOLUTIA CAPACITATILOR SPECIFICE


PE CICLURI
DEFOREIGN
INVATAMANT
OF THE
LANGUAGE CURRICULUM IN ROMANIA

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

11

12

ci

*
citire
cu
glas
tare
sau in
gand

scrierea

* scriere dirijata * dictare * completare de text * copiere

* transformare de text (rezumare si dezvoltare) * redactare semidirijata cu/fara support vizual/auditiv

* folosirea unor ele-mente reprezentative ale


codului comportamental acceptat in spatiul
cultural

* intelegerea elementelor socioculturale ale vietii de zi cu zi


(asemanari si deosebiri)

* redactare de texte functionale * traducere * luarea de notite * redactare libera

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

*
intelegerea
glo-bala si
selectiva

* producerea de sunete
specifice, cuvinte,
propozitii

tirea

* constientizarea
* deducerealega-turilor
segmente-lor
dintre
necunoscute
propozitiisau
/ paragrafe
ne-mentionate din contextintelegerea detaliata

* initiere si sustinere
de dialoguri

vorbirea

* transfer de informatie * interpretarea textului * citirea asistata de instrumente de referinta


identificarea atitudinii autorului si a registrului textului

* adecvarea
limbajului la context

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

13

Ciclul
primar

14

Intelegere dupa auz

* intelegere globala si selectiva * intelegere si confirmare nonverbala * identificare

* intelegerea atitudinii vorbitorilor si a relatiei dintre ei

* intelegerea detaliilor

* interactiune comuni-cativa elementara


* descrieri si relatari simple* intrebari si raspunsuri

* emitere de opinii, sugestii, ipoteze * naratiuni simple * descrieri si relatari detaliate

* discursuri functionale (prezentare de teme si proiecte) * negocieri si dezbateri

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Ciclul
gimnazia
l

* ordonarea informatiei * deducerea segmente-lor necunoscute din context

* intelegerea contextului sociocomunicativ al vorbirii * perceperea specificitatii discursului literar * transfer de informatie * intelegerea mesajelor expri-mate in accente non standard

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

15

Ciclul
liceal

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

16

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

17

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

18

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

19

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

20

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

III.

Actual Classroom Practice toward Self-Exploration


Where there is much desire to learn, there of necessity will be much
arguing, much writing, many opinions; for opinion in good men is
but knowledge in the making.
(John Milton, Areopagitica, 1644)

21

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

a. Foci of observation: class management .


Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)
. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Did the teacher maintain good eye contact?
Did the teacher change position appropriately with action?
Did the students work well together?
The teacher rearranged the seating when necessary
The instructions were clear
The teacher checked that the students had understood the instructions
The teacher did not obscure the blackboard
The teachers voice was clearly audible at all times. Speech was not
slow/fast/unclear
The students were clearly audible to each other
The teacher was aware of students learning difficulties and responded
in a supportive way
The students took away useful and clearly illustrated language copied
from the blackboard or in the form of a handout

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Did the teacher maintain good eye contact?
Did the teacher change position appropriately with action?
Did the students work well together?
The teacher rearranged the seating when necessary
The instructions were clear
The teacher checked that the students had understood the instructions
The teacher did not obscure the blackboard
The teachers voice was clearly audible at all times. Speech was not
slow/fast/unclear
The students were clearly audible to each other
The teacher was aware of students learning difficulties and responded
in a supportive way
The students took away useful and clearly illustrated language copied
from the blackboard or in the form of a handout

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Did the teacher maintain good eye contact?
Did the teacher change position appropriately with action?
Did the students work well together?
The teacher rearranged the seating when necessary
The instructions were clear
The teacher checked that the students had understood the instructions
The teacher did not obscure the blackboard
The teachers voice was clearly audible at all times. Speech was not
slow/fast/unclear
The students were clearly audible to each other
The teacher was aware of students learning difficulties and responded
in a supportive way
The students took away useful and clearly illustrated language copied
from the blackboard or in the form of a handout
22

(always/sometimes
/not enough/never)

(always/sometimes
/not enough/never)

(always/sometimes
/not enough/never)

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

b. Foci of observation: using the board


Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)
. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical: Was the board visible to all? Was the
layout clear? (Did it appear overcrowded /
disorganized?)
Was the new language highlighted effectively?
Was the board work complete? (e.g. no
unfinished sentences)
Did the teacher use the board for:
(a) clarifying points on the spot?
(b) correction? (e.g. grammar, pronunciation)
Could any of the following have been
appropriate?
(a) tabulation (e.g. substitution table)
(b) display of visuals (flashcards/drawings)
(c) prompts for practice
(d) preparation (e.g. giving information for
an activity)
What did the students write down and take
away?
Was it representative of the salient points of the
lesson, and would the students have understood
it several days later?
Was the board overused or underused?

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical: Was the board visible to all? Was the
layout clear? (Did it appear overcrowded /
disorganized?)
Was the new language highlighted effectively?
Was the board work complete? (e.g. no
unfinished sentences)
Did the teacher use the board for:
(c) clarifying points on the spot?
(d) correction? (e.g. grammar, pronunciation)
Could any of the following have been
appropriate?
(e) tabulation (e.g. substitution table)
(f) display of visuals (flashcards/drawings)
(g) prompts for practice
(h) preparation (e.g. giving information for
an activity)
What did the students write down and take
away?
Was it representative of the salient points of the
lesson, and would the students have understood
it several days later?
Was the board overused or underused?

Your notes

Your notes

23

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical: Was the board visible to all? Was the
layout clear? (Did it appear overcrowded /
disorganized?)
Was the new language highlighted effectively?
Was the board work complete? (e.g. no
unfinished sentences)
Did the teacher use the board for:
(e) clarifying points on the spot?
(f) correction? (e.g. grammar, pronunciation)
Could any of the following have been
appropriate?
(i) tabulation (e.g. substitution table)
(j) display of visuals (flashcards/drawings)
(k) prompts for practice
(l) preparation (e.g. giving information for
an activity)
What did the students write down and take
away?
Was it representative of the salient points of the
lesson, and would the students have understood
it several days later?
Was the board overused or underused?

Your notes

c. Foci of observation: teacher talking time (TTT)


Answer the questions by making notes of your thoughts and with any specific examples.

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Did the T. talk more than necessary to
explain a point or not enough?
Did the T. talk when the students could have
been doing the talking?
Did the T. speak too quickly/slowly?
Was the level of language about right?
Did the language sound authentic and
natural?
In which activities was student talking time
more than TTT?
Did the T. create enough opportunities for
student talking time?
Were instructions clear? Was what the
trainee/teacher had to say interesting,
informative, useful etc.?
If/when TTT was high, was there a good
reason for this?
24

Your notes

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Did the T. talk more than necessary to
explain a point or not enough?
Did the T. talk when the students could have
been doing the talking?
Did the T. speak too quickly/slowly?
Was the level of language about right?
Did the language sound authentic and
natural?
In which activities was student talking time
more than TTT?
Did the T. create enough opportunities for
student talking time?
Were instructions clear? Was what the
trainee/teacher had to say interesting,
informative, useful etc.?
If/when TTT was high, was there a good
reason for this?
d.

Your notes

Foci of observation: instructions

Write down as many examples word for word of the teacher giving instructions. Also make a note
of any accompanying gestures. Allow time for comments too.

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instructions
Gestures
Comment
e.g. listen everybody
T cupped hand to ear
Concise & clear but fast

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instructions
Gestures
Comment
e.g. listen everybody
T cupped hand to ear
Concise & clear but fast

25

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instructions
Gestures
Comment
e.g. listen everybody
T cupped hand to ear
Concise & clear but fast

e.

Foci of observation: stages of lesson

Try to identify the stages of the teachers lesson and deduce the purpose behind each stage as well
as the main aims of the lesson. At the end of the lesson confront your assumptions with the
teachers lesson plan and discuss: suitability and agreement of aim and activity; pacing; variety of
activities; logical progression.

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage
Purpose

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage
Purpose

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage
Purpose

26

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

f.

Foci of observation: error correction

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note the type of mistakes e.g.
Pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary
How was the correction achieved? e.g.
Student guided to self-correction, student to
student correction or teacher to student
correction
Note when the teacher corrected, e.g. on the
spot or delayed.
Did the teacher anticipate any mistakes? E.g.
pronunciation/grammar?
Did the teacher hear mistakes?
Did the teacher correct too much or too little?
Was the teacher right in their correction?
Did the teacher jot down mistakes?
Comment on the overall success of the
correction taking place.

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note the type of mistakes e.g.
Pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary
How was the correction achieved? e.g.
Student guided to self-correction, student to
student correction or teacher to student
correction
Note when the teacher corrected, e.g. on the
spot or delayed.
Did the teacher anticipate any mistakes? E.g.
pronunciation/grammar?
Did the teacher hear mistakes?
Did the teacher correct too much or too little?
Was the teacher right in their correction?
Did the teacher jot down mistakes?
Comment on the overall success of the
correction taking place.

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note the type of mistakes e.g.
Pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary
How was the correction achieved? e.g.
Student guided to self-correction, student to
student correction or teacher to student
correction
Note when the teacher corrected, e.g. on the
spot or delayed.

Your notes

Your notes

Your notes

27

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Did the teacher anticipate any mistakes? E.g.


pronunciation/grammar?
Did the teacher hear mistakes?
Did the teacher correct too much or too little?
Was the teacher right in their correction?
Did the teacher jot down mistakes?
Comment on the overall success of the
correction taking place.

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note the type of mistakes e.g.
Pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary
How was the correction achieved? e.g.
Student guided to self-correction, student to
student correction or teacher to student
correction
Note when the teacher corrected, e.g. on the
spot or delayed.
Did the teacher anticipate any mistakes? E.g.
pronunciation/grammar?
Did the teacher hear mistakes?
Did the teacher correct too much or too little?
Was the teacher right in their correction?
Did the teacher jot down mistakes?
Comment on the overall success of the
correction taking place.

g.

Foci of observation: structure presentation and practice

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If the teacher presents a new grammatical
item, how was the meaning got across to the
students?
How much explicit attention to form was
there?
Was the approach inductive or deductive?
Was there a progression from controlled to
free practice? What types of activities were
used?
How much variety was there?
How much interaction was there between
students? How early in the lesson did it first
occur?
What evidence was there by the end of the
lesson that the students had learned
something?
Any other interesting features?
28

Your notes

Your notes

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If the teacher presents a new grammatical
item, how was the meaning got across to the
students?
How much explicit attention to form was
there?
Was the approach inductive or deductive?
Was there a progression from controlled to
free practice? What types of activities were
used?
How much variety was there?
How much interaction was there between
students? How early in the lesson did it first
occur?
What evidence was there by the end of the
lesson that the students had learned
something?
Any other interesting features?

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If the teacher presents a new grammatical
item, how was the meaning got across to the
students?
How much explicit attention to form was
there?
Was the approach inductive or deductive?
Was there a progression from controlled to
free practice? What types of activities were
used?
How much variety was there?
How much interaction was there between
students? How early in the lesson did it first
occur?
What evidence was there by the end of the
lesson that the students had learned
something?
Any other interesting features?
h.

Your notes

Your notes

Foci of observation: introducing vocabulary

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson objectives
How far does the lesson appear to have
specific lexical objectives?
If it does have lexical objectives, how would
you express them?
Reading/Listening Activities

Your notes

29

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

How does the teacher prepare for anticipated


lexical difficulties?
During while and post listening/reading
phases, what lexical issues arise and how
does the teacher handle these?
What techniques does the teacher use to
explain/clarify/extend lexis (e.g. explanation,
definition, synonym, paraphrase, example,
etc.)?
Students role
What instances are there of students misuse
of lexis?
How
are
these
handled
by
the
teacher/students?
What systems of storing lexis do students
appear to be operating? Do these systems
appear to be teacher guided/student initiated?
Is there evidence of use of reference
materials (dictionaries, etc.)? What is used?
How is it used? Does this use seem to be
teacher guided/student initiated?

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson objectives
How far does the lesson appear to have
specific lexical objectives?
If it does have lexical objectives, how would
you express them?
Reading/Listening Activities
How does the teacher prepare for anticipated
lexical difficulties?
During while and post listening/reading
phases, what lexical issues arise and how
does the teacher handle these?
What techniques does the teacher use to
explain/clarify/extend lexis (e.g. explanation,
definition, synonym, paraphrase, example,
etc.)?
Students role
What instances are there of students misuse
of lexis?
How
are
these
handled
by
the
teacher/students?
What systems of storing lexis do students
appear to be operating? Do these systems
appear to be teacher guided/student initiated?
Is there evidence of use of reference
materials (dictionaries, etc.)? What is used?
How is it used? Does this use seem to be
teacher guided/student initiated?
30

Your notes

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson objectives
How far does the lesson appear to have
specific lexical objectives?
If it does have lexical objectives, how would
you express them?
Reading/Listening Activities
How does the teacher prepare for anticipated
lexical difficulties?
During while and post listening/reading
phases, what lexical issues arise and how
does the teacher handle these?
What techniques does the teacher use to
explain/clarify/extend lexis (e.g. explanation,
definition, synonym, paraphrase, example,
etc.)?
Students role
What instances are there of students misuse
of lexis?
How
are
these
handled
by
the
teacher/students?
What systems of storing lexis do students
appear to be operating? Do these systems
appear to be teacher guided/student initiated?
Is there evidence of use of reference
materials (dictionaries, etc.)? What is used?
How is it used? Does this use seem to be
teacher guided/student initiated?
i.

Your notes

Foci of observation: listening / reading


Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)

. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose of presentation
Features of presentation
Activities
Type of interaction
Role of teacher
Degree of control
Correction
Length and pace of lesson
Success of lesson were students using
language correctly by the end?

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose of presentation
Features of presentation

Your notes

Your notes

31

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Activities
Type of interaction
Role of teacher
Degree of control
Correction
Length and pace of lesson
Success of lesson were students using
language correctly by the end?

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose of presentation
Features of presentation
Activities
Type of interaction
Role of teacher
Degree of control
Correction
Length and pace of lesson
Success of lesson were students using
language correctly by the end?

j.

Foci of observation: speaking

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What type of speaking skill e.g. dialogue
building, role-play, discussion, narrative
building?
What was the degree of control, i.e.
controlled/less controlled/freer?
How was the lesson set up?
What instructions were given and were they
clear?
Was the task realistic/appropriate/challenging
etc?
How did the teacher deal with correction e.g.
did the teacher correct during the activity or at
the end?
Comment on how successful you feel the
lesson was? What factors contributed to this?
Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)
. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What type of speaking skill e.g. dialogue
building, role-play, discussion, narrative
building?
What was the degree of control, i.e.
controlled/less controlled/freer?
How was the lesson set up?
32

Your notes

Your notes

Your notes

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

What instructions were given and were they


clear?
Was the task realistic/appropriate/challenging
etc?
How did the teacher deal with correction e.g.
did the teacher correct during the activity or at
the end?
Comment on how successful you feel the
lesson was? What factors contributed to this?

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What type of speaking skill e.g. dialogue
building, role-play, discussion, narrative
building?
What was the degree of control, i.e.
controlled/less controlled/freer?
How was the lesson set up?
What instructions were given and were they
clear?
Was the task realistic/appropriate/challenging
etc?
How did the teacher deal with correction e.g.
did the teacher correct during the activity or at
the end?
Comment on how successful you feel the
lesson was? What factors contributed to this?
k.

Your notes

Foci of observation: student observation

Choose a student and try to determine his/her stance toward the learning/teaching activity.
Consider the following things:

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
level of interest/boredom in different stages
and possible reasons for that.
whether he/she is learning or practicing
something which stretches him/her.
the level of interaction with others; amount
of participation;
if getting any correction from teacher, peers
or corrects himself/herself.
Other points to consider

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
level of interest/boredom in different stages
and possible reasons for that.
whether he/she is learning or practicing
something which stretches him/her.

Your notes

Your notes

33

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

the level of interaction with others; amount


of participation;
if getting any correction from teacher, peers
or corrects himself/herself.
Other points to consider

l.

Foci of observation: 50 min lesson

Teacher: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , No. of students: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time: . . . . . . . . . . , level / group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage of course: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aims:

AREAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

34

Clearness of aims
Lesson Plan
PREPARATION
Material/Aids
Classroom layout
SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS
USE OF AIDS
ACCURACY
OF
TEACHERS
LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTIONS/CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION
OF
NEW
LANGUAGE
ELICITATION
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
CORRECTION
MONITORING
EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS
STAGING
VARIETY
PACE
BALANCE ACCURACY /
FLUENCY ACTIVITIES
STUDENTS
MOTIVATION
/
PARTICIPATION
RANGE
OF
TEACHING
TECHNIQUES
MOBILITY
VOICE
LOUDNESS
SPEED
PRONUNCIATION
BALANCE OF ATTENTION
BODY LANGUAGE / EYE
CONTACT
MANNER / RAPPORT
ENCOURAGEMENT
GROUP DYNAMICS
UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING
PROCESS
ACHIEVEMENT OF AIMS

COMMENTS

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

35

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Foci of observation: 50 min lesson


Teacher: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , No. of students: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time: . . . . . . . . . . , level / group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage of course: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aims:

AREAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

36

Clearness of aims
Lesson Plan
PREPARATION
Material/Aids
Classroom layout
SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS
USE OF AIDS
ACCURACY
OF
TEACHERS
LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTIONS/CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION
OF
NEW
LANGUAGE
ELICITATION
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
CORRECTION
MONITORING
EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS
STAGING
VARIETY
PACE
BALANCE ACCURACY /
FLUENCY ACTIVITIES
STUDENTS
MOTIVATION
/
PARTICIPATION
RANGE
OF
TEACHING
TECHNIQUES
MOBILITY
VOICE
LOUDNESS
SPEED
PRONUNCIATION
BALANCE OF ATTENTION
BODY LANGUAGE / EYE
CONTACT
MANNER / RAPPORT
ENCOURAGEMENT
GROUP DYNAMICS
UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING
PROCESS
ACHIEVEMENT OF AIMS

COMMENTS

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Foci of observation: 50 min lesson


Teacher: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , No. of students: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time: . . . . . . . . . . , level / group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage of course: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aims:

AREAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

COMMENTS

Clearness of aims
Lesson Plan
PREPARATION
Material/Aids
Classroom layout
SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS
USE OF AIDS
ACCURACY
OF
TEACHERS
LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTIONS/CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION
OF
NEW
LANGUAGE
ELICITATION
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
CORRECTION
MONITORING
EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS
STAGING
VARIETY
PACE
BALANCE ACCURACY /
FLUENCY ACTIVITIES
STUDENTS
MOTIVATION
/
PARTICIPATION
RANGE
OF
TEACHING
TECHNIQUES
MOBILITY
VOICE
LOUDNESS
SPEED
PRONUNCIATION
BALANCE OF ATTENTION
BODY LANGUAGE / EYE
CONTACT
MANNER / RAPPORT
ENCOURAGEMENT
GROUP DYNAMICS
UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING
PROCESS
ACHIEVEMENT OF AIMS

37

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Foci of observation: 50 min lesson


Teacher: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , No. of students: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time: . . . . . . . . . . , level / group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage of course: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aims:

AREAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

38

Clearness of aims
Lesson Plan
PREPARATION
Material/Aids
Classroom layout
SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS
USE OF AIDS
ACCURACY
OF
TEACHERS
LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTIONS/CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION
OF
NEW
LANGUAGE
ELICITATION
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
CORRECTION
MONITORING
EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS
STAGING
VARIETY
PACE
BALANCE ACCURACY /
FLUENCY ACTIVITIES
STUDENTS
MOTIVATION
/
PARTICIPATION
RANGE
OF
TEACHING
TECHNIQUES
MOBILITY
VOICE
LOUDNESS
SPEED
PRONUNCIATION
BALANCE OF ATTENTION
BODY LANGUAGE / EYE
CONTACT
MANNER / RAPPORT
ENCOURAGEMENT
GROUP DYNAMICS
UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING
PROCESS
ACHIEVEMENT OF AIMS

COMMENTS

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Foci of observation: 50 min lesson


Teacher: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , No. of students: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time: . . . . . . . . . . , level / group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage of course: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aims:

AREAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

COMMENTS

Clearness of aims
Lesson Plan
PREPARATION
Material/Aids
Classroom layout
SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS
USE OF AIDS
ACCURACY
OF
TEACHERS
LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTIONS/CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION
OF
NEW
LANGUAGE
ELICITATION
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
CORRECTION
MONITORING
EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS
STAGING
VARIETY
PACE
BALANCE ACCURACY /
FLUENCY ACTIVITIES
STUDENTS
MOTIVATION
/
PARTICIPATION
RANGE
OF
TEACHING
TECHNIQUES
MOBILITY
VOICE
LOUDNESS
SPEED
PRONUNCIATION
BALANCE OF ATTENTION
BODY LANGUAGE / EYE
CONTACT
MANNER / RAPPORT
ENCOURAGEMENT
GROUP DYNAMICS
UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING
PROCESS
ACHIEVEMENT OF AIMS

39

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Foci of observation: 50 min lesson


Teacher: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , No. of students: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time: . . . . . . . . . . , level / group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage of course: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aims:

AREAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

40

Clearness of aims
Lesson Plan
PREPARATION
Material/Aids
Classroom layout
SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS
USE OF AIDS
ACCURACY
OF
TEACHERS
LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTIONS/CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION
OF
NEW
LANGUAGE
ELICITATION
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
CORRECTION
MONITORING
EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS
STAGING
VARIETY
PACE
BALANCE ACCURACY /
FLUENCY ACTIVITIES
STUDENTS
MOTIVATION
/
PARTICIPATION
RANGE
OF
TEACHING
TECHNIQUES
MOBILITY
VOICE
LOUDNESS
SPEED
PRONUNCIATION
BALANCE OF ATTENTION
BODY LANGUAGE / EYE
CONTACT
MANNER / RAPPORT
ENCOURAGEMENT
GROUP DYNAMICS
UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING
PROCESS
ACHIEVEMENT OF AIMS

COMMENTS

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Foci of observation: 50 min lesson


Teacher: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , No. of students: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time: . . . . . . . . . . , level / group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage of course: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aims:

AREAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

COMMENTS

Clearness of aims
Lesson Plan
PREPARATION
Material/Aids
Classroom layout
SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS
USE OF AIDS
ACCURACY
OF
TEACHERS
LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTIONS/CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION
OF
NEW
LANGUAGE
ELICITATION
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
CORRECTION
MONITORING
EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS
STAGING
VARIETY
PACE
BALANCE ACCURACY /
FLUENCY ACTIVITIES
STUDENTS
MOTIVATION
/
PARTICIPATION
RANGE
OF
TEACHING
TECHNIQUES
MOBILITY
VOICE
LOUDNESS
SPEED
PRONUNCIATION
BALANCE OF ATTENTION
BODY LANGUAGE / EYE
CONTACT
MANNER / RAPPORT
ENCOURAGEMENT
GROUP DYNAMICS
UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING
PROCESS
ACHIEVEMENT OF AIMS

41

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Foci of observation: 50 min lesson


Teacher: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , No. of students: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time: . . . . . . . . . . , level / group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage of course: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aims:

AREAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

42

Clearness of aims
Lesson Plan
PREPARATION
Material/Aids
Classroom layout
SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS
USE OF AIDS
ACCURACY
OF
TEACHERS
LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTIONS/CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION
OF
NEW
LANGUAGE
ELICITATION
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
CORRECTION
MONITORING
EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS
STAGING
VARIETY
PACE
BALANCE ACCURACY /
FLUENCY ACTIVITIES
STUDENTS
MOTIVATION
/
PARTICIPATION
RANGE
OF
TEACHING
TECHNIQUES
MOBILITY
VOICE
LOUDNESS
SPEED
PRONUNCIATION
BALANCE OF ATTENTION
BODY LANGUAGE / EYE
CONTACT
MANNER / RAPPORT
ENCOURAGEMENT
GROUP DYNAMICS
UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING
PROCESS
ACHIEVEMENT OF AIMS

COMMENTS

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Foci of observation: 50 min lesson


Teacher: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , No. of students: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time: . . . . . . . . . . , level / group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage of course: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aims:

AREAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

COMMENTS

Clearness of aims
Lesson Plan
PREPARATION
Material/Aids
Classroom layout
SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS
USE OF AIDS
ACCURACY
OF
TEACHERS
LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTIONS/CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION
OF
NEW
LANGUAGE
ELICITATION
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
CORRECTION
MONITORING
EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS
STAGING
VARIETY
PACE
BALANCE ACCURACY /
FLUENCY ACTIVITIES
STUDENTS
MOTIVATION
/
PARTICIPATION
RANGE
OF
TEACHING
TECHNIQUES
MOBILITY
VOICE
LOUDNESS
SPEED
PRONUNCIATION
BALANCE OF ATTENTION
BODY LANGUAGE / EYE
CONTACT
MANNER / RAPPORT
ENCOURAGEMENT
GROUP DYNAMICS
UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING
PROCESS
ACHIEVEMENT OF AIMS

43

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Foci of observation: 50 min lesson


Teacher: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , No. of students: . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
Time: . . . . . . . . . . , level / group: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage of course: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aims:

AREAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

44

Clearness of aims
Lesson Plan
PREPARATION
Material/Aids
Classroom layout
SUITABILITY OF MATERIALS
USE OF AIDS
ACCURACY
OF
TEACHERS
LANGUAGE
INSTRUCTIONS/CLASSROOM
MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION
OF
NEW
LANGUAGE
ELICITATION
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
CORRECTION
MONITORING
EXPLOITATION OF MATERIALS
STAGING
VARIETY
PACE
BALANCE ACCURACY /
FLUENCY ACTIVITIES
STUDENTS
MOTIVATION
/
PARTICIPATION
RANGE
OF
TEACHING
TECHNIQUES
MOBILITY
VOICE
LOUDNESS
SPEED
PRONUNCIATION
BALANCE OF ATTENTION
BODY LANGUAGE / EYE
CONTACT
MANNER / RAPPORT
ENCOURAGEMENT
GROUP DYNAMICS
UNDERSTANDING OF LEARNING
PROCESS
ACHIEVEMENT OF AIMS

COMMENTS

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

45

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

IV.

. Describing teacher experience: a bank of valuable ideas


If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts; but
if he will be content to begin with doubts, he shall end in
certainties
(Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning, 1605)

Ideas to be considered and adapted in the future


e.g. jigsaw stories with youngsters.
e.g. Ss keep language diaries; ss from different class read and respond to diary entries.
e.g. the teacher filming Ss.

46

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

47

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

48

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

49

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

V.

Lesson Plans and Outlines. Examples by the mentors


Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get wisdom; and with
all thy getting get understanding.
(The Bible, Proverbs 4:7)

50

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

LESSON PLAN
NAME: Georgeta Tofan, trained mentor
DATE: 18 Nov. 2002
CLASS: 10 D
NO. OF STUDENTS: 28
SCHOOL: Liceul pedagogic C. Negri
TIME OF LESSON: 50 min
TEXTBOOK: Reward Upper-Intermediate
UNIT: 6
LESSON: Trust me- Im a doctor
LESSON AIMS: By the end of the lesson the learners will have been introduced to vocabulary
related to hospitals and medical matters and have had oral and written practice in using it
appropriately.
MATERIALS: textbook, pictures, audio cassette, hand-outs

ACTIVITY 1
AIMS: to introduce the story; to revise and practise the vocabulary related to hospitals and
medical matters;

PROCEDURE

INTERACTION
individual

T. asks the ss. to look at the picture and describe it.


T. elicits the words which are likely to appear in the
frontal
story.
Ss are asked to think of other words related to the
topic and write them on the blackboard.
T gives more words and revise vocabulary to do with
medicine and hospital: plaster, anaesthetic, sore
throat, casualty, etc.
frontal
Ss do exercise 1. p. 16 (Circle the odd-one-out) from
the workbook.

TIMING

15 min

ACTIVITY 2
AIMS: to prepare for listening; to unscramble text; to listen for gist; to check comprehension; to
practice speaking.

PROCEDURE

T asks ss to read the sentences and predict the order of


events in the story.
Ss listen to the tape and check if they arranged the events
in the correct order.
T asks ss to work in pairs and predict what happens next
in the story.
Ss answers the questions, then work with another pair
and compare their answers.
Ss check their answers listening to the tape again.
T asks ss to match questions with answers

INTERACTION
individual

pair work

TIMING

20 min

group work

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A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

ACTIVITY 3
AIMS: to practice writing, to practice linking words: when, as, before; to rewrite a story from
another point of view;

PROCEDURE

T asks ss to complete sentences using suitable verbs at


the appropriate past tenses to give a summary of the
story.
Ss are asked to rewrite the story from Dr. Greens
point of view using the first person singular and
appropriate vocabulary.
T encourages ss to use linking words like: when, as,
before, after and suitable tenses.

INTERACTION
pair work
individual

TIMING

15 min

HOMEWORK:
Write a short story about a respectable doctor with an appalling past. His position is threatened
by someone who attempts to blackmail him.

LESSON PLAN
NAME: Georgeta Tofan, trained mentor
DATE: 9 Dec 2002
CLASS: 10 E
NO. OF STUDENTS: 28
SCHOOL: Liceul Pedagogic C. Negri
TIME OF LESSON: 50 min
TEXTBOOK: First Certificate Star
UNIT: 9
LESSON: Mysterious Monsters
LESSON AIMS: By the end of the lesson students will be able to devise a news report using the
notes taken during an interview about an unusual encounter;
MATERIALS: textbooks, pictures, charts,
ACTIVITY 1 Speaking
AIMS: to describe pictures, to answer questions; to discuss and express opinions;

PROCEDURE

52

T. asks ss to describe some pictures showing real


or imaginary monsters.
Ss discuss questions about the animals in the
pictures then report to the class their conclusions.

INTERACTION

TIMING

whole class

5 min

pair work
whole class

10 min

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

ACTIVITY 2 Vocabulary practice


AIMS: to introduce and activate vocabulary related to mysterious animals;
INTERACTION

PROCEDURE

Ss are asked to order words under three headings


and look for definitions of the more difficult
words.
Ss predict what the text is going to be about from
the words in the box and are asked to describe the
monster and build up the events in the text.

TIMING

individually

5 min

pair work

5 min

ACTIVITY 3 Reading
AIMS: to read for gist;
INTERACTION

PROCEDURE

Ss read the text and match the headings to the


paragraphs.
T asks ss to choose the correct answer to
comprehension questions;
Ss are asked to find synonyms in the text;

individually

TIMING
15 min

whole class

ACTIVITY 4 Speaking
AIM: to devise an interview using the vocabulary and information provided on cards; to role play
a given situation;

PROCEDURE

INTERACTION

pair work
Ss are divided into pairs and given cards with
information about different animals, then they are
asked to devise an interview based on the
information provided on cards
T asks ss to play the interview in front of the class.

TIMING
10 min

HOMEWORK:
To write a news report for the headline DOG ATTACKS OLD AGE PENSIONER

LESSON PLAN
NAME: Liliana Groza, trained mentor
DATE: April, 24
CLASS: 10 Grade
NO. Of STUDENTS: 25
SCHOOL: COSTACHE NEGRI High school
TIMING: 50 min
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TEXTBOOK: First-Certificate Star/ Talking Sense


LESSON AIMS:
- to listen to different sounds and recognize them;
- to associate the sound / noise with the right animal / object;
- to fill in gapped texts;
- to practice new vocabulary using verbs denoting sounds;
- to practice reading skills;
- to become aware of language register.
MATERIALS: audio cassettes; posters; charts; prizes; strips of paper.
ACTIVITY 1 Warm-up
AIMS: - to get Ss involved into the topic;
- to listen to and identify sounds;
- to distinguish between noise and sound;
- to fill in gapped sentences;
- to practice new verbs expressing sounds/noises.
PROCEDURE
INTERACTION
- T plays a cassette and asks the Ss to name what sounds frontal
they hear (Birds twittering; water flowing; etc.)
- T introduces the distinction between sound and frontal
noise.
- T asks the Ss to fill in some sentences using: sound, frontal
noise, racket, din. Ss will guess the meaning of the
unknown words from the context.
ACTIVITY 2
AIMS: - to match words (animals and the sounds they make);
- to use unknown words in sentences of their own;
- to complete a chart.
PROCEDURE
INTERACTION
- T plays a cassette for the Ss to recognize the sounds and frontal
name verbs.
- Animals and sounds Ss match the animals with the group work
verbs denoting the sounds they produce, writing down the
unknown words.
- In teams, Ss are asked to complete a chart with: animals, team work
baby animals and noises they make.
- The winning team gets a prize
T displays the Ss charts; the Ss check their answers.

TIMING
10 min

TIMING
20 min

ACTIVITY 3
AIMS: - to fill in gapped sentences;
- to practice new words connected to sounds produced by the human body;
- to guess actions;
- to read sentences; mime; perform actions; utter sounds;
- to write short texts using given words/clues.
PROCEDURE
INTERACTION
TIMING
- What your body does T asks Ss to fill in some team work
sentences with words connected to sounds the human
body makes.
- Ss get strips of paper with sentences. After reading the team work
20 min
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A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

situations, the other teams will have to guess what actions


the interlocutors perform.
-T gives Ss some strips of paper, asking them to read the team work
sentences and, after finding the sound verb, read/perform
the sentences.
Ss will make up short texts using some given words.
Team work
HOMEWORK: 1. exercise 2, p. 50
2. make up a short composition (100 lines) beginning like this:
My eyes are closed. Im in the middle of the I can hear

LESSON PLAN
NAME: Anca-Madalina Moscu, trained mentor
DATE: 15.11.2002
CLASS: vii B
NO. OF Ss: 28
SCHOOL: COSTACHE NEGRI High school
TIMING: 50 min
TEXTBOOK: All Right / Places. Events, Personalities / Glories Infinite- Adjectives
LESSON AIMS:
- to use the appropriate vocabulary when talking about traits;
- to practise personality related vocabulary in sentences of their own;
- to describe people using the correct adjective;
- to change nouns into adjectives;
- to practice modifying adjectives;
- to express personal opinions concerning human traits.
MATERIALS: pieces of coloured paper; badges; posters; two monsters positive and negative);
questionnaires; strips of paper.
ACTIVITY I WARM UP
AIMS; - to get the Ss involved into the topic;
- to express personality traits;
- to practice word formation;
- to turn nouns into adjectives.
PROCEDURE
Ss are asked several questions about weather and their
mood. Ss are divided into five teams (red, green, yellow,
blue and orange). Each team will decide upon the most
important personality trait. Ss write them on sheets of
paper and display them on a board. Ss bring arguments.
T asks the Ss to answer the questions from the textbook,
p. 68; exercise A1; discussing upon the same topic.
T brings the Ss a list with traits of personality, asking
them to come to the board and turn the nouns into
adjectives (word-formation), paying attention to suffixes
and spelling rules.

INTERACTION
Frontal
Team work

TIMING

Group work

15 min

frontal

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ACTIVITY 2
AIMS:
- to practice personality related vocabulary;
- to discuss about qualities and shortcomings;
- to distinguish between positive and negative adjectives.
PROCEDURE
INTERACTION
T brings Ss two monsters, the good and the bad one. One Group work
by one, Ss come and pick cards with traits, feeding the
positive or negative monster, according to their meaning.
T asks the Ss to think of two features character (one Pair work
positive, one negative) that best characterizes them and Ss
write the two traits down. The Ss will toss a coin and if it is
the head, they will confess the quality (the others will find
the bad side of it) and if it is the tail, the Ss will confess the
shortcoming (the Ss will find the good side of it).

TIMING

15 min

ACTIVITY 3
AIMS: - to practice the reading skills to describe people using modifiers adjectives;
- to ask and answer questions;
- to complete questionnaires;
- to express personal opinions on the chosen topic.
PROCEDURE
INTERACTION
TIMING
T presents some examples with modifiers, explaining how Group work
they increase or reduce the strength of adjectives.
T gives the Ss strips of paper with statements, asking them Team work
20 min
to describe the people who said those sentences. Ss will
describe the persons using modifiers.
Ss are asked some yes/no questions, the Ss will fill in a Individual work
questionnaire, thus checking the answers from the previous
activity. T gives the results and the Ss talk on the subject.
HOMEWORK:
Make up three short texts, describing yourself, your best friend and a member of your family.
Dont forget to use both positive and negative adjectives. Use modifiers!

LESSON PLAN
NAME: Mariana Ziminschi, trained mentor
DATE: February 12, 2002
CLASS: 9TH GRADE
SCHOOL: Pedagogical High school Costache Negri Galati
TIME OF LESSON: 50 MIN
TEXTBOOK: Matters Intermediate
UNIT: Reading the Signs
LESSON AIMS:
1. to stir the students imagination and curiosity and get them involved in the topic.
2. to get the students acquainted to open conditionals (making predictions).
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3. to use a short text in order to prove these texts are highly productive (texts in fairly
simple language hide intense and profound feelings and ideas).
MATERIALS: Textbook; pictures; tapes; handouts; materials used in off the wall workshops.
ACTIVITY 1 Your body is trying to tell you something!
AIMS: - To stir the Ss imagination and curiosity;
- to get them involved in the topic.
PROCEDURE
Have you got an itch? If so, it could be that your body is
trying to tell you something!
Ss are invited to listen to a recorded text (Peter Marsh asks the
question Is our Future up to Scratch?) and talk about itches
as signs which may help one foretell the future..
T asks Ss to look at pictures and say in which picture they are
most likely to have good luck.

INTERACTION TIMING
T-S
S-S

5 min

ACTIVITY 2 MAKING PREDICTIONS!


AIMS: -to get acquainted to the use and form of open conditionals (first conditional)
- to make predictions.
PROCEDURE
INTERACTION TIMING
(a) T explains the rules using a poster:
T-S
5 min
CONDITIONAL CLAUSE
A type of adverbial clause; the event described in the
MAIN CLAUSE depends on the condition described in the IF
CLAUSE
OPEN CONDITIONALS (first conditionals) referring S-S
to the future for:
-making predictions / promises / threats / warnings.
(b) Ss are invited to make predictions from cues
S-S
5 min
(individually, on handouts)
1. hand itches / get rich
2.want scratch right eye / see an old friend
3. left ear / someone say rude things about you behind your
back
4. lips / kiss someone soon
5 the itch on the left side of your head / meet a female
stranger.
T-S

Optional Ss may be asked to write the right


verb form (Future Present) in given sentences.
ACTIVITY 3 Texts are important for what they do not say!
AIM: - to use a short text in simple language in order to reveal its hidden side of feelings and
ideas.
PROCEDURE
INTERACTION TIMING
10 min

A short text on poster is read silently by Ss: He never


sent me flowers. He never wrote me letters. He never took me
to restaurants He never spoke of love. We met in parks. I
dont remember what he said, but I remember how he said it.
Most of it was silence anyway.
(a) Expansion: Ss are encouraged to add as many
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A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

adjectives as they can to the text; as well as sentences.


(b) Reduction: Ss are asked to reduce the text by cutting
out repetition

Groups of five
Groups of five

(c) Media transfer: Ss are encouraged to write out the


text as a poem and use the exact words of the text but
arrange them on the page to make the most effect; they
may give the poem a title.
(d) Matching: Ss are asked to look at some pictures and
say which woman / man is most likely to have said
that.
(e) Selection: Ss are invited to choose a title: Silence;
Indifference; Memories; Frustration; Never.
(f) Interpretation (personal knowledge / experience must be
relied on)
(g) Creating a text (the text is to be used as a springboard for
the creation of new texts): Ss are asked to write a poem using
some of the words from the text (*max. ten different words).
Never flowers/ Never letters/ Never love/ I remember/
Silence.

10 min

S-S
S-S

5 min

S-S

10 min

Homework: design questionnaires to discover what peoples


attitudes to courtship are (What should a man do to attract a
partner? What should a woman do?). Next class the
questionnaires will be distributed, completed, collected and
the results tabulated in two separate displays (one showing
womens attitudes, the other mens attitudes), One member of
each group will prepare a brief talk to explain the results to
the rest of the class.

LESSON PLAN
NAME: Mihaela Simona Neagu, mentor
DATE: October 28th, 2002
CLASS: 12th grade
NO. OF STUDENTS: 28
SCHOOL: M.KogalniceanuCollege
TIME OF LESSON: 50 minutes
TEXTBOOK: Prospects-Super Advanced
LESSON: Talking Point 2 Money
LESSON AIMS:
- to elicit vocabulary related to the topic
- to encourage variety of interaction
- to present different sayings about money
- to encourage Ss to express their opinions
MATERIALS: textbook, handouts-sayings, text
ACTIVITY 1 (Pre-Reading)
AIM * to elicit from the Ss vocabulary related to money and people
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5 min

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

PROCEDURE
Ss are helped to mention words about
money and people by means of definitions.
T expects Ss to be able to mention words such as: poorneedy, broke, hard up, thrifty greedy, economical,
corrupt, extravagant, rich, wealthy well-off, loaded,
millionaire, stinking rich

INTERACTION
T-S

TIMING
5 min

ACTIVITY 2 (Reading Speaking)


AIM * to encourage Ss to talk by agreeing/disagreeing with the ideas presented in the fragments
PROCEDURE
Ss are asked to work in groups of 4
Each group is given a different fragment.
T monitors the groups discussions.
T gets feedback from different groups.
Ss may be asked to enlarge on their opinions.

INTERACTION

TIMING

S-S

15 min.

ACTIVITY 3 (Reading Matching)


AIM: * to provide Ss with the opportunity to study different sayings about money
PROCEDURE
Ss are given handouts with sayings
and definitions that can be matched.
Ss will work in pairs.
A conversation on some of the sayings
can follow.

INTERACTION
S-S

TIMING
10 min

T-S

ACTIVITY 4 (Reading Presenting arguments)


AIM * to give Ss further opportunity to read in order to compare arguments
PROCEDURE
Ss read an essay supporting the idea that the only thing
people are interested in today is earning more
money.
Ss can work in groups of 4, discuss the arguments,
then present them to the class.
Ss may be allowed to read the whole text but consider the arguments for only one fragment.
T gets feedback from different groups.

INTERACTION

TIMING

S-S
T-S

15
min.

ACTIVITY 5 (home assignment)


PROCEDURE
T gives home assignment.
Ss are asked to write a similar essay, presenting
arguments on the topic:The only thing people
are not interested in today is....
T asks Ss to brainstorm ideas on what they
might write about.

INTERACTION
T-S

TIMING
5 min

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LESSON PLAN
NAME: Mihaela Simona Neagu, mentor
DATE: October 28, 2002
CLASS: 9th grade
NO.OF STUDENTS: 14
SCHOOL: M. Kogalniceanu College
TIME OF LESSON: 50 minutes
TEXTBOOK: Matters - intermediate
UNIT 5: A bit windy
TOPIC: Weather
LESSON AIMS:

to allow Ss to express ideas freely on the topic;

to get Ss familiar with the new vocabulary regarding weather;

to give Ss a purpose for listening ;

to encourage Ss to listen for details;


MATERIALS:

textbook, cassette, handouts- exercises and texts

ACTIVITY 1 ( Reading)
AIM : * to encourage Ss to use a text as a starting point for a conversation the topic
PROCEDURE
T gets Ss into the topic (Weather)
by asking them about the kind of weather
they really like / hate.
After expressing their opinions, Ss read a
text which presents the way people are

INTERACTION

TIMING

T-Ss

10 min

affected by the weather.


T asks Ss to personalize the information taken from the text

and refer to the way they are influenced by weather.


ACTIVITY 2 ( Before Listening)
AIM: * to encourage Ss interaction in order to match some headlines with photos
* to motivate Ss to use their imagination
PROCEDURE
Ss are asked to work in pairs and match the headlines with
the photos (ex.1/33).
T can ask them to suppose what has happened in each case.
ACTIVITY 3
60

INTERACTION
S-S
(PW)
T-S

TIMING
7 min.

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

AIM:

* to get Ss familiar with the vocabulary related to different types of Weather

PROCEDURE
T allows Ss to work in groups of 4
and choose from a list of statements the ones that can be
listed under the headings: warm weather, rain, cold weather
and wind.
Each group will work on a different heading.
T monitors the groups to help them with
possible problems of vocabulary.
T gets feedback from each group.

INTERACTION

TIMING

S-S (GW)

8 min

ACTIVITY 4 ( Listening)
AIM : * to encourage Ss to listen for the main idea and for details
PROCEDURE
Ss listen to recording 1 and circle the best summary of
the weather report. (ex.1/34).
Before playing recording 2, T asks Ss to predict why the
weather forecaster in the first report became famous.
T explains some unknown words: batter, masonry
topple, disrupt, assess.
Ss listen to rec 2 and , while listening, fill in the gaps.
For the third recording, Ss will work in 2 groups of 7.
One member of each group will focus on the tenses
used in the reports. The other members will focus on
the questions about details in the reports.
T may ask each member to deal with only one question.

INTERACTION
PW

TIMING

T-S
15 min
GW

ACTIVITY 5 (Vocabulary focus)


AIM: * to give further practice on the vocabulary related to weather
PROCEDURE
Ss are asked to work in pairs and match the words , fill in
the gaps, order words and sentences. (ex. 1-4/34)
T gets feedback from different pairs.

INTERACTION
S-S

TIMING
10 min.

T gives home assignment. Ss will have to make up a story based on one of the 3 texts provided. Ss
are asked to give plenty of details and use vocabulary related to weather.

LESSON PLAN
Teacher: IRINA SCORTARU, trained mentor
Date: December 7th, 2002
Class: 12A / No. of students: 14.
School: Mihail Kogalniceanu College
Time of lesson: 50 minutes
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Textbook : New Proficiency Gold


Unit/Topic: The Hard Sell/ advertising and consumerism
Lesson aims: - raise awareness of techniques used in advertising and marketing;
- develop vocabulary skills;
- introduce students to three-option multiple choice questions;
- make Ss aware of the features of different registers and how to identify
them;
- revise layout and style of a formal letter.
Skills : reading, listening, writing.
Materials : textbook, different advertisements, tape, different letters.
Possible drawbacks:
- Ss may have some problems in using specific vocabulary;
- Ss may be confused where advertisement-writing techniques are
concerned.
- Ss may be tempted to use informal language in formal letters.
ACTIVITY 1 (reading and speaking)
Aims :
raise the students awareness of the specific language techniques used in advertising
and marketing;
to develop vocabulary skills;
to prepare for the listening activity.
PROCEDURE
- the Ss are asked to read a text and identify the
correct answers;
- the Ss solve another cloze, after reading a second text;
explanations are given for the new words;
- the T. asks Ss to discuss starting from some given
questions

INTERACTION
Frontal

TIMING
3 min.

Pair work

3 min.

Group work

9 min.

ACTIVITY 2 (listening)
Aims:
to introduce students to three-option multiple-choice questions based on short texts;
to develop the skills needed to answer this type of questions;
to practice listening to authentic language samples.
PROCEDURE
- the Ss are asked to read through the questions in order
to anticipate and better focus on listening;
- the Ss are asked to listen to short extracts and
answer questions;
- the Ss must fill in the gaps and use the complete text
for further discussions;
- the T. asks Ss to discuss starting from some given
questions
ACTIVITY 3 (writing)
Aims :
to revise the layout and style of a formal letter;
62

INTERACTION
Individual work

TIMING
2 min.

Pair work

5 min.

Individual work

2 min.

Group work

6 min.

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

to give Ss criteria to use when judging the acceptability of an advertisement;


to give Ss the chance to respond personally to advertisements.

PROCEDURE
- the Ss are asked to read the case study presented and
discuss it;
- the Ss are to describe the advert they have;
- the Ss revise the pattern of formal letters;
- the Ss read the model letter and discuss the pattern
and style;

INTERACTION
Group work

TIMING
5 min.

Pair work
Frontal

5 min.
2 min.

Group work

6 min.

Teacher gives home assignment: the Ss will have to write a similar letter, complaining about
the presence of a certain commercial during a childrens T.V. programme. They are asked to
state their point of view clearly and use a consistent tone and register

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VI.

Student-Teacher Lesson Plans


An expert is one who knows more and more
about less and less.
(Nicholas Murray Butler, Address, Columbia
University, 1930)

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Name of student- teacher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date: . . . . . . . . . .Level of students: . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Number of students . . . . . . Time: . . . . . . . .Topic of lesson/textbook: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..............................................................................
Aims: overall and specific

Assumptions (with reference to previous knowledge):

Anticipated problems (with reference to common cases of interference in pronunciation,


vocabulary, grammar, etc.):

Aids: materials to be used:

Phase/
Time

Activities
(Procedures)

Interaction
Types

Focus
(Skills)

Comments
Rationale/Purpose

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Name of student- teacher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date: . . . . . . . . . .Level of students: . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Number of students . . . . . . Time: . . . . . . . .Topic of lesson/textbook: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..............................................................................
Aims: overall and specific

Assumptions (with reference to previous knowledge):

Anticipated problems (with reference to common cases of interference in pronunciation,


vocabulary, grammar, etc.):

Aids: materials to be used:

Phase/
Time

Activities
(Procedures)

Interaction
Types

Focus
(Skills)

Comments
Rationale/Purpose

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Name of student- teacher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date: . . . . . . . . . .Level of students: . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Number of students . . . . . . Time: . . . . . . . .Topic of lesson/textbook: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..............................................................................
Aims: overall and specific

Assumptions (with reference to previous knowledge):

Anticipated problems (with reference to common cases of interference in pronunciation,


vocabulary, grammar, etc.):

Aids: materials to be used:

Phase/
Time

Activities
(Procedures)

Interaction
Types

Focus
(Skills)

Comments
Rationale/Purpose

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Name of student- teacher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date: . . . . . . . . . .Level of students: . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Number of students . . . . . . Time: . . . . . . . .Topic of lesson/textbook: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..............................................................................
Aims: overall and specific

Assumptions (with reference to previous knowledge):

Anticipated problems (with reference to common cases of interference in pronunciation,


vocabulary, grammar, etc.):

Aids: materials to be used:

Phase/
Time

Activities
(Procedures)

Interaction
Types

Focus
(Skills)

Comments
Rationale/Purpose

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VII. . Self-Observation Forms


The whole art of teaching is only the art of awakening the natural curiosity of young minds
for the purpose of satisfying it afterwards.
(Anatole France, The Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard, 1881)

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Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal and professional qualities
My ability to establish rapport (body
language / gesture / eye contact;
My voice (audibility / speed / intelligibility

My notes

My appearance
Preparation
Was there appropriateness of aims and
rationale?
Were there balance / variety of activities?
Suitability of materials?
Anticipated problems?
Performance
My managing the class (instructions /
mobility / balance of attention / ability to
maintain discipline / monitoring);
My presentation techniques;
My way of questioning / eliciting;
My practice technique (choral / individual /
pair / group practice);
My way of varying activities / techniques)
Balance of STT / TTT.
Exploitation of materials / teaching aids;
My instances of fostering genuine language;
balancing accuracy/fluency activities; of
creating language awareness; correcting errors;
My ability of facilitating/maintaining class
dynamics / motivation / involvement;
My ability of giving feedback (checking
understanding/learning;
encouragement
/
praise; evaluating/grading students;
My ability to adapt / improvise / deal with the
unexpected;
Instances of creativity? Ingenuity?
Use of native language (some/no instances)?
Achievement of aims/objectives?

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)

My notes
75

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Personal and professional qualities
My ability to establish rapport (body
language / gesture / eye contact;
My voice (audibility / speed / intelligibility
My appearance
Preparation
Was there appropriateness of aims and
rationale?
Were there balance / variety of activities?
Suitability of materials?
Anticipated problems?
Performance
My managing the class (instructions /
mobility / balance of attention / ability to
maintain discipline / monitoring);
My presentation techniques;
My way of questioning / eliciting;
My practice technique (choral / individual /
pair / group practice);
My way of varying activities / techniques)
Balance of STT / TTT.
Exploitation of materials / teaching aids;
My instances of fostering genuine language;
balancing accuracy/fluency activities; of
creating language awareness; correcting errors;
My ability of facilitating/maintaining class
dynamics / motivation / involvement;
My ability of giving feedback (checking
understanding/learning;
encouragement
/
praise; evaluating/grading students;
My ability to adapt / improvise / deal with the
unexpected;
Instances of creativity? Ingenuity?
Use of native language (some/no instances)?
Achievement of aims/objectives?

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76

My notes

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Personal and professional qualities


My ability to establish rapport (body
language / gesture / eye contact;
My voice (audibility / speed / intelligibility
My appearance
Preparation
Was there appropriateness of aims and
rationale?
Were there balance / variety of activities?
Suitability of materials?
Anticipated problems?
Performance
My managing the class (instructions /
mobility / balance of attention / ability to
maintain discipline / monitoring);
My presentation techniques;
My way of questioning / eliciting;
My practice technique (choral / individual /
pair / group practice);
My way of varying activities / techniques)
Balance of STT / TTT.
Exploitation of materials / teaching aids;
My instances of fostering genuine language;
balancing accuracy/fluency activities; of
creating language awareness; correcting errors;
My ability of facilitating/maintaining class
dynamics / motivation / involvement;
My ability of giving feedback (checking
understanding/learning;
encouragement
/
praise; evaluating/grading students;
My ability to adapt / improvise / deal with the
unexpected;
Instances of creativity? Ingenuity?
Use of native language (some/no instances)?
Achievement of aims/objectives?

77

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

VIII. Self-Evaluation Forms


If a little knowledge is dangerous, where is the man who has so much as to be out of danger?
(Thomas Henry Huxley, On Elemental Instruction in Physiology, 1877)

78

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AREAS OF FOCUS
CONSIDERATIONS
SUGGESTIONS
ASPECT OF THE LESSON
WHAT I LIKED/ENJOYED
WHERE I NEED TO FOCUS
WHAT I OSERVED ABOUT MORE
MY MANNER/RAPPORT
WHAT I MIGHT DO
WHAT I WORKED WELL
DIFFERENTLY NEXT
WHAT I APPRECIATED TIME
ABOUT MY STUDENTS
ANY HELP I NEED
WHAT MATERIALS WERE ANY MORE MATERIAL
USED WELL
PEERS/MENTORS
SUGGESTIONS

LESSON PLANNING

INTERACTION

AIDS/MATERIALS

LANGUAGE AIMS

79

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AREAS OF FOCUS
CONSIDERATIONS
SUGGESTIONS
ASPECT OF THE LESSON
WHAT I LIKED/ENJOYED
WHERE I NEED TO FOCUS
WHAT I OSERVED ABOUT MORE
MY MANNER/RAPPORT
WHAT I MIGHT DO
WHAT I WORKED WELL
DIFFERENTLY NEXT
WHAT I APPRECIATED TIME
ABOUT MY STUDENTS
ANY HELP I NEED
WHAT MATERIALS WERE ANY MORE MATERIAL
USED WELL
PEERS/MENTORS
SUGGESTIONS
LESSON PLANNING

INTERACTION

AIDS/MATERIALS

LANGUAGE AIMS

80

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Lesson (grade/date/teacher/no of Ss/level/course book)


. . . . . / . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . /. . /. . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AREAS OF FOCUS
CONSIDERATIONS
SUGGESTIONS
ASPECT OF THE LESSON
WHAT I LIKED/ENJOYED
WHERE I NEED TO FOCUS
WHAT I OSERVED ABOUT MORE
MY MANNER/RAPPORT
WHAT I MIGHT DO
WHAT I WORKED WELL
DIFFERENTLY NEXT
WHAT I APPRECIATED TIME
ABOUT MY STUDENTS
ANY HELP I NEED
WHAT MATERIALS WERE ANY MORE MATERIAL
USED WELL
PEERS/MENTORS
SUGGESTIONS

LESSON PLANNING

INTERACTION

AIDS/MATERIALS

LANGUAGE AIMS

81

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

IX.

Mentor Feedback Form

Do you know the difference between education and experience? Education is when you
read the fine print; experience is what you get when you dont.
( Peter Seeger Pete, American folksinger, Loose Talk, 1980)

82

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

TEACHER TRAINING LESSON EVALUATION


(compiled by the Universities of Cluj, Sibiu, and Baia Mare under the guidance of Sue Mace, British Council
representative)
Student teacher:

Class:

Age of pupils:

Year of study:

Nos. of years of English

Nos. in class

Major:

Minor:

Materials used(coursebook/supplementary materials)

School:
Aims of lesson:
Date:
Mentor/Methodologist:

Length of lesson:

You are only required to indicate the level of


performance in areas that are appropriate to the
lesson observed.
On the basis of the lesson observed you are
invited to make more general comments at the
end.

Levels of performance may be summarized thus:


10 A very good performance
9 A good performance
8 A fairly good perfprmance
7 A satisfactory performance
4 An unsatisfactory performance

PERSONAL QUALITIES

Circle your
Ratings

COMMENTS

Personality/presence/general style

4 7 8 9 10

Ability to establish rapport


Voice: audibility, ability to project,
speed
Professional appearance

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

COMMAND OF LANGUAGE

Circle your
Ratings

Accuracy of: structure


Vocabulary
Pronunciation
Register
Fluency
Sensitivity to pupils level of
English

4 7 8 9 10

4
4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9
9

COMMENTS

10
10
10
10
10
10

PREPARATION

Circle your
Ratings

Clarity and appropriateness of aims


Balance and variety of activities
Suitability of materials and methods
for level, type of class, the
particular students
Preparation of materials
Timing
Patterns of interaction carefully
planned
Rationale

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
83

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Anticipation of learners difficulties


Anticipation of teaching difficulties
Awareness of place in curriculum
Punctuality

4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10

EXECUTION

Circle your
Ratings

Instructions/classroom management
Presentation techniques:
meaningful, contextualised,
appropriately staged
Practice techniques: meaningful,
motivating, contextualised,
appropriately staged

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

Questioning/elicitation: graded,
directed, appropriate, motivating
Use of aids, e.g. board, equipment
Checking understanding
Controlled practice:
choral/individual
Handling transitions/change of
stage
Pace and timing
Variety of techniques
Variety and sequencing of activities
Balance of class, group, pair,
individual practice

4 7 8 9 10

4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10

Balance of accuracy/fluency activities

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

Ability to foster genuine language


Balance between STT and TTT
Appropriate teacher movement
Monitoring
Awareness and correction of errors
Exploitation of materials
Skills development

Integration of skills
Creativity/ingenuity
Ability to encourage learner
autonomy
Balance of attention
Body language, eye contact, facial
expression, gesture
Pupils motivation/participation
Interest in the pupils as individuals
Class dynamics
Answering pupil questions
Encouragement, praise, feedback
Understanding of learning process
Class control/ ability to maintain
discipline/ deal with problem
students
Ability to adapt/ improvise/ to deal
with the unexpected
Checking of learning/ evaluating

84

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10
10

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

student performance
Achievement of aims

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

4 7 8 9 10
Grading
POST LESSON EVALUATION

Circle your
Ratings

Ability to evaluate own


performance
Ability to respond constructively to
feedback
Ability to plan appropriate future
action
Willingness to experiment/ take
risks in order to develop/put action
plans into practice

4 7 8 9 10

GENERAL

Circle your
Ratings

Awareness of ELT materials


available
Understanding of national and local
educational system
Appropriate integration into school
life/ working as a member of a team
Ability to work independently

4 7 8 9 10

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

GENERAL COMMENTS BASED ON THE LESSON OBSERVED

Positive aspects of the student teachers teaching

Suggestions for development

Student teachers proposals for future action

Final grade for the lesson:


(write 10, 9, 8, 7, or 4)

Mentors or methodologists signature:

Date:

Student teachers signature:

85

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

TEACHER TRAINING LESSON EVALUATION


(compiled by the Universities of Cluj, Sibiu, and Baia Mare under the guidance of Sue Mace, British Council
representative)
Student teacher:

Class:

Age of pupils:

Year of study:

Nos. of years of English

Nos. in class

Major:

Minor:

Materials used(coursebook/supplementary materials)

School:
Aims of lesson:
Date:
Mentor/Methodologist:

Length of lesson:

You are only required to indicate the level of


performance in areas that are appropriate to the
lesson observed.
On the basis of the lesson observed you are
invited to make more general comments at the
end.

Levels of performance may be summarized thus:


11 A very good performance
10 A good performance
9 A fairly good perfprmance
8 A satisfactory performance
5 An unsatisfactory performance

PERSONAL QUALITIES

Circle your
Ratings

COMMENTS

Personality/presence/general style

4 7 8 9 10

Ability to establish rapport


Voice: audibility, ability to project,
speed
Professional appearance

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

COMMAND OF LANGUAGE

Circle your
Ratings

Accuracy of: structure


Vocabulary
Pronunciation
Register
Fluency
Sensitivity to pupils level of
English

4 7 8 9 10

4
4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9
9

COMMENTS

10
10
10
10
10
10

PREPARATION

Circle your
Ratings

Clarity and appropriateness of aims


Balance and variety of activities
Suitability of materials and methods
for level, type of class, the
particular students
Preparation of materials
Timing
Patterns of interaction carefully
planned

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

86

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

COMMENTS

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Rationale
Anticipation of learners difficulties
Anticipation of teaching difficulties
Awareness of place in curriculum
Punctuality

4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10
10

EXECUTION

Circle your
Ratings

Instructions/classroom management
Presentation techniques:
meaningful, contextualised,
appropriately staged
Practice techniques: meaningful,
motivating, contextualised,
appropriately staged

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

Questioning/elicitation: graded,
directed, appropriate, motivating
Use of aids, e.g. board, equipment
Checking understanding
Controlled practice:
choral/individual
Handling transitions/change of
stage
Pace and timing
Variety of techniques
Variety and sequencing of activities
Balance of class, group, pair,
individual practice

4 7 8 9 10

4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10

Balance of accuracy/fluency activities

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

Ability to foster genuine language


Balance between STT and TTT
Appropriate teacher movement
Monitoring
Awareness and correction of errors
Exploitation of materials
Skills development

Integration of skills
Creativity/ingenuity
Ability to encourage learner
autonomy
Balance of attention
Body language, eye contact, facial
expression, gesture
Pupils motivation/participation
Interest in the pupils as individuals
Class dynamics
Answering pupil questions
Encouragement, praise, feedback
Understanding of learning process
Class control/ ability to maintain
discipline/ deal with problem
students
Ability to adapt/ improvise/ to deal
with the unexpected

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10
10

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
87

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Checking of learning/ evaluating


student performance
Achievement of aims

4 7 8 9 10
Grading

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

POST LESSON EVALUATION

Circle your
Ratings

Ability to evaluate own


performance
Ability to respond constructively to
feedback
Ability to plan appropriate future
action
Willingness to experiment/ take
risks in order to develop/put action
plans into practice

4 7 8 9 10

GENERAL

Circle your
Ratings

Awareness of ELT materials


available
Understanding of national and local
educational system
Appropriate integration into school
life/ working as a member of a team
Ability to work independently

4 7 8 9 10

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

GENERAL COMMENTS BASED ON THE LESSON OBSERVED

Positive aspects of the student teachers teaching

Suggestions for development

Student teachers proposals for future action

Final grade for the lesson:


(write 10, 9, 8, 7, or 4)

Mentors or methodologists signature:

Date:

Student teachers signature:

88

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

TEACHER TRAINING LESSON EVALUATION


(compiled by the Universities of Cluj, Sibiu, and Baia Mare under the guidance of Sue Mace, British Council
representative)
Student teacher:

Class:

Age of pupils:

Year of study:

Nos. of years of English

Nos. in class

Major:

Minor:

Materials used(coursebook/supplementary materials)

School:
Aims of lesson:
Date:
Mentor/Methodologist:

Length of lesson:

You are only required to indicate the level of


performance in areas that are appropriate to the
lesson observed.
On the basis of the lesson observed you are
invited to make more general comments at the
end.

Levels of performance may be summarized thus:


12 A very good performance
11 A good performance
10 A fairly good perfprmance
9 A satisfactory performance
6 An unsatisfactory performance

PERSONAL QUALITIES

Circle your
Ratings

COMMENTS

Personality/presence/general style

4 7 8 9 10

Ability to establish rapport


Voice: audibility, ability to project,
speed
Professional appearance

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

COMMAND OF LANGUAGE

Circle your
Ratings

Accuracy of: structure


Vocabulary
Pronunciation
Register
Fluency
Sensitivity to pupils level of
English

4 7 8 9 10

4
4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9
9

COMMENTS

10
10
10
10
10
10

PREPARATION

Circle your
Ratings

Clarity and appropriateness of aims


Balance and variety of activities
Suitability of materials and methods
for level, type of class, the
particular students
Preparation of materials
Timing
Patterns of interaction carefully
planned

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
89

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Rationale
Anticipation of learners difficulties
Anticipation of teaching difficulties
Awareness of place in curriculum
Punctuality

4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10
10

EXECUTION

Circle your
Ratings

Instructions/classroom management
Presentation techniques:
meaningful, contextualised,
appropriately staged
Practice techniques: meaningful,
motivating, contextualised,
appropriately staged

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

Questioning/elicitation: graded,
directed, appropriate, motivating
Use of aids, e.g. board, equipment
Checking understanding
Controlled practice:
choral/individual
Handling transitions/change of
stage
Pace and timing
Variety of techniques
Variety and sequencing of activities
Balance of class, group, pair,
individual practice

4 7 8 9 10

4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10

Balance of accuracy/fluency activities

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

Ability to foster genuine language


Balance between STT and TTT
Appropriate teacher movement
Monitoring
Awareness and correction of errors
Exploitation of materials
Skills development

Integration of skills
Creativity/ingenuity
Ability to encourage learner
autonomy
Balance of attention
Body language, eye contact, facial
expression, gesture
Pupils motivation/participation
Interest in the pupils as individuals
Class dynamics
Answering pupil questions
Encouragement, praise, feedback
Understanding of learning process
Class control/ ability to maintain
discipline/ deal with problem
students
Ability to adapt/ improvise/ to deal
with the unexpected

90

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8

9
9
9
9
9

10
10
10
10
10

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Checking of learning/ evaluating


student performance
Achievement of aims

4 7 8 9 10
Grading

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

POST LESSON EVALUATION

Circle your
Ratings

Ability to evaluate own


performance
Ability to respond constructively to
feedback
Ability to plan appropriate future
action
Willingness to experiment/ take
risks in order to develop/put action
plans into practice

4 7 8 9 10

GENERAL

Circle your
Ratings

Awareness of ELT materials


available
Understanding of national and local
educational system
Appropriate integration into school
life/ working as a member of a team
Ability to work independently

4 7 8 9 10

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

COMMENTS

4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10
4 7 8 9 10

GENERAL COMMENTS BASED ON THE LESSON OBSERVED

Positive aspects of the student teachers teaching

Suggestions for development

Student teachers proposals for future action

Final grade for the lesson:


(write 10, 9, 8, 7, or 4)

Mentors or methodologists signature:

Date:

Student teachers signature:

91

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

X.

92

TP Grade Descriptors

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

GUIDE TO USING OBSERVATION SHEETS Descriptors


Personal and professional qualities
Professional
attitude
- commitment
- appearance
- punctuality

Voice
- audibility
- speed
/intelligibility

Command of
language
- accuracy and
fluency
- sensitivity to
pupils level

Ability to
establish rapport
- body language/
gesture
- eye contact

10
Highly
responsible
manner, keenness
and commitment
at all times; eager
to find ideas;
Commanding and
pleasant presence;
individual and
positive teaching
style; smart
appearance;
punctual at all
times;
Very good quality
of voice; very
clear and
expressive
speech;
appropriate
speed;
Excellent model
of language for
pupils; uses
language fluently
and accurately;
can vary the level
at will according
to pupils needs;

9
Responsible
manner and
commitment at all
times.
Commanding
presence; positive
teaching style;
appropriately
dressed; Punctual;

8
Reasonably
responsible
manner and
commitment most
of the time; Good
presence; no
serious defects in
teaching style;
appropriately
dressed; punctual
except for serious
reasons;

7
Committed and
willing to
cooperate at
times;
Satisfactory
presence;
occasional defects
in teaching style;
Occasionally late;

4
Non-committed;
insufficient
cooperation;
Personality has
little or no
impact; teaching
style is boring;
inappropriately
dressed;
frequently late;

Good quality of
voice; clear
speech;

Voice is audible;
speech is
intelligible from
all parts of
classroom;

Voice is audible
most of the times;
speech is
intelligible only
at close range;

Voice is inaudible
or unpleasant;
speech
unintelligible at
times;

Good model of
language for
pupils; clear
pronunciation;
minor
inaccuracies; uses
the language
appropriately;
sensitive to
pupils level but
not always able to
react accordingly
Friendly, positive Good working
Reasonably
and relaxed
atmosphere;
pleasant
atmosphere;
teacher and pupils atmosphere in
teacher and pupils cooperate well;
classroom; pupils
relate very well to Good non-verbal do not regard
one another,
communication; student teacher as
belong to the
outsider; adequate
same working
non-verbal
group; excellent
communication;
non-verbal
communication;

Fairly good
model of
language for
pupils; recurrent
pronunciation
mistakes and
inaccuracies; able
to adjust level
only if
forewarned;

Poor model of
language for
pupils; uses
language
inappropriately;
for pupils difficult
to understand;
sometimes
incorrect; can not
pitch the level to
pupils level;

Adequate
working
atmosphere;
occasional lack of
cooperation;
satisfactory nonverbal
communication;

Strained,
uncomfortable or
unpleasant
atmosphere;
teacher and pupils
clearly do not
relate to one
another; lack of
eye contact,
misleading bodylanguage;

10
Very clear and
lucid
specification of
realistic aims;
appropriate
objectives; very
clear idea and
selection of
criteria for
checking

7
Usually clear
about aims
/objectives; some
idea about how
achievement of
objectives is to be
checked;

4
Unrealistic
aims /objectives;
aims and
objectives do not
mach; no clear
idea /criteria for
checking
achievement of
objectives;

Good model of
language for
pupils; clear
pronunciation;
mostly fluent and
accurate; can vary
level adequately
most of the time;

Preparation
Clarity and
appropriateness
of aims and
rationale

9
Clear and realistic
aims; relevant
and attainable
objectives; clear
ways of checking
them;

8
Sensible aims
linked to
attainable
objectives;
generally clear
about how
achievement of
objectives is to be
checked;

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Balance /variety
and timing of
activities
/methods

Suitability and
preparation of
materials;

Anticipation of
problems

Awareness of
- educational
system
- place in
curriculum

achievement of
objectives;
Extreme
sensitivity to the
actual needs of
pupils; great
variety of
activities; right
balance of timing;
pupils reaction is
well anticipated
and judged;

Sensitivity to the
actual need of the
pupils; realism
shown in range
and management
of activities;
adequate balance
and timing; pupil
reaction suitably
interpreted;

Attention is paid
to the actual
needs of the
pupils concerning
the balance and
timing of
activities;
manageable and
reasonably
motivating range
of activities; pupil
reaction taken
into
consideration;
Materials usually
support the
teaching points;
acceptable
sequencing;

Pupils needs
generally taken
into
consideration;
satisfactory
balance and range
of activities;
fairly good
timing; pupil
reaction
occasionally
misjudged;

Too much or
insufficient time
allocated to
certain activities;
lack of variety in
choosing
activities; pupil
reaction is often
misjudged;

Teaching
materials usually
based on
textbook;
occasional use of
aids /materials;
satisfactory
sequencing;

Teaching material
entirely based on
textbook; little or
no thought given
to aids; materials
unsuitable
irrelevant or
unhelpful;
sequencing
confuses learners;

Teacher can
anticipate
problems
realistically; plans
for remedy are
appropriate;

Teacher generally
anticipates
problems
realistically; plans
for remedy action
are feasible;

Teacher tries to
anticipate
problems; remedy
actions are
satisfactory
planned;

Teacher can not


anticipate or
misjudges
problems; plans
for solutions are
inadequate;

Imagination and
originality shown
in selection and
devising of
materials; aids
highly relevant
and effective for
the class and
objectives;
sequencing is
logical; aids
facilitate learning
and make it
enjoyable;
Teaching and
learner problems
have obviously
been thought
through and
remedy action has
been planned
accordingly;
Teacher is highly
familiar with the
national
educational
system and place
of lesson in
curriculum;

Materials
carefully chosen
or devised
suitable for class
and objectives;
adequate
sequencing;

Teacher is
familiar with the
national
educational
system and place
of lesson in
curriculum;

Teacher is aware
of the national
educational
system and place
of lesson in
curriculum;

Teacher has some


idea of the
national
educational
system and place
of lesson in
curriculum;

Teacher is not
aware /ignores
place of lesson in
curriculum;

10
Teacher is always
in control; deals
effectively with
pupils
misbehaviour
/lack of
concentration on
task; gives clear
instructions and
checks
understanding;
very good
balance of
attention;

9
Teacher is always
in control and
pupils generally
on task; teacher
gives clear
instructions and
checks
understanding
most of the time;
good balance of
attention;
gestures and
movements
facilitate

8
Teacher is
generally in
control and pupils
on task most of
the time;
instructions are
usually clear,
confusion is rare;
balance of
attention is
usually good;
gestures and
movements do
not impede

7
Teacher
sometimes loses
control and finds
it difficult to keep
pupils on task;
instructions are
not always clear
enough;
understanding is
not checked;
attention is
unequally
divided; gestures
and movements

4
Class is confused,
disorganised;
teacher unable to
deal with pupil
misbehaviour
/lack of
concentration on
task; instructions
are unclear,
contradictory or
misleading;
inefficient /nonexistent
monitoring;

Performance
Classroom
management
- instructions
- teachers
mobility
- balance of
attention
- ability to
maintain
discipline
- monitoring

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Presentation
techniques

Questioning
/elicitation

teachers gestures
and movements
reinforce
communication;
very good
monitoring;
Teacher uses
meaningful,
motivating,
contextualized
and appropriately
staged and varied
techniques;

Highly relevant,
varied, graded,
directed,
appropriate and
stimulating for
the pupils;
Practice
Teacher provided
techniques
a great variety of
- balance of
activities with
choral /individual changes in modes
/pair /group /class of working (e.g.
practice
choral,
- variety of
individual, pair,
activities
group, class
/techniques
activities);
- balance of
teacher keeps a
STT /TTT
low profile and
development
gives effective
/integration of
language help, all
skills
the necessary
information and
maximum chance
to practice the
language
/develop skills;
Pace and timing Lesson seems to
develop its own
rhythm and is
experienced as an
organic whole;
pace adequately
adapted to
activities;
accurate timing;
Handling
Teacher moves
transition
effectively
between the
different stages of
the lesson;
activities follow
one another
naturally; teacher
has no difficulty
in regaining
control of class at
the appropriate
point;

communication; communication;
good monitoring; fairly good
monitoring;

are not always


helpful;
satisfactory
monitoring;

Teacher uses
meaningful,
contextualized
and appropriately
staged techniques
but not always
motivating or
varied;

Presentation
techniques are
mostly
meaningful but
not always
context related;
staging is often
confusing; little
or no variety or
motivation;
Generally clear
and appropriate;
however there is
little variation
and motivation
for pupils;
Teacher provides
little variety of
activities with
few changes in
modes of
working;
sometimes
unnecessarily
dominates the
class but still
provides
language /help
/information on
request; pupils
get some chance
to practice the
language /
develop skills;

Presentation
techniques are not
meaningful or
motivating; they
are not context
related; there is
no apparent
staging;

Teacher generally
uses meaningful
and
contextualized
techniques but
not always
appropriately
staged and
motivating; little
variety;
Relevant, graded, Appropriate,
directed,
clear, keep lesson
reasonably varied moving forward;
and stimulating;

Random,
irrelevant,
unclear,
monotonous,
tactless;

Teacher provided
activities with
changes in modes
of working;
teaches does not
dominate the
class and gives
pupils
appropriate
language
support
/information and
chance to practice
the language
/develop skills;

Teacher provided
activities with
changes in modes
of working;
teaches is not too
dominant the
class; gives
sufficient
language
support
/information and
chance to practice
the language
/develop skills;

Monotonous
activities; no
variation in mode
working; teacher
interferes with
group /pair work;
fails to provide
the necessary
language help or
information; talks
unnecessarily,
dominates the
class, does not
offer enough
chance to practice
language
/develop skill;

Lesson develops
smoothly, pace
suitable for
class /activities;
sensible timing;

Lesson develops
reasonably
smoothly;
generally good
pace and
satisfactory
timing;

Broken rhythm at
times; sometimes
inadequate
timing;

Pace either too


alert or too slow;
time allotment
disproportionate;

Natural flow of
activities; teacher
is able to regain
control of class
without
interruption;

Activities follow
one another
sometimes with
unjustified
breaks; teacher
generally regains
control of the
class;

Activities
sometimes
disconnected;
occasionally
teacher has
difficulty in
regaining control
of the class;

Activities do not
seem to connect
to one another;
teacher has
difficulty in
regaining control
of the class;

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Exploitation of
materials use of
teaching aids

Exploited /used
inappropriately,
ineffectively;
they confuse the
teacher and /or
the pupils;
materials attract
attention to
themselves and
not to the
teaching point;
material poor or
lacking;
Ability to foster Teacher shows
Teacher is able to Most of the time Teacher is
Teacher uses
genuine
imagination in
foster the use of teacher can foster sometimes able to /fosters artificial
language; balance creating true to
genuine
the use of
foster the use of language;
of accuracy
life situations that language; usually genuine
genuine
corrects
/fluency
foster the use of knows when to
language; teacher language; teacher inappropriately;
activities;
genuine
ignore and /or
tries to correct
does not always is unaware
awareness and
language; usually correct;
systematically
know when to
/ignores errors
correction of
knows when to
correction
but does not
correct /ignore
/mistakes; teacher
errors
ignore and /or to techniques are
overcorrect;
errors /mistakes; overcorrect or
correct; uses
effective and
pupils are not
correction may
corrects in an
tactful and varied useful for the
offended by
sometimes be
embarrassing
strategies to
pupils;
correction;
disruptive or
way;
signal, identify
tactless;
and aid correction
of errors; pupils
take correction as
teacher support;
Class dynamics; Teacher
Teacher can
Teacher tries to
Teacher
Teacher is not
pupils
establishes,
generally
motivate and
sometimes
able to motivate
motivation and
facilitates and
establish,
involve all pupils succeeds in
and involve
involvement
maintains pupils facilitate and
but their
motivating and
pupils or maintain
interest,
maintain pupils participation is
involving pupils; interest; pupils
involvement and interest and
uneven; patterns pattern of
appear to be
attention; teacher involvement;
of interaction are interaction rather bored and
motivates
patterns of
reasonably
monotonous;
restless;
/involves all
interaction are
varied;
sporadic
pupils and is
quite motivating
involvement of
sensitive to their and varied; pupils
all pupils;
different
appear involved
abilities /needs
and interested
/interests
most of the time;
/emotions;
teacher varies
patterns of
interaction to
ensure maximum
participation;
In-class feedback Teacher always
Teacher checks
Teacher
Teacher
Teacher omits to
- checking of
checks
understanding
sometimes
randomly or
check
understanding
understanding
and learning most checks
rarely checks
understanding
and learning
and learning;
of the time,
understanding
understanding
and learning;
gives
adequately uses and learning;
and learning;
generally
encouragement
constructive
encouragement
encouragement
sporadically
overlooks the
/praise
feedback
and praise;
and praise are
encourages and
necessity of
- evaluating pupil encouraging
teacher has clear satisfactory;
praises pupils;
encouragement
performance
pupils to take
and fair criteria
teacher has
criteria for
/praise or
- grading
responsibility for for evaluation
reasonably sound evaluating
overpraises
their learning;
/grading that
criteria for
/grading are not /discourages
teacher uses
encourage pupil evaluating
always clearly
pupils; does not
appropriate
progress;
/grading largely defined and /or
have clear criteria

96

Exploited /used
appropriately,
competently,
effectively,
confidently,
creatively; they
clearly facilitate
learning;

Exploited /used
appropriately,
competently and
effectively; they
facilitate
learning;

Good use of
materials /aids;
they relate to the
teaching point;

Materials /aids
are used but not
to their full
potential; they do
not always
facilitate
learning;
connection to the
teaching point is
sometimes farfetched;

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Ability to adapt
/improvise /deal
with the
unexpected

Giving
homework
/follow up
assignment (if
/when
appropriate)

Creativity
/ingenuity

Achievement of
aims /objectives

language of
encouragement
and praise; has
sound, fair and
systematic
criteria for
assessment;
encourages pupils
to evaluate their
own work and
progress; grades
constructively;
this is understood
and appreciated
by pupils;
Teacher is
flexible, able to
improvise
/change direction
if an activity does
not seem to be
working or adopt
a different
strategy from the
planned one;

understood by
pupils; these do
not negatively
affect classroom
atmosphere;

Teacher shows
flexibility of
response, is
seldom at a loss;
changes direction
if an activity does
not seem to be
working; is able
to improvise if
necessary;

Teacher is
flexible most of
the time; if an
activity does not
seem to be
working teacher
is eventually able
to improvise and
adopt a different
strategy;

understood by
pupils;

Teacher is
sometimes
flexible; not
always aware of
why an activity
does not seem to
be working and
consequently
may be late to
respond; response
sometimes not
adequate;
Teacher is able to Teacher is able to Teacher manages Teacher has some
bring the lesson bring lesson to a to bring the
difficulty in
to a successful
close; assigns
lesson to a close; bringing the
close, set relevant adequate follow- follow-up work is lesson to a close;
home
up work; gives
generally
choice of home
assignments that necessary
connected to the tasks is not
reinforce
explanations and teaching points; always the most
/highlight the
understanding is teacher gives
suitable;
teaching point(s); checked most of clear
explanations may
able to explain
the time;
explanations for be somewhat
/check
tasks;
confusing or even
understanding of
lacking;
task;
Teacher
creatively
exploits human
resources; uses
materials /aids
/situations
imaginatively; is
able to capitalise
on or at least
fully compensate
for shortcomings;
Teacher achieves Teacher achieves Teacher achieves Teacher partially
all the stated
most of the stated objectives to a
achieves
objectives in the objectives of the reasonable degree objectives of the
fullest manner
lesson;
in the context of lesson;
possible in the
the lesson;
context of the
lesson;

for evaluating
/grading; often
grades are
perceived as
unfair;

Teacher is overrigid, ignores


what is
inconvenient or
unforeseen, is
easily put out by
unexpected
developments in
the lesson;

Teacher is not
able to bring the
lesson to a close;
home task is
irrelevant
/ambiguous;

Teacher does not


achieve
objectives to the
degree expected
in the context of
the lesson;

Reflection and awareness


Ability to

10
Teacher

9
8
7
4
Teacher generally Teacher is able to Teacher has some Teacher is

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- evaluate own
/peer
performance
- respond to
feedback

demonstrates the
ability to evaluate
own /peer
performance, is
fully cooperative
in the evaluation
progress,
suggests lines of
improvement, is
non-judgemental,
responds
constructively to
feedback;

shows the ability


to reflect on
own /peer
performance, is
cooperative in
post-lesson
discussion; is
able to make
feasible
suggestions for
improvement, is
non-judgemental
and on the whole
response to
feedback is
constructive;

Ability to plan
future action
/willingness to
experiment, take
risks for
development

Teacher is able to
plan efficient
future actions, is
eager to
experiment and
even take risks
for development;

Teacher can
adequately plan
own future
action; is
generally willing
to experiment
/take risks for
self-development;

evaluate own
/peer
performance
reasonably well
and react to
evaluation in a
positive way; is
ready to accept
/give suggestions
for improvement;

Teacher is
generally able to
devise future
action plans for
selfimprovement;
only occasionally
willing to
experiment /take
risks;
Ability to work
Teacher is fully
Teacher is
Teacher is
as a member of a aware of his/her capable of
generally able to
team
role as a member developing
work as a
/individually
of a professional adequate working member of a
team and is
relations in a
team but is only
perfectly capable team; can
partly involved
of developing
generally work
and sometimes is
effective working well
satisfied with a
relations in that
independently
passive /minor
team but is also
when necessary; role; is usually
able to work
able to work
independently;
independently;
Working with
Teacher is
Teacher can
Teacher is
official school
familiar with the appropriately use generally able to
records
different types of the most
handle the most
official school
important official important official
records
school records;
school records;
/documents and
can easily handle
them;

difficulty in
evaluating own
/peer
performance; is
usually
cooperative in the
post-lesson
discussion but is
not always able
to offer possible
alternatives
/suggestions; is
sometimes
reluctant to
accept
suggestions;
Teacher needs
some help
planning future
action; is rarely
willing to
experiment /take
risks;

confused about
/unaware of
strengths
/weaknesses of
own /peer
performance;
reacts
unconstructively
to evaluation
from others;
cannot capitalise
on self evaluation
in a sensible
/helpful way or
suggest lines of
improvement; can
often be
judgemental;
Teacher is unable
to learn from own
/peer teaching
experience and to
plan future action
without help; is
not willing to
take any risks or
to experiment;

Teacher accepts
teamwork but fits
in with some
difficulty; might
often rely too
much on the
support of the
other members;
might not always
be able to work
without guidance;

Teacher either
cannot /is not
willing to act as a
member of a team
or is too shy
/feels unsafe
/unprepared to be
able to work
independently;

Teacher has
difficulty in using
official school
records correctly;

Teacher is
unaware of the
need to handle
official school
records
/documents
accurately;

Proposed by a Cluj working party: Marina Cristian, Susana Demeter, Gabriela Wainblat Mentors, Mentor
Trainers

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XI.

Foci of observation: educational class


(observarea orei de dirigenie)

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Ora de dirigenie (clasa / data / profesor / nr.elevi)


./..//
Subiectul leciei:.
Observaii, aprecieri,
Desfurarea activitii
ntrebri, concluzii

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Ora de dirigenie (clasa / data / profesor / nr.elevi)


./..//
Subiectul leciei:.
Observaii, aprecieri,
Desfurarea activitii
ntrebri, concluzii

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XII. Notes on the observed student (observaii asupra elevului studiat)


(tabel din Cristea, S., Caietul dirigintelui, n Revista de pedagogie, nr. 2/1991, pp.22-27)

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Mediul de observaie: clasa,


coala, familia, societatea

Prezentarea faptei i a sursei


de informare

Interpretarea psihopedagogic a faptelor

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XIII. Learner Profile (Fia psiho-pedagogic)

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CARACTERIZAREA PSIHO-PEDAGOGIC A ELEVULUI


A. DATE GENERALE DESPRE ELEV:
a. Date biografice:
- nume:
- clasa:
- data i locul naterii:
-coli absolvite:
- domiciliul actual:

b. Date privind familia:


-domiciliul prinilor:
-ocupaia i locul de munc al prinilor:
tatl:
mama:
-nivelul cultural:

c. Starea sntii i dezvoltarea fizic a elevului:

B. ASPECTE PRINCIPALE ALE ACTIVITII I CONDUITEI


ELEVULUI
a. situaia colar:

b. atitudinea fa de coal/munc
c. atitudinea fa de munca colar i succesul la nvtur

d. aspecte ale proceselor psihice implicate n viaa colar

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e. conduita elevului:

f. activitatea i conduita elevului n colectiv:

C. TRSTURI PRINCIPALE ALE PERSONALITII ELEVULUI


a. interesele dominante ale elevului:

b. aptitudinele elevului:

c. temperamentul elevului:

d. trsturile de voin i caracter

D. APRECIERI I RECOMANDRI EDUCATIVE CU CARACTER


PROGNOSTIC I DIAGNOSTIC:

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XIV. Samples of valuable materials / tasks / tests of your own making


It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in
creative expression and knowledge.
(Albert Einstein, Out of My Later Years, 1950)

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XV. Teaching Practice Final Report


Grace is given of God, but knowledge is bought in the market.
(Arthur Hugh Clough, The Bothie of Tober-na-Voulich, 1848)

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English Teaching Practice Final Report


Student Teacher: .. Year.
Mentor: Major/Minor
School: .
GRADE :(in figures and words)
The following report should give a clear picture of the student teachers teaching competence
after TP and suggest their future potential as ELT teachers.

Mentor: . Signature: .Date:


MethodologistSignature: Date:
Description of grades
10
9
8
7
4

A very good performance


A good performance
A fairly good performance
A satisfactory performance
An unsatisfactory performance

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XVI. Teaching Practice Feedback Questionnaire


For one semester you took part in Teaching Practice supervised by a mentor. This was
scheduled over a 10-week period. Please look back over the whole experience and answer the
following questions. Your reflections will help in further improving the methodology component
of the University course and Teaching Practice.
1. Please rate the T.P. experience in your development as an ELT teacher.
very important
important
quite important
not very important

useless

2. Please rate your mentor on the scale below. One of the main characteristics of T.P. has been
openness and constructive feedback. Your mentor would like to know how successful she has
been in helping you become a teacher. You could mention particular incidents, events, during
T.P. to illustrate your views.
excellent
very good
good

3. Here are some special characteristics of T.P. Please express your opinion about the value of
each in helping you become an ELT teacher, by ticking the appropriate box.
Reflection on experience as a major tool of development
very useful
useful
quite useful
useless
Self-evaluation as a major development tool
very useful
useful
quite useful
useless
Peer observation, evaluation and feedback
very useful
useful
quite useful
useless
Developmental not judgmental feedback i.e. Mentors and peers being helpful, supportive
guides rather than judges.
very useful
useful
quite useful
useless
A gradual journey towards teaching complete lessons rather than being thrown in at the
deep end.e.g. team planning and teaching with the mentor and peer trainees.
very useful
useful
quite useful
useless
4. Do you feel you have been prepared enough to cope with starting as a beginner teacher in a
school?
Yes
No
5.

How confident do you feel about this project?


very confident
confident
quite confident

not very confident

6. Suggestions for improving TP in the following year

Thank you
116

not at all confident

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

XVII.

Glossary of ELT Terms

Activity
Accuracy vs. Fluency Activities
Aims
ARC
Brainstorming
Clarification and focus
Classroom management

Cloze exercise
Communicative activity
Contextualization
Drills/Drilling
Elicitation/Socratic technique
Extensive reading/listening
Feedback session

Functional syllabus
Group work
Icebreakers
Information gap

Intensive reading/listening
Jigsaw learning

A single exercise, problem-solving task, game, etc.


Activities meant to enhance language correct usage;
activities meant to encourage language use.
What the teacher hopes to achieve during an activity,
lesson.
=Authentic use (e.g. communicative tasks/activities),
Restricted use (e.g. transformations; drills; etc.),
Clarification and focus.
A group activity meant to generate a lot of ideas. All
suggestions (however unlikely) are recorded to be
sieved later by collaborative effort.
The stage of a lesson dedicated to clarifying things
about language system items (form, meaning, use).
Step-by-step decisions and actions concerning
organization of the classroom and activities (e.g.
seating and grouping arrangements, instructions,
rapport, etc.).
A gap-fill exercise with regularly-spaced gaps (e.g.
every eighth word).
An activity whose major aim is communication,
either oral or written (main features: information gap,
choice, feedback).
Creating a specific situational illustration for a
language item.
Oral repetition with change of one language item.
A form of teaching by question and answer gradually
leading to generating ideas, enlarging language
semantic fields, etc.
Either referring to reading/listening outside class, or
reading/listening for the gist of the text.
A class activity in which students report back to the
class on what they have been researching or
discussing. It may also be
a session in which the
teacher reports back to students on their work.
Syllabus presenting grammatical items and phrases
under functional (situational) headings.
The class organization where activities are carried out
in groups.
Activities meant to accommodate students and
teacher with each other.
That which creates the need and desire to
communicate with each other ( i.e. to find out the
missing information crucial for understanding a
certain issue).
Detailed reading of/listening to excerpts of
written/spoken text.
A form of learning/teaching in which students cover
different areas of a topic and later pool their
knowledge (e.g. by seminar/class proper).
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Layout
Language skills

Language systems/areas
Lockstep technique
Monitoring
Objectives
Observation task
Pair work
PPP

Project work
Pyramid group

Rapport
Role play
Self-access
Self-assessment
STT
Substitution tables
Syllabus
Task
Task-based learning
TTT
Test format
Test reliability
Test rubric
118

Seating arrangement within a classroom.


The four interactive skills are: reading, listening,
writing and speaking. They usually integrate in a
lesson (i.e. integrative skills), although one may
prevail.
They are: grammar, lexis, phonology.
The class grouping where all the students are working
with the teacher, where all students are locked into
the same rhythm and pace, the same activity.
It happens when the students do the learning and the
teacher only supervises, being alert about how
learning occurs.
Intended student achievements in a lesson.
A specific task to be done while an observer is
watching another teacher in class.
The class grouping where activities are carried out in
twos.
Having a grammar lesson organized on the pattern:
Presentation (giving the language item), Practice
(providing opportunities to use it in controlled ways)
and Production (integrating it communicatively).
A kind of task-based activity which usually involves
an extended amount of independent work, either by
an individual student or a group of students.
A form of group activity in which the class is divided
into groups. After some time, pairs of groups are
joined together and continue the discussion. This
procedure is repeated until there is only one group,
comprising the whole class. Sometimes called a
snowball group.
The quality of relationship within the classroom.
A form of simulation in which the participants adopt
certain roles.
i.e. self-access centre (where students have free
access to materials).
When one self-evaluates his/her achievements,
qualities, prospective development, etc.
=Student Talking Time (the amount of time that
students get to talk during the lesson).
A way of writing out grammar information as patterns
that can allow for generation of further sentences.
A list of course contents.
Something what the student is asked to do in class.
Used to describe any kind of learning which involves
the performance of a specific task or piece of work.
= Teacher Talking Time (the amount of time teacher
talks during the lesson).
The way in which the test is organized, such as
multiple-choice or interview.
Consistency, the extent to which the scores resulting
from a test are similar wherever and whenever it is
taken, and whoever marks it.
Information for the student on how to do the test,

A Student Teachers Teaching Practice Guide

Test validity
Visual aids
Warmer/warm-up
Workshop

including instructions, examples, and the organization


of test procedures.
The extent to which a test measures what it is
intended to measure.
= pictures, charts, posters, diagrams, etc. used by the
teacher to enhance language understanding.
Starter served to students to wind their imagination
and enthusiasm about the language activity to follow.
A kind of task-based group activity which involves
the completion of a certain specified task. It is
expected that all the members of the group to
contribute something to the completion of the task.

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XVIII.

Select Bibliography

Ministerul Educaiei Naionale, Consiliul Naional pentru Curiculum, Limba englez,


Curriculum colar pentru clasa a VII-a. Bucureti, 1977.
Allwright, D., and K. M. Bailey, Focus on the Language Classroom. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1991.
Bailey, K., M., Diary studies in teacher education programs. In Second Language Teacher
Education, ed. J. C. Richards and D. Nunan, New York: Cambridge University Press,
1990.
Barna, A., Antohe, G. Curs de Pedagogie. Teoria instruirii, curriculum-ului i evalurii,
Logos, Galai, 2001.
Bartlett, L., Teacher Development through reflective teaching. In Second Language Teacher
Education, ed. J. C. Richards and D. Nunan, New York: Cambridge University Press,
1990.
Day, R.,R., Teacher observation in second language teacher education. In Second Language
Teacher Education, , ed. J. C. Richards and D. Nunan, New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1990.
Gebhard, J. G., Seeing teaching differently: The teacher as observer. The Language Teacher,
15, 5, pp. 17-20, 1991
Gebhard, J.G., and A. Ueda-Motonaga, The power of observation. In Collaborative teaching
and learning, ed. D.Nunan. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992
Nunan, D., Action Research in the language classroom. In Second Language Teacher
Education, ed. J. C. Richards and D. Nunan, New York: Cambridge University Press,
1990.
Scrivener, Jim, Learning Teaching, Macmillan Heinemann, English Language Teaching,
1998.

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