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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
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Volume 4, Issue 1, January-February 2015 ISSN 2278-6856

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Volume 4, Issue 1, January-February 2015

ISSN 2278-6856

theorem domain

Ismail A. Ismail1 and Mohamed G. Awad2

1

6th October city, Egypt.

2

Abstract

Automated Theorem provers are used to check if the

mathematical theorems are proved true or false. If the

theorem is true, the automated theorem prover, usually, prints

out the proof. In this paper we present a new approach to deal

with the other case, i.e. if the theorem is false. The semantic

tableau method is used to extend the theorem domain. The

modified automated theorem prover suggests an extension of

the domain, if it is available, to present a new provable

theorem.

provers, Tableaux, PROLOG

1. INTRODUCTION

Automated theorem proving (ATP) is the automatic

proving of mathematical theorems by computer programs

[1]. SPASS, PTTP, ACL2, Vampire, Otter, HOL, and

others are examples of already existing ATP programs [2].

These ATPs use different techniques to achieve the target

results. Resolution and tableau are the most popular

techniques used to implement theorem provers [3]. ATPs

that use resolution convert logical programs first to the

Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF). The resolution

technique depends on choosing two clauses one of them

contains a predicate and the other contains the negation of

that predicate [3], [4]. The resulting new clause is formed

by taking the disjunction of the two clauses after removing

this predicate and its negation from the two clauses. The

process is repeated until an empty set is formed or no

other clauses can be resolved. If an empty set is formed

then the program is proved true; otherwise it is false. A

mathematical theory is proved by initially negating the

goal to be proved and adding it to the premises of the

program. If an empty set is driven after applying the

resolution one or more times. Then, a contradiction is

driven, and so the original goal is proved; otherwise, the

goal is not provable using the current premises [5]. On

the other hand, the main idea behind the tableau

technique is to construct a truth tree by using a logical

program in Disjunctive Normal Form (DNF) as the parent

node. The tree is expanded by constructing a new branch

for each disjunction and a new node in the same branch

for each conjunction. A branch is closed if the branch

contains a predicate and its negation or if it contains a

false predicate [5]-[7]. To prove a theorem, the negation

of the goal formula is negated and added to the logical

program. If all branches of the tableau are closed, then the

branch is not closed, then the original goal cannot be

proved true. In this paper we extend the work presented

in [8], our goal is to implement an ATP that can either

prove a theorem if it is provable or present a modification

if applied to this theorem it becomes true. The technique

used is to incrementally extending the domain of the

theorem by adding the missing predicates in the tableau

proof. Of course, the new presented theorem is not the

same like the original, but the ATP presents a new

theorem with a new domain. Correcting incorrect plans,

incorrect mathematical theorems, and inconsistent logic

gates is some applications of this concept.

In tableau to prove a formula X we begin with X and

produce a contradiction [3]-[8]. A tableau proof is a binary

tree labeled with formulas, where the tree itself represents

the disjunction of its branches, and each branch is the

conjunction of formulas appearing on it [9]-[11]. A branch

of the tableau tree is closed if a contradiction or false

appears on it and the tableau tree is closed if all branches

are closed. LeanTap, TAP, Bluegum, Cassandra, and

Deep Though are examples of theorem provers that use

tableau proving procedure [12]. A PROLOG

implementation of a tableau theorem was introduced in

[5], a PROLOG implementation of Connection Tableau is

presented in [6], and we presented an implementation of a

tableau- based theorem prover in [8]. The tableau-based

theorem provers check the branches one-by-one, if all

branches are closed then the whole tree is closed,

otherwise if one of the branches is open then the tableau

does not check the rest of branches, and the whole tree is

open. A closed tree means that the negated formula in the

parent node is a contradiction, and then the original

formula is true. On the other side, if the tree is open, then

the negated formula is true, and so the original formula is

a contradiction. The idea of our work depends on

checking the whole tableau tree in both cases, and keeps

the open branches, if any. In [8], a tableau-based theorem

prover with some improvements is presented. One of these

improvements is to split the branch list into two lists, the

negative list and the positive list respectively. The branch

is closed if a predicate appears in both positive and

negative lists. So, if the tableau has an open branch, it can

be converted into closed one if a one of the predicates, or

all, that appears in the positive list is added to the negative

list or one of the predicates, or all, that appears in the

Page 113

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org

Volume 4, Issue 1, January-February 2015

ISSN 2278-6856

negative list is added to the positive list. We can keep

track of all these predicates that appear in the

positive/negative list of the open branch but does not

appear in the negative/positive list. After checking all

open branches of the tableau tree, we will have a list of all

predicates that make branches open. In the original

Tableau, the formula X is a theorem if the formula X in

the parent node of the tableau causes the tableau tree to be

closed, i.e., all the branches of the tableau is closed. From

the approach presented in [8] point of view, a tableau is

closed if the list O is empty, where O is the open branches

list. If the list O is not empty, then the original formula X

is not a theorem, and the list O will contain the predicates

that make the tableau open and more work is needed to

make this formula provable, i.e. we need to add

disjunction of these predicates to the original formula X to

make X provable. In Prolog, the predicates flatten/2 and

list_to_set/2 will output a new list RO from the list O

without redundancy. Of course, we can simply add the

conjunction of all of all predicates in RO to the formula, at

the tableau's parent node, X, or the disjunction of the

negation of these predicates to the original formula X. this

way is both simple and trivial, amore convenient method

is needed to add the minimum number of predicates to the

original theorem. If the predicates is added one-by-one

and in every time the tableau is checked if it is closed or

not, does not guarantee that the set of added predicates are

the minimum set. A more intelligent and simple way to

add the disjunction of the minimum number of predicates

to the original theorem is to incrementally extending the

domain of the theorem step by step using the power set of

the negation of the open list O. If the original formula is

X, Y= neg X, O is the open branches of the tableau, and

RO is the list of predicates that makes branches open, i.e.

the contradiction list. Let NRO is the list that contains the

negative of predicates in RO list and let PO is the power

set of NRO. Adding any predicates to the closed branches

will not change the state of the branch, it is already closed,

but adding predicates to the open branch can change the

state of the branch from open to close. To reduce the

work, if the proposed ATP is attempting to correct a

theorem by closing the open branches, it will not add any

predicates to the closed branches in the correction stage

and it will work only with open ones. The ATP will add

the smallest set in PO to all open branches in the tableau,

i.e. to all branches in the list O, and it will check if these

branches become closed. If the branches in O are closed

then the whole tableau tree is closed. If the branches in O

are not closed then the ATP will take the next smallest set

in PO and repeat the previous work. If PO is empty, then

the ATP will not be able to extend the improvable theorem

to a provable one. For example, the theorem P and P is

improvable and the proposed ATP could not extend it to a

provable one, since the. On the other hand, If the

branches in O become closed then the open tableau can be

extended to a closed one using the current smallest set

from list PO.

works.

Let X is the original formula

Y= neg X

Construct the tableau tree of Y and save it in Z

If Z is closed then

print(' X is a Theorem')

Else

Store all open branches in O

Store all unrepeated predicates in O in RO

NRO= neg RO

PO is the power set of NRO.

Repeat

H= smallest set in PO

Add H to all branches of O

PO=PO-H

check if O is closed.

Until O is closed or PO is empty or all branches of O

are closed

if PO is empty and O is open then

print('can't extend X to a provable theorem')

End

if O is closed then

print('X can be extended to a provable theorem using')

print(H)

End

End..

Page 114

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org

Volume 4, Issue 1, January-February 2015

ISSN 2278-6856

3. Conclusion

In this paper we presented a new approach to deduce

provable theorems from improvable theorems, by

incrementally extending the domain of the theorem and

adding the predicates and check if the theorem is provable

or not. Some enhancements are added to guarantee that

the added conjunction of predicates is minimum. A

pseudo code and a flow chart of the proposed approach are

presented and discussed.

References

[1] Castell,R. , Mili, R., (1998). Theorem Provers

Survey.

The

University

of

Texas

at

Dallas.(http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~ragerdl/cs378/read

ing/Castello_-_Theorem_Provers_Survey.pdf)

[2] http://www.cs.miami.edu/~tptp/OverviewOfATP.html

[3] Hein, J. L. (1996). Theory of Computation: An

Introduction. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

[4] http://www.cis.cau.edu/prolog/docs/Prolog_Lab_Man

ual.pdf

[5] Fitting, M. (1996). First-Order Logic and Automated

Theorem Proving. Graduate Texts in Computer

Science. Springer-Verlag, 2nd edition.

[6] Otten, J. and Bibel, W. (2003). leanCoP: Lean

Connection-Based Theorem Proving. Journal of

Symbolic Computation , 36(1-2):139161.

[7] Agostino, M. , Gabbay, D., Haehnle, R., Posegga, J.

(Eds) , Handbook of Tableau Methods, Kluwer.

[8] Ismail, I., Awad, M. , Rashed E., (2014) An

implementation of a tableau-based theorem prover

with some improvements. The AIUB Journal of

Science and Engineering (AJSE), Vol. 13(1) 93:98.

[9] Sutcliffe, G., Suda, M., Teyssandier, A., Dellis, N.

and Melo, G.,(2010). Progress Towards Effective

Automated Reasoning with World Knowledge. In

Hans W. Guesgen and R. Charles Murray, editors,

FLAIRS Conference. AAAI Press.

[10] Harrison, M. D., Masci, P. and Campos, J. C. Curzon,

P. (2013). Automated theorem proving for the

systematic

analysis

of

interactive systems.

Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on

Formal Methods for Interactive Systems, City

University,London, June 24th, 2013.

[11] Folkler, A. L. E. (2002).Automated Theorem Proving

Resolution vs. Tableau (master's Thesis). Blekinge

Institute of Technology.

[12] Schumann, J. (1994). Tableaux-based Theorem

Provers: Systems and Implementations. Journal of

Automated Reasoning, 13(3):409-421.

more than 150 published papers and he is the founder of

Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Zagazig University

in 1997.

Mohamed G. Awad , is with the

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of

Education, Suez Canal University, AlArish, Egypt. He received the B.Sc.

Degree in Scientific Computations

From Suez Canal University in 1998,

the M.Sc. degree in Computer Science from Suez Canal

University in 2005.

AUTHORS

Prof. Ismail A. Ismail is the dean of

Faculty

of

Computers

and

Informatics,

6Th

of

October

University, Egypt. He was born on

March 7, 1946. He received the B.S.

degree in pure mathematics / physics

from Cairo University, Egypt in 1967, the M.Sc. Degree

and the Ph.D. degree in Signal Processing from the Cairo

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