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2000

The Impacts on the Durability of Chinese Paintings


ABSTRACT
The communication of ink and color on silk and paper gives birth to Chinese
paintings. Chinese painting, the invaluable cultural asset, has existed for more than
2000 years and is still in vogue. Different from paintings of other races, Chinese
paintings own distinctive attributes in materials and style. Unfortunately, ancient
artists masterpieces slide into disappearance for the erosion of ages. Only the names
of the masterpieces live. If methods can improve chaing quality and deter ioration of
pieces and safeguard the works from artificial defacement such as the adoption of
durable materials in painting or mounting, the longevity of paintings will definitely be
enhanced.With superior durable materials and maintenance afterwards, pieces of works
can be protected effectively. This is the accountability of artists and cultural-relic
protectors.
Literature review regarding cultural relics protection has reached a great volume.
However, how to improve chaing quality and deter ioration has long been considered a
tough question for cultural relics protection. The study explored the pheno mena which
had an impact on the durability of Chinese paintings with literature review, fieldwork,
and analyses. Overall descriptions about materials, color, and technology were shown
such as support, pigment, mixture of media, mounting media, mounting style, and
mounting polytechnic. The researcher revealed the phenomena and mechanism of
chaing quality and deter ioration in Chinese paintings. The impact of paper production
polytechnic , silk production polytechnic, mounting polytechnic, and mounting media
on the durability of Chinese painting was analyzed. Measures for preventing Chinese
paintings from ruin in order to keep the quality of Chinese paintings long were
demonstrated.

ii

iii

..1
1-1 .1
1-2 .2

3
2-1 ..4
2-2 ..7
2-3 ..11

16
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4

..16
..17
..21
...27

..28
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6

.28
.29
.31
.33
.36
..45

..46
5-1 46
5-2 49
5-3 57

...61
6-1 ..61
6-2 ..65
6-3 ..66

iv

6-4 ..68

.72
73
...78
...80
...81
...84
89

.30
1 ..30
2 ..30
3 ..31
.31
..32
..32
..32
...33
...34
34
35
36

vi

.37
.37
.38
.38
.39
.39
.40
.40
.41

vii

1-1

1-2

1
2

770 221
2000

3
B 4

2-1

7000

4700

2000

2-1-1

50

10

2-1-2

2-2

11

2-2-1

120~180
60%~83%


24%~60% 100 200

90%
1250




90

1981

1981

1993 216

2-2-2

12 13 14

50-60
2000 18

20-24

2000 17

10

2-3

2-3-1

10 5

14
18
20 24

2-3-2

CO2NO2SO2

65
68 25 30 80 95
50-60

2-3-3 15

11


290-400mm 5%400-780mm
45%780-3200mm 50% 3mm
1.3% 1.5% 1-2%
400mm
8

120-400
120-200 200-290
290-400 290
290

313

290 300

5%

12

300-330 320

13

2-3-4 16
SO2
CO2H2S NO2CL2O2
1
SO2
0.5-1/1000000

SO2 + HO2

H2 SO3

H2 SO3 O2
2SO4

H2 S

2
NONO2NO3NO2

3NO2 + H2O
2H NO3 + NO

Cl2

Cl2 + H2 O
HCl + HClO

HClO
HCl + O

14

3
O3 O1D

3 hv
O2 +1D
1D+ H2O
2HO
HO
HO

Al2O33SiO22H2OAlOH2

2-3-5

15

3-1

3-1-1 17
1

16

3-2

18 19

20

()

21

17

22

3-2-1 23

HgSO

18


CaCO3

3-2-2
24

19

3-2-3 25

2PbCO3
pb(OH)2

3-2-4 26

20

3-3

11

3-3-1 27

21

15

18

22

3-3-2 28


(Alizarin Crimson)

(Carmine Red)


(Crimson Lake)


(Cadmium Red)


(Red Ochre)

23


(Rose Madder)

(Saturn Red )

(Vermilion)


(Cadmium Yellow)

(Chrome Yellow)


(Cobalt Yellow)


(Gamboge)


(Lemon Yellow)


(Mars Yellow)

24

(Neqles Yellow)

(Raw Sienna)

(Green Earth)

(Hookers Green)

(Olive Green)

(Viridian)

(Cobalt Blue)

(Cerulean Blue)

(Indigo Blue)

(Prussian Blue)

(Ultramarine)

25

(Cobalt Violet)

(Manganese Violet)

(Mars Violet)

(Mauve)

(Burnt Umber)

(Raw Umber)

(White Lead)

(Zine white)

(Lamp Black)

(Ivory Black)

(Flourescence)

26


(Flourescence)

3-4

27

4-1

4-1-1
1

28

4-1-2
1 2.5 18

2 20

3
Lab 14824
Lab

4-2
4-2-1
L
a
b

L
b
a

-a

-b

-L

29

35.23

B
21.39

84.19
37.28

49.00
3.60
9.14

42.72

58.94

22.08

81.52
40.92

10.14
14.73

96.23
34.38

48.15

45.21

7.58

83.12
64.51

6.15
9.05

93.10
34.17

71.44
17.70

4-2-2
1 Lab 1

L
35.23

a
49.00

b
21.39

42.72

58.94

22.08

48.15

45.21

7.58

1 L 48.15 a
58.94 b 7.58

2 Lab 2
L

84.19
81.52

83.12

a
3.60

10.14

71.44
96.23

6.15

93.10

30

2 L 84.19 a
-3.60
b 96.23
93.10 71.44

3 Lab 3
L

37.28

a
9.14

b
17.70

14.73
34.38
40.92
9.05
34.17
64.51
3 L 64.51 a
-14.73 b
-34.38 -34.17

4-3
4-3-1

L
35.10

a
48.96
3.55

83.21

37.30
42.63

9.14

70.44
17.69

58.91

22.19

81.48

40.80
48.18

10.23
15.34

96.20
34.50

45.23

7.32

31

b
21.48

83.25

64.38

6.75
9.08

93.16
34.02

35.35

20.11

80.21
37.18

48.86
3.01
9.01

42.51

58.81

22.88

81.75
41.86

10.08
15.52

96.12
32.01

48.06

45.20

7.88

83.01
63.56

6.13
9.66

92.01
32.13

a
48.80
1.68

b
19.23

4-3-2

64.88
17.65

4-3-3

L
36.35

79.18

36.21
41.50

8.82

63.86
17.40

58.36

23.50

81.91

42.38
46.95

10.00
16.48

95.45
29.85

44.60

8.69

82.90

63.01

6.12
9.98

91.15
30.02

37.29
78.81

48.38
0.32

16.45
58.97

4-3-4 24

32

35.42

8.59

17.26

39.45

57.70

24.98

82.14
46.99

9.79
18.11

94.62
25.64

46.55

44.18

9.31

82.50
62.38

6.09
10.40

89.41
25.25

4-4
E=LL2aa2
bb2 1/224 24

4-4-1

24

35.23
84.19

37.28
42.72

48.96 21.48 0.16


3.55 70.44 1.33
9.14 17.69 0.02
58.91 22.19 0.15

49.00 21.39 35.10


3.60 71.44 83.21
9.14 17.70 37.30
58.94 22.08 42.53

81.52
40.92
48.15

10.23 96.20 0.10


15.34 34.50 0.59
45.23 7.32
0.26

10.14 96.23 81.48


14.73 34.38 40.80
45.21 7.58
48.18

83.12
64.51

6.25
93.16 0.17
9.08 34.02 0.21

4.5

6.15
93.10 83.25
9.05 34.17 64.38

9
1
3
5
10
2

1.33 1

33

4-4-2

35.23
84.19
37.28

48.86 20.11
1.29
3.01 64.88 6.86
9.01 17.65 0.14

24
49

49.00 21.39 35.35


3.60 71.44 80.21
9.14 17.70 37.18

42.72
81.52
40.92

58.81 22.88 0.84


10.08 96.12 0.26
15.52 32.01 0.26

18
14

58.94 22.08 42.51


10.14 96.23 81.75
14.73 34.38 41.86

48.15
83.12
64.51

45.20 7.88
0.31
6.13
92.01 1.00
9.66 32.13 2.33

12
27

45.21 7.58
48.06
6.15
93.10 83.01
9.05 34.17 63.56

25

1.29
1.00 2.33 6.86

4-4-3

35.23
84.19
37.28

48.80 19.23 2.44


1.68 63.86 9.29
8.82 17.40 1.16

45
66

49.00 21.39 36.35


3.60 71.44 79.18
9.14 17.70 36.21

42.72
81.52
40.92

58.36 23.50 1.96


10.00 95.45 0.89
16.48 29.85 5.04

43
51

58.94 22.08 41.50


10.14 96.23 81.91
14.73 34.38 42.38

48.15
83.12
64.51

44.60 8.69
1.75
6.12
91.15 1.96
9.98 30.02 4.48

68
55

45.21 7.58
46.95
6.15
93.10 82.90
9.05 34.17 63.01

34

53

45

48

9.29
0.89 1.96
--- 2.44 1.96
1.75
5.04 4.48 1.16
8

4-4-4 24

24
b

35.23
84.19
37.28

48.38 16.45 5.41


0.32 58.97 13.97
8.59 17.26 2.16

100
100

49.00 21.39 37.29


3.60 71.44 78.81
9.14 17.70 35.42

42.72
81.52
40.92

57.70 24.98 4.54


9.79
94.62 1.76
18.11 25.64 11.16

100
100

58.94 22.08 39.45


10.14 96.23 82.14
14.73 34.38 46.99

48.15
83.12
64.51

44.18 9.31
2.57
6.09
89.41 3.74
10.40 25.25 9.27

100
100

45.21 7.58
46.55
6.15
93.10 82.50
9.05 34.17 62.38

100

100

100

24 1.76
3.74 13.97
2.16 9.27
11.16 2.57 4.54
5.41

35

4-5
4-5-1

1-4 4-8

8-24

0.16
1.33

3
9

1.13
5.53

21
40

1.15
2.43

21
17

2.97
4.68

55
34

0.02

0.12

1.02

47

1.00

47

0.15
0.10

3
5

18
9

1.12
0.63

25
37

2.58
0.87

57
49

0.59

0.49
0.16
0.33

4.78

43

6.56

55

0.26
0.17

10
5

0.05
0.83

2
22

1.44
0.96

56
28

0.82
1.78

32
45

0.21

2.12

23

2.15

23

4.97

42

36

5.41

5
4
3
2

2.44
1.29

1
0

0.16
0 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

6
5

4.54

4
3
2

1.96

1
0

0.84
0.15
0 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

37

6
5
4
3

2.57
1.75

1
0

0.31
0 0.26
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

15

13.97

12
9

9.29
6.68

3
0

1.33
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

38

15
12
9

6
3
0

0 0.1

0.26

1.76

0.89

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

15
12
9

6
3.47

3
0

0.17

1.96

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

39

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

0.02

0.14

2.16

1.16

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

12

11.16

10
8
6
4

5.04

2
0

0.59

0.26

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

40

12
10

9.27

8
6

4.48
2.33

2
0

0.21
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

4-5-2

1
0.16 31-4 1.13
214-8 1.15 218-24
2.97 55
31-8
68-24 3.4

1-8 68 3.4

2
0.15 3 1-4
0.49 18 4-8 1.12

41

258-24 2.58 57
31-4
64-8 68-24
3.6
1-8 68
3.6
3
0.26 101-4
0.05 24-8 1.44 568-24
0.82 32
101-4
0.64-8 148-24
24 4-8
148
4
123
1-8 8
24
24 5.41 4.54
2.57

1
1 1.33 9 1-4
5.53 404-8 2.43 17
8-24 24.68 34
91-4
13.34-8 4.28-24
2.1 4
91-4 13.3

42


2
0.10 51-4 0.16
94-8 0.63 378-24
0.87 49
51-4
34-8 98-24
2.3 4-8
0.63
3
0.17 5 1-4
0.83 224-8 0.96 28
8-24 1.78 45
51-4
7.34-8 78-24
2.8 5-7
8 2.8

4
123 8
8
2.3 2.8 24 1.76 3.74
24
13.97 8 3.7

24 1.76
3.74

43


1
0.02 1 1-4
0.12 5 4-8 1.02 47
8-24 1.00 47
11-4
1.84-8 128-24
3 4-8 8
1-4
2
0.59 5 1-4
0.333 4-8 4.78
43 8-24 6.56 55
5 1-4
1
4 4-8 11.28-24
3.4 4
4-8 8
3
0.21 21-4 2.12
234-8 2.15 238-24
4.79 42
21-4
7.74-8 68-24
2.6 8 8

4
123 8 8
24
24 11.6
9.27 2.16

44

4-6

1
5.41 4.54 2.57

2
1.76
13.97

45


5-1

5-1-1 29

CA2+Mg2+

46

5-1-2 30

Ca (HSO4) 2
HSO2

NaOH
B

47

5-1-3 31

48

5-2
------
---

5-2-1 32

80

49

5-2-2 33

1200

------

3-8

1-9

50

40

60

5-2-3 34

---

51

3115

5-2-4 35

52

9.5-10.5
25-28

53

5-2-5

54

5-2-6

89 11

55

5-2-7 36

56

5-3 37

5-3-1

7-8
11

1600

57

3
0.5-3
2-3 3

58

40

10

5-3-2

59

60

38

6-1
6-1-1

20~24 14 18

70%

50%-60

61

6-1-2

62

BMC BMC

BMC BMC

6-1-3

UV-531
UV-9UV-PBADUV-326UV-327
UV UV

63

400
3

-150lux 100lux
80lux 50lux 50-100lux
150lux

6-1-4

10~15%

64

10 1~10
1

6-2

23 80%
14~18
50%~60%



PH

40% PH PH=5
PH=7.5

65

3 r
4

6-3

6-3-1

66

6-3-2

50~60 8~10 500

1
2
3

BaOH2
BaOH2

67

6-4

6-4-1

68

6-4-2

E
2

0.2cm
D

69

6-4-3

1
1

70

30 10-15cm

3
C

1
A

2
B

3
14-18

50%-60%

71

72

1981 159

1999 213-217
2
230210cm

73

31984
4

1981 175

2000

1981 175
5
2000 2
61990 13-16
7
1981 186
8 2500

1990
18
91981
1990
1990
1993
10 9

74

11
1981 195

2000 1-31979

12
CHO
96
-
C6 H10 O5 n n

1.55

2000 13-14
13

200~500

2000 13-14
14

2000 13-14

75

15

1990
2000 18-20

1993 57
16
2000 20-23

1993 56-57

1999 8-11
17
2000 9-10
18 58
19 440
20 154
211989 11-13
22 73-75
231981 191-194
24 23
25 23
26 23
271981
1982
28 27
291981 21-24

35-44

1999 158-159

2000 14-15

1982 1980

301981 64-80

1999
158-159
2000 15-16

1982 1980
31 2930
321981 428

76

33
1993 94-98

1982 1995
341981 429
35 33
361981
1982
371981

2000
381981

2000

1999
1993
1990
1990

77


11981
21982
31999
4
2000
52000
61988
71982
81980
91979
101986
111995
121987
131990
141984
151999
161987
17 11990
181990
191990
20
21
221991
23 1993
241991
251991
261990
271990
281993
291955
301988

78

311975
321986
331975
341976
35 1993
361999
3712341990
3812341999
392001
401989
411981
42

79

1981 195-203

80

90
66 83

81

2 2800 3000

3 2800

3 1 15

1.5
2 0.4 0.7

82


1 75 85

KMNO4

H2 O2

CH3 COCH3
C2 H5OC2 H5 NH3
427-430

83

1 2

84

9 2

10

12

13

14
11

85


15

16

17

18

0.5%
15 2%

3%
19

86


20

21

0.1 0.15

23

24

0.15 0.3

25

22

87

437-444

88

100
67 40 9
23 17 27
60 33 100 60
10 23.5 17
67 33.5 241 80
23.5 13.5 10 60
33 257 80 133
10.5 23.5 17 67
33.5 167

1 1.5

89

27 33.5 43.5 47
10 10.7
100 87

9 20

133
50 54 33 11
100
133

1
0.4 0.5

90

1
10
6 4 5 1 1.3
10 5

1.3 1.5
5 4 4.5

133

66 6 4 5
50 4 40
3.3


0.5

91

33 3.3 0.3
3 40 4

430-436

92