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5.1

Introduction

In Previous chapters we considered the stresses in prismatic

consider third fundamental loading, bending. A beam is a structural

member that is subjected to loads acting transversely to the

longitudinal axis, as explained in the preceding chapter. Internal loads

develop in beams in the form of shear forces and bending moments to

resist the external loads. Shear stresses and Bending moments

develop with in the cross section due to internally develop shear forces

and bending moments respectively. In this chapter we will restrict

ourselves to study the bending stresses only due to bending moment.

The shear stresses due to shear forces will discuss in the next

chapter. Before stating the discussion on bending strains and stresses

we need to know the concept of Pure bending. Pure bending means a

beam or a portion of the beam under a constant bending moment,

which means that the shear force is zero.

To illustrate the concept pure bending, consider two simply supported

beams as shown in the Fig 5.1 (a) and (b). In Fig 5.1 (a), the region of

beam between the two point loads is constant and the value is Pa

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

and the shear force in this region is zero. Hence the central region is

in pure bending. In Fig 5.1 (b), the beam is loaded only by couples

that produce constant bending moment and zero shear force

throughout the beam. In this chapter we will calculate the normal

strains and stresses in pure bending.

5.2

Bending stress

The stresses caused by the bending moment are known as

moment and bending stresses is called flexure stresses. The following

assumptions are made in deriving the flexure or bending stress

equation.

1. The beam is initially straight or has a very large radius of

curvature compared to its cross section dimensions.

2. The transverse cross section of the beam is symmetrical about

an axis passing through its centroid (in our case it is Yaxis)

and parallel to the plane of the bending.

3. The transverse section of beam, which is plane before bending,

will remain a plane after bending.

4. The cross section dimensions are small compared to its length.

5. The beam is in pure bending. i.e. the beam is subjected to only

bending moment.

6. The material of the beam is homogenous and isentropic.

7. The stress is in elastic and limit and obeys Hooks Law.

Consider a portion of a beam ab which is in pure bending produced by

couples M as shown in the Fig. 5.2.

From the directions of the couples we can say that bending moments

are positive (ref. section 4.5 and Fig. 4.6) and the cross section is

symmetry about y-axis. Consider two plane transverse section mn, pq

separated by a distance of dx apart. Under the action of the moments

the beam gets deflected in to a circular curve as shown in the Fig. 5.3.

The length of the bottom fiber is elongated and top fibers are

contracted. Thus, bottom fibers are in tension and top fibers are in

compression. Somewhere between top and bottom of the beam there is

a surface which does not change in length. This surface indicated in

dashed line in Fig. 5.2 and 5.3, is called neutral surface. The

intersection of the neutral surface with any cross section plane is

called neutral axis of the cross section.

The planes mn, pq get deflected and occupies the positions

m1n1and p1q1 as shown in the Fig. 5.3, being inclined at angle d and

intersecting at o, the center of the curve. Let, R is the radius of

Curvature. The distance between n1, q1 is more than dx and between

m1, p1 less than dx, but along the neutral surface, the initial distance

dx is remains same. Hence,

R.d = dx 5.1

To evaluate the strains, consider a fiber ef at a distance of y

from the neutral axis as shown in the Fig. 5.2. Initially the length of

the fiber ef is Li=dx and after deforming the length of the fiber e1f1 is Lf

= (R + y) d. So, the strain in the fiber ef is

(R + y) d

R d+y.d

y.d

(From eq.5.1)

(From eq.5.1)

= 5.2

proportional to the radius of curvature and varies linearly with the

distance from the neutral axis. Thus, bending stress is maximum at

the outer surfaces which are at the greatest distance from the neutral

axis. If the distance is measured above the neutral axis, y is negative

and strain is also negative.

according to Hookes Law, Normal stress in beam

. 5.3

Thus, normal stresses acting on the beam vary linearly with the

distance from neutral axis. This type of stress distribution is shown in

the Fig. 5.4(a). Along the neutral axis bending stress is zero. Top fibers

are in compression (above the neutral axis) and bottom fibers are in

tension (below the neutral axis) for positive bending moment. For

negative bending moment top fibers are in tension and bottom fibers

are in compression.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

5.3

Flexure Formula

Let us consider the resultant force acting over the cross section.

the cross section at a distance of y from the neutral axis as shown in

the Fig. 5.4(b).The force acting on this small elemental area normal to

moment can be calculate from the equation 5.3. Since no external

axial force is acting on the beam, (assumption 5) the equilibrium of

the forces in the x direction leads to equation

. dA = 0

Ey

R

. dA

can conclude that

y. dA = 0 ..

5.4

This is the equation for first moment of area of cross section with

respect to the neutral axis. That is the neutral axis must pass through

the centroid of the cross section. This property can be used to locate

the position of the neutral axis for a beam of any cross sectional shape

which has symmetry about y- axis.

Let us consider next the moment of the resultant force acting

the over the cross section (Fig. 5.4(b)). The moment acting on this

y. The external moment acting on the

beam is M, the equilibrium of the moment leads to equation

Ey2

R

. dA.y = M

. dA

5.5

But we know that

area of cross section with respect to the neutral axis, which is moment

of inertia of cross sectional area with respect to the neutral axis

I=

y 2 . dA

=M

. 5.6

Combining the equation 5.3 and 5.6, we get the flexure formula

. 5.7

From the above, we can write the equation for bending stress

.. 5.8

inversely proportional to the area moment of inertia about neutral axis

and varies linearly with the distance from neutral axis as shown in the

Fig. 5.4 (a). The maximum stress due to bending moment occurs at

the fiber for which y is maximum, i.e., the extreme fiber from the

neutral axis.

quantity

max

. The

The section modulus for simple cross sections are shown in the

Fig.5.5

For Rectangular cross section:

I

h

=

=

3

12

and

ymax =

and

ymax =

2

6

b

For Circular Cross section

I

4

64

3

32

5.4

Composite Beams

Beams that are built of more than one material are called

reinforced concrete beams as shown in the Fig. 5.6. Composite beams

can be analyzed by the same way as that of ordinary beam. The main

advantage with these beams is it can withstand with more bending

load within less space/cross sectional area compared to beam with

single material.

(b) sand witch beam (c) reinforced concrete beam

Let us consider a beam made of two materials. Let 1 and 2 are

the suffixes used for material 1 and 2 respectively. At the common

surface, strain in both the material is same.

But,

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

2

2

2

ratio of their modulus of elasticity.

material 1 and material 2 respectively form the neutral axis.

[ 1]

1max

E1

1max

2max

M1 =

y1

y2

E2

2max

y1

y2

y1

=

E1

E2

y2

.. 5.9

(From equation 5.7)

1max. I1

y1

and M2 =

2max. I2

y2

M

=

=

=

Similarly

M1 + M2

1max. I1

y1

2max. I1 E1

y2

E2

2max E1

y2

I

E2 1

2max. I2

y2

y2

+ I2 ]

1max E2

y1

2max. I2

I

E1 2

+ I1 ]

M=

E2

E1

1max E2

y1

I2 + I1 ] is

E1

I2 + I1 ]

2max E1

y2

I

E2 1

+ I2 ]

5.10

E

equivalent moment inertia for material 1 & [E1 I1 + I2 ]

2

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLES

and length 254mm is bent by couples as shown in Fig.P.5.

what is the maximum stress in steel rule.

Fig. P. 5.1

Sol: Given data: t = 0.734mm, E = 206.7x103MPa, l = 254mm,

=600=1.047

We know that flexure formula

= .

From the given data we can write the equation from flexure formula

=

Where

= 0.734/2 = 0.367

Radius of curvature R = 254/1.047=242.6mm

Bending stress

206.7103 0.367

242.6

= 312.63MPa

5.2. A steel wire of diameter 4mm bent over a drum of radius

0.5m as shown in the Fig. P.5.2. Calculate the maximum

bending stress if E = 200GPa.

Fig. P. 5.2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

= .

From the given data we can write the equation from flexure formula

=

Where

= 4/2 = 2mm

Bending stress

200x103 x2

502

= 796.8 MPa.

5.3. A simple beam AB of length 6.7m supports a uniform load of

intensity 22KN/m and a concentrated load of 53.4KN as

shown in the Fig. P.5.3. The beam cross section is rectangle

with width is 222mm and depth is 686mm. Determine the

maximum compressive and tensile stresses in the beam due

to bending.

Sol: Given data: b = 222mm and d = 686mm.

The maximum bending stress occurs at the cross section due to

maximum bending moment. To find the maximum bending moment

let us construct the shear force and bending moment diagram as

shown in the Fig.P.5.3. From the Shear force and bending moment

diagram shown in the Fig.P.5.3, the maximum bending moment is

204.9KNm.

From the flexure formula, the bending stress is

=

axis passes through the centroid. Since the given cross section is

rectangle cross section, the centroid is coincides with the

geometric center.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

10

y = 686/2 = 343mm.

Fig.P.5.3

I

3

(222)(686)3

= 6x109 mm4

12

12

=

204.6106 343

6109

= 11.7 MPa.

Since the maximum bending moment is positive, the top fibers are in

compression and bottom fibers are in tension. The bending stress

distribution is as show in the Fig.P.5.3a

11

Fig.P.5.3a

5.4. Determine the maximum allowable length of simple beam of

rectangular cross section (Fig.P.5.4) subjected to uniformly

distributed load of 6.5KN/m, if the allowable stress is

8.2MPa.

Sol: Given data:

Fig.P.5.4

Since it is a simply supported beam with UDL the maximum bending

moment is

WL2

8

=

axis passes through the centroid. Since the given cross section is

rectangle cross section, the centroid is coincides with the

geometric center.

y = 240/2 = 120mm.

I

8.2 =

3

(140)(240)3

= 1.61x108 mm4

12

12

0.81252 120

1.61108

12

positive bending by couples M. Determine the ratio of the

maximum tensile and compressive stresses if the cross

section is (a) an equilateral triangle (b) a semi circle

Fig.P.5.5

Sol: (a) Equilateral triangle:

Fig.P.5.5a

For triangle the centroid is at a distance of 2h/3 from the big end and

h/3 from the small end (Fig.P.5.5a). The bending moment is positive,

so top fibers are in compression and bottom fibers are in tension.

Maximum compression stress at the top fibers:

M= M, y = 2h/3 and I = I

c

.2

3

2

3

M= M, y = h/3 and I = I

c

.

3

3

2

= 0.5

For Semi circle the centroid is at a distance of 4r/3 (0.212d) from the

big end and 0.282d from the small end. The bending moment is

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

13

tension.

Maximum compression stress at the top fibers:

M= M, y = 0.282d and I = I

c

.(0.282)

M= M, y = 0.212d and I = I

c

.(0.212)

(0.212)

(0.282)

= 0.752

section is a channel section as shown in the Fig. Calculate

the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the beam.

Sol: To find the maximum bending moment, let us construct shear

force and bending moment diagram as shown in the Fig.P.5.6

Fig.P.5.6

From Fig.P.5.6, we can understand that the maximum bending

moment is 3.375KN.m and it is negative bending moment which

results top fibers are in tension and bottom fibers are in compression.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

14

To locate the neutral axis, let us find the centroid, since neutral axis

is passes through centroid. For this divide the given cross section into

three areas as shown in the Fig.P.5.6.

A1 = 300x12 = 3600mm2, y1 =74mm,

A2 = 68x12 = 816mm2, y2=34mm,

A3 = 68x12 = 816mm2, y3=34mm.

Centroid

1 1 +2 2 +3 3

1 +2 +3

= 61.52mm.

I=[

[

(300)(12)3

12

(12)(68)3

12

+ (300)(12)(74 61.52)2 ] +

(12)(68)3

12

43200+560701.44+314432+617997.9+314432+617997.9

2468761mm4.

Fig.P.5.6 (a)

Maximum compressive stress (point B in Fig. P.5.6)

y = 61.52mm, M = 3.375x106 N mm and I = 2468761mm4

3.375106 61.52

2468761

y = 18.48mm, M = 3.375x106 N mm and I = 2468761mm4

3.375106 18.48

2468761

The stress distribution and neutral axis is shown in the Fig.P.5.6 (a)

5.7. Determine

the

maximum

bending

stress

caused

by

shown in the Fig.P.5.7

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

15

Sol: The given beam is a simply supported beam with a point load.

The maximum bending moment is

5.4103 1.21.8

3.0

= 3888Nm.

A1 = 25x75=1875mm2, y1 = 12.5mm, A2 = 1875mm2, y2 = 62.5mm

Centroid

1 1 +2 2

1 +2

= 37.5mm.

Fig.P.5.7

Moment of Inertia I = [

[

=

=

(75)(25)3

12

(25)(75)3

12

+ (75)(25)(37.5 12.5)2 ] +

+ (75 )(25)(37.5 62.5)2 ]

97656.25+1171875+878906.25+1171875

3320312.5 mm4 =33203125x10 -12 m4

compression and bottom fibers are in tension.

Maximum tensile stress (point B in Fig. P.5.7)

y = 37.5x10-3 m, M = 3888 Nm and I =332.312.5x10 -12 m4

388837.5103

3320312.5x1012

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

16

388862.5103

3320312.5x1012

concentrated load as shown in the Fig.P.5.8. Calculate the

maximum permissible value of load P based upon allowable

stress

in

material

40MPa

in

tension

and

70MPa

in

compression.

Sol: To find the maximum bending moment let us construct the shear

force and bending moment diagram as shown in the Fig.P.5.8. The

maximum bending moment is P.

Position of neutral axis

A1 = 20x80=1600mm2, y1 = 40mm,

A2 = 100x20=2000mm2, y2 = 90mm

Centroid

1 1 +2 2

= 67.8mm.

1 +2

Fig.P.5.8

Moment of Inertia I

=[

[

(20)(80)3

12

+ (20)(80)(67.8 40)2 ] +

(100)(20)3

12

= 853333.33+1236544+66666.67+985680

= 3142224 mm4 = 3142224x10-12m4

17

tension and bottom fibers are in compression.

Maximum tensile stress (Point B in Fig.5.8)

y = 33.3x10-3 m, M = P Nm and I =3142224x10-12m4

33.3103

3142224x1012

0.01054 = 40

P = 3.774KN.

Maximum compressive stress (Point A in Fig.5.8)

y = 67.7x10-3 m, M = P Nm and I =3142224x10-12m4

67.7103

3142224x1012

0.0215P = 70

P = 3.26 KN.

So, The maximum possible load is 3.26KN

5.9. A cantilever beam AB, loaded as shown in the Fig. P.5.9 is

constructed of a section as shown. Find the maximum

compressive and tensile stresses in the cross section.

Sol: To find the maximum bending moment let us construct the shear

force and bending moment diagram.

Fig.P.5.9

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

18

is negative. That is top fibers are in tension and bottom fibers are in

compression.

Position of neutral axis:

A1 = 400x120=48000mm2, y1 = 200mm,

A2 = (/4)x602=2827.4mm2, y1 = 300mm

Centroid

1 1 2 2

= 193.74mm.

1 2

=[

Moment of Inertia I

[

I

(120)(400)3

12

( )(60)4

64

+ (400)(120)(200 193.74)2 ]

= 6.1x108 mm4

y = 193.7 mm, M = 1.8x106Nmm and I =6.1x108 mm4

1.8106 193.7

6.1x108

y = 206.3 mm, M = 1.8x106Nmm and I =6.1x108 mm4

1.8106 206.3

6.1x108

bending moment of 10KNm at its neutral axis. Find the

maximum stress induced in the beam.

Sol: Bending stress

19

Fig.P.5.10

Position of neutral axis:

A1 = 100x20=2000mm2, y1 = 10mm,

A2 = 20x100=2000mm2, y1 = 70mm

A3 = 60x20=1200mm2, y3 = 130mm,

Centroid

1 1 +2 2 +3 3

1 +2 +3

Moment of Inertia I

=[

[

= 60.77mm

(100)(20)3

12

(20)(100)3

12

(60)(20)3

12

+ (100)(20)(10 60.77)2 ] +

+ (100)(20)(70 60.77)2 ] +

+ (60)(20)(130 60.77)2 ]

= 66666.67+5155185.5+1666666.7+170385.8+40000+5751351.5

= 12850256 mm4

Since the bending moment is positive, top fibers are in compression

and bottom fibers are in compression.

Maximum tensile stress (at Point B in Fig.P.5.10)

y = 60.77mm, M = 10x106 N.mm, I = 12.58x106 mm4

10106 60.77

12.58x106

y = 79.23mm, M = 10x106 N.mm, I = 12.58x106 mm4

10106 79.23

12.58x106

20

wide, 1cm thick. Bottom flange 12cm wide, 1cm thick. Web

1cm thick. Total depth of the section is 12cm. The beam is

5m long simply supported over a span 3m, overhanging both

supports by the same amount and it carries a point load of

2KN each end. Find the maximum stress in the material due

to bending.

Sol: The beam with loading and the cross section dimensions are

shown in the Fig.P.5.11. The maximum bending moment is 2KNm and

is positive. The top fibers are in compression and bottom fibers are in

tension.

Position of neutral axis

A1 = 120x10=1200mm2, y1 = 5mm,

A2 = 10x100=1000mm2, y1 = 60mm

A3 = 60x10=600mm2, y3 = 110mm,

Centroid

1 1 +2 2 +3 3

1 +2 +3

Moment of Inertia I

=[

[

= 47.14mm

(120)(10)3

12

(10)(100)3

12

(60)(10)3

12

+ (120)(10)(47.14 5)2 ] +

+ (100)(10)(47.14 60)2 ] +

+ (60)(10)(47.14 110)2 ]

= 10000+2130935.5+833333.33+165379.6+5000+2370827.8

= 5.5x106 mm4

21

Fig.P.5.11

Maximum tensile stress (at Point B in Fig.P.5.11)

y = 47.14 mm, M = 2x106 N.mm, I = 5.5x106 mm4

2106 47.14

5.5x106

y = 72.86mm, M = 2x106 N.mm, I = 5.5x106 mm4

2106 72.86

5.5x106

of a beam is 3.6KNm. Determine the maximum tensile and

compressive stresses on the cross section.

Sol: The bending moment is a positive bending moment. So, the top

fibers are in compression and bottom fibers are in tension.

22

Fig.P.5.12

The Moment of Inertia =

(60)(120)3

36

= 2.88x106 mm4

M = 3.6x106 N.mm, y = 40mm, I = 2.88x106 mm4

3.6106 40

2.88x106

= 50 MPa (Tensile)

y = 80mm, M = 3.6x106 N.mm, I = 2.88x106 mm4

3.6106 80

2.88x106

simply supported. The beam carries a UDL of 12KN/m over

the entire length and a point load of 10KN at 3m from the

left support. If the depth is two times the width and the

stress in the timber is not to exceed 8MPa, find the suitable

dimensions of the section.

Sol: Let the width of the cross section is b and thus, depth of the

cross section is 2b.

23

Fig.P.5.13

From the above, Fig. P.5.13 shear force and bending diagram, M =

111.586 KNm.

Moment of Inertia I =

b(2b)3

12

= 0.67b4

M = 111.586x106 N.mm, y = b mm, I = 0.67b4mm4

Bending stress

=8=

111.586106

0.67b4

Width b = 275mm

Depth 2b = 550mm

5.14. A steel beam having an I- section as shown in the Fig.P.5.14

is 4m long and is simply supported at the ends. If the safe

stress in tension for the beam is 30MPa, determine the

permissible uniformly distributed load acting on the whole

span of the beam.

Sol: Given data:

wl2

8

= 2w.

Since the given cross section is symmetry about both the axis, the

centroid is at the center of the web.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

24

Fig.P.5.14

Moment of Inertia

I = 2. [

(200)(20)3

12

+ (200)(20)(290 150)2 ] + [

(20)(260)3

12

= 1.57x108 + 29.29x106

= 1.86x108 mm4

Maximum bending stress:

M =2w, y = 150 mm, I = 1.86x108 mm4

30 =

2150

1.86x108

W = 18.6 KN/m

5.15. A beam of 2m length is simply supported at the ends and

carries a UDL of 30KN/m over its entire length. If the cross

section of the beam as shown in the Fig.P.5.15, determine

the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the beam.

Sol: Given data: l = 2m, w = 30KN/m.

The maximum bending moment M =

wl2

8

= 15x106 N.mm

A1 = 160x120 = 19200mm2, y1 = 80mm

A2 = 80x60 = 4800mm2, y2 = 110mm

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

25

Centroid

1 1 2 2

= 70mm

1 2

=[

Moment of Inertia I

(120)(160)3

12

(80)(60)3

12

+ (120)(160)(80 70)2 ]

+ (80)(60)(110 70)2 ]

Fig.P.5.15

The maximum bending moment is a positive. So, the top fibers are in

compression and bottom fibers are in tension.

Maximum tensile stress (Point B in Fig.P.5.15)

M =15x106, y = 70 mm, I = 33.76x106 mm4

15106 70

33.76x106

= 31.10MPa (Tensile)

M =15x106, y = 90 mm, I = 33.76x106 mm4

15106 90

33.76x106

= 39.98MPa (Compressive)

lengths, made of same material, subjected to same maximum

bending moment and having same maximum normal stress, if

their cross sections are (i) a rectangular with height equal to

twice the width (ii) a square (iii) a circle.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

26

moment and same normal stresses we can say that all the beams

Fig.P.5.16

y

a

1.5

[ ]

=

= 3

3

I rectangle (a)(2a)

a

12

b

y

6

2

[ ]

=

= 3

3

I square (b)(b)

b

12

c

y

10.18

2

[ ]

=

=

I circle ()(c)4

c3

64

1.5

6

10.18

3 = 3= 3

a

b

c

b = 1.587a

and c = 1.89a

circular beam is

().(2a2.l)

: ().(b2.l)

: ().( 4 c2 .l)

1:1.26:1.41

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

27

can be cut out of log of a wood 180mm diameter.

Sol: Letd is the diameter of wood and b, h are dimensions of

rectangular cross sections. Given that d = 180mm.

Fig.P.5.17

For the strongest beam the induced bending stress should be very

value should be small. For the above rectangular

cross section y =

6

2

and I =

3

12

Let us take

h2 = d2 b2.

Z = (b)( d2 b2)

Z = bd2 b3

=0

0 = d2 3b2

Width b =

= 103.92mm

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

28

5.1. A rectangular beam 20cm deep by 10cm wide is subjected to

maximum bending moment of 500KNm. Determine the maximum

stress in the beam. If the value of E for the material is

200GN/m2, find the radius of curvature for that portion of the

beam where the bending moment is maximum

[750MN/m2, 26.67m]

5.2. The moment of inertia of a symmetrical section of a beam about

its neutral axis is 2640cm4 and its depth is 20cm. Determine the

longest span over which, when simply supported, the beam would

carry a UDL of 6KN/m run without the stress due to bending

exceeding 120MPa.

[5.93m]

cm is simply supported over a span of 6m. It carries a UDL of 3

KN/m run including its own weight over its entire span; together

with a load of 2.5 KN at its mid span. Find the maximum tensile

and compressive stresses occurring in beam section.

[12.94MPa (comp.), 25.87MPa (tensile)]

5.4. Find the dimensions of the strongest rectangular beam that can

be cut out of log of a wood 450mm diameter.

[breadth = 259.8mm, depth = 367.43mm]

5.5. A CI beam of I- section with top flange 8 cm X 2 cm thick, bottom

flange 16 cm X 4 cm thick and the web is 20 cm deep and 2 cm

thick. The beam is freely supported on a span of 5m. If the tensile

stress is not to exceed 20MPa, find the safe uniformly distributed

load which the beam can carry. Find also the maximum

compressive stress.

[6.82KN/m,37.34MPa]

5.6. Compare the bending strength of a solid circular section with that

of hollow with internal diameter equal to 2/3 the external

diameter, if both sections have the same cross sectional areas

[1:1.938]

5.7. A horizontal beam of section shown in Fig.P.5.7 is 3 m long and is

simply supported at the ends. Find the maximum UDL it can

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University

29

56MPa and 30MPa respectively.

5.8. A beam having a cross section in the form of channel (Fig.P.5.8) is

subjected to bending moment.

channel in order that the bending stress at the top and bottom of

the beam will be 7:3.

[50.8mm]

its resistance to bending in y-y plane to that in the x-x plane

if the maximum bending stresses is remains same in both the

cases. (Hint: Ratio between Moment of Inertias about y- and xaxis)

(0.33)

Fig.P.5.9

30

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