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ENERGY

Before Industrial Revolution, society made use of SOLAR ENERGY


(direct heating and lighting) including its indirect forms:
BIOFUELS (photosynthesis)
WIND ENERGY (ship propulsion, windmills, etc.)
HYDROPOWER (grindimg waterwheels, etc.)
Extensive use of COAL with the Industrial Revolution, and later other fossilfuels: OIL, NATURAL GAS: more concentrated energy forms of easy use
and inexpensive.
Nowadays:
COAL+ OIL + NATURAL GAS: 3/4 of worldwide energy consumption.

First Oil Crisis ( 1972):

Huge rising of oil price.


Awareness that fossil fuel reserves are finite.
Awareness of effect on climate change in medium and long term
(greenhouse effect).

Nuclear energy technology emerged from Second World War as a


promising new source of energy, alternative to fossil fuels, for
electricity production.
Nuclear power has been the subject of controversy since its
inception due to:

Costs
Security (Disastrous accidents: Chernobil, Fukushima, etc.)
Disposal of radioactives wastes

Concerns about proliferation of nuclear weapons

Renewable energy has been growing rapidly in the last


decade, becoming an important component of energy
supply.
Government intervention in support of renewables has
grown, reflecting efforts to reduce carbon-dioxide
emissions and to diversify energy supplies.
The incentives offered, alongside rising fossil-fuel prices
and the expectation that these will stay high in the future,
have made renewables attractive to many investors.
Job creation through renewables has been another factor
in government support, especially as a contribution to
reducing unemployment following the economic and
financial crisis.

Renewable power investments and contribution


In 2011, renewable power (excluding large hydro) accounted for 44%
of new generation capacity added worlwide, up from 34% in 2010
and just 10.3% back in 2004.
Total investment in solar power jumped 52% to $147 billion in 2011,
reaching a figure almost twice as high as that in wind energy, at $84
billion, down 12%.
The proportion of power generated by renewables (excluding large
hydro) rose to 6% in 2011 from 5.1% the previous year.

Source: Global trends in renewable energy investment 2012, Frankfurt School of Finance &
Management, UNEP, Bloomberg, 2012.

Costs
One of the dominat features of the renewable energy landscape in
2011 was falling technology costs. Photovoltaic module prices fell
by close to 50%, and onshore wind turbine prices by between 5%
and 10%. These changes brought these two leading renewable power
technologies closer to competitiveness with fossil-fuel alternatives
such as coal and gas.
The selling prices of Photovoltaic cells fell from $1.50 per Watt in
September 2010, to $1.30 per Watt by January 2011 and only to just
over $0.60 per Watt by the end of the year 2011.
Source: Global trends in renewable energy investment 2012, Frankfurt School of Finance &
Management, UNEP, Bloomberg, 2012.

Grid parity
Based on current cost reduction trends, it is predicted that
the average onshore wind project worldwide will be fully
competitive with combined-cycle gas turbine generation
by 2016. At present, this is true only for a minority of wind
projects, those that use the most efficient turbines in
locations with larger wind resources.
In solar PV, analysis suggests that the cost of producing
power from rooftop panels for domestic use is already
competitive with the retail (but not the wholesale)
electricity price in several countries. Large-scale PV plants
are still at significant distance away from
competitiveness with wholesale power prices.
Source: Global trends in renewable energy investment 2012, Frankfurt School of
Finance & Management, UNEP, Bloomberg, 2012.

Wind production sets records in Spain


On April 19, 2012, wind production in Spain reached
61.06% of total production during the night, with a peak of
15,338 MW in the afternoon and remaining above 11,500
all day.
Spains installed wind farm capacity is 21,674 MW (total
installed power generation is 97,200 MW). At the end of
2011 wind share of total electricity consumption was
15.9%.

Solar rooftops in not super sunny Berlin

Solar PV in Germany
Germany set a world record for solar power production
with a peak of 22 GW at midday on Friday 25 and Saturday
26 May 2012. This contributed for a third of the demand at
noon on Friday and half of the demand on Saturday (20%
for the whole day).
Germany has a solar PV installed capacity as of 2011 of
25 GW, of which about 7.5 GW installed in 2011. Solar PV
provided 18 TWh of electricity in 2011, about 3% of total
electricity.
The German government has set a target of 66 GW of
installed solar PV capacity by 2030, to be reached with na
annual increase of 2.5-3.5 GW.

What is special about renewable


intermittent generation ?
Location is typically widely (but not uniformly)
distributed, since it is determined by the existence of
resources (and often far from important load centers)
Output has only partly controllable, high time
variability (if without local storage) and partial
unpredictability
Low variable cost and (sometimes) also dispatch
priority
Dispersed ownership and control
Short installation time
Low or nil mechanical inertia of generators (unless
proper interfaces are used) for system stability purposes

OECD COUNTRIES
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Japan, Korea, Luxemburg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, USA

A SITUAO ENERGTICA MUNDIAL


Consumo mundial de energia primria (2005):
4801018 J/ano ou 11400106 tep/ano
(1 tep 1 tonelada equiv. de petrleo = 42000 MJ = 11700 kWh)
Populao mundial: 6,4 bilies
Consumo mdio por habitante:

480 1018
9

6,4 10

75 GJ hab.ano 8 litrosde petrleo/hab.dia

Distribuio muito irregular (2002):


EUA
5,0 mdia mundial
Europa Ocidental
2,3 mdia mundial
Portugal, Grcia
1,5 mdia mundial
Brasil
0,6 mdia mundial
frica
0,4 mdia mundial
Bangladesh
0,1 mdia mundial

COMBUSTVEIS FSSEIS: por mais quanto tempo?


Com base em estimativas (2002?) de reservas conhecidas:
Carvo:
Mais 200 anos
Petrleo:
Mais 60 anos (mais, se forem descobertas novas reservas)
Produo declinar em 2015-2035
Gs natural:
Mais 80 anos (mais, se forem descobertas novas reservas)
Produo declinar em 2040

Combustveis fsseis e alteraes climticas.


Efeito de estufa
Temperatura da superfcie da Terra resulta de equilbrio entre:
1. Energia solar que atinge a superfcie

2. Energia radiada pela Terra (radiaes infravermelhas)


A atmosfera muito mais permevel a (1) do que a (2) (tal
como o vidro duma estufa).
Na ausncia de atmosfera, a temperatura mdia da superfcie
da Terra seria de cerca de -18C

Efeito de estufa natural: temperatura mdia de cerca de


+15C
Gases que contribuem para o efeito de estufa:
Vapor de gua
Dixido de carbono
Metano
Desde a Revoluo Industrial, o efeito de estufa tem
aumentado, especialmente por CO2 produzido por combusto.
Aumento da temperatura mdia no Sc. XX: cerca de 0,6C.
A manter-se a taxa de aumento de emisses de CO2: aumento
previsto da temperatura no final do Sc. XXI: 1,4 a 5,8C.
Mesmo parando as emisses, a taxa de reduo do CO2 na
atmosfera seria muito lenta.

Energia solar: utilizao directa


Aquecimento activo por colectores solares: aquecimento de gua,
aquecimento do interior de edifcios
Aquecimento passivo: edifcios como colectores solares
(aquecimento e iluminao)
Aquecimento de alta temperatura com espelhos parablicos
(produo de energia elctrica)
Converso directa em energia elctrica: paineis fotovoltaicos.

Energia solar: utilizao indirecta


Evaporao de gua condensao chuva rios albufeiras
(energia hdrica) turbinas hidrulicas geradores elctricos
energia elctrica.
Desigual aquecimento da superfcie da Terra vento (energia
elica) turbinas elicas energia elctrica.

Vento gerao de ondas martimas conversores de energia


das ondas energia elctrica.
Fotossntesse biocombustveis combusto energia til.
(Nota: os biocombustveis no contribuem para o efeito de estufa:
ciclo fechado absoro-produo de CO2).

Energias "renovveis" no solares


Campo gravtico da Lua (e do Sol) mars turbinas
hidrulicas (com ou sem albufeira) energia elctrica

Central de la Rance, Frana

Sea

Concrete dam
with turbines

Basin

Rock-made
dam

Gates

Gerao de calor no interior da Terra (radioactividade)


transmisso de calor para camadas superfciais aquecimento
de guas subterrneas utilizao para aquecimento ou para
produo de energia elctrica (utilizao de energia
geotrmica).

Ilha de S. Miguel, Aores

ENERGIAS RENOVVEIS
Enquadramento na Europa e em Portugal:
Meta para 2010 (Directiva 077/CE/2001 da UE)
22% da energia elctrica na Unio Europeia
produzida por fontes renovveis
Idem para Portugal: 39%

WORLD ENERGY STATISTICS

Source: Renewables Information 2007,


International Energy Agency, 2007

Fig. 4: 2005 Regional Shares in Renewables Supply

* Asia excludes China


** Excludes pump storage generation

OECD: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech


Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,
Korea, Luxemburg, Mexico, Netherlands, New
Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak
Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK,
USA

ENERGY STATISTICS

OECD COUNTRIES
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Japan, Korea, Luxemburg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, Turkey, UK, USA

Source: Renewables Information 2007,


International Energy Agency, 2007

Energy in 2005
Because of their heavy non-commercial biomass use, nonOECD regions emerge as the main renewables users,
accounting for 77.4% of world total renewables supply.
On the other hand, OECD countries supply only 22.6% of
world renewables, while consuming 48.5% of world TPES.
OECD has a renewable share of only 5.9%. This share is
19.6% for non-OECD regions, and close to 49% for Africa.

OECD accounts for most of the production of new


renewables, producing 87.5% of wind, solar and tidal
energy in 2005.

Renewable Energy in
Europe 1990-2005
Among the different OECD regions (Europe, North America,
Pacific), EUROPE has the highest share of primary energy
supply from renewable sources, with 7.2%.
EUROPE is also the only OECD area that has experienced
an increase in its renewable energy share: from 5.7% in
1990 to 7.2% in 2005.

This increase in EUROPE is the result of strong supporting


policies for renewables in the late 1990s and in the 2000s.

Technology Shares of Government


RD&D Expenditures in IEA Countries

ENERGY STATISTICS
PORTUGAL

Source: Renewables Information 2007,


International Energy Agency, 2007

Contribution of Renewables in 1990

Contribution of Renewables in 2005