Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

Exp # 3 Electromechanical Systems

Name :_____________________ Roll # : ______


Observe Voltage Regulation in a Single Phase Transformer for
Resistive Load
Capacitive Load
And observe the same for an Auto-Transformer in Step up or Step down
configuration

PART- I
Equipment:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Single Phase Transformer (600VA)


Resistive Load Bank
Capacitive Load Bank
Ammeter (2)
Voltmeter (2)
Jumper Wires

Single Phase Transformers (600VA) are provided to you in the lab with many
tapings on the primary side and secondary side as well.
Taps
Tapings are basically connections coming out of Transformer winding apart from
the ends terminals of the winding so that a low voltage can also be taken out
from the transformer.
Primary: 220V, 240V
Secondary: 160V, 180V, 200V, 220V, 240V
The primary of the transformer is connected to the WAPDA mains internally. Just
switch has to be made on to supply voltage to the primary winding. A fuse is
also included in the primary winding circuit for the protection of the device.
The secondary of the transformer has many tapings. Fuse is also added on the
secondary side for protection. Load can be connected on the secondary side.
Voltage Regulation:
Variation in the terminal voltage of a device when load is connected in terms of
percentage is called as Voltage Regulation.
Transformer being a electrical device also has voltage regulation which can be
observed as load is increased. It is calculated using
Percentage Voltage Regulation = VNL - VL x 100%
VNL
Where
VNL = Secondary Voltage at no Load
VL = Secondary Voltage with load

Connections:
1. Attach an Ammeter between the openings (after the fuse) on the primary
side for measurement of Primary Current.
2. Attach an Ammeter between the openings (before the fuse) on the
secondary side for measurement of Secondary Current.
3. Attach voltmeters on the primary side and secondary voltage for Primary
voltage & Secondary current measurement.
4. Attach the Load Bank on the secondary side with Jumper wires provided
to you.
Procedure:
1. Switch on the button on the transformer side to supply voltage to the
primary winding.
2. Before attaching the load to the transformer measure the No-Load
Voltage.
3. On the bulbs on the load bank step by step which will vary the secondary
current and note down the following parameters from the measuring
equipment attached.
(a) Primary Voltage
(b) Secondary Voltage
(c) Primary Current
(d) Secondary Current
4. Do not increase the secondary current more than 2.8A otherwise the
transformer may get burned.
5. For each set of readings find out the Turn Ratio by using Secondary and
Primary Current. Also find out the Voltage Regulation for each reading.
6. Repeat the same instructions for many different tapings (at least 2) and
complete the tables given below
Primary Voltage Taping = 240V
Secondary Voltage Tapings = use any two tapings
7. Repeat the same experiment with a Capacitive Load attached in such a
way that the capacitor bank is attached in series with the Resistive Load.
8. Take readings in two different cases
(a) Keeping Resistive Load constant and keep changing the Capacitive
Load by including all given capacitors in circuit such that Load Current
increases but not above 2.8A
(b) Keeping all available capacitive load on and changing the load such
that Load Current increases but not above 2.8A
Only use 220V Taping on the secondary side for Capacitive Load Test.

Note:
Bulbs on the Resistive Load are attached in parallel and add to the load on the
transformer when lit.
Capacitors are also stacked in parallel so they increase the equivalent
capacitance when added by making their relevant switch on.

Load: Resistive Load Bank


Primary Voltage Tap: 220V
Secondary Voltage Tap: ____V
No Load Secondary Voltage:________ V

S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6

Primary
Voltage
Vp

Primary
Current

Secondary
Voltage

Ip

Vs

Volts

Amperes

Voltage

Secondary
Voltage
Current
Regulation
Is
Current

(%)

Load: Resistive Load Bank


Primary Voltage Tap: 220V
Secondary Voltage Tap: ____V
No Load Secondary Voltage: ________ V

S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6

Primary
Voltage
Vp

Primary
Current

Secondary
Voltage

Ip

Vs

Volts

Amperes

Voltage

Secondary Percentage
Current
Regulation
Is
Current

(%)

% Voltage Regulation

Based on the above readings, make a graph between Voltage Regulation


and Load Current (Secondary Current) for both the previous tables on the
same graph.

Load Current IL
Comments:
Relationship in the Graph?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
What can be done to keep % Regulation as minimum as possible?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Load: Capacitive Load (Capacitor Bank in Series with Resistive Bank)


Primary Voltage Tap: 220V
Secondary Voltage Tap: 220V

Capacitive Load Constant

No Load Secondary Voltage:________ V

S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6

Equivalent
Capacitor

Primary
Voltage
Vp

Primary
Current

Secondary
Voltage

Ip

Vs

Farad

Volts

Amperes

Voltage

Secondary
Voltage
Current
Regulation
Is
Current

(%)

Load: Capacitive Load (Capacitor Bank in Series with Resistive Bank)


Primary Voltage Tap: 220V
Secondary Voltage Tap: 220V

Resistive Load Constant

No Load Secondary Voltage:________ V

S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6

Equivalent
Capacitor

Primary
Voltage
Vp

Primary
Current

Secondary
Voltage

Ip

Vs

Farad

Volts

Amperes

Voltage

Secondary
Voltage
Current
Regulation
Is
Current

(%)

Lab # 4

EE352 Electromechanical Systems

Name :____________________ Roll # : ______

% Voltage Regulation

Based on the above readings, make a graph between Voltage Regulation


and Load Current (Secondary Current) for Capacitive Load constant table.

Load Current IL
Comments:
What difference is observed in this graph as compared to the previous Resistive
Load Graph? Why is this so?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
What is the best ideal Voltage Regulation value and why? Explain
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
___________________

What difference is observed by adding a capacitor in series with the load?


Explain with the help of a phasor diagram?

PART- II
Working of an Auto Transformer and Voltage Regulation in it for
(i) Step Down Configuration
(ii) Step Up Configuration
Connections: (Step Down Configuration)
1. Attach an Ammeter between the 240V tap on the secondary side and the
fuse for measurement of Primary Current.
2. Attach an Ammeter between the any lower down taps and the load on the
secondary side for measurement of Secondary Current. One wire would
be common here both the source side and the load side.(lower-one)
3. Attach voltmeters for Primary voltage & Secondary voltage measurement
on supply and load terminals.
4. Attach the given two jumper leads with the plug provided in the AC outlet
of the lab and attach it to the points after the fuse.
Connections: (Step Up Configuration)
1. Attach an Ammeter between the 160V tap on the secondary side and the
fuse for measurement of Primary Current.
2. Attach an Ammeter between the any higher taps and the load on the
secondary side for measurement of Secondary Current. One wire would
be common here both the source side and the load side.
3. Attach voltmeters for Primary voltage & Secondary voltage measurement
on supply and load terminals.
4. Attach the given two jumper leads with the plug provided in the AC outlet
of the lab and attach it to the points after the fuse.

Procedure:
1. Before attaching the load to the transformer measure the No-Load
Voltage.
2. On the bulbs on the load bank step by step which will vary the secondary
current and note down the following parameters from the measuring
equipment attached.
(e) Primary Voltage
(b) Secondary Voltage
(c) Primary Current
(d) Secondary Current
3. Do not increase the secondary current more than 2.8A otherwise the
transformer may get burned.
4. Find out the Voltage Regulation for each reading.
5. Repeat the same instructions for many different tapings and complete the
tables given below
Primary Voltage = 240V
Secondary Voltage Tapings = use any two tapings
6. Repeat either the step up or step down configuration with Capacitive Load
attached.

Load: Resistive Load Bank


Primary Voltage Tap: 240V
Secondary Voltage Tap: ____V

Step Down
Configuration

No Load Secondary Voltage:________ V

S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6

Primary
Voltage
Vp

Primary
Current

Secondary
Voltage

Ip

Vs

Volts

Amperes

Voltage

Secondary
Voltage
Current
Regulation
Is
Current

(%)

Load: Resistive Load Bank


Primary Voltage Tap: 160V
Secondary Voltage Tap: ____V

Step Up Configuration

No Load Secondary Voltage: ________ V

S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6

Primary
Voltage
Vp

Primary
Current

Secondary
Voltage

Secondary Percentage
Current
Regulation

Ip

Vs

Is

Volts

Amperes

Voltage

Current

(%)

% Voltage Regulation

Based on the above readings, make a graph between Voltage Regulation


and Load Current (Secondary Current) for both the previous tables on the
same graph.

Load Current IL
Comments:
What difference you observe in this slope to the normal transformer used last
time?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Write down merits or demerits of an Auto-Transformer
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Load: Capacitive Load (Capacitor Bank in Series with Resistive Bank)


Primary Voltage Tap: ____V
Secondary Voltage Tap: ____V
No Load Secondary Voltage:________ V

S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6

Equivalent
Capacitor

Primary
Voltage
Vp

Primary
Current

Secondary
Voltage

Ip

Vs

Farad

Volts

Amperes

Voltage

Secondary
Voltage
Current
Regulation
Is
Current

(%)

% Voltage Regulation

Based on the above readings, make a graph between Voltage Regulation


and Load Current (Secondary Current).

Load Current IL

Precautions:
1. Do not make connections using jumper wires until the Transformer switch
is off. Making connections without making it off can be lethal and can
make high switching currents to flow.
2. You are working at high voltage. Any electrical shock can be lethal. Try to
observe as much precaution as possible.

3. Do not apply more than 2.8A load on the secondary side otherwise the
transformer may get burned.