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UNESCO Social and Human Sciences

BUILDING INCLUSIVE CITIES


M arina Faetanini
Programme Specialist
Social and Human Sciences Sector
UNESCO HOUSE, New Delhi
Dr. Shipra Narang Suri
International urban consultant
New Delhi
School of Planning and Architecture
New Delhi
W ednesday 24 August 2011

I - BUILDING INCLUSIVE CITIES


Our aim:
Contribute to urban public policies which respect, protect and
promote inclusiveness, social cohesion and local democracy
Our work:
Develop multi-disciplinary knowledge and comparative
research, to build capacity among urban professionals and the
civil society, and the dissemination of good practices on social
integration in urban settings
Our framework:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
UNESCO/UN-HABITAT flagship principle of Humanizing the
City (2005)
United Nations Social Summit Declaration in Copenhagen
Creating Inclusive Societies (1995)
Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements (1996)
Millennium Development Goals (MDG 1 Poverty)

WHAT WE DO: Develop a rights-based approach to


urbanisation in India
Generate the political will and create a political culture of
resource allocation that places the needs of the urban
poor at the front row
Address a major social transformation from (mostly)
rural India to (mostly) urban India
India`s urban population increased from 17% in
1950 (63,4 million) to 31% in 2011 (377 million).
In 2050, the urban population will exceed 875
million (54.2%)
Urban areas contribute about 65% of the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP)

Address the negative impacts of the urbanisation and


development process: impoverishment, expansion of
slums, shortage of decent housing, migration, social
exclusion
Only 41% of urban households live in a house
whose structure is fully consolidated
37 % of urban households have only one room to
live in
35% of urban households have no access to
drinkable water in their premises
26% of urban households have no latrine in their
house

The timing is right.


New policy initiatives combining urban
development with social equity and justice are on
the rise:
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal
Mission (JNNURM) (2005) NiJNNURM in the
pipeline
National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy
(2007)
Rajiv Awas Yojana (Slum-free City) (2009)
National Urban Poverty Reduction Strategy
(2010 2020): A New Deal for the Urban Poor
- Slum free cities

BUILDING INCLUSIVE CITIES


OUR FOCUS: ADVOCACY TOOLS, POLICY PAPERS, RESEARCH
Generic

Specific to India

MOST Policy Paper :

UR BAN POLI CI ES AND


THE R I GHT TO THE
CI TY I N I NDI A R ights, responsibilities
and citizenship

September 2008

March 2009

October 2010

2011

UNESCO/UN-HABITAT Toolkit Historic Districts for All India


A Social and Human Approach for Sustainable Revitalisation
Comprising of a Manual, a Brochure and a CD-rom
Intended to promote and support the revitalisation of
historic districts in India with a social and human
perspective in mind

UNESCO/UN-HABITAT Toolkit Historic Districts for All India


A Social and Human Approach for Sustainable Revitalisation
The Toolkit aims to:
Promote an interdisciplinary approach to urban
revitalization that takes into account the
principles of sustainable development, social
equity and justice
Raise awareness among key decision-makers,
particularly at state and local level, on the role
they can play to prevent social exclusion (e.g. of
migrants, lower castes), gentrification, or
ghettoisation
Help decision-makers and stakeholders to
improve their methods of intervention through
the presentation and discussion of
methodological issues, concrete tools and
international references

CONSERVATION TRENDS IN INDIA

Past approaches
o Monument-based conservation
o Planning focus on greenfield development
o Fragmented governance framework vis-vis heritage
o Laissez-faire in historic zones

Emerging trends
o
o
o
o

Beyond the monument Heritage zones


Tangible and intangible heritage
Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)
Yet - continued emphasis on architecture
and spatial morphology

Case Study - Ahmedabad


o Revitalization of the walled city led by
Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC)
o Focus on protection of tangible and intangible
heritage, as well as improvement of living
conditions
o Collaboration with a wide range of national and
international agencies, local associations etc
o Establishment of heritage cell, adoption of
various measures in building and zoning
regulations
o Initiation of a Heritage Walk
o Considerable emphasis on heritage in the City
Development Plan

Case Study - Puducherry


o Former French-ruled territory comprising French
town and Tamil town
o Over 500 historic buildings razed during 19942002
o Multi-pronged approach of conservation efforts
since 2002
o Range of activities to revive the economy and
encourage historic conservation of public and
private buildings
o Conservation activities integrated with broader
planning process
o Broad-based consultation and partnershipbuilding

Social and Human Revitalization of


Historic Districts in India:
What Challenges?
o Poverty, migration and social exclusion,
ghettoisation
o Overlapping of heritage, urban poverty, slums
o Inadequate housing, poor infrastructure,
deteriorating living environment
o Land tenure, ownership and tenancy
o Legislation and policy
o Weak urban governance and conflicting interests,
gentrification

Revitalizing: What to Revitalize?


Priorities?
o Meet the basic needs of the poor population (water,
sanitation, housing, health care, education)
o Enhance public spaces and the urban environment
o Create employment, both formal and informal
o Oppose property speculation and spatial segregation
o Support local democracy and encourage participation of
usually excluded groups (women, informal workers,
migrants)
o Establish community mediators for the prevention of
conflicts
o Improve quality of (and access to) infrastructure and
services
o Maintain identity and traditions
o Encourage creativity and cultural tourism

Revitalizing How? With Whom?


Many current actors and stakeholders are very much
linked to a narrow conservationist approach: involve
a wider range of governmental and nongovernmental actors
Reflect on the long term impact of your revitalization
project: needs of present and future generations?
Promote or request trainings adapted to the local
context, involving wide range of stakeholders
Establish a nodal agency or heritage cell for overall
coordination

Success Factors (1)


Historic districts are not viewed as optional extra
but as central to the development vision of the city
The needs and priorities of the living communities
are taken into account: revitalization is not just
preservation, sanitation and beautification
Local stakeholders are integrally involved in the
process

Success Factors (2)


Public spaces are created or maintained; they are
accessible to all citizens (sense of pride and
belonging to a unique city)
Tourism is not seen as the sole strategy and goal
of the development of historic districts (multi-use
approach is developed)
Revitalization process, including for financial
resource mobilization, is a collaborative effort
involving all (private, public, communities)

Thank you

Email: m.faetanini@unesco.org; newdelhi@unesco.org


Email: shipra.narang@gmail.com, shipra.narang-suri@york.ac.uk
Website: www.unesco.org/newdelhi; www.unesco.org/shs