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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 

٢١٢
‫א‬  ٢١٢ ‫א‬
 

 

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬??? ?‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   W    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      
  ٢١٢ ‫א‬
 

 

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫?א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
??‫א‬?‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬WW‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬


  ٢١٢ ‫א‬
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

K?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬
‫א‬

١
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-١-
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∗
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∗
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∗
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∗
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∗

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

١١٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE


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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬W١J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬W٢J ١
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

drilling ‫א‬ milling ‫א‬ turning ‫א‬‫א‬
shaping ‫א‬ grinding ‫א‬ sawing ‫א‬
boring ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ broaching ‫א‬
planning ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬   •
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬   •
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ •
 K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣J ١
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬    ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Castings‫א‬ •
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬forgings‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬      •
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

Cutting Motions‫א‬W٤J ١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬EK١-١F‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 

‫א‬WE١-١F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
Cutting motion‫א‬W١٤١
 Wwork piece‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 ‫א‬tool‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 Feed motion‫א‬W٢٤١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
Setting the cutting depth motion‫א‬W٣٤١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬

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
 ‫א‬
 -
  ١٢١

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 ‫א‬

‫א‬E3  ‫א‬E٢  K‫א‬(1 


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٥ K‫א‬E٤
 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢١F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 The cutting process‫א‬W٥١


  Formation of chipsE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬W١٥١
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E ß1F‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
 K‫א‬E٣١F‫א‬

‫א‬WE٣١F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢٥١
‫א‬KEγF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KContinuous chip  ‫א‬  Shear chip  ‫א‬ Broken chip‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤J ١F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

EF    


 °٥<‫א‬ °٥>‫א‬°١٥Z‫א‬

          EF  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  χ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   E٥J ١F ‫א‬
 ‫א‬Fh‫א‬‫א‬A ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 KEd‫א‬Fb‫א‬‫א‬Ef
 A = b . h = d . f [mm2]

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٥١F‫א‬

 Built -up edge‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٦١


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 KL٨٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 developed heat‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٧١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٦J ١F‫א‬Kº٨٥٠<‫א‬ ،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E٧ ١F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧١F‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦١F‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬      K‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬    K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ١٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 Cooling and lubrication‫א‬‫א‬W٨١


  K ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬
 K‫א‬.،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
  ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫• א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E Mineral oilsF‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬E٣١F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 


 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 L١٩  ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬
 L١٣٢  ٢٥
 L١٧٠  ٥٠
 L٢٢٧  ٧٥
  ‫א‬
 L١٩  
 L٢٢٧  
  ‫א‬
 L١١–٨  ٢٥
 ‫א‬xL٠{٤  
  ‫א‬
 L٧٦  
 L١٥١  
‫א‬L٠{٧٥  ‫א‬
  EF
 L٣٨  
‫א‬‫א‬x ‫א‬L٠{٤٥  
  
 LL١١  
 LL١٩  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١١F‫א‬

- ١٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 


‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
  
‫ א‬ ‫ א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
J 
GPO - GPO – GPO -
HDO -S S HDO – S S HDO - S S ‫א‬
HDS GPS HDS GPS HDS GPS 
HDAC HDAC HDAC HDAC HDAC HDAC 
GPO - GPO – GPO -
HDO - S S HDO – S S HDO - S S ‫א‬
HDS HDS HDS HDS HDS HDS 
GPO - S GPS GPO – S GPS GPO - S GPS 


HDO - GPO - HDO – GPO – HDO - GPO -
NS NS NS NS NS NS ‫א‬،‫א‬
GPO - GPO - GPO – GPO – GPO - GPO -
NS NS NS NS NS NS 
GPO - GPO - GPO – GPO – GPON - GPO -
NS NS NS NS NS NS ‫א‬
HDO - GPO - HDO – GPO – HDO - GPO -
NS NS NS NS NS NS 

HDS HDS HDS HDS HDS HDS ‫א‬‫א‬

HDAC HDAC HDAC HDAC HDAC HDAC


GPS GPS GPS GPS GPS GPS ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢J ١F‫א‬

- ١٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 GPO General purpose mineral oil
 ‫א‬
 HDO Heavy duty mineral oil
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 GPS General purpose soluble oil
 ‫א‬
 HDS Heavy duty soluble oil
‫א‬‫א‬
 GPAC General purpose aqueous coolant
‫א‬
HDAC Heavy duty aqueous coolant
 ‫א‬
S Staining
 ‫א‬
NS NonJ staining

- ١٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 W

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬K‫א‬E١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

 K‫א‬E٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 K،‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١

 ‫א؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦





 

- ١٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 W‫א‬‫א‬E١٧

 EF     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫أ‬

EF    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ب‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ج‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ح‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫خ‬

     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫د‬

   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ذ‬
  
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨

 ‫א‬ (‫أ‬

     


 ‫א‬ (‫ب‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ت‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ث‬

 º٨٥٠< º٢٥٠J ١٥٠ º ١٥٠>


 WE١٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬ (‫أ‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ب‬

EF‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ت‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ث‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 Cutting Parameters ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬


 WW١J ٢
 K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬        ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 [m/min] Cutting speed ‫א‬W٢J ٢
K‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
،‫א‬‫א‬
  EF ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   K E ٢F ‫א‬ 
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢F
 KEL
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   K‫א‬     
 K‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  
   ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    •
K
‫א‬KFinishing •

‫א‬   KRoughing  ‫א‬    •

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •
K
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •


 (n)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 n =1000* V / πd   

 [m/min]‫א‬VW
 [rev/min] ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬n  
 [mm] K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬d  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ١٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٥FE٤-٢F،E٣-٢F،E٢-٢F،E١-٢F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 FEED SPEED [mm/rev]‫א‬W٣J ٢
 ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   
،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬    K         ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬ •
KMild steel‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ E٥-٢F E٤-٢F ، E٣-٢F ،E٢-٢F ،E١-٢F ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Depth of cut ‫א‬W٤J ٢
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KK
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬   •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ •
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   •
K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

‫א‬ ‫א‬ L‫א‬
   
 L ١٤٠ ٢٠٠J ١٦٠ ٣٦٠J ٢٢٠

H.S.S  H.S.S  H.S.S 


90 – 220 - 150 - 110 -
0.8 0.2 - 0.4 125 320 56 - 71 200 25 - 36 140
56 – 140 - 100 - 71 -
1.6 0.2 - 0.8 100 250 32 - 63 180 16 - 32 120
71 - 45 -
3.2 0.2 - 1.6 32 - 80 200 20 - 50 63 - 140 10 -- 25 100
63 -
4.8 0.2 - 1.6 25 - 71 180 16 - 45 56 - 125 10 -- 25 36 – 90
45 -
6.4 0.2 - 1.6 25 - 63 140 16 - 40 36 - 120 8 -- 20 25 – 80

9.6 0.4 - 2.4 16 - 45 40 - 90 10 – 25 32 – 80 6 -- 16 20 – 56

12 .7 0.4 - 3.2 10 -- 40 36 - 90 8 -- 25 25 – 71 4-- 16 32 – 50

19 0.4 -- 3.2 10 -- 25 25 - 55 7 -- 16 20 – 40 3 -- 8 20 – 50

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١-٢F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٢٠–٩٠‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ L‫א‬


   
 L ١٦٠ ٢٠٠J ١٦٠ ٣٦٠J ٢٢٠
H.S.S  H.S.S  H.S.S 
110 – 71 – 63 –
0.8 0.2 - 0.8 63 - 90 160 32 - 50 120 20 – 32 100
100 – 63 –
1.6 0.2 - 0.8 50 - 80 140 25 - 45 110 16 – 25 56 – 90
63 –
3.2 0.2 - 1.6 32 - 71 140 20 - 40 45 - 90 10 – 25 40 – 71
63 –
4.8 0.2 - 1.6 32 - 63 125 16 - 32 36 - 80 9 – 20 32 – 71
56 –
6.4 0.2 - 1.6 25 - 63 120 16 - 32 36 - 71 8 – 20 25 – 63

9.6 0.4 - 3.2 20 - 40 36 – 80 9 -- 20 32 - 56 5 – 16 25 – 45

12 .7 0.4 - 2.4 16 - 40 25 – 80 8 -- 20 32 - 50 5 -- 10 20 – 40
0.4 --
19 3.2 10 - 36 20 – 71 7 -- 20 25 - 45 4 -- 10 20 -32
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE2J ٢F‫א‬
 ‫א‬K١٢٠–٩٠‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ L‫א‬

 L ،‫א‬ ،، ،‫א‬

H.S.S  H.S.S  H.S.S 


110 – 280 –
o.8 0.1 - 0.4 56 - 90 150 - 250 90 - 150 220 - 400 200 500
180 –
1.6 0.1 - 0.8 32 - 71 100 - 220 56 - 120 140 - 300 71 – 150 400
110 –
3.2 0.1 - 1.6 20 - 63 63 - 180 32 - 95 71 - 250 40 – 120 300
71 –
6.4 0.1 - 1.6 16 - 45 40 - 140 25 - 80 46 - 180 36 – 110 250
45 –
9.6 0.1 - 2.4 9 -- 40 25 - 140 16 - 71 32 - 150 20 – 90 200

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣J ٢F‫א‬
KK١٢٠–٩٠‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

- ٢٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 


 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬       –‫א‬  –   
‫א‬

‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬ ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬ 24 - 37 18 - 37 46 - 107 18 - 46 61 - 91 183 - 549 46 91

‫أﺳﺘﻘﺮاﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬ 0.3 - 3.8 0.3 - 3.8 1.3 - 0.38 0.5 - 0.13 0.3 - 2.5 0.25 – 2.5 1.5 1.5

‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬ ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬ 30 - 46 38 - 61 61 - 122 37 - 61 76 - 152 183 - 549 91 122

‫ﺗﺸﻄﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬ 0.08 - 0.25 0.08 - 0.25 0.2 - 0.1 0.2 - 0.13 0.1 - 0.25 0.1 - 0.25 0.38 0.25

‫ﺗﺤﺰﻳﺰ‬ ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬ 15 - 23 15 - 27 37 - 61 30 - 37 30 - 61 107 - 152 46 91

‫و ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬ 0.25 - 2.03 0.25 - 1.5 0.2 - 0.1 0.15 - 0.1 0.25 - 0.76 0.25 – 1.3 0.25 0.13

‫ﺗﺠﻮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬ 60 - 125 18 - 38 43 - 11 20 - 30 61 - 91 549 46 61

Boring ‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬ 0.13 - 0.5 0.13 - 0.5 0.13 - 0.1 0.13 - 2.5 0.13 - 0.5 0.2 – 1.5 0.5 0.5

‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬ 24 - 55 18 - 40 30 -- 11 14 - 20 61 - 91 154 - 549 30 91


‫ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬
‫واﺟﻬﻲ‬ ‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬ 0.13 - 0.5 0.25 - 3.3 0.13 - 0.76 0.13 - 0.38 0.25 - 0.76 0.25 – 1.3 0.13 - 0.76 0.13 – 0.5

‫ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬/ ‫م‬ 12 -- 30 18 - 30 11 -- 30 12 -- 18 61 - 91 152 - 549 30 61


‫ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺰ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ‬ ‫ دورة‬/ ‫ﻣﻢ‬ 0.13 - 0.5 0.25 - 3.3 0.13 - 0.76 0.13 - 0.38 0.25 - 0.76 0.25 – 1.3 0.13 - 0.76 0.13- 0.5

Rough turningZ‫א‬‫א‬ recessingZ


finish turningZ‫א‬ CutoffZ
Face millingZ‫א‬ Periphery millingZ

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٢F‫א‬

- ٢٣ -
‫א‪‬א‪ ‬‬ ‫‪  ١٢١‬‬ ‫א‪ ‬‬
‫‪‬א‪ ‬‬ ‫‪ -‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ )ﻣﻢ ‪/‬‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ )م ‪/‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬


‫ﻋﻤﺮ اﻷداة ) دﻗﻴﻘﺔ(‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻖ اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫دورة(‬ ‫دﻗﻴﻘﺔ(‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻼدة‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة اﻟﺸﻐﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
‫آﺮﺑﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺮاﻣﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻢ‬ ‫آﺮﺑﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺮاﻣﻴﻚ‬ ‫آﺮﺑﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺮاﻣﻴﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻄﺮوﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬
‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪55‬‬ ‫‪0.51‬‬ ‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪168‬‬ ‫‪366‬‬ ‫روآﻮﻳﻞ‪32‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺒﻮآﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬
‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪18‬‬ ‫‪4.75‬‬ ‫‪0.51‬‬ ‫‪0.64‬‬ ‫‪198‬‬ ‫‪1524‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻧﻴﻞ ‪241‬‬ ‫زهﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺮوﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬
‫‪28‬‬ ‫‪15‬‬ ‫‪6.35‬‬ ‫‪0.41‬‬ ‫‪0.46‬‬ ‫‪213‬‬ ‫‪549‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻧﻴﻞ‪200‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺒﻮآﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬
‫‪33‬‬ ‫‪23‬‬ ‫‪4.75‬‬ ‫‪0.41‬‬ ‫‪0.51‬‬ ‫‪198‬‬ ‫‪671‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻧﻴﻞ‪241‬‬ ‫زهﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻄﺮوﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﺔ‬
‫‪36‬‬ ‫‪63‬‬ ‫‪0.51‬‬ ‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪152‬‬ ‫‪610‬‬ ‫روآﻮﻳﻞ ‪32‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬

‫‪‬‬
‫א‪WE٥٢F‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪‬א‪ K‬‬

‫‪- ٢٤ -‬‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

 K‫א‬E٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 K‫א‬E٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١

 ‫א‬E١٢

 EF   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E


 EF   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EFK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EF      K‫א‬‫א‬E

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 Cutting Tools

 W‫א‬‫א‬W١٣
،E،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ •
، ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬      
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   •
K‫א‬

،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  
 E١ ٣F ‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ،‫א‬    W‫א‬   •
 KKKK،،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ •
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬
K‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬  W‫א‬ ‫א‬  •
‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤ ٣F،E٣ ٣F،E٢ ٣F‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٣F‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٣F‫א‬

- ٢٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 WE٤٣F‫א‬

 Tool angles‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٣F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥٣F‫א‬

،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬    W     ‫א‬‫א‬   
    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

- ٢٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   EγF‫א‬‫א‬
 º٢٠J ٨
‫א‬ E βF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ º٧٠ ٦٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ º٥٠ ٤٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   E‫א‬αF‫א‬‫א‬
 º٨٥‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬ εF‫א‬‫א‬
 º٩٠J ١١    
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    EχF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 º٩٠J ٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٣FE٣٣FE١٣F‫א‬‫א‬

 Tool signature ‫א‬‫א‬W٤٣
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬    
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬  ISO ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 ISO2 DIN4972 L 25q k10  
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ISO2
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ DIN4972
 ‫א‬  L 
 ٢٥‫א‬  25q
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K10

- ٣٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥-٣
K‫א‬     ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K
         ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ،º٢٠٠ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
º ٦٠٠،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
EInsertsF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬ º٩٠٠‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬   Kº١٢٠٠    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
  ، H   ‫א‬ F ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EKKKK،‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦٣F،E٤٣F،E٢٣F‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬  
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 EFE F
 KEFEFWE٦٣F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 ١٨٧٠‫א‬‫א‬E٦٣F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬،‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
،
8 - 10 0 J 7 6-8 7-9 ،‫א‬
8 - 12 0 - 12 8 - 10 8 - 10 ١٠٤٥SAE 
10 - 14 0 - 14 7-9 7-9 ١١١٢SAE 
10 - 16 0 - 14 7-9 7-9 ١٣٣٥SAE 
8 - 10 0 - 10 7-9 7-9 ٣١٣٥SAE 
8 - 10 0-8 7-9 7-9 ٦١٤٠SAE 
8 - 12 0-5 6-8 8 J 10 
15 0 14 12 - 14 
4-6 0 8 - 10 8 - 10 
12 - 20 0 - 16 12 - 14 12 - 14 
0-8 0 6 - 10 8 - 10 
0 - 10 0-2 8 - 12 10 - 12 
SAE = Society of automative Engineers
 EF‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٣F‫א‬





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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 


٪‫א‬‫א‬
     AISI
Co V Mo W Cr C Type
‫א‬
1 8.5 1.5 4 0.85 M1
2 5 6 4 1.05 M2
2 8.75 1.75 4 1 M7
8 1.15 9.5 1.5 4 0.9 M 33
8 1.15 9.5 1.5 3.75 1.1 M 42
‫א‬
1 18 4 0.75 T1
8 2 18 4 0.8 T5
5 2 14 4 0.75 T8
5 5 12 4 1.5 T 15

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٣F‫א‬

- ٣٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
10 – 20 0 J 10 6 - 10 6 - 10 ‫א‬
15 – 20 0-4 6-8 6-8 
8J 5 0-5 6-8 6-8 ‫א‬
6-7 0-7 5-8 5-8 
‫א‬
6-7 0-7 5 - 10 5 - 10 ١٠٢٠SAE
١٠٢٥SAE 
6-7 0-7 5-8 5-8 
6-7 0 -7 5-8 5-8 
–
6-7 0 -٧ 5 -- 10 5 -- 10 EF
F–
6-7 0 -7 5-8 5-8 E

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٣F‫א‬



- ٣٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

‫א‬‫א‬
   
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ٪ ٪ ٪ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
  3 97 P10
  6 94 P20
‫א‬‫א‬  8 92  P50
‫א‬‫א‬ ،، 10 5 85 M10
‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬،
  8 14 78 M20
  6 15 79  M40
‫א‬‫א‬ ، 4 30 66 K10
‫א‬‫א‬
 ، 5 50 45 K20
 ، 6 60 34  K40

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٣F‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
8 - 20 8 - 20 7 7 
8 8 5 5 
4 0 5 5 
4 4 5 5 
8 - 20 8 - 20 7 7 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥٣F‫א‬

- ٣٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

٪‫א‬‫א‬
١٠٠ ٥٢٥‫א‬ TX - 90 ‫א‬

41.5 - 43.5 40 - 45 42 - 45 ‫א‬


max 1.5 1 -- 7 1 -- 7 ‫א‬
32.75 -
34.25 25 - 30 27 - 32 ‫א‬
18.25 -
19.25 16 - 21 14 - 19 ‫א‬
1.85 - 2.05 2 -- 4 2-4 ‫א‬
3 -- 8 2 -- 5 ‫א‬
max 0.75 1 -- 3 1 -- 3 ‫א‬
max 2 2 -- 5 2 -- 5 ‫א‬
0.4 - 0.6 0.3 - 0.7 0.3 - 0.7 ‫א‬
0.85 - 1.05 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦٣F‫א‬

- ٣٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 Tool wear ‫א‬‫א‬W٦٣


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WW‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬
   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫• א‬
K‫א‬
 WW‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬Flank wear land‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Wear Crater‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧٣F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧٣F‫א‬
 
BK‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
 ٠{٣ ٠{٢٥ Cd / CmK‫א‬‫א‬ ١{٦ ١{٢‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٣٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 Tool life‫א‬‫א‬W٧٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K٤٨٠،١٨٠،١٢٠٩٠،٦٠،٣٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 W‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 V.Tn = C
 W
 K‫א‬V
 K‫א‬‫א‬T
 K‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬n

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١–0.60.25–0.20.5 – 0.1n

 ‫א‬‫א‬W١٧٣

 WE١F
L٢٨٤‫א‬‫א‬ ٢‫א‬‫א‬
L ٢٣٢ ‫א‬‫א‬K ١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٦٠‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬٣٠‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


- ٣٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

V10= π d n / 12 = π(2) (284) / 12 = 149 f/min


V60 = π d n / 12 = π (2) (232) / 12 = 122 f/min
 ‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬
n n
V1 T1 = V2 T2 = C
V1 / V2 = (T2 / T1) n
149 /122 = (60 / 10) n
1.22 = 6n n = 0.11

C = VTn = 149 (10) 0.11 = 149 (1.288) = 192

V T0.11 = 192
V30 = 192 / (30)0.11 = 192 / 1.455
 V30 = 132 fpmin (L)
KL١٢٢‫א‬‫א‬٣٠‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
n = 12 v / π d = (12)(122)/ π(2) n =233L
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K = V . Tn . fn1 . d n2
 W
 ٠{٨J ٠{٥Z‫א‬ K
 ٠{٤J ٠{٢Z‫א‬ f
 ‫א‬d
 ٠{٨٠{٥‫א‬n1
 ٠{٤٠{٢‫א‬n2

- ٤٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 :E٢F
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬AISI 2340 J
 2.035 = VT 0.13 f 0.77 d 0.37
L٧٥Z‫א‬‫א‬ ١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KL٠{٠١٢٥Z٠{١
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 20%‫א‬‫א‬ (١
 20%‫א‬‫א‬ (٢
 20%‫א‬‫א‬ (٣
 20%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٤
 W‫א‬
20%‫א‬‫א‬E١
V = 1.2 x 75 = 90 (f / min)
T = K / V f d = 2.035 / 90 (0.0125)0.77 (0.1)0.37
n1 n2

= 2.035 (0.034) (0.426) = 1.56


T = 1.561 / 0.13 = 1.567.7
 = 31min
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٠%‫א‬‫א‬E٢
f = 0.0125 0 1.2 = 0.015 iprELF
T0.13 = 2.035 / 75 (0.015)0.77 (0.1)0.37 = 2.035 / 75 (0.038) ( 0.426)
T = (1.67)7.7 = 31min
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٪٢٠‫א‬‫א‬E٣
d = 1.2 x 0.1 = 0.12 in
T0.13 = 2.035 / 75 (0.0125)0.77 (0.12)0.37 = 2.035 / 75 (0.034) ( 0.456)
T = (1.745)7.7 = 73 min

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 20%‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

- ٤١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

V = 90 fpm, S = 0.014 ipr, d = 0.12 mm


Τ = K /VSn1d n2 = 2.035/ 90(0.0125)0.77 (0.1)0.37
T0.13 = 2.035 / 90 (0.038) (0.456) =
T = (1.3)7.7  = 7.5 min
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٧{٥١٠٠

- ٤٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 W

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 ‫؟‬γ‫א‬‫א‬E٥

 ‫؟‬λ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 ‫؟‬αs‫א‬‫א‬α ‫א‬‫א‬E٧

 ‫؟‬β‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 ‫؟‬χ‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥

 WEFE‫א‬FE١٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

- ٤٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE١٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫أ( א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ب‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ت‬

 K?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ث‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤

- ٤٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 Cutting forces‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WW١J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬ Fs‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Fz‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KFSN‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Φ
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤F‫א‬


 ‫א‬WE١٤F‫א‬
 W‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ت‬
 K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ج‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬     E FixturesF ‫א‬   E
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ,  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 Calculation of cutting force‫א‬W٢٤

٢١‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Richter, Kronenberg,       K ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Taylor, Merchant and Kinziele
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬Kinziele
Fc = b . h . ks
ks= ks.1.1 / hz = ( 3 – 5) σs

 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬ h K‫א‬‫א‬b
 ١Z‫א‬‫א‬١Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Ks.1.1
K‫א‬z
 ‫א‬ σs
 E١٤F‫א‬zk s.1.1 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 


K ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
-2
kp * mm Z [kp * mm-2]

176 0.17 50 ٤٢


199 0.26 52 ٥٠
211 0.17 62 ٦٠
222 0.14 67 ck ٤٥c,45 ‫א‬
213 0.18 77 ck ٦٠c,60 ‫א‬
210 0.26 77 16Mn Cr 5 
225 0.3 63 18Cr Ni 6 
224 0.21 60 34Cr Mo 4 
250 0.25 73 42 Cr V 4 
174 0.24 94 55 NiCrMoV 6 

192 0.24 HB 352  55NiCrMoV 6


255 0.18 60 - 70 
332 0.22 
160 0.17 30 - 50 ٤٥
205 0.19 Rc 46 
95 0.2 hB 200 ١٥J 
116 0.25 HB 200 ٢٥
65 0.24 
78 0.19 HB80 - 120 
65 0.24 HB30 - 42 ‫א‬
10N/mm2‫א‬ kp/mm2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٤F‫א‬

- ٤٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 W١J ٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١{٢–١{١
 ‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٠{٩
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬١{٥J ١{٣
‫א‬‫א‬L١٢٥‫א‬‫א‬١{٢J ١{١

Calculation of machine power ‫א‬W٣٤
 Pc = FC. V / 102 . 60 [kw]  Pc‫א‬
 W
 [ N]‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FC   [m / min]‫א‬ V
 K‫א‬‫א‬١٠٢‫א‬٦٠‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
η‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 WEF
Pmotor = Pc / η [kw]   
 K‫א‬٠{٩٠{٧η
 Cutting force components ‫א‬W٤٤
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ FT‫א‬‫א‬E١٤F‫א‬
K‫א‬    ‫א‬        
FE FCFT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤F‫א‬
 KFRFFFE

- ٤٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 


 ‫א‬WE٢٤F‫א‬

 W
‫א‬   ٦٧%    Etangential componentF ‫א‬ ‫א‬  FC
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
    ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬    
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬ ‫א‬   ٢٧%  Eradial componentF ‫א‬ ‫א‬  FR
‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ١٢ <‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
EF ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEsteady or follower restF

K‫א‬ ‫א‬   ٦%  Eaxial componentF ‫א‬ ‫א‬  FF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

- ٤٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

Factors affecting the cutting force ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٥٤



 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫أ‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ب‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ت‬

K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ث‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ج‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ح‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫خ‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬   ١٢١  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  - 

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬E٥

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬E١١

 W‫א‬E١٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫أ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬L٤٥st 50‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣
٢
 ٢{٤
 W‫א‬K٢L٢٠٠٠Ks.1.1‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ (‫أ‬

K‫א‬ (‫ب‬

K٠{٨Zη‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ت‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬
‫א‬

-١-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
،‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ W     ‫א‬ 
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬       
 ‫א‬   ،   ،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K     ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Drilling‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 E١-٥

،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ، ‫א‬    ، E‫א‬F   ،E‫א‬ F  
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫ א‬ W   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ،‫א‬     ‫א‬  K‫א‬    
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬E١٥F‫א‬
         Drilling  ‫א‬  E٢  ٥F ‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ Counter boring‫א‬K
 K‫א‬


 K‫א‬WE١٥F‫א‬


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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٥F‫א‬

 W‫א‬E٢-٥
،،W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ،‫א‬،،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E١٢٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ٦٠ – ١        Twist drill ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬٠{٨–٠{١
◦١١٨١١٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ˚١٤٠ ١٣٠ ‫א‬˚١٢٥ ١٢٠،‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٥F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WTaper shank‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ WCutting part‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ WEFluteF‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   WMagrin‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 
 
 ‫א‬K١  ‫א‬K١
 ‫א‬‫א‬K٢  ‫א‬K٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬K٣ K٣
 ‫א‬K٤  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٥  ‫א‬K٤
 ‫א‬K٦  ‫א‬K٥
 ‫א‬K٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٥F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤٥F‫א‬K


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٥F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫א‬K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬E١J ٥F

 K‫א‬WE١٥F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Counter Boring‫א‬E٣٥
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
٨٠–٨E‫א‬FK‫א‬
 ˚٩٠‫א‬‫א‬ ˚٧٥ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ˚٦٠‫א‬
 K‫א‬ ˚١٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٢ ٥F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E٥ ٥F‫א‬K٪ ٥٠ – ٣٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE٥٥F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٥F‫א‬

- ٦٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 Reaming‫א‬E٤٥

‫א‬‫א‬٠{٠٤‫א‬
٠{٠٠٥‫א‬‫א‬KIT 10
    ،         K IT 8   
K IT 6 ٠{٠٠١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ١٤–٦‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬    ٠{١  ‫א‬    ٠{٣    K‫א‬   
d = 0.005 . D + 0.1 [mm]W‫א‬K‫א‬
E٣J ٥F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E٦٥F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  
J   ‫א‬J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٦٥F‫א‬

- ٦١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٥F‫א‬

- ٦٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬E٥-٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 ‫א‬WE٤٥F‫א‬

- ٦٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ٥

 ،‫א‬  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬   E٧  ٥F  E٦   ٥F ، E ٥   ٥F ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬   st  
 60 ‫א‬
١٥٠J ١٠٠ ٦٠J ٣٠ ٣٠J ١٢ ٤٠J ٣٠  
‫א‬
٠{٦–٠{١ ٠{٦–٠{١ ٠{٦–٠{١ ٠{٤–٠{١  
‫א‬

 ‫א‬WE٥٥F‫א‬

  


> <
٧٠–٥٠ ٢٠٠ ٢٠٠ ١٠٠> ١٠٠< ‫א‬
0.4 -- 0.3 --
0.2 -- 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.3 -- 0.5 0.2 -- 0.4 25 – 40

0.4 --
0.3 -- 0.6 0.5 -- 1 0.8 0.4 -- 0.8 0.2 -- 0.3 40 – 60
6 – 10 8 -- 15 6 -- 12 8 -- 12 6 – 10 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WEJ ٦٥F‫א‬

- ٦٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


L‫א‬
‫א‬  
 ٢٠٠< ٢٠٠> ٧٠< ٧٠> ‫א‬
0.63 -
0.8 0.25 -0.4 0.63 - 0.8 0.11 - 0.18 0.25 - 0.4 ٥
0.8 - 0.9 0.4 - 0.5 0.8 - 0.9 0.18 - 0.22 0.4 - 0.5 5–8
0.9 0.50.56 0.9 0.22 - 0.25 0.5 - 0.56 8 – 10
0.9 - 0.1 0.56 0.71 0.9 - 1 0.25 - 0.31 0.56 - 0.71 10 – 15
0.71 --
1 - 1.12 0.8 1 - 1.12 0.31 - 0.35 0.71 - 0.8 15 – 20
1.12 0.8 -- 0.9 1.12-.25 0.35 - 0.4 0.8 - 0.9 20 – 25
1.12 -
1.25 0.9 - 1 1.25 0.4 - 0.45 0.9 - 1 25 – 30
1.25 1 - 1.1 1.25 0.45 - 0.5 1 - 1.1 30 - 40
1.25 --
1.4 1.1 - 1.25 1.25- 1.4 0.5 - 0.56 1.1 - 1.24 40 – 50
1.4 1.25 1.4 1.4 0.56 - 0.63 1.25 - 1.4 50 – 60

> 1.4 > 1.4 > 1.4 > 0.63 > 1.4 ٦٠<
12 – 20 7 -- 10 12 -- 14 3 -- 5 6 -- 12 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WEJ ٦٥F‫א‬

- ٦٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  



‫א‬ELF‫א‬ ‫א‬
L 
63 50 40 31.5 25 20 16 12.5 10 8 6.3 5  ‫א‬
0.63 0.63 0.56 0.56 0.5 0.5 0.45 0.45 0.4 0.4 0.36 0.36 22.4
12.5 -
0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 10
8-
1.4 1.25 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.71 0.63 0.56 0.5 0.45 0.4 6.3
0.36 0.32 0.32 0.28 31.5
0.32 0.28 0.25 0.22 0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14 40
0.25 0.22 0.22 0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 50 st 60
0.63 0.63 0.56 0.56 0.5 0.5 0.45 0.45 0.4 0.4 0.36 0.36 31.5
25 -
0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 20
1.4 1.4 1.25 1.25 1.12 1.12 1 1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 14
0.36 0.32 0.32 0.28 0.28 50 
0.32 0.28 0.25 0.22 0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14 63
0.22 0.22 0.2 0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 71 
80 -
0.5 0.45 0.45 0.4 0.4 0.36 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.28 0.28 0.25 63
50 –
0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 28
1.4 1.4 1.25 1.25 1.12 1.12 1 1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 25
140–
0.32 0.32 0.28 0.28 0.25 0.25 12
80 -
0.32 0.28 0.25 0.22 0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14 63 
140-
0.32 0.22 0.2 0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 125 ‫א‬
20 -
0.5 0.45 0.45 0.4 0.4 0.36 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.28 0.28 0.25 16
12.5-
0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 10
12.5-
1.4 1.4 1.25 1.25 1.2 1.12 1 1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 10
0.36 0.32 0.32 0.28 20 
0.4 0.36 0.32 0.28 0.25 0.22 0.2 0.18 25
0.25 0.22 0.22 0.2 0.2 0.18 0.18 0.16 31.5 ٢٢


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٧J ٥F‫א‬

- ٦٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬E٧J ٥
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬    ‫א‬    ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬   F     E٨  ٥F ‫א‬ K ‫א‬ ‫א‬
KE‫א‬
 



 KUpright drillWE٧٥F‫א‬

- ٦٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Column‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬K  Work table‫א‬
 K‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،
‫א‬    E٨  ٥F ‫א‬ K ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬


 ‫א‬WJ ٨J ٥

- ٦٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  



 KWE-٨٥F‫א‬

- ٦٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٨٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F = (f . D / 2) . ks in [N]
 W
 Ed‫א‬F‫א‬٢LD  ELF‫א‬ f
 ks.1.1z ‫א‬h‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1.25 ks‫א‬‫א‬  s k
 K٤٧E١{٤F‫א‬‫א‬
  K‫א‬‫א‬σKh = (f / 2) sin σ‫א‬h‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
Pc = (f . D2 / 8) ks . (n / 97400) in [kW]
 η‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Pmotor = Pc / η in [kW]
Cutting time‫א‬‫א‬E٩J ٥
 W‫א‬
tc = L / n . f
 WE٩J ٥F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ L
L = lx + lb + lwp + la
 ELF‫א‬ f  ELF‫א‬‫א‬ n
lx = (D / 2 . tan σ / 2) ‫א‬lx


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٩٥F‫א‬

- ٧٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W
K‫א‬ (١

K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢
‫؟‬‫א‬ (٣
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٤
K‫א‬ (٥
‫؟‬‫א‬ (٦
K‫א‬‫א‬ (٧
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٨
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(٩
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٠
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١١
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٢
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٣
K‫( א‬١٤
K‫א‬ (١٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٦
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٧
٤٢٠١٢‫א‬ (١٨
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢L
L١٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬،º١١٦Zσ‫א‬‫א‬،L٠{٢٢
K٠{٩Zη‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬١٩
 L١٥٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬J   K٣٥Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 L٠{٤Z‫א‬J     ١٦Z‫א‬J
 ٥Z‫א‬J    ٥Z‫א‬J
 ‫א‬J    º١٢٠Zσ‫א‬‫א‬J

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Turning ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 E١-٦
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬?‫א‬?
KSymmetrical work pieces ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬ W ‫א‬    ،‫א‬   ‫א‬    
K‫א‬‫א‬E١٦F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E ‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
EFacingF ETurningF
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٦

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Types of turning processes‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢–٦


‫א‬ K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE٢٦F‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٦F

Types of lathe machines ‫א‬‫א‬E٣٦
 W ‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬،‫א‬،W‫א‬
 K‫א‬W‫א‬
 K،،W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Center lathe‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬     Facing lathe ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫• א‬
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬     K‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K

‫א‬‫א‬ Copying lathe‫א‬‫• א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E
 

E‫א‬‫א‬FCapstan lathe E‫א‬FTurret lathe‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

    ،   F Special lathes   •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE
 K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬Vertical lathe‫א‬‫• א‬

K،‫א‬،EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٣٦F‫א‬

 J 


 J 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬J 

 J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٦F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 components of the lathe‫א‬E٤J ٦


‫א‬‫א‬E٤٦F‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٤٦F‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬   Bed  ‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  head stock ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Tail stockE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Spindle‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬‫א‬Lead screwE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WFeed shaft ‫א‬ J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Carriage‫ א‬J


K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    Bed slide ways E‫א‬ F ‫א‬  J
  K‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Cross slide ‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    Upper slide  ‫א‬ ‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K،‫א‬K‫א‬ tool box‫א‬ J
K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٥J ٦
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥٦F‫א‬K‫א‬
 KE٦٦F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٥٦F‫א‬



 WE٦٦F‫א‬

- ٨٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

Fixtures‫א‬E٦J ٦

‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
 WK‫א‬‫א‬

 Chuck‫ א‬J
‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬     K ١٠٠ >  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 Chuck and center‫א‬‫ א‬J


    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ K ١٠٠ < ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬

 The face plate‫ א‬J


 ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬

 Two centers J
‫א‬    K   ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Lathe carier or Dog

 The clamp chuck or collet‫א‬‫ א‬J


 K١٢>‫א‬

Steady or follower rest‫ א‬J


‫א‬‫א‬E ١٢ <F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧٦F‫א‬

- ٨١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

  J     J ‫א‬

   ‫א‬ 

    ‫א‬ 

 
 EF  EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٧٦F‫א‬

- ٨٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬E٧٦

H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬ = ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
 K
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 tc = L / n . s minutes
 K‫א‬  tc

 WL K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ L
 K‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ L
L = lb + lwp + la

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨٦F‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٨٦F‫א‬

- ٨٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،
،    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
 K،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬

     ،‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ،F ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   -
KE 

 W ،‫א‬ -
 E‫א‬،F‫א‬‫• א‬
 KEF‫א‬ •
 ECNCF‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
- ٨٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ F ‫א‬‫א‬   -
   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬       ‫א‬
 KE‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬ -
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٩-٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩٦
EMild steelF st 50 ‫א‬
 K١٠‫א‬‫א‬E٩٦F‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٩٦F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬
 K٨٥٤٠‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K١٠٠>‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KEHHF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ J
WE١٠٦F‫א‬‫א‬ J

 E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٣F‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 E٤F
‫א‬
 E٥F

 K‫א‬WE١٠٦F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬E٢FE١F
 KE٤FE٣F
 KE٥F
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬J
 KL٢٠ZV‫א‬،L٢Zf‫א‬،٢{٥Zd‫א‬E١F‫א‬
 n

- ٨٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 n =1000.V / 3.14 . D


n = 1000 . 20 / 3K14 . ٤٠=١٥٩{٣ [R /min]

  KE١F‫א‬E٢F‫א‬
 EnF،L٢٠ZV L٢Zf  ١Zd E٣F‫א‬
 ????L٢٠ZV L٢Zf ٩{٥ Zd E٤F‫א‬
 ???L٢٨ZV L٠{٠٦٣Z f  ٠{٥ Zd E٥F‫א‬
 Pmax‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬
Fc = b. h. Ks
Fc = d. f. Ks Ks= Ks.1.1 / hz
Ks= 199 / 20.26 = 5276 [N.mm2]
Fc = 9.5 . 2 . 199 / 20.26 = 13287.2 [ N]
Pmax = Fc . V / 60 . 102

Pmax = (13287.2)/ 6120 = 2.171 [kW]


 ٠{٨η‫א‬‫א‬
 WPmotor‫א‬‫א‬
Pmotor = Pmax / η = 2.171 / 0.8 = 2.71 [kW]

 ‫א‬‫א‬_
  tc = L / n . f          ‫א‬
 ٢٠‫א‬٣٠Z‫א‬،٣Z‫א‬‫א‬
L = lb + lwp + la
= 3 + 30+ 0 = 33 mm
n = 1000 . 20 / 3.14 . 30 = 212 [r / min]
tc = 33 / 212 . 2 = 33 / 424 = 0.07 [ min]

- ٨٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬J
 ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Taper turning‫א‬‫א‬E٢٩٦
 W،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫אא‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E١١٦F‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١١٦F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
α =D–d/2L
 ‫א‬‫א‬ (‫أ‬

‫א‬   ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 K‫א‬E١٢٦F‫א‬


 K‫א‬WE١٢٦F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ج‬
º١٠Z‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٧٥٠–٥٠٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬E١٣٦F‫א‬


 K‫א‬WE١٣٦F‫א‬

- ٨٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ح‬
  ‫א‬    K     ‫א‬‫א‬   
 K‫א‬E١٤٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬


K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WEJ ١٤٦F‫א‬

٢٣٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬º٦‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WEJ ١٤٦F‫א‬


AC = 235 . tan 6º = 235 . 0.0523 = 12.3 mm
‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٠F ٢٠W١‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬E١
 ١١{٧٥Z٢٠L٢٣٥Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥{٨٨Z٢L١١{٧٥Z‫א‬
- ٩٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Screw turning‫א‬‫א‬E٣٩٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥٦F‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٥٦F‫א‬

‫א‬ F E٦F ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬     E٧F ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬FE٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
K‫א‬E‫א‬FE٣F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،E٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E Z2 F‫א‬E Z1F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬LE١F‫א‬‫א‬
 E١F‫א‬‫א‬LE ٢ F‫א‬‫א‬Z
 ٢ L١Z٢L١
 ٦Z‫א‬‫א‬٣Z‫א‬
 ٢L١Z٦L٣Z٢L١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
      ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   
 K‫א‬

- ٩١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٦  ٦F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٦  ٦F‫א‬

- ٩٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W

K‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬١

K‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٢

K‫א‬‫( א‬٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٤

W‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬ (‫أ‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬J


 W‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ب‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 W‫א‬‫ج( א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬J
 K‫א‬J

K‫א‬‫א‬ (٦

‫א؟‬‫א‬‫( א‬٧

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٨

‫؟‬‫א‬ (٩

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٠

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬١١

‫؟‬‫א‬ (١٢
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٣

W‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬١٤
 W‫א‬E
 K١٠٠>‫א‬J   K١٠٠>‫א‬J  K١٠٠<‫א‬J
 W‫א‬E
K١٢>‫א‬J K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J K١٠٠<‫א‬J
 
 W‫א‬‫א‬E
 KJ  ١٠٠>‫א‬J  ١٢>‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٥

 ‫א؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٦

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٧

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٨

‫؟‬‫א‬ (١٩
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٠
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢١
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٢
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٣
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٤
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٥
W‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٦

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٧

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٨
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٩


 Kº٥‫א‬٢٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٠

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣١

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٢
 ٦٠Z‫א‬J    ٤Z‫א‬J
 L٠{٤Z‫א‬J  L٢٥Z‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ٢٠‫א‬J
 ٠{٨Zη‫א‬‫א‬J 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

  Milling ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 E١J ٧

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F
   ‫א‬ EPeripheral milling F‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٧F‫א‬KEFace millingF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE١٧F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

Milling applications ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧


،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٢٧F‫א‬


 Milling machines‫א‬E٣٧
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  W    
 KE٣٧F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 KWE٣٧F‫א‬

E٤٧F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬ K
 K‫א‬‫א‬









- ٩٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  



 WE٤٧F‫א‬

- ٩٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Milling cutters ‫א‬E٤J ٧


K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K،،،J
 K،،‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬E٥٧F‫א‬

- ١٠٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 K‫א‬WE٥٧F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٥J ٧
  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ft = fz . z. n

- ١٠١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ n
 K‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ z
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  zf
 K‫א‬  ft
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E١ ٧F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١٧F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٦-٧
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 L = lb + lwp + la[mm]

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦٧F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٦٧F‫א‬
  
 ‫א‬E٧٧
K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W ‫א‬       
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
      K‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬E١٧٧

 
Conventional milling   Climb milling
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
K       ‫א‬  K‫א‬  ‫א‬  
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬ 
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
Ftotal = Fc . zie
zie = z. φs / 360
Cos φs = 1 – 2d / D
 W
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ z
 ie

 K‫א‬ z
 K‫א‬‫א‬ φ
 s

 K‫א‬ d
K‫א‬ D
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E٧٧F‫א‬

- ١٠٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬WE٧٧F‫א‬
Cos φs = ((D / 2 – d) / (D / 2) = 1 – 2d / D
zie / z = φs / 360
zie = (z . φs ) / 360
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Fc = b . hm . ks
ks = ks.1.1 / hm
Hm = (114.6 / φs) . fz . (d / D)
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬  hmW
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧٧
      ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬u‫א‬‫א‬
 u = 0.05 d
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬d  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬d
 E‫א‬F  E‫א‬‫א‬F
 D= 1.33 . b  d =1.66 . b
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨٧F‫א‬
- ١٠٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٨٧F‫א‬

 ‫א‬E١٢٧٧
‫א‬‫א‬     ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
 K
   ‫א‬ hm ‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  
 KE٩٧F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٩٧F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
hm = (57.3 / φs) . fz . sin χ ( cos φ1 – cos φ2)
φs = φ2 – φ1
cos φ1 = 2 B1 / D
cos φ2 = 2 B2 / D
zie = z . φs / 360º
- ١٠٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ zie
 K‫א‬ z
 K‫א‬‫א‬ χ
 K‫א‬ D
 K‫א‬ d
 ‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٨F
‫א‬‫א‬E 50 Kp/mmF ST 50‫א‬
 KE١٠٧F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬٣
 W
 H.s.s.‫א‬‫א‬  ٨Zz‫א‬  ٨٠ZD‫א‬
 ٥٠Z‫א‬   γZº١٢    χ = 90º


 E١J ٨F‫א‬WE١٠J ٧F‫א‬

- ١٠٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬
 ،d‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 KL٠{١ZEL‫א‬Ffz 
 KL٢٥ZE‫א‬FV 
 ٠{٢٦Zz  ١٩٩ZKs.1.1 
[kW] Pc = Ftotal . V / 102 . 60
Ftotal = Fc . zie
zie = z . φs / 360º
Cos φs = 1 – 2 d / D
= 1 – (2 . 3 / 80)  
= 1 – (6 / 80)  
= 80 – (6 / 80)  
= 74 / 80  
= 0.925 
φs = 22º 20´ = 22.33º

zie = (8 . 22.33) / 360 = 0.497


Fc = b . hm . ks
hm = (114.6 / 22.33) . 0.1. (3 / 80) = 0.0193 mm
ks = ks.1.1 / hz = 199 / 0.01930.26 = 5600 N . mm2
Fc = 50 . 0.0193 . 5600 =540.4 N
Ftotal = 540.4 . 0.497 = 268.6 N
 Pc = 268.6 . 25 / 6120 = 1.1 kW

- ١٠٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Spur gear E٨٧


 K ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  K  ‫א‬   ‫א‬   
 K(dividing head )‫א‬K‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬E١١٧F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠٧F‫א‬

، ٤٠E٥F‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬W‫א‬
  ‫א‬ E١٣F ‫א‬   K ‫א‬  E٢F ‫א‬  ‫א‬ E٣F ‫א‬
‫א‬ E٧F ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ K ‫א‬   ‫א‬
 ١٧ ١٦١٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨ ٦F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٤٩٣٧٤٣٤١٣٩٣٧FE٣٣٣١٢٩٢٧٢٣٢١FE٢٠١٩١٨

- ١٠٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬ ،E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ٤٠
E١٠F‫א‬E١١F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٢F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 K‫א‬١٨ 
 W‫א‬
  ١٨L٤٢Z١٨L٤٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K ١٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W١
‫א‬،‫א‬ ٤٠‫א‬‫א‬ ١٨‫א‬
K١٨١٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W٢
١٢‫א‬E ١٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F١٢L٤
K٣L١Z ١٢L٤Z٢٧L٩K‫א‬٩٢٧‫א‬،

 W٣
K‫א‬‫א‬ ٥٩L٤٠K ٥٩
KDifferential Dividing head ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
E Z1 , Z2, Z3, Z , Z4F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

- ١١٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

K‫א‬‫א‬E١٢٧F‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬WE١١٧F‫א‬

- ١١١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬E١

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬J 
 W‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬J 
 J 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J 
 W‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬J 

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٥

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٦

 W‫א‬E٧
 EF    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 EF       K‫א‬‫א‬J
 EF    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 EF    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 EF    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢

٢
٤‫א‬ L٦٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢٣
‫א‬K٧٥١٢،‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٠٥٤٥
‫א‬٠{٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬E٢٤

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٥

 K‫א‬K٢٤E٢٦

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 GRINDING‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 E١-٨
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E٠{٠٣J ٠{٠٠٢F‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬، \ ٠{١٢ J  ٠{٠٢FE‫א‬‫א‬F
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٨F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬WE١٨F‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢-٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W        ،    ‫ א‬J
 KEµm١J ٠{٢٥F‫א‬Eµm٤J ١F،Eµm٨J ٤F
 K‫א‬‫א‬، J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢ ٨F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣ ٨F‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬E٤ ٨F‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٢ ٨F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٨F‫א‬


 ‫א‬WE٤٨F‫א‬

- ١١٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Grinding machines ‫א‬E٣٨


 KE٥ ٨F‫א‬

 KWE٥٨F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬
 K‫א‬J ‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬J E‫א‬F‫א‬
 KJ ‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 KJ  ‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬J ‫א‬
 K‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬J   wheel guard‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٨٨F،E٧٨F،E٦٨F‫א‬

 K‫א‬WE٦٨F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 KWE٧٨F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٨٨F‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Grinding Wheels‫א‬E٤J ٨

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،  ‫א‬ 
 KVoids‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 Wheel symbol‫א‬E١٤٨
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 A 46 k 5 v
 KEC AF‫א‬EAF‫א‬‫• א‬
،١٨٠J ٨٠،٦٠J ٣٠،٢٤J ٨F‫א‬E٤٦F‫• א‬
 KE٣F‫א‬KE‫א‬٦٠٠J ٢٠٠
Z ، U - Y، E - T،‫א‬ A - D F‫א‬E kF‫• א‬
 KE‫א‬
 KE‫א‬١٥J ٩،٨J ١F‫א‬E٥F‫• א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EvF‫א‬‫• א‬
 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ Vertified V
 Resinoid B
 Rubber R
   Shellac E
‫א‬ Sillicate S
  Magnesia Mg

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Wheel shapes‫א‬E٢٤٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬E٩٨F‫א‬


 K‫א‬WE٩٨F‫א‬
 Wheel selection‫א‬‫א‬E٥٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

- ١٢١ -
‫א‪‬א‪ ‬‬ ‫‪ ١٢١‬‬ ‫א‪‬‬
‫‪‬א‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪E٦J ٨‬א‪‬א‪ ‬‬


‫א‪E١٨F‬א‪‬א‪ K‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﻷﺣﺠﺎر اﻟﺘﺠﻠﻴﺦ‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎدن‬
‫اﻟﺰهﺮ اﻟﺼﻠﺐ‬ ‫آﺮﺑﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫م‪/‬ث م‪/‬ث‬ ‫م‪/‬ث‬ ‫م‪/‬ث‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﻠﻴﺦ‬
‫‪30‬‬ ‫‪25‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪35‬‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬
‫‪25‬‬ ‫‪25‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ أﺳﻄﺢ‬
‫‪25‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪25‬‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ داﺧﻠﻲ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺎدة اﻟﺸﻐﻠﺔ واﻟﻤﺎدة‬


‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬

‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬
‫م‪/‬ث‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻐﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﻠﻴﺦ‬
‫‪15 -‬‬ ‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬
‫‪25 Vitrified‬‬ ‫ﻋﺪة‬
‫‪15 -‬‬
‫‪25 Vitrified H.s.s‬‬
‫‪up to‬‬
‫آﺮﺑﻴﺪ ‪45 Organic‬‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ أدوات‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎدن‬
‫ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ ‪15 Vitrified‬‬
‫زهﺮ و‬
‫ﺑﺮوﻧﺰ ‪25 Vitrified‬‬
‫ﺻﻠﺐ ‪30 Vitrified‬‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ ﻳﺪوي‬

‫‪- ١٢٢ -‬‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

/‫ ﻋﺮض اﻟﺤﺠﺮ‬x ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻣﻠﻢ‬


‫دورة‬

‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ داﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻠﻴﺦ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬


‫اﺳﺘﻘﺮ اب ﺗﺸﻄﻴﺐ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺮاب ﺗﺸﻄﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة اﻟﺸﻐﻠﺔ‬
0.2 - 0.5 - 0.5 - 0.6 -
0. 5 0.7 0.7 0.84 ‫ﺻﻠﺐ‬
0.2 - 0.2 - 0.3 - 0.25 -
0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 ‫زهﺮ‬

 K‫א‬WE١٨F‫א‬
 ‫א‬E٧J ٨
‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
L = lb + lwp + la [mm]K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠٨F‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١٠٨F‫א‬

- ١٢٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Safety rules in grinding‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨J ٨


 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬E\F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫أ‬

 K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ب‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬E
 K‫א‬E
 K‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬،E
 K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ (‫أ‬

 W‫א‬ (‫ب‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬ E

- ١٢٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F
 K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،E
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬
?      K‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ، ‫א‬ 
 K?‫א‬

- ١٢٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 

K‫א‬ .a

K‫א‬ .b
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ .c
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .d
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ .e
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ .f
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .g
‫؟‬‫א‬ .h
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .i
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .j
K‫א‬‫א‬ .k
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .l
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .m
K‫א‬‫א‬ .n
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .o

- ١٢٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،،،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬KE NC–Numerical control F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KCNC - Computer Numerical Control

،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K

- ١٢٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬،
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  K‫א‬‫א‬ J
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J    ‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬J    ‫א‬ J
K‫א‬J    ‫א‬‫א‬ J
،‫א‬،‫א‬J    ‫א‬ J
‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬J    ‫א‬ J
    ‫א‬J     ‫א‬ J
‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W
،‫א‬f،‫א‬S،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬NF J
 E‫א‬‫א‬T
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬M03FM‫א‬ J
،‫א‬‫א‬M05،‫א‬‫א‬M07،‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬M10 ،‫א‬M60

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

G01F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬G  J
‫א‬G97،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬G02،
EE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 N10 G96 S200 F0.2 T01  
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ N10
 ‫א‬ G96
 L٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ S200
 KL٠{٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F0.2
 K١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ T01

‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬K‫א‬
E٤F‫א‬KE٣F‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٢٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE١F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬KClosed loop system
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE٤F‫א‬

- ١٣٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬WE٣F‫א‬

 KWE٤F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



 WE٤F‫א‬

- ١٣١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬K‫א‬E١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
K??‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K،، J
 
 K‫א‬E٣
 Cutting motion‫א‬
 Wwork piece‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 ‫א‬tool‫א‬‫א‬  
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 ‫א‬‫א‬  



- ١٣٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Feed motion‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬

- ١٣٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 Setting the cutting depth motion‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤




 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥

- ١٣٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٦


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧


 K‫א‬‫א‬E٨


K،‫א‬‫א‬E٩


- ١٣٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
EϕF‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬WE٣١F‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬
EF    
 °٥<‫א‬   °٥>‫א‬°١٥Z‫א‬
L١٥<  L١٥–٥  
 
- ١٣٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،L٨٠‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬K‫א‬
 

- ١٣٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧

 EF     K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ث‬

EF   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ج‬

E‫א‬F  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ح‬

E‫א‬FK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫خ‬

EF   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫د‬

E‫א‬F     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ذ‬

EF   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ر‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬E١٨
 ‫א‬ (‫ج‬

     


 ‫א‬ (‫ح‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫خ‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫د‬

 º٨٠٠< º٢٥٠J ١٥٠ º ١٥٠>


 WE١٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٣٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬E١
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬W‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
E٢FEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٢F
 KEL‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ •
K‫א‬
Finishing •
Roughing‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬ •
K
‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦
 N‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 N=1000 V / πd 
 [m/min]‫א‬VW
 rev/min ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬N
 [mm] K‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬d

 ‫א‬E٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ •
 K
‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬ •
KMild steel‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E٩
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬K
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

- ١٤٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬E١٢

F    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 E

 EF    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EF ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 EF        K‫א‬‫א‬E

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬

- ١٤٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫؟‬γ‫א‬‫א‬E٥
 K‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬λ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬αs‫א‬‫א‬α ‫א‬‫א‬E٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 ‫؟‬β‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨
 J

 ‫؟‬χ‫א‬‫א‬E٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠



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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬?‫א‬?‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣



 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٤
 ISO 2 DIN 4972 L 25 q k 10 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ISO 2 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬DIN 4972
 ‫א‬L 
 ٢٥‫א‬25 q
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 10

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J J  J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬E١٧
 EF   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 EF  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 EF      ‫א‬‫א‬E
 EF  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 E١٩
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ج‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ح‬

‫א‬١٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ?‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫خ‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠
‫א‬J   ‫א‬J   K‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬ J
 ‫א‬ J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

- ١٤٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬E١
‫א‬‫א‬Fs‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Fz‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KFSN‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،Φ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٢
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EFixturesF‫א‬J
 K‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٣
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬E٤
 W‫א‬Kinziele
Fc = b . h . ks
z
E‫א‬FKs= ks.1.1 / h = ( 3 – 5 σs
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬ h  K‫א‬‫א‬ b
 ١Z‫א‬‫א‬١Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Ks.1.1
 K‫א‬ z

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬E٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪٦٧Etangential componentF‫א‬‫א‬Ft
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪٢٧Eradial componentF‫א‬‫א‬Fr
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪٦Eaxial componentF‫א‬‫א‬Fa
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٨
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٥٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬E١١
 Pc = Ft . V / 102 . 60 [kw]  Pc‫א‬
 W
 [ N]‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Ft  [m / min]‫א‬ V
 K‫א‬‫א‬١٠٢‫א‬٦٠‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
EFη‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 W
Pmotor = Pc / η [kw]   
 K‫א‬٠{٩٠{٧η
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬E١٢
  E‫א‬F    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ب‬

 EF      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 EF      K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 EF      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬L٤٥st 50‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣
 WK٢L٢٠٠Ks.1.1‫א‬‫א‬K٢٢٢{٤
K‫א‬E   ‫א‬ (‫ث‬

 ٠{٨Zη‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
F = b . h . k s = A . Ks
A = b. h , b = d = 2 mm
2.4 = 2 . h
h = 2.4 / 2 = 1.2 mm
Ks = ks.1.1 / hn , n = 0.26
Ks = 200 / 1.20.26 = 190.7 kp/ mm2
F = 2.4mm2 . 190.7 kp / mm2 = 457.7 kp
P = F . V / 6120 = 457.7 . 45 / 6120 = 3.4 k

Pmotor = P / η = 3.4 / 0.8 = 4.2 kW


- ١٥١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬E١
‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬،E‫א‬F
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
،‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬E٢
K
 ‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٤
 J J  J   ‫א‬J
K‫א‬ (٥
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
E٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬FE١F‫א‬E٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٢F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬WE١٥F‫א‬

- ١٥٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫؟‬‫א‬ (٦
 K،‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬ (٧
‫א‬K١  ‫א‬K١
K٢  ‫א‬K٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬K٣  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬K٤  ‫א‬K٤

 ‫א‬K٥  ‫א‬K٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬K٦
 ‫א‬K٦

 K‫א‬‫א‬WE٣٥F‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٩
 J J  ‫א‬J  J   J

- ١٥٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 KJ

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١
  J
‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬ J

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٢
 KIT 6٠{٠٠١‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٣
 ‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

K‫א‬ (١٤
 W‫א‬
 J  ‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬J
 J    J    ‫א‬‫א‬J
 J   ‫א‬‫א‬J

K‫א‬ (١٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٥٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٦
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬


‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٤٢٠١٢‫א‬ (١٨
٠{٢٢‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢L
L١٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬،º١١٦Zσ‫א‬‫א‬،L
K٠{٩Zη‫א‬‫א‬

F = (f x D / 2) . ks in [kp]
= ( 0.22 . 12 / 2) . Ks
ks = 1.25 (ks turning)
Ks turning = ks.1.1 / hz
h = (f / 2) sin σ
h = (0.22 / 2) . sin 116
h = 0.11 . 0.8988 = 0.1
ksturning = 1750 / 0.10.17
= 123.6 [kp]
ks Drilling = 1.25 . 123.6 = 154.5 [kp / mm2]
F = (0.22 . 6) 1545 = 2039.33 [kp]
Pc = (f . D2 / 8) ks . (n / 97400) in [kW]
= (0.22 . 144 / 8) 154.5 ( 1000 / 97400)
= 3.96 x154.5 x 0.01 = 6.3 kW
Pmotor = Pc / η in [kW]
= 6.3 / 0.9 = 7 kW

- ١٥٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٩
L١٥٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   K٣٥Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 
 L٠{٤Z‫א‬J    ١٦Z‫א‬J
 ٥Z‫א‬J    ٥Z‫א‬J
‫א‬J   º١٢٠Zσ‫א‬‫א‬J

tc = L / n x f
L = lx + lb + lwp + la
lx = {(D / 2) . tan σ / 2}
= {(16 / 2) . tan 120 /2) = (8 .1.732) = 13.85 mm
L = 13.85 + 5 + 35 + 5 = 58.85 mm
tc = 58.85 / 1500 x 0.4 = 58.85 / 600 = 0.1 min

- ١٥٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
E٣F‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬
‫א‬E٥FKE٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٢
 J   J   ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J  J
 J

K‫א‬‫( א‬٣
،‫א‬،‫א‬،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F‫א‬،E
 KE،،

K‫א‬‫א‬‫( א‬٤
J  ‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬J
 

- ١٥٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


‫א‬‫א‬ (٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬J  J

 ‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ت‬

‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬J


 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ث‬

‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J


 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ (‫ج‬

‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬J


 

KK‫א‬ (٦
‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬J
 ‫א‬
J  ‫א‬J ‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫א‬
J   ‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א؟‬‫א‬‫( א‬٧
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٥٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٨
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬ (٩
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

K‫אא‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١١
 ‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٠
‫א‬ (٢١
 (٢٢
 (٢٣

‫؟‬‫א‬ (١٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬J  J
 ‫א‬‫א‬J    ‫א‬J

- ١٥٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬ (١٤
 ‫א‬E
 ١٠٠>‫א‬J   ١٠٠>‫א‬J  ١٠٠<‫א‬

 ‫א‬E
J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ١٠٠<‫א‬J
  ١٢>‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬E
 KJ  ١٠٠>‫א‬J  ١٢>‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א؟‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧
K٩

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (١٩
‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ١٦٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (20
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J ‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 tc = L / n x f minutes
 ‫א‬ f  ‫א‬tc
 L K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L
‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZL
 K
L = lb + lwp + la

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٢
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬

E،‫א‬،‫א‬،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 W،‫א‬ -
 E‫א‬،F‫א‬‫• א‬
- ١٦١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 KEF‫א‬ •
 ECNCF‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE
 K‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  -
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬ -
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬ -
 E‫א‬،F‫א‬‫• א‬
 KEF‫א‬ •
 ECNCF‫א‬‫• א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
E

- ١٦٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٤



‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬ -
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٦
 ‫א‬‫א‬ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
K‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ -

- ١٦٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (٢٧



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Tan α = D – d / 2 L
= 37 – 30 / 2 x 40 = 7 / 80 = 0.0875
α = 5º
 º٥‫א‬٢٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣١
 AC = 250 . sin 5º = 250 .0.0871 = 21.775 mm

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٢


 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٣
 ٦٠Z‫א‬J   ٤Z‫א‬J
 L٠{٤Z‫א‬J  L٢٥Z‫א‬J 

- ١٦٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ٠{٨Zη‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J  ٢٠‫א‬J

F = b . h . ks = d .f. Ks
b = d = 2 mm , h = f = 0.4 mm

Ks = ks.1.1 / hn , n = 0.25 , kx.1.1 = 1160 N / mm2


Ks = 1160 / 0.40.25 = 1458.6 N / mm2
F = 2mm . 0.4mm . 1458.6 N / mm2 = 1166.9 N

P = F . V / 6120 = 1166.9 . 25 / 6120 = 4.76 kW

Pmotor = P / η = 4.76 / 0.8 = 5.95 kW

- ١٦٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١
‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬EPrepherial milling F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E١{٧F‫א‬KEFace millingF‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢
  -
‫א‬ -

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬
  J  ‫א‬J  J   J
 J  ‫א‬‫א‬J

- ١٦٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬J  ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬E
J  ‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬J
 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٥
J   ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J   ‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬J  ‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬E٦
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫א‬

- ١٦٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ،،،J
 ،،‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬E٧
 EF   K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 EF       K‫א‬‫א‬J
 EF    K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 EF    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 EF    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨

ft = f z . z . n
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ n
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ z
 E‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ f
 z

 ‫א‬ ft

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٢
‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
[mm] L = lb + lwp + la

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤
 ‫ א‬-
‫ א‬-

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

- ١٦٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦
zie = z. φs / 360
Cos φs = 1 – 2d / D
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬zie 
 ‫א‬z 
 ‫א‬‫א‬φs
 ‫א‬d
‫א‬D

 

Hm = (114.6 / φs) . fz . (d / D)
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬hm
 ‫א‬‫א‬φs
 ‫א‬d
 ‫א‬D
 ‫א‬fz

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٧٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠
 W‫א‬u‫א‬‫א‬
u = 0.05 . d
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬d  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬d
 E‫א‬F  E‫א‬‫א‬F
 d= 1.33 . b D=1.66 . b

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١

φs = φ2 – φ1

cos φ1 = 2 B1 / D

cos φ2 = 2 B2 / D

zie = z . φs / 360º

 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬zie
 K‫א‬ z
 ‫א‬D
 ‫א‬d

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
hm = (57.3 / φs) . fz . sin χ ( cos φ1 – cos φ2)

φs = φ2 – φ1

cos φ1 = 2 B1 / D

- ١٧١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

cos φ2 = 2 B2 / D

zie = z. φs / 360º

 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬zie
 K‫א‬ z
 ‫א‬‫א‬χ
 ‫א‬D
 ‫א‬d

٤‫א‬٢L٦٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣
K٧٥١٢،‫א‬‫א‬
 K١٠٥٤٥‫א‬
٠{٧٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬ ،d‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 KL٠{١ZEL‫א‬Fsz 
 KL٢٥ZE‫א‬FV 
 ٠{٢٦Zz  ٢L١٩٩٠ZKs.1.1 
Pc = Ftotal . V / 102 . 60 [kW]
Ftotal = Fc . zie
zie = z. φs / 360º
Cos φs = 1 – 2 d / D
= 1 – 2 x 4 / 75
= 1 – 8 / 75
= 75 – 8 / 75
= 67 / 75
= 0.89
φs = 27º 40´ = 27.66º

- ١٧٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

zie = (12 . 27.66) / 360 = 0.922

Fc = b . hm . ks

hm = (114.6 / 27.66) . 0.1. (4 / 75) = 0.022 mm

ks = ks.1.1 / hz = 1990 / 0.0220.26 = 536.2 kp . mm2


Fc = 45 . 0.022 . 536.2 = 530.9 kp

Ftotal = 530.9 . 0.922 = 489.5 kp

Pc = 489.5 . 25 / 6120 = 1.9 kW


 ‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬
 fz . z . nZft‫א‬ 
n = 1000 . V / 3.14 . D 
= 1000 . 25 / 3.14 . 75 = 106.2 r p m
ft = 0.1 . 12 . 106.2 = 127.44 mm /min
 ‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬  
 ٠{٩٥٥Z١٢٧{٤٤L١٢٣Z١٢٧{٤٤LE٨H٨H١٠٥FZ  



 K‫א‬E٢٤
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٥
،٤٠E٥F‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬W‫א‬
‫א‬E١٣F‫א‬K‫א‬E٢F‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬
٦F‫א‬E٧F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
J ١٦J ١٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨

- ١٧٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

J ٤٧J ٤٣J ٤١J ٣٩J ٣٧FE٣٣J ٣١J ٢٩J ٢٧J ٢٣J ٢١FE٢٠J ١٩J ١٨J ١٧
،E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬KE٤٩
KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬٤٠‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E١٢F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠F‫א‬E١١F
 K‫א‬‫א‬





 K‫א‬K٢٤E٢٦
 ٢E٣L٢FZ٢٤L٤٠
 K١٥‫א‬١١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫؟‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬E١
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬E٢
،E٠{٠٣J ٠{٠٠٢F‫א‬‫א‬
،\٠{١٢J ٠{٠٢FE‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬K‫א‬E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬J
 ‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
- ١٧٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬ -
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬ -
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫؟‬‫א‬E٧
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨
46 k 5 v

C AF‫א‬EAF‫א‬‫• א‬
 KE
J ٨٠،٦٠J ٣٠،٢٤J ٨F‫א‬E٤٦F‫• א‬
 KE‫א‬٦٠٠J ٢٠٠،١٨٠

- ١٧٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

،U - Y،E - T،‫א‬A - D F‫א‬EkF‫• א‬


 KE‫א‬Z
‫א‬١٥J ٩،٨J ١F‫א‬E٥F‫• א‬
 KE
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EvF‫א‬‫• א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩

 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬ •
 ‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬ •

K‫א‬‫א‬E١٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١
‫א‬
 K‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢
‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
[mm] L = lb + lwp + la

- ١٧٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
‫א‬  

K‫א‬‫א‬E١٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤
 K‫א‬E\F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .a
 K‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ .b
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣
 K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤
 K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

- ١٧٨ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬
 GLOSSARY
  
Abrasive 
Alignment ‫א‬
Arbor 
Arm bracket ‫א‬‫א‬
Automatic 
Backlash 
Basic hole system ‫א‬
Basic shaft system ‫א‬
Bearing _ ‫א‬
Bed 
Belt 
Flat …… 
V …… 
Blind hole 
Block 
V …… 
Bluntness 
Borax ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬
Boring 
…… bar 
Counter …… ‫א‬
……. Tool 
Burring ‫א‬‫א‬
Carbide 

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 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬ 
Cemented ……  
Silicon …… ‫א‬
…… tipped tool 
carriage  
Cement ،
Centre  ،
…… mark ‫א‬
…… punch ‫א‬
centering  
…… tool  
chain  
chamfer  
Change gears  
Chart  
chatter  ‫א‬
Chip  ‫א‬
…… breaker  ‫א‬‫א‬
clamping  
………... bolts  
Clasp nut  
Clay  
Clearance angle  ‫א‬‫א‬
Closers  
clutch  
Concentricity  
Coolant  

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 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

  
cooling  
Corundum  
Counter borer ‫א‬
Counter boring 
Cutting  
……. Angle  ‫א‬‫א‬
……. Edge  ‫א‬‫א‬
Dry ……. E F
…….. force  ‫א‬
……… tool ‫א‬،‫א‬
Wet …… EF
Cylindrical grinder ‫א‬
Dial gauge 
Dividing head  
Dovetailed groove  
Down milling ‫א‬
Draw –in- bolt  
dressing  
Drill ،
Bench ……  
Centre ……  
Gang …… 
Hand ……  
Radial …….  
Twist ……  
Upright  
 

- ١٨١ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

  
drilling  
……… spindle  ‫א‬
Spot …….  
…… machine ،
Drive ‫א‬
eccentric   
……. lathe 
……… turning ‫א‬
Electrolytic copper ‫א‬
End face  
End milling ‫א‬
……. cutter 
Engagement  
Erection  
Face plate  
Facing  ‫א‬
Feather key  
Feed  
…….. gears  ‫א‬
…… box ‫א‬
Felspar  ‫א‬
Fine-pitch thread  
Finishing  
………. tool  
Fit  ‫א‬
Class of ……  ‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٨٢ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

  
Clearance ……  ‫א‬
Grade of ……  ‫א‬‫א‬
Interference ……  ‫א‬‫א‬
Transition ……  ‫א‬
System of ……  ‫א‬
Flank  ‫א‬
Floating reamer  
Floating sleeve  
Flute  
flux 
forming  
gear  
Bevel ……. 
Worm …….  
<<Go >> gouge 
grease  
grinding  
Cylindrical …… ‫א‬
External …….  
Internal ……..  ‫א‬
……… machine ،
Surface ……..  
……. Wheel  ‫א‬
Guiding way  
Hardness  
Headstock  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٨٣ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

  
High speed steel ‫א‬
Hob 
Honing  
Horizontal milling machine  
Indexing  
…….. crank  ‫א‬
……. pin  
…….. plate  
……. Fixture  
ISA ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ISO ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Jig boring machine ‫א‬
Knurling EF
Lead screw  ‫א‬
Leading cutting edge ‫א‬‫א‬
Lever  ‫א‬
Control …….  ‫א‬
Hand …….  ‫א‬
Locking …….  ‫א‬
Limit gauge ‫א‬
Lip angle  ‫א‬‫א‬
Longitudinal  ‫א‬
Lubricant  
Lubrication  
Machine  
…….. tool  

- ١٨٤ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

  
Magnesite  
Maintenance  
Major diameter  ‫א‬‫א‬
Margin  
Marking E F
Mesh  
Meshing  
Metal cutting  ‫א‬
Milling  
……. Cutter  
Minor diameter  ‫א‬‫א‬
Muffle furnace  
neck  
Nominal size  ‫א‬
Nose  
…….. angle  ‫א‬‫א‬
<<NOT GO>>gauge(also<<NO GO>> gauge) 
Paraffin  ‫א‬
Pilot  
Pitch  
……. diameter  ‫א‬
Plain tool steel 
Planning  
…….. machine 
Plug gauge ‫א‬
pneumatic  

- ١٨٥ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

  
Point angle  ‫א‬‫א‬
Power train ‫א‬
Radial drill  ‫א‬
Rake angle  ‫א‬‫א‬
Reaming  
Resin  ‫א‬
Rest  
Return stroke ‫א‬‫א‬
Rigid E‫א‬F
rough  ‫א‬
Roughing  ‫א‬
Scraper 
Screw  
Scriber E  F
Self – centering ‫א‬‫א‬
Setting – up  ‫א‬
Shaft  
Shank  
Cylindrical ……. E F‫א‬
Tapered ……. 
shaping  
…….. machine 
sharpening  
Shell end mill 
shellac  ،
Side angle  ‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٨٦ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

  
Side angle ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Sintering  
Size  
Nominal ……. ‫א‬‫א‬
Basic …… ‫א‬‫א‬
Slotting  
Snap gauge 
spacer  
Spanner  ‫א‬
Spindle  ‫א‬
Spirit ‫א‬
Split nut 
Stepped pulley  
Stop  
Straight turning E F‫א‬
Switch 
Swiveling arm  ‫א‬
Table  
Tailstock ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Tap  
tapping  ‫א‬
Template  
Testing  ‫א‬
Thread  
Metric ……  
Whitworth …… EF
Threading  

- ١٨٧ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

  
…… die  
Three – jaw chuck 
Through hole  
Tolerance  
……. Zone ‫א‬
Disposition ‫א‬
Grade of ……  ‫א‬
Tool ،
…… holder  ‫א‬
…….. - life ‫א‬‫א‬
……. Post E F‫א‬
Trailing cutting edge ‫א‬‫א‬
Truing ‫א‬
T – slot T 
Turning  ‫א‬
…… tool  ‫א‬
Turpentine  ‫א‬
Twist drill  
V – block  
Vertical milling machine  
Vice  
Wedge  ‫א‬
…… angle  ‫א‬‫א‬
Worm  
…… wheel 

- ١٨٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KJ ،١٩٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ (١
 ‫–א‬‫א‬KK‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،،‫א‬E٢

 K،‫א‬،،‫א‬‫א‬،1981،‫א‬‫א‬E٣

 K،‫א‬،،١٩٨٥،‫א‬E٤

–J _،١٩٧٧،?‫א‬E٥
 ‫א‬،–،–‫א‬

 ،،،١٩٧٧،،‫א‬‫א‬E٦

،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،،١٩٧٨،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧
 K‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬،،١٩٧٧،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨
 K‫א‬،‫א‬

- ١٨٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1) Tool and manufacturing engineers handbook” volume I , Machining, Thomas


J. Drozda, Charles Wick, 1983, 4th edition, Society of manufacturing
Engineers, USA.

2) Machining and metalworking handbook, Ronald A. Walsh, 1998, ,2nd edition,


McGraw – Hill, USA

3) Machining fundamentals, John R. Walker, 1989, forth edition, the Goodhreat


– Willcox Company, USA

4) Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, John A. Schey, 1987, 2nd edition,


McGraw – Hill, USA

5) Basic machining Reference Handbook, Arthur R. Meyers, 2001, 2nd Ed., Industrial
press Inc.

- ١٩٠ -
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬       
            
         ‫א‬

 ١      ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١         ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣        ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣        ‫א‬١J ١
 ٣        ‫א‬‫א‬٢J ١
 ٤       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ١
 ٤        ‫א‬٤J ١
 ٧         ‫א‬٥J ١
 ٩        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦J ١
 ١٠        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٧J ١
 ١١        ‫א‬‫א‬٨J ١
 ١٥          

 ١٨        ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٨          ١J ٢
 ١٨         ‫א‬٢J ٢
 ٢٠         ‫א‬٣J ٢
 ٢٠         ‫א‬٤J ٢
 ٢٥           

 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

 ٢٦        ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٦        ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٣
 ٢٧        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٣
 ٢٩        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٣
 ٣٠         ‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٣
 ٣١      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٣
 ٣٨         ‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٣
 ٣٩         ‫א‬‫א‬٧J ٣
 ٣٩         ١–٧J ٣
 ٤٣          

 ٤٥        ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٤٥          ١J ٤
 ٤٦        ‫א‬٢J ٤
 ٤٨        ‫א‬٣J ٤
 ٤٨        ‫א‬٤J ٤
 ٥٠      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٤
 ٥١           

 ٥٢       ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٢         ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٣         ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٤        ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٥٤          ١–٥
 ٥٥          ‫א‬٢J ٥
 ٥٦       E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬١–٢J ٥
 ٥٩         ‫א‬٣J ٥
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

 ٦١         ‫א‬٤J ٥
 ٦٣         ‫א‬٥J ٥
 ٦٤     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٥
 ٦٧         ‫א‬٧J ٥
 ٧٠      ‫א‬‫א‬٨J ٥
 ٧٠        ‫א‬‫א‬٩J ٥
 ٧١           

 ٧٣        ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٧٣          ١J ٦
  ٧٤       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٦
 ٧٤         ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٦
 ٧٨        ‫א‬٤J ٦
 ٨٠        ‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٦
 ٨١         ‫א‬٦J ٦
 ٨٣        ‫א‬‫א‬٧J ٦
 ٨٤     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨J ٦
 ٨٥       ‫א‬‫א‬٩J ٦
 ٨٥       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٩J ٦
 ٨٨        ‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٩J ٦
 ٩١        ‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٩J ٦
 ٩٣           

 ٩٦        ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٩٦          ١J ٧
 ٩٧        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٧
 ٩٧         ‫א‬٣J ٧
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

 ١٠٠        ‫א‬٤J ٧
 ١٠١       ‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٧
 ١٠٣      ‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٧
  ١٠٣      ‫א‬٧J ٧
 ١٠٤        ‫א‬‫א‬١–٧J ٧
 ١٠٥       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٧J ٧
 ١٠٦       ‫א‬١J ٢J ٧J ٧
 ١٠٩        ٨J ٧
 ١١٢           

 ١١٤        ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١١٤          ١J ٨
 ١١٤        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٨
 ١١٧         ‫א‬٣J ٨
 ١٢٠        ‫א‬٤J ٨
 ١٢٠        ‫א‬١J ٤J ٨
 ١٢١       ‫א‬٢J ٤J ٨
 ١٢١         ‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٨
 ١٢٢       ‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٨
 ١٢٣        ‫א‬٧J ٨
 ١٢٤       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨J ٨
 ١٢٦           

 ١٢٧        CNC‫א‬
 ١٢٧           
 ١٢٨       ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٢٨       ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ١٢١ ‫א‬
 

 ١٢٩       ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٣٢        ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٣٢        ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٣٩        ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٤٣        ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٤٨        ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٥١        ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٥٦        ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٦٥        ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٧٤        ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٧٨          ‫א‬
   ١٨٨          ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS