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CHAPTER 40

The Resurgence of Conservatism, 1980-1992


V. SINGLE-ANSWER MULTIPLE CHOICE.
Mark the one best answer for each of the following questions.

1. In the 1980 national elections,


a. Edward Kennedy challenged incumbent President Carter for the nomination of the Democratic
party.
b. although Ronald Reagan won the presidency, both houses of Congress still had Democratic party
majorities.
c. third-party candidate John Anderson won three states and seventeen Electoral College votes.
d. Ronald Reagan won the presidency by the closest margin since the Kennedy-Nixon election of
1960.
e. Reagan led Republicans to majorities in both houses of Congress.
2. Liberal Democrats complained that Jimmy Carter
a. had failed to control inflation.
b. negotiated the Panama Canal Treaty.
c. had not aggressively pursued civil rights.
d. failed to rescue the hostages in Iran.
e. had removed regulatory controls from major industries.
3. Edward Kennedys campaign to take the presidential nomination away from Jimmy Carter in 1980 was
handicapped by
a. his poor performance as a senator.
b. a growing dislike for the Kennedys.
c. Carters popularity.
d. lingering suspicions about his involvement in an automobile accident in which a young woman was
killed.
e. his inability to reach beyond New England.
4. The new right movement that helped to elect Ronald Reagan was spearheaded by
a. fiscal conservatives.
b. evangelical Christians.
c. gold-standard advocates.
d. midwesterners.
e. neoconservatives.
5. Many new right activists were most concerned about
a. cultural and social issues.
b. economic questions.
c. foreign policy.
d. Medicare and Medicaid programs.
e. separation of church and state.
6. Which of the these social issues was not a primary concern for the new right?
a. birth control
b. pornography
c. homosexuality
d. abortion
e. affirmative action
7. The neoconservatives of the 1980s believed in all of the following except

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

free-market capitalism.
detente with the Soviet Union.
a return to traditional values of individualism and the centrality of the family.
fewer government restraints on the economy.
strengthening the white working class.

8. Ronald Reagan was similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt in that both men


a. disliked big business.
b. championed the common man against vast, impersonal menaces.
c. were raised in wealthy families.
d. favored social engineering by the government.
e. had run for vice president before being elected president.
9. Ronald Reagan differed from Franklin D. Roosevelt in that Roosevelt
a. saw big government as the foe of the common man, while Reagan named big business as the foe.
b. appealed to the working class, while Reagan appealed only to the rich.
c. advocated a populist political philosophy, while Reagan did not.
d. branded big business as the enemy of the common man, while Reagan depicted big government as
the foe.
e. made effective use of the media to promote his message.
10. Ronald Reagan began to abandon his liberal New Deal political philosophy and to espouse a
conservative, antigovernment line
a. after being elected governor of California.
b. during World War II.
c. when he discovered communist infiltration in Hollywood.
d. when he became a wealthy movie star.
e. when he became a spokesman for General Electric.
11. The strong tax revolt against extensive government programs and spending was spurred by the
passage of Proposition 13 in __________.
a. Arizona.
b. Wisconsin.
c. New Hampshire.
d. California.
e. Oregon.
12. Despite his failure in the White House, President Jimmy Carter earned widespread admiration in his
post-presidential years for his
a. foreign policy speeches.
b. political influence in the Democratic party.
c. humanitarian and human rights activities.
d. advocacy of womens rights.
e. discovery of hundreds of new uses for peanuts.
13. Ronald Reagans essential domestic goal as president was to
a. cutback on military expenditures.
b. remove government interference in peoples private lives in such areas as abortion and
pornography.
c. dismantle the welfare state and shrink the size of the federal government.
d. transfer welfare programs to the states.
e. reform public education.
14. Conservative Democrats who helped Ronald Reagan to pass his budget and tax-cutting legislation were
called

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

blue dogs.
sagebrush rebels.
scalawags.
neoconservatives.
boll weevils.

15. Besides cutting the federal budget, Reagans other main domestic initiative when he took office was
a. developing new programs to aid business.
b. expand federally funded social programs.
c. cut taxes by about 25 percent.
d. privatize the Social Security system.
e. eliminate government regulation of food and drugs.
16. Ronald Reagans supply side economic advisers assured him that the combination of budgetary
discipline and tax reduction would do all of the following except
a. stimulate new investment.
b. produce a recession-proof economy.
c. boost productivity.
d. foster dramatic economic growth.
e. balance the budget.
17. The first results of Reagan's supply-side economics in 1982 was
a. a sharp recession and rise in unemployment.
b. a reduced federal deficit.
c. an expansion of international trade.
d. an economic boom.
e. a wave of new business investment.
18. The term yuppies was slang applied to
a. the animal-rights movement.
b. people who maintained homes on both the east and west coasts.
c. high-living young people who practiced conspicuous consumption.
d. young people who volunteered for service in the inner city.
e. hippies of the 1960s.
19. In the 1980s, for the first time in the twentieth century,
a. income gaps widened between the richest and the poorest Americans.
b. middle-class incomes rose.
c. the poor made economic gains.
d. the economy was uniformly healthy.
e. the majority of Americans were middle class.
20. One consequence of the record-high deficits and high interest rates of the 19805 was
a. lower energy costs.
b. growing productivity in manufacturing.
c. a soaring value for the dollar.
d. a general demand to raise taxes.
e. new capital investment.
21. To President Reagan, the focus of evil in the modem world. was
a. anti-American terrorists.
b. the federal bureaucracy.
c. political liberalism.
d. the Soviet Union.
e. the Ayatollah Khomeini.

22. The first woman to receive the vice-presidential nomination of a major political party was
a. Elizabeth Dole.
b. Sandra Day O'Connor.
c. Jeanne Kirkpatrick.
d. Geraldine Ferraro.
e. Janet Reno.
23. For the Soviet Union's new policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) to work, it
was essential that the
a. Soviets keep control of Eastern Europe.
b. communist party engage in democratic competition.
c. Middle East oilfields to be controlled by Soviet allies.
d. United States send aid to Russia.
e. Cold War end.
24. The Iran-contra investigations revealed Ronald Reagan as a president who
a. was an intellectual giant.
b. napped through cabinet meetings.
c. was losing his popularity.
d. paid too much attention to detail.
e. planned elaborate foreign policy moves.
25. One of the greatest consequences of Reagans expansion of the federal debt was
a. to make it harder to get private loans.
b. to make foreigners reluctant to accept American bonds.
c. to make new social spending practically and politically impossible.
d. to undermine the value of the dollar overseas.
e. to make further military spending impossible.
26. In 1986 Congress passed legislation mandating
a. an end to the Grenada invasion.
b. a reform of Social Security.
c. an end to affirmative action.
d. more spending for the military.
e. a balanced budget by 1991.
27. Ronald Reagans highest political objective as president was
a. arms reduction.
b. a balanced budget.
c. the containment and then shrinkage of the welfare state.
d. the appointment of a conservative judiciary.
e. undermining liberal ideology.
28. The new right developed many of its tactical approaches by imitating the methods of
a. the prophets in the Bible.
b. the New Left.
c. Corporate advertising
d. underground guerillas.
e. political machines.
29. In the cases of Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the
Supreme Court
a. severely restricted abortion to the first two months of Pregnancy.
b. permitted states to put some restrictions on abortion while fundamentally upholding the abortion

rights decision of Roe v. Wade.


c. overturned Roe v. Wade
d. declared that the issue of legalized abortion should be completely determined by the states.
e. galvanized anti-abortion forces into a new militancy.
30. The Democrats hopes for the 1988 election rose sharply because of major scandals in the Reagan
administration involving
a. bribes involving business deals in the Soviet Union.
b. election fraud.
c. the Iran-Contra affair and savings-and-loan banks.
d. kickbacks for oil leases on federal lands.
e. payoffs for U.S. hostages and campaign contributions from foreign corporations.
31. Solidarity was
a. the nickname for southern Democrats who supported Reagan.
b. a massive working-class labor union of Polish dissidents.
c the mutual pledge by the United States and European nations to resist any Soviet efforts to divide
their alliance.
d. the slogan of the Moral Majority.
e. the slogan of the revived U.S. labor movement.
32. As one consequence of the demise of the Soviet Union,
a. religious rivalries in Russia ended.
b. Solidarity rose in Poland.
c. the entire European continent became more stable.
d. long-suppressed ethnic hatreds flared in the former Soviet republics.
e. the rivalry between Russia and China ended.
33. All of the following issues or developments in the 1992 political campaign revealed popular disgust
with incumbents except
a. the intractable budgetary crisis.
b. the stagnant economy.
c. the debate over family values.
d. the revelation that many House members had written bad checks from their accounts in a private
House bank:
e. Ross Perots winning of nearly 20% of the vote.

34. Modem conservatism springs from


a. a repudiation of government.
b. a disapproval of priorities and strategies from the New Deal.
c. a disapproval of priorities and strategies from the Great Society.
d. a dislike of technology.
e. all of the above.
35. Which of the following was not among the ways that the New Right of the 1980s imitated the tactics
and approaches of the New Left of the 1960s?
a. making the personal political
b. practicing identity politics
c. seizing control of colleges and universities
d. using small group sessions to raise consciousness
e. engaging in tactics of street protest and civil disobedience
36. The Supreme Court cases of Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood v.

Casey
a. in effect overturned the Roe v. Wade abortion decision.
b. prohibited abortion in cases of rape or incest.
c. strongly affirmed a womans right to have an abortion.
d. permitted states to place some restrictions on abortion.
e. permitted abortion opponents to engage in "sidewalk counseling" and other tactics near abortion
clinics.
37. Among the Democrats whom Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis defeated for the partys
nomination to run against George Bush in 1988 were
a. Edward Kennedy and Jimmy Carter.
b. Walter Mondale and Geraldine Ferraro.
c. Gary Hart and Jesse Jackson.
d. Bill Clinton and Albert Gore.
e. Paul Simon and Lloyd Bentsen.
38. In response to the collapse of the Soviet Union, President George Bush called for a new world order
where
a. Russia would join the democratic West in containing communist China.
b. the United States would serve as policeman for the world.
c. the United Nations would assert sovereignty over the rival nation-states.
d. global capitalism would supersede all regional and local economies.
e. democracy would reign supreme and diplomacy would replace weaponry.
39. The United States joined its allies in the Persian Gulf War in order to
a. regain control of the Middle East oil supply.
b. roll back Iraqs invasion of Kuwait.
c. demonstrate that the U.S. military could conduct a major ground war thousands of miles from its
home bases.
d. support Israel against the growing threat from the Arab states.
e. guarantee a permanent U.S. naval presence in the Middle East.

40. The result of the Persian Gulf War was that


a. Kuwait was liberated but Saddam Hussein stayed in power.
b. the U.S. and Iraq bogged down in a stalemate in the desert.
c. the U.S. won the war with air power alone.
d. the tensions in the Middle East were substantially reduced.
e. Saddam Hussein was overthrown by rebel Iraqis who received American aid.
41. The explosive Senate hearings that nearly prevented Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas from
being confirmed involved charges that Thomas was guilty of
a. racial discrimination.
b. jury tampering.
c. plagiarism.
d. sexual harassment.
e. disrespecting civil liberties and the First Amendment.