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Catechism

1 Format
Before the Protestant Reformation, Christian catechesis
took the form of instruction in and memorisation of the
Apostles Creed, Lords Prayer, and basic knowledge of
the sacraments. The word catechism for a manual for
this instruction appeared in the Late Middle Ages.[5] The
use of a question and answer format was popularized by
Martin Luther in his 1529 Small Catechism. He wanted
the catechumen to understand what he was learning, so
the Decalogue, Lords Prayer, and Apostles Creed were
broken up into small sections, with the question What
does the mean following each portion.[6] The format
calls upon two parties to participate, a master and a student (traditionally termed a scholar), or a parent and a
child. The Westminster Shorter Catechism (1647) is an
example:
Q. What is the chief end of man?
A. To glorify God and enjoy Him forever!
Q. What rule hath God given to direct us how
we may glorify and enjoy Him?
A. The word of God which is contained in
the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments
is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify
and enjoy him [7]

Codex Manesse, fol. 292v, The Schoolmaster of Esslingen (Der


Schulmeister von Elingen)

A catechism (pronunciation: /ktkizm/; from Greek:


, to teach orally), is a summary or exposition
of doctrine and served as a learning introduction to the
Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian
religious teaching of children and adult converts.[1] Catechisms are doctrinal manuals often in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorised, a format that
has been used in non-religious or secular contexts as well.
A Catechumen refers to the designated recipient of the
catechetical work or instruction. In the Catholic Church,
they were usually placed separately during Holy Mass
from those who received the Sacrament of Baptism.

2 Protestant catechisms

Early catecheticals emerged from Graeco-Roman


mystery religions, especially the late cult of Mithras
meant to educate their members into the secretive
teachings, which competed with the Catholic Church as
an underground religion in the 1st to 4th centuries CE
and allegedly shared its many ritual practices.[2] Today, The Catechism Lesson by Jules-Alexis Meunier
they are characteristic of Western Christianity but are
also present in Eastern Christianity as well.[3][4]
The catechisms question-and-answer format, with a view
1

2 PROTESTANT CATECHISMS

toward the instruction of children, was a form adopted by


the various Protestant confessions almost from the beginning of the Reformation.
Among the rst projects of the Reformation was the
production of catechisms self-consciously modelled after the older traditions of Cyril of Jerusalem and
Augustine. These catechisms showed special admiration
for Chrysostom's view of the family as a little church,
2.2
and placed strong responsibility on every father to teach
his children, in order to prevent them from coming to
baptism or the Lords table ignorant of the doctrine under
which they are expected to live as Christians.

2.1

The First Commandment


You shall have no other gods.
Q. What does this mean?
A. We should fear, love, and trust in God
above all things.

Reformed

Lutheran

Luthers Large Catechism (1529) typies the emphasis


which the churches of the Augsburg Confession placed
on the importance of knowledge and understanding of the
articles of the Christian faith. Primarily intended as instruction to teachers, especially to parents, the catechism
consists of a series of exhortations on the importance of
each topic of the catechism. It is meant for those who
have the capacity to understand, and is meant to be memorized and then repeatedly reviewed so that the Small The Catechism, painting by Edith Hartry
Catechism could be taught with understanding. For example, the author stipulates in the preface:
Calvins 1545 preface to the Genevan catechism begins
with an acknowledgement that the several traditions and
cultures which were joined in the Reformed movement
Therefore it is the duty of every father of
would produce their own form of instruction in each
a family to question and examine his children
place. While Calvin argues that no eort should be exand servants at least once a week and to ascerpended on preventing this, he adds:
tain what they know of it, or are learning and,
if they do not know it, to keep them faithfully at
it. The catechism, Luther wrote, should consist
We are all directed to one Christ, in whose
of instruction in the rule of conduct, which altruth being united together, we may grow up
ways accuses us because we fail to keep it (Ten
into one body and one spirit, and with the same
Commandments), the rule of faith (Apostles
mouth also proclaim whatever belongs to the
Creed), the rule of prayer (Lords Prayer),
sum of faith. Catechists not intent on this end,
and the sacraments (baptism, confession, and
besides fatally injuring the Church, by sowcommunion).
ing the materials of dissension in religion, also
Luther adds:
However, it is not enough for them to comprehend and recite these parts according to the
words only, but the young people should also be
made to attend the preaching, especially during
the time which is devoted to the catechism, that
they may hear it explained and may learn to understand what every part contains, so as to be
able to recite it as they have heard it, and, when
asked, may give a correct answer, so that the
preaching may not be without prot and fruit.

introduce an impious profanation of baptism.


For where can any longer be the utility of baptism unless this remain as its foundation that
we all agree in one faith?
Wherefore, those who publish Catechisms
ought to be the more carefully on their guard,
by producing anything rashly, they may not for
the present only, but in regard to posterity also,
do grievous harm to piety, and inict a deadly
wound on the Church.

The scandal of diverse instruction is that it produces


diverse baptisms and diverse communions, and diverse
Luthers Small Catechism, in contrast, is written to ac- faith. However, forms may vary without introducing subcommodate the understanding of a child or an unedu- stantial dierences, according to the Reformed view of
cated person. It begins:
doctrine.

2.2
2.2.1

Reformed
Genevan Catechism

3
2.2.2 Heidelberg Catechism
Main article: Heidelberg Catechism
After Protestantism entered into the Palatinate, in 1546
the controversy between Lutherans and Calvinists broke
out, and especially while the region was under the elector
Otto Heinrich (155659), this conict in Saxony, particularly in Heidelberg, became increasingly bitter and turned
violent.

Title page of 1545 edition of the Genevan Catechism

John Calvin produced a catechism while at Geneva


(1541), which underwent two major revisions (1545 and
1560). Calvins aim in writing the catechism of 1545 was
to set a basic pattern of doctrine, meant to be imitated
by other catechists, which would not arm local distinctions or dwell on controversial issues, but would serve as
a pattern for what was expected to be taught by Christian
fathers and other teachers of children in the church. The
catechism is organized on the topics of faith, law, prayer
and sacraments.

1. Master. What is the chief end of human


life?
Scholar. To know God by whom men were
created.
2. M. What reason have you for saying so?
S. Because he created us and placed us in this
world to be gloried in us. And it is indeed
right that our life, of which himself is the
beginning, should be devoted to his glory.
3. M. What is the highest good of man?
S. The very same thing.

When Frederick III, Elector Palatine came into power in


1559 he put his authority behind the Calvinistic view on
the Lords Supper, which denied the local presence of the
body of Jesus Christ in the elements of the sacrament.
He turned Sapienz College into a school of divinity, and
in 1562 he placed over it a pupil and friend of Luthers
colleague, Philipp Melanchthon, named Zacharias Ursinus. In an attempt to resolve the religious disputes in his
domain, Frederick called upon Ursinus and his colleague
Caspar Olevianus (preacher to Fredericks court) to produce a catechism. The two collaborators referred to existing catechetical literature, and especially relied on the catechisms of Calvin and of John Lasco. To prepare the catechism, they adopted the method of sketching drafts independently, and then bringing together the work to combine their eorts. The nal preparation was the work of
both theologians, with the constant co-operation of Frederick III. Ursinus has always been regarded as the principal author, as he was afterwards the chief defender and
interpreter of the Catechism; still, it would appear that
the nervous German style, the division into three parts
(as distinguished from the ve parts in the Catechism of
Calvin and the previous draft of Ursinus), and the genial warmth and unction of the whole work, are chiey
due to Olevianus. (Scha, in. Am. Presb. Rev. July
1863, p. 379). The structure of the Heidelberg Catechism is spelled out in the second question; and the threepart structure seen there is based on the belief that the
single work of salvation brings forward the three persons
of the Trinity in turn, to make God fully and intimately
known by his work of salvation, referring to the Apostles
Creed as an epitome of Christian faith. Assurance of salvation is the unifying theme throughout this catechism:
assurance obtained by the work of Christ, applied through
the sacraments, and resulting in grateful obedience to the
commandments and persistence in prayer.
Lords Day 1.
Q. What is thy only comfort in life and
death?
A. That I with body and soul, both in life and
death, am not my own, but belong unto my
faithful Saviour Jesus Christ; who, with his
precious blood, has fully satised for all my
sins, and delivered me from all the power of
the devil; and so preserves me that without
the will of my heavenly Father, not a hair can

2 PROTESTANT CATECHISMS
fall from my head; yea, that all things must be
subservient to my salvation, and therefore, by
his Holy Spirit, He also assures me of eternal
life, and makes me sincerely willing and ready,
henceforth, to live unto him.
Q. How many things are necessary for thee to
know, that thou, enjoying this comfort, mayest
live and die happily?
A. Three; the rst, how great my sins and
miseries are; the second, how I may be delivered from all my sins and miseries; the third,
how I shall express my gratitude to God for
such deliverance.

we may glorify and enjoy him?


A. The Word of God, which is contained in
the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments,
is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify
and enjoy him.
Q. What do the scriptures principally teach?
A. The scriptures principally teach, what
man is to believe concerning God, and what
duty God requires of man.
2.2.4 Other Reformed catechisms

Oecolampadius composed the Basel Catechism in 1526,


Leo Juda (1534) followed by Bullinger (1555) pubThe Heidelberg Catechism is the most widely used of the
lished catechisms in Zurich. The French Reformed used
Catechisms of the Reformed churches.
Calvins Genevan catechism, as well as works published
by Louis Cappel (1619), and Charles Drelincourt (1642).
2.2.3 Westminster Catechisms

2.3 Baptist Catechisms


English Calvinistic Baptists typically adopted Reformed
catechisms, modifying them to reect their own convictions concerning the nature of the church and the sacrament of baptism. In 1680, the Baptist minister Hercules
Collins published his own revision of the Heidelberg Catechism. Later, the General Assembly of 1677 adopted
a catechism that was largely based on the Westminster
Shorter Catechism. However, this catechism was not
published until 1689, after the passing of the Toleration
Act.

The rst page of the ninth edition of The Shorter Catechism Explained (Perth, 1785).

Together with the Westminster Confession of Faith


(1647), the Westminster Assembly also produced two
catechisms, a Larger and a Shorter, which were intended
for use in Christian families and in churches. These
documents have served as the doctrinal standards, subordinate to the Bible, for Presbyterians and other Reformed churches around the world. The Shorter Catechism shows the Assemblys reliance upon the previous
work of Calvin, Lasco, and the theologians of Heidelberg. It comprises two main sections summarizing what
the Scriptures principally teach: the doctrine of God, and
the duty required of men. Questions and answers cover
the usual elements: faith, the Ten Commandments, the
sacraments, and prayer.
Q. What is the chief end of man?
A. Mans chief end is to glorify God, and
to enjoy him forever.
Q. What rule hath God given to direct us how

2.4 Anglican Catechism


The Anglican Book of Common Prayer includes a catechism. In older editions it is a brief manual for the
instruction of those preparing to be brought before the
bishop for conrmation: the baptised rst professes his
baptism, and then rehearses the principal elements of
the faith into which he has been baptised: the Apostles
Creed, Ten Commandments, the Lords Prayer, and the
sacraments.
Catechist: What is your Name?
Answer: N. or M.
Catechist: Who gave you this Name?
Answer: My Godfathers and Godmothers in
my Baptism; wherein I was made a member of
Christ, the child of God, and an inheritor of the
kingdom of heaven.
The 1979 American book has a considerably longer catechism intended as an outline of instruction and a brief
summary of the Churchs teaching. [8]

3.2

2.5

Catechism of Saint Pius X

Socinian and other sectarian cate- published in 1566 under the authority of the Council
of Trent. It was not intended for common use by the
chisms

laity, but as a general use reference book for priests and


Besides the manuals of instruction that were published bishops. The online version is at http://www.cin.org/
by the Protestants for use in their families and churches, users/james/ebooks/master/trent/tindex.htm
there were other works produced by sectarian groups intended as a compact refutation of orthodoxy.
For example, Socinians in Poland published the Racovian
Catechism in 1605, using the question and answer format
of a catechism for the orderly presentation of their arguments against the Trinity and the doctrine of Hell, as these
were understood by the Reformed churches from which
they were forced to separate.

3.2 Catechism of Saint Pius X

The Catechism of Saint Pius X is a short catechism with


questions and answers regarding the essentials of Catholic
faith and doctrine. It was issued by Pope Pius X at the
beginning of the 20th century in Italian, with the intention that all Catholics could easily understand their faith.
The Anabaptists have also produced catechisms of their An online version is at http://www.cin.org/users/james/
ebooks/master/pius/pindex.htm
own, to explain and defend their distinctives.

Catholic catechisms

3.3 Baltimore Catechism


Various editions of the Baltimore Catechism were the
de facto standard Catholic school text in America from
1885 to the late 1960s. It was often taught by rote.
The most common edition has a series of questions with
their answers, which are followed by explanations in more
depth. These are often accompanied by biblical quotes.
There is a test at the end of every chapter. An online version is at http://www.cin.org/users/james/ebooks/
master/baltimore/bindex.htm

A catechism lesson in a Madras Presidency village (India), 1939

3.4 Catechism of Christian Doctrine (or


Penny Catechism)

The Catechism of the Catholic Church (see below) is the A question and answer format catechism that was the
catechism that is in most widespread use among Catholics standard catechetical text in Great Britain in the 20th
century. Popularly called the Penny Catechism as the
today. It is the ocial catechism of the Church.
original version only cost one penny. Various editions
For Catholics, all the canonical books of the Bible of the Penny Catechism were issued through the century
(including the Deuterocanonical books), the tradition and changes were made to the text. An On-line version
of the Church and the interpretation of these by the is at http://www.proecclesia.com/penny%20catechism/
Magisterium (which may be outlined in a catechism, a index.htm
compendium or a declaration) constitute the complete
and best resource for fully attaining to Gods revelation
to mankind. Catholics believe that sacred scripture and 3.5 Dutch Catechism (A New Catechism:
sacred tradition preserved and interpreted by the MagisCatholic Faith for Adults)
terium are both necessary for attaining to the fullest understanding of all of Gods revelation.
The hotly-debated "Dutch Catechism, De nieuwe kateThe term catechist is most frequently used in Catholicism, chismus (English translation: A New Catechism), of 1966
often to describe a lay catechist or layperson with cate- was the rst comprehensive post-Vatican II Catholic catchetical training who engages in such teaching and evan- echism. It was commissioned and authorised by the
gelization. This can be in both parish church and mission Catholic hierarchy of the Netherlands, and in its foreword declares as its intention: to make the message of
contexts.
Jesus Christ sound as new as it is. The catechism, a bestseller, contained a number of problematic formulations.
These were reviewed by a commission of cardinals, who
3.1 Roman Catechism
detailed several signicant shortcomings in the new catThe Roman Catechism (also called, the Catechism of the echisms presentation of Catholic doctrine. They were
Council of Trent or the Catechism of Pius V) was rst able, nonetheless, to leave untouched by far the greatest

part of the New Catechism, while oering their support


for the laudable purpose of the authors of the Catechism,
namely, to present the eternal good tidings of Christ in a
way adapted to the understanding and the thinking of the
present day man.[9]

3.6

Catechism of the Catholic Church

The current Catechism of the Catholic Church is the rst


complete systematic synthesis of faith issued since the
Council of Trent in 1566. It contains articles on the classical topics of the ocial teaching of the Catholic Church
on all matters of faith and morals. Since the ocial language of the Catholic Church is Latin, ocial teaching
documents distributed in Latin are unlikely to change in
perceived meaning over time. The Latin language version of the catechism, published 8 Sept 1997, is the editio
typicathe normative and denitive text. The principal
source materials for this work are the Sacred Scriptures,
the Church Fathers, the liturgy, and the Magisterium.
This catechism is intended to serve as a point of reference for the catechisms or compendia that are composed
in the various countries. Extraordinary Synod of Bishops 1985, Final Report II B a, 4.

CATHOLIC CATECHISMS

tionship to culture, discussion questions, doctrinal statements, and meditation and prayer. The lessons of faith
stories are about individuals from the United States and
allow the American reader to better relate to these individuals. This version of the catechism is available on
audio CD-ROM as well.

3.8

Enchiridion symbolorum, denitionum


et declarationum de rebus dei et morum

The Enchiridion symbolorum, denitionum et declarationum de rebus dei et morum also known as Enchiridion or Denzinger, is a compendium of all basic texts of
Catholic dogma and morality since the apostles. Commissioned by Pope Pius IX, it has been in use since 1854,
and has been updated periodically. It is a compendium
of faith, like a catechism. By including all relevant teachings throughout history, it is at the same, more than a
catechism. It is a search instrument for theologians, historians and anybody interested in Christian religion. The
latest updates of the Enchiridion extend to the teachings
of Pope John Paul II.

The Archbishop of Baltimore Cardinal James Gibbons


is quoted in earlier versions of the Enchiridion, that evFidei depositum is an Apostolic Constitution which states ery theologian should have always two books at hand, the
that the catechism of the Catholic Church is for the laity Holy Bible and this Enchiridion.
in its address to all the people of God.

3.9 The Douay Catechism


3.6.1

Compendium of the Catechism of the


The Rev Henry Tuberville, DD wrote this catechism in
Catholic Church
1649 at the English College of Douay in Flanders. It is
It originated with a request of Pope John Paul II in Febru- based on the Roman Catechism of the Council of Trent
ary 2003 and was issued by his successor Pope Benedict and was similarly written with the purpose of teaching
XVI June 28, 2005. The English version was printed at Christian doctrine during the tumultuous English ReforLibreria Editrice Vaticana in 2006. Unlike the larger cat- mation. It is a testament to Rev. Tuberville and his colechism, the Compendium is similar in format to the Bal- leagues at Douay that it remains one of the clearest and
timore Catechism with 598 questions and answers, pro- most direct compendiums of Catholic teaching in the Enviding an easier format with only the essential contents glish language.
of the Catechism of the Catholic Church as the title suggests.

3.10 Catechism for Filipino Catholics

3.7

United States Catholic Catechism for The Catechism for Filipino Catholics (CFC) is a contextualised and inculturated Roman Catholic catechism for
Adults
Filipinos prepared by the Catholic Bishops Conference
of the Philippines and approved by the Holy See. The
draft was produced by the Conferences Episcopal Commission on Catechesis and Catholic Education, and is
an update of the late 16th century Doctrina Christiana en
Lengua Espanola Y Tagala, which was a Hispano-Tagalog
version of the earlier Hispano-Chinese Doctrina that was
the rst book printed in the Philippines using moveable
type.

The 1992 Vatican catechism had several aims, among


them to be an authentic reference text for teaching
Catholic doctrine and particularly for preparing local catechisms. American bishops responded with the 2006
United States Catholic Catechism for Adults (USCCB,
2006) similar in format to a college textbook, targeting
adults, contain seven elements that bring more depth to
the material than the 'Compendium', providing more exibility for diverse groups of people to study its contents. The Doctrina Cristiana[10] was written in Tagalog (both
Each section or chapter contains the following: story or in a hispanised Latin script and the then-common inlesson of faith, foundation and application, sidebars, rela- digenous Baybayin script), as well as Spanish. Amongst

7
the contents of the Doctrina are the Spanish alphabet
and phonics, archaic Tagalog translations of basic prayers
shown in both languages and scripts, and a brief catechism in a question-and-answer format.

3.11 A Catechism or Christian Doctrine


Laurence Vaux, B.D., a Catholic martyr, rst published
his catechism, also called The Catechism of Laurence
Vaux or Vauxs Catechism, in Louvain in 1567. Six
further editions in rapid succession, emanating from
Antwerp and Lige, testied to its widespread popularity
and eectiveness. The 1583 Lige issue was reprinted
with biographical introduction for the Chetham Society by Thomas Graves Law in 1885. This edition contains also Vauxs paper The Use and Meaning of Ceremonies, and a few further pages of instruction added by
the Lige publisher. The catechism is practically formed
on the same lines as its successor of today, explaining in sequence the Apostles Creed, the Lords Prayer
and Hail Mary (excluding the second half beginning at
Holy Mary"), the Ten Commandments (at considerable length), the Sacraments and the oces of Christian
justice. The treatise on the ceremonies discusses the use
of holy water, candles, incense, vestments and so forth.

A. Fused into one, O Master of my Life.


The two are one. But both have disappeared
and naught remains but the deep re of my desire.
Judaism does not have a formal catechism. While there
have been several attempts to formulate Jewish principles
of faith, and some of these have achieved wide acceptance, none can be described as being in the form of a
catechism. The most widely recited formulation, Yigdal,
is in the form of a hymn based on Maimonides' 13 Articles of Faith.
Bhaktivinoda Thakur's book Jaiva Dharma is an example of Gaudiya Vaishnava catechism. It follows the usual
question-answer format.
In the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism a small
bit of catechism appears as the fourth section of the
Khuddakapatha, as well as the forty-third and fortyfourth suttas of the Majjhima Nikaya. Henry Steel Olcott
introduced his own form of Buddhist catechism, appropriated from Christianity, to Ceylon when setting up his
Buddhist education system during the late 19th century
Buddhist revival on the island.

5 Secular catechisms

3.12 The Catechetical Instructions of St. In the past, catechisms were written to rehearse the baThomas Aquinas
sic knowledge of a non-religious subject. Examples inThe catechetical instructions of Saint Thomas Aquinas
were used generally throughout the 13th and 14th centuries as manuals and textbooks for priests and teachers
of religion. The Explanations of St. Thomas, wrote
Spirago, are remarkable for their conciseness and their
simplicity of language; they are especially noteworthy because the main parts of the catechetical course of instruction are brought into connection with one another so that
they appear as one harmonious whole. The inuence of
these works is especially prominent in the Roman Catechism which the Council of Trent ordered written for
parish priests and for all teachers of religion. Many of the
explanatory passages in both works are almost identical.

Non-Christian catechisms

Catechisms represent an obvious, practical method of


passing on instruction, and as such examples can be found
in many traditions. For example, Asiatic schools of esoteric learning also used a catechetical style of instruction,
as this Zodiac catechism shows:
Q. Where is the animal, O Lanoo? and
where the Man?

clude numerous political catechisms published from the


18th to the 20th century in Europe as well as in North
and South America.[11] See also the Catechism of the
History of Newfoundland (c1856),[12] the Coal Catechism (1898),[13] and A Catechism of the Steam Engine
(1856).[14] Elementary catechism on the Constitution of
the United States Arthur J. Stansbnr (1828), Catechism
of the Constitution of the United States Lewis Cruger
(1863) A Catechism of the Constitution of the United
States of America John V. Overall
Some literary works have also taken the form of a catechism. The 17th episode of James Joyce's novel Ulysses,
known as Ithaca, is written in the form of a catechism,
as is Ted Hughes' poem Examination at the Womb Door,
from the collection Crow.[15] In Henry IV, Part 1: Act V,
Scene I, Line 141 Falsta refers to his monologue as a
catechism, explaining his view of the virtue of honor.

6 See also
Spiritual Milk for Boston Babes

7 Notes
[1] Katecheo Strongs Concordance

[2] Brashear, William (1992). A Mithraic Catechism from


Egypt. Verlag Adolf Holzhausens. p. 5. ISBN
3900518076.
[3] The Catechism of the Orthodox Church and Orthodox
Faith @ Orthodox Answers. Orthodoxanswers.org. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
[4] The Longer Catechism of The Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church ". Pravoslavieto.com. Retrieved 14 October
2013.
[5] Green, Ian (1996). The Christians ABC: Catechisms and
Catechizing in England c.1530-1740. Oxford: Clarendon
Press via Questia (subscription required) . pp. 1415.
[6] Green, Ian (1996). The Christians ABC: Catechisms and
Catechizing in England c.1530-1740. Oxford: Clarendon
Press via Questia (subscription required) . p. 17.
[7] Westminster Shorter Catechism. Retrieved 2012-0409.
[8] Concerning the Catechism. The Book of Common
Prayer. Church Publishing. 1979. p. 844.
[9] http://www.ewtn.com/library/CURIA/CDFDCAT.HTM
[10] Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection Library of Congress.
World Digital Library. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
[11] Jean-Charles Buttier, milie Delivr (ed.),Les
catchismes rpublicains", La Rvolution franaise,
Institut d'Histoire de la Rvolution Franaise, Paris, sept.
2009.
[12] Catechism of the History of Newfoundland
[13] William Jasper Nicolls, Coal Catechism, 1898, published
by George W. Jacobs & Co, 1906.
[14] John Bourne, A Catechism of the Steam Engine, London,
1856
[15] Hughes, Ted. Examination at the Womb Door. Crow.
Retrieved 2007-06-23.

Bibliography
Martin Luther, John Nicholas Lenker, Luthers two
catechisms explained by himself, in six classic writings, Minneapolis, Minn., The Luther Press, 1908
Google Books
Roland F. Palmer and John G. McCausland, The
Catechists Handbook; and, The Churchs Guide:
Teaching the Canadian [Anglican] Church Catechism to Children and to Older Persons (Bracebridge,
Ont.: Society of Saint John the Evangelist, 1962).

EXTERNAL LINKS

9 External links
Catechism of the Catholic Church from the ocial
website of the Vatican
Search the Catechism of the Catholic Church
Westminster Shorter Catechism From Christian
Classics Ethereal Library
Westminster Larger Catechism From Christian
Classics Ethereal Library
Heidelberg Catechism From Christian Classics
Ethereal Library

A Catechism of the Steam Engine at Project Gutenberg by John Bourne


CatechismClass an interactive tool developed to
provide the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Baltimore Catechism, and other Catholic catechisms in
an integrated format

10
10.1

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

Catechism Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catechism?oldid=646481243 Contributors: Wesley, RK, Eclecticology, Mkmcconn,


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File:Catechism-Madras_Presidency_Village.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Catechism-Madras_


Presidency_Village.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: From Salesians of Don Bosco, India collection Original artist: Salesians
of Don Bosco, India
File:Codex_Manesse_Schulmeister_von_Esslingen.jpg Source:
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Original artist: Meister des Codex Manesse (Nachtragsmaler I)
File:Genevan_Catechism.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/Genevan_Catechism.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors: http://digitale.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/vd16/content/pageview/1346567 Original artist: Jean Calvin
File:Jules-Alexis_Muenier_-_La_Leon_de_catchisme.jpg Source:
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File:P_christianity.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/P_christianity.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
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File:Westerminster_catechism_first_page.jpg Source:
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