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METALLIC IMPLANTS

Stainless steel
Cobalt chromium alloys
Titanium alloys
Nitinol
Smitha ck
Assistant professor
Srinivas institute of technology

CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMATERIALS
Biomaterials can be divided into three major classes of
materials:
Polymers
Metals
Ceramics (including carbons, glass ceramics, and glasses).

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BIOMATERIALS

Metallic implants
Metals make attractive
biomaterials because they
possess
the
following
properties:

Mechanical properties

Applications in the human


body:
Hip and knee joints , for
fracture healing aids as
bone plates and screws,
spinal fixation devices, and
dental implants

Closely
packed
atomic
arrangement resulting in
high specific gravity and
good strength

In devices such as vascular


stents, catheter guide wires,
orthodontic arch wires , and
cochlear implants

Excellent electrical

High melting points


BIOMATERIALS

Two primary purposes


As prosthesis to replace a portion of the body such as:
Joints, long bones & skull plates
Fixation Devices to stabilize broken bones while the normal
healing proceeds
Bone plates, intramedullary nails, screws and sutures
Problems:
1.Biocompatibility: The ability of a material to perform with an
appropriate host response in a specific situation
2.Corrosion
3.Design of metallic implants
4.Design limitations the of anatomy
5.Physics properties of the tissue and reactions of the tissue to
the implant and of the implant to the tissues (Host Response
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BIOMATERIALS

Different Metallic Biomaterials


Ti

Stainless Steel
SS 316
SS 316L
CoCr Alloys
the castable CoCrMo
alloy
The CoNiCrMo alloy
which is usually
wrought by (hot)
forging

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alloys
Pure Ti
Ti6Al4V
TiNiAlloys
Nitinol
Shape Memory effect
Platinum group metals
(PGM)
Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, and Os
extremely corrosion
resistant
poor mechanical
properties
pacemaker tips
conductivity.
BIOMATERIALS

METALLIC IMPLANT MATERIALS


Metallic implants are used for two primary purposes.
Implants used as prostheses serve to replace a portion of
the body such as joints, long bones and skull plates.
Fixation devices are used to stabilize broken bones and
other tissues while the normal healing proceeds.

BIOMATERIALS

METALLIC IMPLANT MATERIALS


Though many metallic implant materials are available
commercially. The three main categories of metals which are
used for orthopedic implants
Stainless steels
Cobalt-chromium alloys
Titanium alloys

BIOMATERIALS

METALLIC IMPLANT MATERIALS


The Metallic implant materials that are used should have the
following characteristic features:
Must be corrosion resistant
Mechanical properties must be appropriate for desired
application
Areas subjected to cyclic loading must have good fatigue
properties

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BIOMATERIALS

STAINLESS STEEL
Stainless steel is the predominant implant alloy.
This is mainly due to its ease of fabrication any desirable
variety of mechanical properties and corrosion behavior.
But, of the three most commonly used metallic implants
namely
Stainless steel
Cobalt chromium alloys
Titanium alloys,
Stainless steel is least corrosion resistant.
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BIOMATERIALS

STAINLESS STEEL
The various developments which took place in the development
of steel in metallic implants are discussed below.

Stainless steel (18Cr-8 Ni) was first introduced in surgery in


1926
In 1943, type 302 stainless steel had been recommended to
U.S. Army and Navy for bone fixation.Later 18-8sMo stainless
steel (316), which contains molybdenum to improve corrosion
resistance, was introduced.
In the 1950s, 316L stainless steel was developed by reduction
of maximum carbon content from 0.08% to 0.03% for better
corrosion resistance.
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BIOMATERIALS

10

Development of SS for use in human


body
The first metal alloy developed specifically for human use was
the vanadium steelwhich was used to manufacture bone
fracture plates and screws.
Vanadium steel is no longer used in implants since its
corrosion resistance is inadequate in vivo.
The first stainless steel utilized for implant fabrication was the
18-8 (type 302 in modern classification), which is stronger and
more resistant to corrosion than the vanadium steel.

Later 18-8sMo stainless steel was introduced which contains a


small percentage of molybdenum to improve the corrosion
resistance in chloride solution (salt water). This alloy became
known as type 316 stainless steel .
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BIOMATERIALS

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STAINLESS STEEL

The chromium content of stainless steels should be least 11.0%


to enable them to resist corrosion.

Chromium is a reactive element.

Chromium oxide on the surface of steel provides excellent


corrosion resistance.

The AISI Group III austenitic steel especially type 316 and 316L
cannot be hardened by heat treatment but can be hardened by
cold working.

This group of stainless steel is non-magnetic and possesses


better corrosion resistance than any of the others.

In the 1950s the carbon content of 316 stainless steel was


reduced from 0.08 to a maximum amount of 0.03% (weight
percent), and hence became known as type 316L stainless
steel

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BIOMATERIALS

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Advantage of SS 316 & 316L over other


grades of Steel
Biocompatible
These austenitic stainless steels cannot be
hardened by HT but can be hardened by cold
working
possesses better corrosion resistance than any
other steels
The inclusion of molybdenum enhances resistance
to pitting corrosion in salt water.

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Therefore 316L is recommended rather than 316


for implant fabrication.

BIOMATERIALS

13

Type

%C

%Cr

% Ni

%Mn

% other
elements

301

0.15

16-18

6-8

2.0

1.0Si

304

0.07

17-19

8-11

2.0

1-Si

316, 188sMo

0.07

16-18

10-14

2.0

2-3 Mo, 1.0 Si

316L

0.03

16-18

10-14

2.0

2.3 Mo, 0.75Si

430F

0.08

16-18

1.0-1.5

1.5

1.0 Si, 0-6 Mo

CONSTITUENTS OF STEEL
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BIOMATERIALS

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STAINLESS STEEL
The Stainless steels used in implants are
generally of two types:
Wrought
Forged
Wrought alloy possesses a uniform
microstructure with fine grains.

In the annealed condition it possesses low


mechanical strength.

Cold working can strengthen the alloy.

Stainless steels can be hot forged to shape


rather easily because of their high ductility.

They can also be cold forged to shape to


obtain required strength.

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BIOMATERIALS

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Mechanical Properties & Corrosion


Resistance of 316L

Even the 316L stainless steels may corrode inside the


body under certain circumstances in a highly stressed
and oxygen depleted region, such as the contacts
under the screws of the bone fracture plate.

Thus, these stainless steels are suitable for use


only in Temporary implant devices such as
fracture plates, screws, and hip nails.

Surface modification methods are widely used in


order to improve corrosion resistance, wear
resistance, and fatigue strength of 316L stainless steel

anodization, passivation ( explained next slide)

glow-discharge nitrogen implantation

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BIOMATERIALS

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Electroplating has been shown to be


generally superior to a mechanical finish for
increasing corrosion resistance which can
also be produced by other surface
treatments such as
Passivation with HNO3.
The reason why stainless steel implants failed
, indicates a variety of deficiency factors like
deficiency of molybdenum
the use of sensitized steel

Deficiency Factors Responsible


for failure of SS implants
Deficiency of Mo
Use of sensitized steel
Inadvertent use of mixed metals
and incompatible components
Topography and metallurgical
finish
Improper implant and implant
material selection
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BIOMATERIALS

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APPLICATIONS OF SS STEEL
Devices

Alloy Type

Jewitt hip nails and plates

316 L

Intramedullary pins

316 L

Mandibular staple bone plates

316L

Heart valves

316

Stapedial Prosthesis

316

Mayfield clips (neurosurgery)

316

Schwartz clips (neurosurgery)

420

Cardiac pacemaker electrodes

304

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BIOMATERIALS

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COBALT CHROMIUM ALLOYS


The two basic elements of Co-based alloys form
a solid solution of upto 65 wt % of CO and 35 wt
% of Cr

To this Molybdenum is added to produce finer


grains which results in higher strength after
casting or forging .

Cobalt is a transition metal of atomic number 27


situated between iron and nickel in the first long
period of the periodic table.

The chemical properties of cobalt are


intermediate between those of iron and nickel.

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BIOMATERIALS

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COBALT CHROMIUM ALLOYS


The various milestones in the development of
cobalt chromium alloys are discussed below.

Haynes developed a series of cobalt-chromium


and cobalt- chromium-tungsten alloys having
good corrosion resistance.

During early 1930s an alloy called vitallium with a


composition 30% chromium, 7% tungsten and
0.5% carbon in cobalt was found.

Many of the alloys used in dentistry and surgery,


based on the Co-Cr system contain additional
elements such as carbon, molybdenum, nickel,
tungsten

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BIOMATERIALS

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COBALT CHROMIUM ALLOYS


Chromium has a body centered cubic (bcc)
crystal structure and cannot therefore have a
stability of the phase of cobalt.

The solubility of the former in the latter


increases rapidly as the temperature is raised.

Metallic cobalt started to find some industrial


use at the beginning of this century but its pure
form is not particularly ductile or corrosion
resistant.

The various milestones in the development of


cobalt chromium alloys are discussed below.

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BIOMATERIALS

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COBALT CHROMIUM ALLOYS


Cobalt based alloys are used in one of three forms
Cast,
Wrought
Forged

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BIOMATERIALS

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Cast Alloy

The orthopedic implants Co-Cr alloy are made by a lost wax or


investment casting method which involves making a wax pattern of
the desired component

1.A wax model of the implant is made and a ceramic shell is built around it
2.the wax is then melted out in a oven (100~150C),
3.the mold is heated to a high temperature burning out any traces of wax
or gas-forming materials,
4.molten alloy is poured with gravitational or centrifugal force
5.the mold is broken after cooled

The mold temperature is about 800~1000C and the alloy is at


1350~1400C.

Coarse ones formed at higher temperatures will decrease the strength.

However, a high processing temperature will result in larger carbide


precipitates with greater distances between them, resulting in a less
brittle material.

Again there is a complementary (trade-off) relationship between


strength and toughness.

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BIOMATERIALS

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COBALT CHROMIUM ALLOYS


Wrought alloy:
possess a uniform microstructure with fine grains.
Wrought Co-Cr Mo alloy can be further strengthened
by cold work.
Forged alloy
It is available in standard shapes and sizes and is annealed
at 7300C for 1-4 hours, furnace cooled to 6000C and aircooled to room temperature.

More uniform microstructure


Usually hot forged

The superior fatigue and ultimate tensile strength of the


wrought CoNiCrMo alloy make it suitable for the
applications which require long service life without fracture
or stress fatigue.

Such is the case for the stems of the hip joint prostheses.

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BIOMATERIALS

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Forged alloy
Expensivesophisticated press and
tooling
Porous coated Co-Cr implants
Bone in growth applications
1.Sintered beads gravity sintering
2.Plasma flame sprayed metal
powders
3.Diffusion bonded

COBALT CHROMIUM ALLOYS

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BIOMATERIALS

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TITANIUM BASED ALLOYS


Advantages
The advantage of using titanium based
alloys as implant materials are
low density or Lightness (4.5 g/cm3)and
good mechanical properties
Youngs modulus is half that SS and CoCrImplies greater flexibility
Good mechano-chemical properties
The major disadvantage being the
relatively high cost and reactivity.

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BIOMATERIALS

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TITANIUM BASED ALLOYS

October 3, 2014

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TITANIUM BASED ALLOYS


Titanium is a light metal having a density of 4.505g/cm3
at 250C.
One of the most widely used titanium alloys for
biomedical applications:Ti6Al4V
The Ti6Al4V alloy has approximately the same fatigue
strength (550 MPa) as that of CoCr alloy.
Titanium alloys can be strengthened and mechanical
properties varied by controlled composition and
thermomechanical processing techniques.

Since aluminum is a lighter element and vanadium


barely heavier than titanium, the density of Ti-6% Al-4% V
alloy is very similar to pure titanium.

The melting point of titanium is about 16650C although


variable data are reported in the literature due to the
effect of impurities.

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BIOMATERIALS

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TITANIUM BASED ALLOYS


Titanium exists in two allotropic forms,

The low temperature -form has a close-packed


hexagonal

crystal structure with a c/a ratio of 1.587 at room


temperature

Above 882.50C -titanium having a body centered


cubic
structure which is stable
The presence of vanadium in a titanium-aluminium
alloy tends to form - two phase system at room
temperature.
Ti-6 Al-4V alloy is generally used in one of three
conditions wrought, forged or cast.

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BIOMATERIALS

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TITANIUM BASED ALLOYS


Forged alloy
The typical hot-forging temperature
is between 900C and 930C.
Hot forging produces a fine grained
-structure with a depression of
varying phase.
A final annealing treatment is often
given to the alloy to obtain a stable
microstructure without significantly
altering the properties of the alloy.
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BIOMATERIALS

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TITANIUM BASED ALLOYS


Cast alloy
To
provide
a metallurgical stable
homogenous structure castings are annealed at
approximately 8400C .

Cast Ti-6 Al-4V alloy has slightly lower values


for mechanical properties than the wrought
alloy.

Titanium and its alloys are widely used


because they show
exceptional strength to weight ratio
good mechanical properties.
The lower modulus is of significance in
orthopedic devices since it implies greater
flexibility.

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BIOMATERIALS

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TITANIUM BASED ALLOYS


To improve tribiological properties of Titanium
there are four general types of treatments made.

Firstly, the oxide layer may be enhanced by a


suitable oxidizing treatment such as anodizing
Secondly, the surface can be hardened by the
diffusion of interstitial atoms into surface layers
Thirdly, the flame spraying of metals or metal
oxides on to the surface may be employed
Finally, other metals may be electroplated onto
the surface
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BIOMATERIALS

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TITANIUM BASED ALLOYS

BONE SCREWS USED FOR IMPLANTATION

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BIOMATERIALS

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Nitinol
Alloy of Ni-Ti
Can be designed to change its
shape or dimensions in response to
an increase in temperature small
enough to be tolerated by the
adjacent tissues in which it is
embedded.
FCC ----Martensite
It has good strain recoverability,
notch sensitivity and has excellent
fatigue, biocompatibility and
corrosion resistance

Applications

Shape memory Stents


A stent is a man-made 'tube' inserted into a natural passage/conduit in the
body to prevent, or counteract, a disease-induced, localized flow
constriction.