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12

bfpV[ sjl wRp s[dH rcjHg


\b.e 285|

dHw rji WjWj ug sg sjC% dVwv eHg m HgLi dl>z


V.Wisji u' Rpl rwa l[rj wisj lg@ Rpl V[ l.Fjv vHg m
b>auIjqg WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##V.Wisjij@ duhCg aP. ljcg
sjC% l.Fjv w[ i,tg ]@ Rpl } l.Fjvg i,tk@ a[i[ b,De[ w'Hg bC[ej
Vhk m$$ dHl hpwq } V.Wisji V[ lda wi w[ q>DdVbj a[ hi r[v[
bjfS[ w'v i,tSg m dwl[ rg W.s[ V[ Rpl s[ ljhqS[ bCV sg
dh>qa Vj wgag@ lF V[ dfbji rg wgaj@ Rpl RpKa[ dwl[ V[ h,o
Vj yp,Ddwbj@ u[ w'Hg e{i~hj;ig W'dvbj@ ljhqS[ bjH[ a'G yp,f
wi uJsj lg m WyV bVplji Rpl sg fPig i,Ddtbj hp.sg ihg m

apqig eda dqda apq hg ujVg


l[ l[rw duV Fje qo'ig mm
\b>e 208|

qhJfpit dwl[ Vjv dwaVj dfbji wis[ hV@ w'Hg V[C[ ]


w'Hg sPi ]@ dHl dry wg be.qg F[a ]@ dHh aJ Rph bjf hg
ujSs[ hV m WjWj ug s[ lq[G awigWV c[i[ l,n wp wp,Da[ lV m
dHhVJ dry dHw c,DW[ i.e sj wp,aj lg ba[ dHl sj w,s rg Whpa
awCj lg m fi wp,DdabJ rjvg e,v dHl dry w'Hg Vhk lg m h'i
wp,Da[ bjfl dry vCs[ lV fi dHh dHw,vj hg W{nj idh>sj lg
13

a[ wp,DdabJ s[ dry rg Vhk lg dqv w[ W{nsj m us'G WjWj ug


sp,Z Aws[ lV@ bjfSj lga f+ljs dHl } ;iPi ds>Ds[ lV m dwl[
h'i wp,Da[ } Vhk lg ds>Ds[ m dHw rji V.Wisji HgLi dl>z V[
fp,DdAbj@ ##qhjiju@ dHl } lga f+ljs ds>Ds[ h'@ h'i dwl[ wp,Da[
} Vhk ds>Ds[@ wg wjiS ($$ aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##V.Wisjij@ dHh W,ej wp,aj ljcj lwj Fij ] m dHl sj Vjq
sl"GZj dl>z lg@ Rpl lq[G dHh V.Wisji rg lg m r,Tg bjdsw Whpa
v{Gsj lg@ WCj wpwiqg lg aJ dHh dHl uPV dry bjdHbj ] m$$
dxi V.Wisji V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ aplk b{c[ lqi,o@ aphjcj
siLV wi w[ v'w ai eH[ a[ dHh wp,aj WS debj m$$ aJ h;Pi
V[ WyV wgaj@ ##V.Wisjij@ u' wisj ]@ Rpl } FiVj rg f{sj
] m dHo[ dwl[ sj dvhj; Vhk m W.s[ } bjfSj Fji v{ w[ hg v.zSj
b"tj ]@ duhCj dwl[ sj h,w qjiVj@ dV>Ddsbj@ ypQvg wiVg@
dHh dwl[ sj Fji yp,wSj ] m
wWgi Fji fijHg dldi yi{ ydvY yj] WjB mm
bfV[ Fjidh Vj ci{ bje{ bRpzB zjB mm
\b>e 1369|

hpS ljc[ lq[G dry bj debj ] m dHl sj lF wpN dV,WC


ujH[ej m$$
wv[ik VjVwli WjWj V.s dl>z ug s[ lq[G rg wp,DdabJ dry
dHw dy,DB[ i.e sj wp,aj hp.sj lg m dul rwa WjWj ug VjVwli
njn dry l.ea } siLV s[S bjdHbj wis[ lV aJ lF
wp,DdabJ dry'G Rpl V[ F,u w[ WjWj ug b,De[ uj v[BSj m WjWj ug
Rpl Vjv l'Bg Aphj w[@ ws[ u'C[ dry'G yiV w,T w[ Rpl Vjv
vjc wiVj a[ qp,t a'G wdhSj@ ##bj FjHg qh.aj m$$ dHw rji
fPiVqjLg s[ dsV Ljq sj sgrjV v,ej@ Rph dy,Bj wp,aj dwr[G
14

Vj dwr[G WjWj ug s[ ljhqS[ sgrjV dry bj debj m WjWj ug


W{ijeS $a[ lqjZg dry lV m dHw l[rjsji Rpl wp,Da[ } Wjhi
w,DT[@ Rph wp,aj i"vj fjr[ m WjWj ug V[ W{ijeS i,t w[ WyV wgaj@
##dHl } fpywji w[ Wjhi v{ ujRp m$$ l[rw V[ dHl[ ai%J wi w[
Wjhi w,DdTbj m dxi hpwq wgaj dw dHl } v.ei dry v{ ujRp m
vJeig } hpwq wgaj dw dHl } tgi a[ wCjh f+Ljs iuj w[
tpbjRp m Rpfi.a wpN dsVJ Wjbs Rph wp,aj qi debj m l[rw
V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##ug@ Rph w,paj qi debj ] m$$ dxi WjWj ug
V[ hpwq wi w[ Rpl sj dHLVjV wij w[ w,fCj fpbj w[ l.lwji
wij ds,aj m
\dHh w"aw l.a t[q dl>z ug V[ r[dtbj ba[ dvtjdHbj m|

\2|
WjWj ug s[ lq[G Whpa wp,Da[ lV m fjnw df,DA[ fC% yp,Dw[ hV
dw dwl[ q;hWg dl,t V[ dHw wp,aj qji ds,aj a[ l[rjsji V[ h;Pi
w'v W[Vag wi ds,ag a[ Rpl sj Vjq s,l w[ dwhj ug Rpl q;hWg
V[ bjfSj wp,aj qji ds,aj ] m WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##Rpl
} WpvjRp m$$ uJ fp,DdAbj@ ##aP. wp,aj dwM qjdibj ($$ Rpl V[ dwhj
ug@ Rph hvdwbj lg m WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##duhCj l[rjsji
i'Bg fjMsj lg@ Rpl } fp,DA'G bjfSj w'Hg w,paj hvdwbj lg m$$
Rpl V[ dwhj ug Vhk@ q[i[ i'Bg fjRpS lq[G dHh wp,Da[ } Fuj w[
v{ debj lg m dxi q;hWg a'G fp,DdAbj dw dHw aJ aP. dWVJ wlPi
a'G sir[L } qjdibj@ sPuj aP. NPn W'dvbj dw Rph hvdwbj lg m$$
Rph dxi rg Vj q>DV[ m b?gi $a[ WyV wgaj@ ##Rph Vhk lg
hvdwbj@ aP. hvdwbj ]G m aP. Rpl[ q"a qi[Gej m$$ Rpfi.a dHh WyV
lda h'dHbj m
15

\3|
fiagda hgb{ bjHg duV uV w{
daV wRp fsrg Rpy FHg mm
\b>e 1402|

qhJ fpitJ w'v w'Hg f+[qg bj w[ bjfS[ Fv[ rjla[ W[Vag


wi[@ u' qhJ fpit WyV wiV Rpl } lda wi w[ q>DV[@ dHh[
r,Dc[ FjeJ sg dVLjVg ] m wHg rji l'ysj ] u' wpN q{} dwhj
] @ dHh e,v dwr[G rg Vhk h' lwsg m qhJfpit sg iq; Vj lqN
lwS wiw[ wpN f+jfa Vhk wi lwsj m dHl[ ai%J hg dHw rji
qjVw ?jV[ rjdvbj Vjv h'Hg m dHw lq[G qjSw ?jV[ a'G wpN f+[qg
WjWj ug fjl bj w[ W[Vag wiV v,De[ dw l,Dy[ fjaLjh d*fj
wi'@ ljcj Vei r,lsj h'dHbj rg W[bjWjs duhj v,esj ]@ df>c
dry w'Hg i"Sw Vhk ba[ rjZj rg Vhk h' duhj@ aphjc[ si
a'G w'Hg ?jvg Vhk qpdCbj@ dqhi wi' m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##dul Vei rjv[ bjfS[ r,c~rc[dibJ sg l[rj wiVg A,c
s[S@ Rph v'w lptg Vhk r,ls[ m$$ f>yjdHa rjdvbJ V[ fp,DdAbj@
##qhjiju@ blk r,c~rc[dibJ } fPus[@ q>Vs[ hJ m$$ WjWj ug w'v
dHw qjCg duhg waPig W{ng lg@ Rpl r,v dHLjij wi w[ WyV
wgaj@ ##dul aphjc[ r,c~rc[i[ V[ df>c W.dV%bj lg@ dHh Rpl sg
zi rjvg ] m dryjig ipvsg dxisg ] m dHl } v{ uj w[ l[rj
wi'@ dxi aplk rZ' xp,Dv'e[ m$$ RphVJ dry'G wHg W.s[ wdhS@ Vhk
ug@ b{r[G aphjcj d?bjv ]@ wp,agbJ dry wg Zdibj ] a[ wp,ag
sj df>c sg e,v Vjv wg lW.Z m aplk d*fj wi' m fi.aP WjWj ug
V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Vhk ljij lW.Z hg dHl Vjv ]@ r[t vRp l[rj
wi w[ dwr[G i.e~Fje v,es[ hV m$$ fi RphVJ V[ WyV Vhk
16

q>DdVbj@ w,pag Vj v{ w[ eH[ m Rpfi.a Rph Vei b,u aw rg Rph'


duhj hg ] m
\dHh WyV rg HgLi dl>z V.Wisji s[ lq[G h'H[ iaV dl>z dT,Dv'G
ijhk dqdvbj m|

WjWj dul aP. s[dh l'Hg uVp fjr{


\b>e 922|

Fp,Dy' rjv[ WjWj ug duaVj lqJ ligi wiw[ l.lji dry ih[@
wv[iJ rjv[ WjWj ug fjl u' rg v'Cr.s bjdHbj@ wv[iJ rjv[
WjWj ug V[ lF } Fp,Dy' F[dubj m bjf lqi,o h' w[ rg dwl[ sj
w.q Vhk wgaj m fpijaV epidl,t rg ldaepiP s[ lq[G dHh' hg
qdibjsj sj fjvS wis[ ih[ m WjWj V.s dl>z ug sj dHw l[rw
dul sj Vjq v,Zj ijq lg@ dHl s[ b"vjs Vhk lg Wysg@ h'
w[ qi uJsg lg m dHl V[ bjfSg awvg` WjWj ug w'v s,lg m
lpS w[ wv[iJ rjv[ WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj dw ljc[ epis[r Fp,Dy'
rjv[ hV@ aplk Rpo[ ujRp m$$ dHl hpwq bVplji FjHg v,Zj ijq
a[ Rpl s[ zirjvg s'r[G hg WjWj ug fjl bjH[ m Vqlwji wiV
a'G fdhvJ hg WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##bj
eH[ V[ fp,a v{S rjv[ m qhJfpit ljc[ w'v F[u ds>Ds[ hV@ RphVJ
w'v dwa[ ] Vhk lg m$$ Rpfi.a FjHg v,Zj ijq V[ W[Vag wgag@
##ug@ d*fj wi' m$$ ba[ Whpa W[VagbJ wgagbJ m Rpfi.a WjWj
ug V[ dHw wPuj dqLig sj N'vg dry fj w[ a'i ds,aj m dHh
fdirji dHl lq[G l'Vgfa dry r,l dihj ] m
\bV.s li'ri dry'G|

17

epdi apn{ lF dwAp fjdHbj uV VjVw


lsp Wdvhji mm
\b>e 218|

dul lq[G HgLi dl>z V.Wisji qvPw[ rjv[ } l[rj wis[ }


awigWV s' ljv h' eH[ m dHl s[ zi rjvg } W,yj h'S rjvj
lg m Rpl HgLi dl>z V[ WjWj ug fjl s,l w[ bjdebj q>eg fi
WjWj ug V[ bjdebj Vj ds,ag m dHl dry rg w'Hg F[s lg m dHl
dsV HgLi dl>z a[ dHl s[ zi'G WgWg@ dul sj Vjq Fjeg lg@
l[rj wi ih[ lV@ w'B Lqgi rjv[ l.a duRPS sjl ug z'Cj Wjhi
W.V% w[ b>si bj eH[ a[ bjRpS lji hg WyV wgaj@ ##dHh l.a
b,De[ rg siLV wiV bjMs[ lV@ fi dHl rji w'Hg WjWj ug
r,Dv'G b>siPVg f+[iVj h'Hg a[ bjfS[ bjf hg WyV wgaj@
##njS[sjigbJ@ lisjigbJ wjdHq@ WCgbJ ?pLgbJ@ i.e~Fje
v,eSe[@ i,u w[ tjRpe[@ df>c dry y"Zi dqv[eg m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##V.Wisjij@ aplk s'r[G ugb h,o Z' w[ l.aJ
s[ yiVk h,o vjRp m$$ hpwq bVplji dHhVJ s'hJ V[ l.a duRPS
sjl ug s[ yiVk h,o vjH[ m WjWj ug V[ l.a duRPS sjl ug
} hpwq wgaj@ ##b,De[ rjv[ lji[ WyV wi' m$$ a[ qpSLg } hpwq
wgaj@ ##aplk qpSLg ug dvt vr' m$$ Rph WyV l.a ug whg eH[
ba[ qpSLg ug dvtg eH[ m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z
] m$$ dT,Dv'G fdirji } dHl aigw[ Vjv W?dLL h'Hg m

18

\2|
dHhVJ dsVJ dry uiqV sg u.e ;'iJ a[ lg m dHw rji
byjVw hg WjWj ug qpSLg hids,a dl>z } l,s w[ WyV wgaj
dw@ ##a[ij debj b>ei[;j iju RpH[@ a{G WC[ drejC[ wju RpH[ m$$
qpSLg ug dvtg eH[ m da>V rji dvtjdHbj@ dxi bjf ug V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##qpSlg@ duhCj bjfJ dvdtbj ]@ dHl $a[ vwgi qji
dsRp m bu[ b>ei[; } Vhk w,TSj ba[ uiqV aJ dHhVJ Vjv'G
rg F{Cj ] m$$ Rpfi.a qpSLg ug V[ dvt[ Rpfi vwgi x[i ds,ag
u' bu[ aw Rpl[ ai%J ] m dxi hpwq s[ w[ duo[ b,u w,v q>si
]@ dHl oJ Rpfi dHw v,wC sj qVp,t WSj w[ dlfjhgbJ s[ w,fC[
fpbj w[ tCj wi ds,aj m u[ dwl[ V[ fp,ASj@ ##qhjiju@ dHh wg
] ($$ aJ WyV wiVj@ ##dHh ljcj dlfjhg ]@ uiqV } b,De[
bjS a'G i'w[ej m$$ dHw rji V.Wisji HgLi dl>z } WyV
widsbJ `piqjdHbj@ ##V.Wisjij@ aP. r[t[Gej us'G b>ei[;J s[
ujS sj lqJ h'dHbj@ dHhVJ V[ f{ik up,ag rg Vhk fjRpSg m$$
\dHh WyV rg iaV dl>z dT,Dv'G qvPwj a'G dqdvbj m|

dudV dudV wig brdebj uV wg a[


a{ sgH[ ipCjHg mm
\b>e 1235|

dHl[ lq[G WjWj V.s dl.z ug wv[iJ a[ l.ea siLV wiV


bjH[ m dHl lq[G WjWj ug Vjv qptg lisji u'de>si dl>z@ ;{vsji
ejdvW wvJ a[ l! epids,a dl>z V,Do'rjv a[ iaV dl>z b"vt
wv[iJ a'G dwLV dl>z b"vt@ dHhVJ Vjv wv[iJ a'G w[hi dl>z
19

lptqVgbj@ rdibjq dl>z ejdvW wvJ a'G wpN lqJ ndhi w[ WjWj
ug s[ siLV wi w[ qjN[ s[ dHvjw[ r,v yv[ eH[ m ujS a'G Wjbs
Vdhi s[ qdhwq[ sj Yrilgbi@ dul sj Vjq y.VS dl>z lg@
dul sj Vei W'fjijdH lg@ Fp,Dy' b,fC w[ WjWj ug wv[iJ rjdvbJ
sg WjWa wdhS v,ej@ ##RphVJ V[ Vdhi sg fBCg~fBCg bjfSg
e,cg dvbj w[ Q{i~wj}Vg w.q wgaj ] a[ q{G RphVJ } l;j
wijRpSg ] a[ hpS dwo[ hV@ q{} s,Dl' m$$ b,De'G Fp,Dy'G rjdvbJ V[
WyV wgaj@ ##qhJfpitJ sg l[rj wi w[ ?pLg vHgsg ]@
v'w~fiv'w lpZjigsj ] m RphVJ sg dVeijVg wiV rjv[ sj wpN
Vhk idh>sj m$$ y.VS dl>z s[ h,o dry dHw favg duhg l'Bg
lg@ ;qgV $a[ qji w[ wdhS v,ej@ ##Vhk@ dHh e,v Vhk h'
lwsg m$$ Rpl r[v[ Fp,Dy' rjv[ qhjiju v.q[ fH[ h'H[ lV m bjlS
a'G RpKn w[ W{n eH[ a[ WyV wgaj@ ##b,u sp,Z AwSj lg@ a[ij
w.q VW[C w[ hg AwJe[ m RphVJ s[ dhis[ dry epiP VjVw r,Ddlbj
] m RphVJ s[ aJ wp,DdabJ } rg l;j Vhk h' lwsg m lF sj
siejhg v[tj qp,w debj ] m$$ dHM WyV wi w[ bjfS[ s'hJ
h,oJ sgbJ avgbJ qvgbJ m Rpl lq[G dHM bjrj; bjHg dur[G
w'Hg v,wC Bp,Bsg ] a[ WyV wgaj@ ##Vgvj dl>bJ@ dHl spLB
} Wjh'G xC w[ ljc[ bev[ Wji dry'G v{ w[ dB,Dv[ rjv[ Wji dry'G
w,T s[ m$$ hpwq bVplji dHr[G hg wgaj debj m WyV wgaj@ ##a{}
y"ijlg v,t uPV F'eSg fr[eg m
qja v'w dry F"Gsj dxi[Gej@ a{} fjajv dry rg njhi Vhk
dqv[eg@ blqjVJ dry fp,nj B.debj ujH[Gej m
tjdibJ lqp>siJ dry e'a[ tjr[Gej@ a{} dwa[ lpt Vj dqv[eg m
u.q~u.q w[ qi[Gej@ a[i[ dT,c dry qPv bJsiJ evSegbJ m
qhJfpitJ s[ s'tgbj@ a[ig dHh hjva h'H[eg m$$ dfaj~qjaj duhC[
Rpl lq[G Rpo[ hj;i lV@ V[ s,Ddlbj dw dul lq[G Rpl } xC w[
20

hpwq bVplji Wjhi w,DT w[ A,Ddcbj aJ WCg qpLdwv Vjv api


w[ bjfSg wji@ dul RpKa[ yC% w[ df,Aj wgaj lg@ aw debj
a[ yvj debj m Rpl Vjv b,De'G wg Wgag@ b,De[ fC%' m

l.a wj s'tg dHRp dWvvjdH mm


duRp uv dWhPV qApvg aCxCjdH mm
\b>e 280|

dxi l! y.VS dl>z sg rg aV a[ qV wiw[ RpfivgbJ


f>eagbJ rjvg hjva h' eHg m #bljZ i'e Rpfdubj aV Fgai
Biap V wjhP BjdiY mm$ rjvg f>eag sj `piqjV fPij h' debj m
l! y.VS dl.z z'vgH[@ l.a epvjW dl>z ug sj LiZjvP lg@ l.a
epvjW dl>z ug vdhi[ ?jV[ rjv[ WjWj rZjrj dl>z ug s[ epiFjHg
lV m l.a epvjW dl>z ug V[ dHl } spbjHg s[Sg LpiP wgag fi.aP
spbjHg tjS Vjv y.VS dl>z sg awvg` h'i rZg m l.a epvjW
dl>z V[ dHh l'y w[ dw b,u aw ljcg spbjHg dul V[ tjZg ]@
lF } bjijq bjdHbj ]@ fi.aP dHo[ aJ e,v hg h'i ] m dur[G
dwl[ dlbjS[ V[ dwhj ] ^
spbj a' hq s[a[ ]G v[dwV L`j s[aj ] aP m
?jw q[G bwlgi w[ ;"hi dstj s[aj ] aP m
;dhi q[G Fg a[ig wpsida L`j q"uPs ] m
epiP idhqa Vj h' a[ig a'dibjw Fg W[ lPs ] m
qhJfpitJ s[ WyV sj agi y,Ddvbj spdVbjrg w'Hg yg;
Rpl } q'C Vhk lwsg m fi.aP l.a epvjW dl>z ug V[ dul r[v[
y.eg ai%J l! y.VS dl>z s[ fjl'G a`agL wgag aJ RphVJ }
blvg e,v sj faj v,Ddebj aJ RphVJ y.VS dl.z } dwhj dw
21

##aP. q{} fdhvJ dwM Vhk s,Ddlbj m$$ Rpfi.a l.a epvjW dl>z
ug WjWj ug wv[iJ rjdvbJ fjl b,De[ rg uJs[ lV@ dHl rjig
uj w[ y.VS dl>z sg awvg` s,l w[ dwhj@ ##Rpl sg V"wig ?aq
h' eHg ]@ q>Du[ RpKa[ dfbj ] m dVa FPtj wPw[ dahjdHbj mm rjvj
i,Wg `piqjV Rpl RpKa[ ria dihj ] m$$ b,De'G WjWj bV.s dl>z
ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##blk wpN Vhk dwhj m$$ l.a epvjW dl>z ug
V[ dwhj@ ##ug@ l.a Fp,Dy' rjdvbJ V[ WyV wgaj ]@ aplk W?Lj
dsRp m$$ aJ wv[iJ rjv[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##RphVJ b,De[
w'Hg W'vS sg rjh Vhk m blk dwl[ lq[G hpwq Vjv eH[ aJ f+l.V
r[t w[ W[Vag wi dsbJe[ m b,De[ RphVJ sg dur[G i;j ] m$$
Rpfi.a l.a epvjW dl>z rjfl qpC eH[ m dHl lq[G vdhi[ rjv[
l.a rZjrj dl>z ug fjl'G WjWj bV.s dl>z ug fjl W?LjRpS
vHg W[Vag wgag eHg m Rpfi.a wpN lq[G Wjbs WjWj bV.s dl>z
ug Fp,Dy' siLV wiV bjH[ aJ Rpl lq[G WjWj ug V[ y.VS dl>z
sj Vjq vH[ WQ{i W[Vag wi ds,ag dw Rph Whpa Wgqji ]@ dwifj
wi' m$$ Fp,Dy' rjdvbJ V[ h,l w[ WyV wgaj@ ##Rph w"S ] qhJfpit'@
Vjq s,DDl' m$$ dxi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##ug@ y.VS dl>z Vdhi
rjvj m$$ dxi Fp,Dy' rjv[ WyV wiV v,De[@ ##Rpl sj Vjq Vj vr'@
Rph da>V wjv Vhk W?dLbj ujH[ej m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj bV.s dl>z
ug V[ dxi W[Vag hg Vhk wgag m
\dHh f+l.e qjaj dfaj fjl'G lpdSbj m Rpfi.a wv[iJ sg l.ea
fjl'G rg lpdSbj m|

22

l[r wig apqig daV w[ lF hg


e+dh s[tgba siW Fi'l' mm
l[rw l[rj wi w[ f+l.Vaj v{ w[ qhJfpitJ a'G qV~dy>Ds[
fsjio f+jfa wi w[ zi dry idh w[ u' WyV apiV lq[G wis[@
RphVJ RpKa[ fPij RpaiV rjv[ sj Vjq dHdahjl dry bjsi
ldawji Vjv dvdtbj uJsj dihj ] m dHl[ ai%J V.Wisji HgLi
dl>z V[ rg WjWj ug s[ zi hpwq bVplji ugrV Waga wgaj
u' dHl V[ zi a'iV lq[G WjWj ug V[ WyV wga[ Rph dHM lV@
V.Wisji s[ zi rjvg WgWg Fjeg } W,yj h'S rjvj lg@ dHl
V[ zi ujS sg bjdebj q>eg m WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##Vhk
ujSj@ dHo[ hg ngw ] m$$ dul rwa WgWg Fjeg } faj v,ej
aJ Rpl V[ zi ujS vHg hn wgaj@ Vj q>Vg m Rpfi.a WjWj ug
V[ WyV wgaj@ dHo[ idh>Ds[ aJ y.ej lg a[ WyV wgaj@ vCwj
h'r[ Vjq wfPi dl>z i,tSj m r,cj h' w[ njS[sji WS[ej@ Vjv
WyV wgaj@ ##r,cj h' w[ t[cS v,e uJsj aJ blk bjdebj
ds.Ds[ m$$ Rpl lq[G Fjeg rJsi rjvj liWS dl>z l[rj dry hj;i
lg@ Rpl } WyV wgaj dw a[i[ rg fp,ai h'H[ej m dHh f+l.e df,DA[
b,nr[G dh,Dl[ dry bj yp,wj ] m Rpo'G fC%' m apiV lq[G WjWj ug V[
bjfS[ a[C rjvg yjsi vjh w[ bjf Vrk W.V% vHg m fdhvg
yjsi s[ s' dh,Dl[ wi w[ V.Wisji HgLi dl>z a[ liWS dl>z
] b,Dc'~b,c s[ w[ WyV wgaj@ ##lJF w[ i,tSj@ us'G dwa[ v'C
f{ ujH[ liwji[~siWji[ Vjv v{ ujY@ du,a h'r[eg m dwl[ W,Dy[ }
23

w'Hg awvg` h' ujH[@ Rpl s[ RpKa[ fj dsRp@ a.sipla h' ujH[ej m$$
dHh yjsi b,u rg V.Wisji s[ fdirji w'v q"uPs ] ba[ liWS
dl.z s[ fdirji V[ l.Fjv Vhk wgag@ dwa[ ep.q h' eHg ] m dxi
liWS dl>z Fjeg rJsi rjv[ V[ W[Vag wgag qhjiju@ V.Wisji
s[ qp>Dc[ } aJ lisjig a[ q[i[ qp>Dc[ } rg wpN aJ dsRp@ aJ WyV
wgaj@ ##a[i[ w'v ;qgV Whpa ] a[ aP. ufpug ljdhW sj fjn
dVaV[q Vjv wdibj wi duo[ blk Rpo[ aP. m$$ a[ dxi V.Wisji
HgLi dl>z } WyV wgaj dw aP. zi $a[ f,wg dH,B Vhk vjRpSg
w,yj hg i,tSj m V.Wisji bjfSg d;.seg dry dHl WyV $a[
wjdHq dihj m
Rpfi.a HgLi dl>z qvPw[ fhp.y debj@ hpwq bVplji Rpl
s[ fp,ai hg h'dHbj@ Vjq wfPi dl>z i,Ddtbj@ ojS[sji rg WS
debj m HgLi dl>z } dfaj sg V.Wisjig rg dqv eHg@ dxi s'
V.WisjigbJ df>c sgbJ h'i dqv eHgbJ ba[ qgibjWg rg dqv
eHg m 30 ljv fPig lisjig wgag@ lji[ Vei dry dl,wj
y,Ddvbj m WjWj ug s[ lji[ WyV lda h'H[ m
\dHh f+l.e V.Wisji HgLi dl.z dT,Dv'G qvPw[ rjv[ a'G dqdvbj m|

bdy.a w.q widh f+F daV w[ duV hdi


wj Vjqp dfbjij mm
\b>e 638|

dHw rji siug dl,t ijqfpij q>cg a'G bjdHbj a[ Rpl V[


l[rj q>eg m Rpl sj Vjq@ e'a@ uja@ VjVw[@ sjsw[@ lhpi[ bjdsw
fp,A w[ WyV wgaj@ ##wg l[rj wi[Gej@ aP. eigW ]G m h,ok l[rj
wi v{ m$$ Rpl V[ lda WyV wi w[ dwhj@ ##ug@ q{G h,ok l[rj wi
24

lwsj hJ@ wpN Wlai dlRpS sg l[rj dsRp m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj ug
V[ bjfS[ w'v' ipfH[ s[ w[ WyV wgaj@ ##s' l" e; v,nj ?igs
w[ wAdhi[ dlM w[ dvbjRp m$$ hpwq bVplji Rpl V[ dHr[G hg
wgaj m dul lq[G Rph siug wAdhi[ dlM w[ v{ bjdHbj aJ
V.Wisji HgLi dl>z Rpo[ q"uPs lg m Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag@
##qhjiju@ dHo[ w'Hg rg wAdhi[ Vhk fjMsj ba[ bjf rg Vhk
fdhVs[ m dxi dHh s' l" wAdhi[ dwl w.q ($$ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@
##V.Wisjij@ wAdhdibJ rjv[ dl,t rg ljc[ w'v hV m dHh RphVJ
s[ bjRpS a'G fdhvJ hg WSj w[ i,t ds,Da[ hV m$$ Rpfi.a s' l"
wAdhi[ W'igbJ dry fj w[ Li%j wij w[ b>si itj ds,Da[ m dHh
bjRpS rjv[ lq[G r,v dHw dHLjij lg u' dw b,u f+a,t ria
dihj ] m l.a t[q dl>z ug a'G fdhvJ l.a HgLi dl>z i'Cg rjdvbJ
V[ rg dHLjij wi ds,aj lg m u' wpN wiVj wijRpSj WjWj qhJ
hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ hg ] m
wiV wijrVhji lpbjqg mm lev zBj w[ b>aiujqg mm
\b>e 1080|

epiWjSg sj `piqjV ] m dHw lq[G HgLi dl>z V.Wisji V[


WjWj ug fjl W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ aplk qP>eg Z'ag sg sjv
bS~y'fC[ xpvw[ w'Hg qljvj bjdsw Vhk rias[ m$$ WjWj ug
V[ WyV wgaj@ ##V.Wisjij@ aP. r[tk WCgbJ sjvJ lW;gbJ@ WC[
qljv[ ria[ ujdHbj wiVe[ ba[ dzRp ria[ ujdHbj wiVe[ m
blk lF wpN uq%J wig uj ih[ hJ m$$
b,u dHh WyV f+a,t ria ih[ hV m
bBv WyV ljZP uVj lF qdh f+eBjdHbj mm
\b>e 812|\dWvjrvp qhvj 5

dHw rji f+[qg V[ siLV sg bjdebj q>eg@ h;Pig dry l,s


25

w[ fp,DdAbj@ ##wg w.q wisj ]G a[ a[ig ;ja wg ] ($$ Rpl V[


s,Ddlbj@ ##q{G q;hWg hp.sj hJ ba[ wjv[ dHvq sj w.q wisj
hJ m$$ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Rph q>ai lj} rg Ijs wij s[ m$$
Ijs wiV Rpfi.a lpSj w[ WyV wgaj aP. ljcj drdsbj epiP WS
debj ]G lj} ojfCj s[ m Rph wpN ci[ aJ WyV wgaj@ ## ci
Vj@ ljcg i;j rg dHr[G ] m$$ Rpfi.a Rpl V[ ojfCj ds,aj@ WyV
wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m a[ij rg RpZji h' debj m$$ blyiu w"aw lF
WjWj ug s[ bjRpS rjv[ lq[G r,v dHw dHLjij lg u' dw b,u
f+a,t ria dihj ] m fdhv[ l.a HgLi dl.z i'Cg rjv[ bjfS[ lq[G
bjfS[ w'v dwifjV i,tS v,e fH[ lV a[ wCj rg h,o dry
fdhVS v,e fH[ lV m r,Dc[ qhjiju qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug s[
WyVJ s[ bVplji l.a HgLi dl>z ug i'Cg rjdvbJ V[ rg dHLjij
wi ds,aj lg@ u' wpN wiVj wijRpSj@ WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z
ug V[ hg ] m
wiV wijrVhji lpbjqg mm lev zBj w[ b>aiujqg mm
\b>e 1080|

epiWjSg sj `piqjV ] m

u' f+dF bfVg l[rj vjdHbj


VjVw l' l[rwp sh dsdl f+eBjdHbj mm
\b>e 285|

fjnw uV fC% yp,Dw[ hV dw l+g ijq dl>z ug qvPw[ rjv[


WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji qvPw[ a'G V[fjv eH[ m Rpfi.a lF ljZP
u[v% dry'G dihjb wirjH[ m qhjiju[ sg lF ai%J sg al,vg
wijHg@ hpwq Vjv bsFpa yqawji dstjH[ m WjWj ug d*fj Vjv
26

iju epiP WS[ m Flq wCj@ dHw qptg ips=jtL sj qSwj@ hpwq
bVplji dHw WjWj ug rjla[ tgVtj` sj w,fCj w'B rjla[ v{
w[ lF rlaPbJ bjfS[ qjdvw s[ yiVJ dry i,t w[ dli
dVrjdHbj a[ f+[q s[ b,oiP V[aiJ dry'G dwi[ m drA'C[ lq[G drI'e
sg uvV } V[aiJ s[ fjSg Vjv n.T fjHg m dHl lq[G f>Ddca
ug Vjv f+[qg rg lV m rjig~rjig lF V[ lgl dVrjdHbj ba[
hpwq fj w[ yiVJ dry W{n eH[ m WjWj ug V[ lF sg lp,t~bV.s
f,pAg m ila[ sg ?Wi@ V[fjv s[ lqjyji f>Ddca ug V[ bjds a'G
b>a aw WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji wdh lpSjH[ m lpSV a'G Rpfi.a
WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##aP. bIp,DdZbj ijqy.si s[ q>si wg v{S
debj ($$ l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##QigW dVrju@ lB[LV
RpKa[ e,cg s[ bjRpS dry da>V z>DB[ lV@ q{G l'dybj dHo[ da>V
z>DB[ W{n w[ wg wiJe[@ rwa fPij wiV vHg Rpo[ yvj debj m
W?L vRp@ q{G Fp,vShji hJ m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##Rpo[ l'V[ sgbJ yji qPiagbJ hV m$$ l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ h,o
u'C w[ WyV wgaj@ ##ug hJ@ ngw ] m$$ wHg Vr[G f+[qg Rpl r[v[
l.ea dry hj;i lV m Rph Whpa ]ijV h'H[ dw WjWj ug } dwr[G
faj v,e debj a[ l.ea dry zpli~qpli h'S v,e fHg m Rpl
lq[G WjWj l"S dl>z dT,Dv'G@ FjHg rdibjq dl>z@ FjHg y.sj dl.z@
FjHg hiy.s dl>z bjdsw hj;i lV m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##hpS aplk bjfS[ lojV RpKa[ uj w[ l+g ijqy.si sg fPuj wi' m
hpS aphj} RphVJ s[ siLV Rpo[ hg h'Se[ Vhk aJ dHo[ b,u
hg h' ujS[ lV m Rpo[ siLV fia,t h'Se[ m$$ Rpfi.a l+g ijq dl>z
ug V[ yiVJ $a[ dli dVrjdHbj a[ lda WyV wgaj m dHaV[ dyi
} v.ei f,w w[ bj debj m lF } v.ei dry ujS sj hpwq
h'dHbj m
lF l.ea A,w w[ hj;i h' eHg m dxi WjWj ug V[ hpwq s[
27

w[ dHw A'Bj duhj Vrjig fv.z q>erj w[ hpwq wgaj m dHl Rpfi
sjsj ug } dWnjRp m l[q[ rjv[ s'r[G N.c[ ba[ Fjeg rJsi rjv[
dV,wj dl>z@ lirS dl.z h'i qvPw[ sg l.ea } hpwq h'dHbj
dw aplk sjsj ug } uj w[ q,oj B[w' m hpwq Vjv lF V[ dHr[G
hg wgaj m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##w'Hg lqJ bjr[@ aplk
dHhVJ sg l.ea wiVg@ lp,Z ] m$$ a[ dxi f>Ddca l+g ijq dl>z
ug } w'v Wpvj w[ hpwq wgaj@ ##w'Hg q>e h' aJ s,Dl' m$$ f>Ddca
l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##q{} bjfSj liPf W?L' m$$
f>Ddca ug V[ da>DV[ rjig dHh' q>e wgag m Rpfi.a hpwq wgaj@
##a{} dHw `'B' s[rJe[ m$$ dxi bjfS[ w'v'G dHw yjsi s[
w[ hpwq wgaj@ ##dHl yjsi RpKa[ ljcj `'B' bjH[ej m us'G dsv
wi[ r[t v{Sj m$$ dHh yjsi bu[ aw ijq dB,Dv[ l.Fjv w[ i,tg
h'Hg ] a[ dxi bevg lr[i[ qvPw[ ujS sj hpwq wi w[ WyV
wgaj@ ##ujY bjijq wi' m$$
\dHh f+l.e l+g ijq dl>z ug sg l.ea fjl'G dqdvbj m|

whp VjVw wia[ wgbj WjaJ


u' dwAp wiSj lp wdi idhbj mm
\b>e 469|

u' wisj ] fiq[Li bjf hg wisj ] m dHVljV sg lqN


a'G Wjhi ] m W.sj W[L,w Vj lqN[ uJ Vj q>DV[ fi.aP h' lF wpN
hpwq b>si hg dihj ] m WjSg dry `piqjV ] ^
u' dwAp wi{ l'Hg Fv qjVRp aj qV lhdu lqjSj mm
\b>e 783|
28

dHw rji FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg V[ l.a dy>a ijq ug }


f+Ljsj AwjRpS ujS r[v[ WjWj ug a'G bjdebj q>eg \b,De[ rg
hpwq bVplji bjdebj v{ w[ hg uJs[ lV| b,De'G h;Pi rg duo[
dy>a ijq lV@ s,l w[ hpwq wgaj@ ##bjRpS v,ej Vjv hg v{
bjHk m$$ b,De'G iaV dl>z ci'vg V[ lda WyV dwhj ba[ l.a
dy>a ijq ug r,v y,v fH[ m dul lq[G l.a dy.a ijq ug fjl fhp.y[
a[ l.a dy>a ijq ug h,l w[ wdhS v,De[@ ##FjHg iaV dl>z@ b,u
q{} qhjiju ug V[ l,Ddsbj ] m$$ b,De'G FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg
V[ dwhj@ ##ug hJ@ l,Ddsbj ] m$$ Rpfi.a l.a dy>a ijq ug sj
dHLVjV wijdHbj@ Wlai Wsv[@ f+Ljsj AwjdHbj ba[ RpKn w[
Vjv h"vg~h"vg y,v fH[ m ila[ dry dy>a ijq ug wdhS v,De[@
##FjHg iaV dl>z@ V[fjv uj w[ iju~epiP WS w[ aJ l+g ijq dl>z
bj debj ba[ fPuj rg Rpl V[ wijHg ba[ iju[ sj w'hC~wLB
qhjiju q{} s[ ih[ hV m$$ Rpfi.a l.a dy>a ijq ug hjH[~hjH[
wiV v,e fH[ ba[ wp,DW[ h' eH[ m Rpl lq[G WCg qpLdwv Vjv api
w[ h"vg~h"vg WjWj ug fjl b,fC w[ i' w[ W[Vag wgag@ ##eigW
dVrju@ q{} dwM sptg wi ih[ h' ( iju epiP aJ qvPw[ rjvj
l+g ijq WS[@ a[ fPuj~f+daLBaj rg wijr[ fi q{} dwM a.e wi
ih[ h' m$$ b,De'G WjWj ug h,l w[ WyV wiV v,De[@ ##b{Vj wLB
aJ a{} N,vSj hg fr[ej@ l+g ijq Vhk N,v lwsj m$$ Rpfi.a FjHg
iaV dl>z } hpwq h'dHbj@ ##aP. dy>a ijq } w'ng s[ WiJc[ dry
dWnj s[ m$$ dxi dWnj ds,Da[ eH[ m Rpfi.a wpN lqJ hjH[~hjH[ wis[
ih[ m dxi ngw h' w[ Wjbs dry dy>a ijq ug bjfSg q"u dry
RpKn w[ Wjhi } yv[ eH[ m
\dHh f+l.e qjaj~dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m|

29

u' u' hpwqp FdHY ljdhW wj


l' qjo{ v[ qjdVY mm
\b>e 1000|

hpwq q>VS rjvj hg l[rw btrj lwsj ]@ hpwq dry


idhS rjvj hg hpwqg W.sj ]@ f+qjio sg vCjHg hpwq dry idh
w[ hg h' lwsg ] m
l' dltp ltj W.Zfp ] FjHg du epi w[ FjS[ dry bjr{ mm
\b>e 602|

hpwq q>V w[ dabje sj Fg dabje wi s[Sj m dHhg hpwq


l'idn qhvj dry ] m l' bev[ dsV lr[i[ dxi f>Ddca l+g ijq
dl>z ug } hpwq h'dHbj dw@ ##b,u aplk bjfS[ Vei qvPw[ ujRp@
Rpo[ dBw' m ws[~ws[ bj w[ siLV q[vj wi ujdHbj wi' m$$ Rpfi.a
l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ lpfV[ rjvj ds=LBJa u' df,DA[ bj yp,Ddwbj
]@ lpSj w[ W[Vag wgag@ ##l,Dy[ fjaLjh@ bu[ wpN lqJ sjl }
h'i l[rj sj q"wj W?L' m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj dw@
##a{o'G l[rj Rpo[ W{n[ a'G hg wijrJe[ m aP. ljc[ rjla[ f[n[ sg
qdnbjHg WSj w[ ba[ Wi`g WSj w[ i'; V[q Vjv F[uk@ blk
Adwbj wiJe[ m$$ dxi l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##QigW
dVrju@ dwaVj lqJ ($$ h;Pi V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##duaVj lqJ aP.
l[rj wi[Gej@ blk l.lji dry ihJe[ m$$ Rpfi.a l+g ijq dl>z ug
V[ Vqlwji wgag m wpN lqJ c.cRpa f+Vjq dry hg ih[ m dli
Vhk y,pDdwbj@ us dli yp,Ddwbj aJ l+g ijq dl>z ug s[ V[aiJ
dry'G r{ije sj uv re w[ dyhij Z'aj h'dHbj lg m
30

ttCgbj lphjrgbj veCgbj bw w.dn mm


dW+h drA'Cj ZSg dlRp VjVw lhl{ e.n mm
\b>e 319| \lv'w qhvj 5|

rjvg hjva WSg h'Hg lg m qV aJ WjWj ug sg h;Pig dry


hg lg@ fi.aP ligi qvPw[ yvj debj m drAdCbJ sg e,a dr,AC[
ujVS@ h'i Vj sPuj ujS[ m dul ai%J ep,cg aJ hrj s[ ip? Vjv
RpZi@ duZi hrj v{ ujH[@ uJsg ]@ fi.aP dul s[ h,o c'i h'r[@
idh>sg Rpo[ hg ] m qvPw[ fhp.y w[ u' WjWj ug qhjiju sj hpwq
lg@ f[n[ sg qdnbjHg ba[ Wi`g rjig~rjig V[q Vjv bjMsg
ihg m s' epidl,t dHw aJ FjHg epiqpt dl>z ba[ V.s Fea dHhVJ
s'hJ V[ h;Pi fjl fhp.yj s[Sg m wHg ljv dHh l[rj dVi.ai y,vsg
ihg m
\dHh f+l.e l! WvWgi dl>z ug wjdVbJ rjvg rjdvbJ a'G a[
h'i l.ea fjl'G lpdSbj m|

uj w{ qladw Fje dl l[rj vjdHbj mm


aj wg fPiV bjl duV ljZ l.ep fjdHbj mm
\b>e 457|

dHw lq[G l.a Whjv sjl ug V[q bVplji siLV wiV bjH[ m
Rpfi.a wpN Vei s[ f+[qg rg W{n[ lV aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##Whjv sjl@ lj} w'Hg h;Pig l[rw s[ m fi h'r[ lda WyV sj
bdZwjig m$$ b,De'G l.a Whjv sjl ug V[ lda WyV dwhj ba[
bjdebj v{ w[ rjfl u,lg f" rjvg yv[ eH[ m l.a Whjv sjl
ug V[ WjWj ug s[ WyV wiV Rpfi.a WCg r,cg dryji ba[ fit
wiV a'G Wjbs l.a Vi{S dl.z ug qdhdSbJ rjdvbJ } bjfS[
31

fjl Wpvj w[ WyV wgaj dw FjHg dl,tj@ ljc[ epiP WjWj qhJ
hdiVjq dl>z ug iP.qg rjdvbJ } dHw h;Pig l[rw sg v'C ]
a[ RphVJ V[ dHw l[rw s[S sj hpwq lj} wgaj ] m ljcj dryji
] dw u[ dwa[ dHh l[rj aP. wi lw[G aJ a[i[ rg WC[ RpKaq Fje
h'S m a[i[ Vjv ljc[ rg b,De[ aP. ljcj l[rw ]G m dxi RphVJ sj
l[rw WS w[ ljo'G rg RpKyj h' ujH[Gej@ fi dHw' Lia ] ljcg
rg ba[ RphVJ sg rg@ Rpo[ lda WyV sj bdZwjig h' w[ ihk@
duaVj r,cj yjh[Gej RpaVj hg r,cj WS ujH[Gej@ fi r[tk dwa[
c'v Vj ujrk m b,De'G l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ lda WyV bjt w[
l[rj wiV rjla[ qV WSj dvbj a[ dabji h' eH[ m apiV lq[G
l.a Whjv sjl ug V[ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug } dHw dy,fg s[ w[
WyV wgaj@ ##bjh dy,fg aJ dHw Whpa z,B wgqa rjvg ]@ fi
epiPbJ sg l[rj dry uj w[ aP. dHh l'V[ sg lqN vHk m dHh dHw
ds=LBJa ] b,De[ aP. lqN v{ m$$ Rpfi.a l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ Fp,Dy'
wvJ rjv[ c[i[ WjWj ug fjl yiVJ $a[ q,oj B[dwbj m b>aiujqg
WjWj ug V[ bjf hg WyV wgaj@ ##Whjv sjl V[ F[dubj ] ($$
b,De'G l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##ug hJ m$$ dxi WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##l[rj wi[Gej ($$ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ dwhj@
##ug hJ@ wiP.ej m$$ aJ WjWj ug s[ ljhqS[ dHw rS sj si,?a
lg@ Rpl r,v dHLjij wi w[ WyV wgaj@ Rpo[ uj w[ tCj h' uj m
bevg e,v dxi wiJe[ m$$ hpwq bVplji l.a Vi{S dl>z ug uj
w[ tC[ h' eH[ m s,ls[ hV dw b,n fdhi vejaji tC[ ih[@ Vj
WjWj ug V[ w'v l,Ddsbj@ Vj l,Ds[ dWVJ bjH[ m fdhvg f+gdtbj
dry hg hpwq q>VS rjvg ejtCg l[rj rjvg h' eHg l[rw sg
aJ f{i f{i $a[ f+gdtbj hp.sg ] m dHl[ lq[G $a[ s' f+[qg l.a Vi{S
dl>z ug s[ Vei a'G WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV bjH[ a[ RphVJ
V[ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug } rS h[n tC[ r[t w[ WpvjdHbj m fi.aP
32

l.a Vi{S dl>z ug W'v[ Vhk m dHl a'G RphVJ f+[qgbJ V[ WjWj ug
fjl bj w[ Vqlwji wi w[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ ljc[ df>c
rjvj Vi{S dl.z rS h[n dwM tCj wgaj ] ( Rpl sgbJ v,aJ
rg lp,ugbJ fHgbJ hV m$$ b,De'G WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Rph
w,v% sj tCj ] m$$ Rph ]ijV h' w[ fp,AS v,De[@ ##qhjiju@ w,v%
sj dHo[ dwM tCj ] ($$ h;Pi V[ W[~firjhg s[ b>sj; dry
`piqjdHbj@ ##hpwq Vjv hg tCj ]@ vRp hpS Rpl } Wpvj v{Gs[
hJ m$$ dxi hpwq wi w[ l,s w[ fp,AS v,De[ dw a[ig q>e ba[ qV'io
wg ] ( b,De'G l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##eigW dVrju@
q[ij uVq qiV w,B dsRp m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##lp,Z ]@
dHw l" dHw fjn ufp ug ljdhW sj i'; wiVj h'H[ej m$$ l.a
Vi{S dl>z ug V[ lda WyV wi w[ q,oj B[dwbj@ dxi l[rj dqv
eHg m dHw l" dHw fjn rjvj WyV l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ d;>seg
Fi dVFjdHbj m l[rj wiV s[ lq[G a'G v{ w[ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug
WjWj ug s[ lq[G a'G Wjbs ljij lqJ A,ag ljv sj ] m Rph dHw
l" dHw fjn sj V[q fPij wis[ ih[ m dHh WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z
ug sg dqhi sg dVLjVg ] m WjWj ug sg h;Pig dry hi lq[G
aV qV wiw[ hj;i idhSj@ ligi T,wS vHg dHw favg W'ig@
Rpl s[ dry'G sg ev w,T w[ txVg duhg WSj w[ hi lq[G hi
q"lq dry ev i,tSg@ dli RpKa[ rg t,si sj fiVj duhj WSj
w[ i,tSj@ lF fjl[ a'G W[firjh h' w[ l[rj dry aafi ih[ m
Z.Vp l[rj l[rwp firjS mm
Vj dal Fpt Vj Vgs Vj tjSj l'rSj m
FjHg episjl ug sj woV RphVJ RpKa[ Tpwsj ] m dsV ija
WjWj ug s[ bjlS rjv[ blojV sirj;[ s[ ws[ l,Du[ fjl[@ ws[
t,DW[ fjl[ qP>h b,De[ w,fCj i,t w[ dsV[ ija tC[ idhSj ba[ ufp
33

ug ljdhW sj fjn hi lq[G wis[ idhSj m eiqg s[ q"lq dry


ljig~ljig ija dHw' oJ tC' w[ f,tj wis[ idhSj@ v,aJ ba[ yiVJ
dry wgdCbJ V[ s.sgbJ r,T w[ tp,cJ wi ds,agbJ lV@ dwMdw
w,yg ue%j h'S wiw[ F"S ba[ wgC[ bjq lV m WjWj ug dHhVJ
\Vi{S dl>z| sj Vjq Vhk v{Gs[ lV@ #Wjvj$ wdh w[ WpvjMs[ lV m
b{lg l[rwp l[rj wi{ mm dul sj ugRp dalp bje{ Zi{ mm rjvg wiVg
wgag h'Hg lg@ l' b,De[ hi oJ Wjvj hg bjr[ej m b{lg ejtCg
l[rj WjWj ug d*fj Vjv wirj ih[ lV m bfVg l[rj bjdf wijHg
epiqda b>adi ujeg mm
\b>e 667|
\dHh WyV qjaj~dfaj a'G lpdSbj ba[ Fp,Dy' Vei sg lF l.ea fjl'G m|

V[Cj ] sPdi V ujdSbhp dVa ljip l.qjv[ mm


\b>e 489|

qhJfpit l[rwJ s[ sp,t~lpt aJ l.Fjvs[ lV m dwa[ dqhi s[


zi dry bj w[ l[rwJ s[ l.W.Zg sj sp,t sis rg dVrji ds>Ds[
lV m FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ RphVJ s[ zi'G u{ w"i h;Pi
s[ yiVJ dry l[rj wi ih[ lV m dHw dsV lr[i[~lr[i[ WjWj ug
V[ hpwq wgaj dw ci'vg rjv[ f+[qg } hj;i wi' m hpwq bVplji
FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg hj;i h' eH[ m Rpfi.a h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj
dw ##FjHg@ df,DA[ a[i[ df>c a[ig F{S Wgqji ]@ aP. Rpo[ fhp.y m$$
hpwq bVplji dabji h' eH[ m apiV lq[G h;Pi V[ bjfS[ qpWjiw
h,oJ Vjv A'Bg duhg dqLig sg cvg s[ w[ WyV wgaj@ ##bjh
cvg aP. ujS lji hg WgWg s[ qP>h dry fj s[Hk m Wjwg bjf tj
34

vHg m dwl[ h'i } Vhk s[Sg m Rph vCwg a{} w"Cj W'v[@ yp,f
ihk m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ w'v'G dwijdHbj s[ w[ a'i dsaj m dul
lq[G FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg df>c bjH[@ Rpl lq[G Rpl sg F{S l?a
Wgqji lg ba[ w'Hg W.sj ?Wi wiV vHg bjRpS v,ej lg m
byjVw FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg fhp.y debj m dHl V[ hpwq
bVplji ujS lji hg dqLig sg cvg o'C%g duhg a'C w[ F{S s[
qP>h dry fj ds,ag m Rpl[ r[v[ Rph RpKn w[ W{n eHg m lF ]ijV
h' eH[ dw dHl s[ WyS sg Rpqgs Vhk lg@ z'iCP r,u dihj lg@
b>aq ljhJ RpKa[ lg@ fi dwl[ } wg faj \##f+F Fjr{ dWVp ljl
a[ ijt{$$ mm| dHh Wiwa aJ WjWj ug s[ WyV b"i f+Ljs dry
lg m Rpl sg F{S V[ RpKnS ljig hg iaV dl>z ci'vg } dwhj
dw dwo[ Z,Dw[ tJsj ]G m Rpfi.a w'v W{n[ lji[ h,l fH[ m WjWj ug
s[ WyV bVplji iaV dl>z ci'vg V[ Wjwg f+Ljs bjfS[ qP>h
dry fj dvbj m dxi Rpo[ ndhi[ Vhk ba[ Vj hg hpwq ndhiV
sj lg@ Rpl[ lq[G hg rjfl yv fH[ a[ Fp,Dy' fhp.y eH[ m
\dHh f+l.e v[tw V[ dfaj ug fjl'G lpdSbj m|

t[sp V sPtp V cjVp dah uj wRp Vsdi wig


bfpV[ l[rw wg bjf[ ijt{ bjf[ Vjqp ufjr{
\b>e 253|

WjWj ug wv[iJ rjv[ WjWj bV.s dl>z ug WyV wdibj wis[


lV m l[rw hpwq bVplji l[rj dlqiV wi[ m ldaepiJ sg l[rj
wgag@ W[bio Vhk uJsg m epiP ljdhW V[ a[ RphVJ a'G ri'ljH[
qhJ fpit W?dLLJ wis[ ih[ m #dHw davp Vhg F.V{ zjv{ m$ WjWj
ug qhJ hdiVjq dl>z s[ lq[G dHw f+[qg bjfS[ Vei u.cj rjvj
a'G sp,Z sg l[rj wisj lg@ Rpl sj dHh dV,aV[q hg lg@ i';
35

bjRpSj a[ ujSj m dHw rji WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj a[ig q>e wg


]@ u' q>eSj ] q>e v{ m Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag@ qhjiju@ q[ig q>e
w'Hg Vhk ] m b,De'G h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##a[ a[ig l[rj lr[i a'G
W.s m$$ fi Rph dxi rg sp,Z v{ w[ bj debj m h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@
##a{} w,v% i'dwbj lg@ aP. b,u dxi sp,Z v{ w[ bj debj ]G m$$
Rpl V[ h,o u'C w[ W[Vag wgag qhjiju sp,Z sg l[rj r,Dc[ wiqJ
Vjv dqvsg ]@ aplk bjf[ hg l[rj vjdHbj a[ hpS i'ws[ dwM
h' m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dw a[ig q>e aJ w'Hg ] Vhk@ aP.
i'; bjRpSj a[ ujSj@ b"tj w.q ] u[ a[ig q>e b,De[ Vhk a[ hpS
q>e v{ m Rpl V[ Vj wpN q>Ddebj ba[ Vj l[rj A,cg m dHw dsV
Rph f+[qg sp,Z v{ w[ bjdHbj a[ WjWj ug } Vqlwji wgag m Rpl
lq[G hg h;Pi V[ l.a Vi{S dl.z ug } hpwq wgaj@ ##Wjdvbj@
dHl sg Lij wij w[ ljc[ w'v hj;i wi' m$$ Rpl hpwq bVplji
hj;i wgaj m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ Rpl s[ dli $a[ h,o i,t w[ WyV
wgaj@ ##v{@ aP. aJ wpN q>esj Vhk lg fi blk siejhg hpwq
bVplji a{} Whpa r,cg rlaP s[ ih[ hJ m du>Vg qi;g bjr[ riag
a[ qp,Dw[eg Vhk m
tja tiya dVWha i] epi lWsp btPB
fPiV FHg lqeig wWhP Vhg aPB mm
\dWvjrvp qhvj 5@ b>e 916|

dHl a'G Rpfi.a rg Rph f+[qg l[rj wisj dihj ba[ W[b>a
lqJ l[rj wisj dihj m
\dHh f+l.e r,cj N.cj dl>z l[qj dVrjlg V[ dvtrjdHbj m|

36

u{lg FPt a{lg wj fPiw


lev zBj wj lpbjqg mm
\b>e 613|

blvg q>eS rjvg rlaP aJ fiq[Li sj Vjq hg ] m h'i


rlaPbJ Vjq s[ WijWi Vhk h' lwsgbJ m Vjq apdv wAp bri
V h'dH mm fi dHl bq'v rlaP v{S rjvj wi'CJ s[ dry'G dHw
hg hp.sj ] m
VjVw epiqpdt Vjqp fjr{ uVp w'dH mm
\b>e 265|

dHl[ ai%J WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug fjl lF q,aJ s[ lF


ai%J sg q>e wiV rjv[ qhjaqj bjH[ m fi ?jvg dwl[ } Vhk
q'dCbj m dwl[ rwa WjWj ug fjl Fp,Dy' HgLi sjl Vjq s[ qhajqj
bjH[ m WjWj ug V[ bjfSg qdibjsj bVplji Vjq@ ;ja@ e'a@
VjVw[@ sjsw[ fp,A w[ WyV wgaj@ ##hpS siLV ] dw w'Hg f+LV
] m$$ aJ l.a HgLi sjl V[ W[Vag wgag@ qhjiju@ q{G FPa drdsbj
s[ WC[ yjvgl[ wga[ m fi w'Hg l`vaj Vhk dqvg m Rpfi.a WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aplk ljc[ wPwiJ } cjvg q>e w[ i'BgbJ
fjRp m dHh yg; dqv ujH[eg m fi Lia dHh ] dw ljc[ w'v
bjRpS a'G fdhvJ u' a[ij epiP l.a lg dHl a'G Wjbs rg a[ij
epiP Rph' hg h'H[ej m u[ a{} w'Hg epiP fp,DA[ aJ Rpl sj Vjq v{Sj@
bljcj Vhk v{Sj m$$ Rpfi.a l.a HgLi sjl V[ lda WyV wi
w[ l[rj wiVg bji.F ds,agm hpwq bVplji s' r[v[ wPwiJ } cjvg
wi w[ i'BgbJ yPi w[ fjRpSgbJ@ dxi ija } hpwq bVplji duo[
37

fdhvJ A'v[ dtvjis[ lV@ Rpo[ uj w[ A'v[ dtvjiV[@ Whpa lqJ


dHl ai%J vejaji l[rj wgag m dHw dsV WjWj ug fjl W[Vag
wgag@ qhjiju@ hpS q{{} dHM bjrj; bjMsg ] dur[G w'Hg sjS[
y,Wsj ] m aJ b,De'G WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##l.a ug@ a[ij wjiu
Lp,Z ]@ hpS aplk dwl[ blojV RpKa[ uj w[ dBw'e[ m$$ Rpfi.a Rph
qhjaqj hpwq bVplji dwa[ uj w[ dBw eH[ m dHh l.a rg bjfS[
lq[G dry WC[ f+dl,Z ljZP h'H[ hV m
\dHh f+l.e v[tw } dfaj ug fjl'G dqdvbj m|

l'dH bdy>aj ujde bdy>aj mm


uhJ whJ f+DFp aP. ria.aj mm
\b>e 1136|

dHw rjig WjWj ug V[ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug } hpwq wgaj@


##Wjdvbj@ a[ij epiP Whjv sjl ] ba[ hpS[ hg Rpl } q,oj B[w
w[ qpC bj ba[ ujSj rg dHo'G fdhvJ Wdn>Dc[ } ] m$$ Rpfi.a
l.a Vi{S dl>z ug y,v fH[ m ila[ dry l'ys[ hV Wdn>Dc[ a'G
h' w[ u,lg f" rjvg ujSj~bjRpSj@ ilaj v.qj ] m dxi qpC w[
WjWj ug sg l[rj dry hj;i rg h'Sj ] m dwa[ ipwSj rg Vhk m
b,De[ dul rwa Wdn>Dc[ uj w[ u,lg f" rjvg } qpCV v,De[ b,De'G
dHw u,lg sj d;qksji dqdvbj@ Rpl V[ fp,DdAbj@ ##Vi{S dl>bJ@
dwZi } y,Ddvbj ]G m$$ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ s,Ddlbj dw q{}
WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj ] dw Whjv sjl sj siLV wi w[ bj m
l' RphVJ s[ hpwq bVplji q{G Wdn>Dc[ a'G h' w[ u,lg fhp.ySj ba[
rjfl rg dHl[ ila[ a'G v.zSj ] m q{} dHh' hpwq ] m fi Rpl
f+[qg V[ dwhj dw l.a Whjv sjl ug wHg dsVJ a'G Wjhi WgwjV[i
38

r,v eH[ h'H[ hV@ b,u RphVJ V[ qpCVj ]@ q{G rg Rp[o hg ujSj
]@ l' aP. q[i[ Vjv Wdn>Dc[ lB[LV RpKa[ hg y,v m Rpfi.a l.a Vi{S
dl>z ug Rpo'G hg lB[LV r,v } y,v fH[ m dul lq[G lB[LV RpKa[
fhp.y[ b,De[ l.a Whjv sjl e,cg a'G RpKai w[ bj ih[ lV m l.a
Vi{S dl>z ug V[ Vqlwji wgag m aawjv hg l.a Whjv sjl
ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##v{ FjHg Vi{S dl>zj@ hpS WjWj ug sj WyV
q>DdVbj debj aP. dHo'G hg qpC uj@ RphVk f{ik hg m$$ l.a Vi{S
dl>z ug df,DA[ qpC fH[ rjfl WjWj ug fjl fhp.y[ m bj Vqlwji
wgag m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dwM Wjdvbj@ dqv
bjdHbj ]G bjfS[ epiP } ($$ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ W[Vag wgag@
ug hJ qhjiju@ dqv bjdHbj hJ m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z
] m$$ dHl blyiu w"aw Vjv WjWj ug V[ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug
s[ lF ai%J s[ l.l[ dqBj ds,Da[ m
\dHh WyV l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ dHo[ l.ea dry lpSjdHbj
lg m|

b>aiujqg lFp dwAp ujV{


Rpl a[ whj AfjdHbj mm
\b>e 381|

l.a Vi{S dl>z ug s[ Vei a'G s' f+[qg dHw rji WjWj ug
s[ siLV wiV bjH[ m dul lq[G RphVJ V[ WjWj ug s[ fjl bj
w[ Vqlwji wgag ba[ W{n eH[ m Rpfi.a RphVJ V[ WjWj ug w'v
bjfSg W[Vag wiV sg bjdebj q>eg aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
dw ##aplk aJ ljc[ Wjv[ w'v'G dfAvj wi; v{S bjH[ h' m$$ dHl
ai%J WyV wi w[ WjWj ug V[ dHw f'Bvg@ dul s[ dry wpN ipfH[
39

W.V%[ lV@ dHw W.s[ r,v lp,B w[ WyV wgaj@ ##v{@ aP. bJ bjfS[
ipfHgH[ drbju lS[ deS v{ m$$ Rpfi.a Rpl V[ deS vH[ u' fPi[
dVwv[@ sPu[ } WyV wgaj@ ##aP> bjtsj lg q{G aJ l.aJ w'v'G v,cP
tjS[ hV@ a[i[ v,cPbJ sj rg W.s'Wla wis[ hJ m$$ ngw hg Rpl[
lq[G dHw q>cg a'G l[n v,cPbJ sj f+Ljs v{ w[ hj;i h' debj
a[ dxi sPli[ ljog r,v dHLjij wi w[ WyV wgaj@ ##v{ aP. rg
bjfS[ l'y[ h'H[ v,cP tj v{ m$$ dHl a'G RphVJ f+[qgbJ } bjdebj
s[ ds,ag@ WyV wgaj@ ##b,De[ a'G dwl[ l.a sg dHM fit Vhk
wigsg m$$

fjf wi[Gs[ fdaa RpZji[ mm


\rji FjHg episjl ug|

dHl Fp,Dy' Vei s[ idhS rjvj dHw dl,t@ dul sj Vjq w[hi
dl>z V.Wisji lg@ ws[~wsjHk WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV rjla[
bjMsj m du>Vg h' lw[@ l[rj rg wisj hp.sj lg m dHw rji dHl
s[ vCw[ s[ drbjh s[ q"w[ RpKa[ u.E Vjv dHw ejRpS rjvg }
v{ ujS rjla[ ljHg wi bjH[ m dul lq[G WjWj ug } faj v,ej@
WjWj ug V[ Rpl[ r[v[ hg V.Wisji w[hi dl>z } l,s w[ WyV
wgaj@ ##V.Wisji@ blk lpdSbj ] aP. qp>Dc[ s[ drbjh dry u.E
s[ Vjv ejRpS rjvg dvujSg ] m$$b,De'G V.Wisji V[ W[Vag wgag@
##ug@ q[i[ r,l sg e,v Vhk@ qp>Dc[ hg lF wpN wi w[ bjH[ hV m$$
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##u[ qp>Dc[ wi bjH[ hV@ aJ urjW s[
s[ m epidl,tJ sgbJ u.EJ dry qpui[ y.e[ Vhk v,es[ m$$ Rpfi.a
V.Wisji zi yvj debj a[ dul rwa u.E yC%V sj dsV
bjdHbj aJ bjfS[ dHwiji RpKa[ qpui[ rjvg rg bj eHg m dHZi

40

WjWj ug w'v rg ?Wi fhp.y eHg m WjWj ug V[ Rpl[ lq[G hg l[rjsji


F[u w[ V.Wisji w[hi dl>z } Wpvj dvbj a[ fp,DdAbj@ ##V.Wisjij@
ejRpS rjvg aJ bj eHg a[ aP. Rpl } q'dCbj Vhk m$$ V.Wisji
V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ q{G qp>DdcbJ } Whpa dwhj lg@ Rph
q[i[ wh[ Vhk v,De[ m Rpl } hBjRpS w'Hg Vhk debj m$$ WjWj ug
V[ WyV wgaj@ ##V.Wisjij@ Rpl } ljHg s[ wga[ f{l[ s[ w[ dfAJh
q'C s[@ bjfJ qpuij Vhk h'S s[Sj m$$ Rpfi.a V.Wisji lda WyV
wi w[ zi yvj debj m dul rwa ejRpS rjvg Vjv wga[ ipfH[
s[ w[ dwhj dw blk qpuij Vhk wirjRpSj aJ ejRpS rjvg V[
dwhj dw v'wk aJ w.q wij w[ rg f{l[ Vhk ds>Ds[ a[ aplk dWVJ
w.q a'G hg f{l[ s[ w[ q'C ih[ h' m b,De'G V.Wisji V[ dwhj dw ljc[
dHw qhJfpit i,W sj iPf hV@ q{G RphVJ s[ WyV bVplji a{}
f{l[ s[ w[ q'C dihj hJ m dHl e,v Vjv ejRpS rjvg sj qV f+[dibj
debj m Vjv s[ s' ljogbJ } wdhS v,eg dw yv' b{l[ qhJfpit
sj siLV wigH[ m w'Hg fPiWvj fp>V ujdebj m Rpl s[ lsw[ siLV
wiV WjWj ug s[ blojV $a[ fhp.y eH[ m be[ fdhi[sji ijhk
bjdebj dqvS $a[ b>si bj eHg m dul lq[G dli Npwj w[ dli
yp,Ddwbj aJ dHw~Bw r[t ihg lg a[ qV sg q{v b,t ijhk fjSg
iPf h' w[ re ihg lg m epVjhJ sj flyjajf h' dihj lg m Rpfi.a
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Vgvj dl>bJ@ b{o'G wiq>cv dry uv
v{ w[ s[rg s[ ho~f{i Zpbj w[ hj;i wi' m$$ hpwq bVplji Vgvj
dl>z V[ h,o~f{i lp,Dy[ wi w[ h;Pi s[ yiVJ $y uj dWnjHg m WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##w.dVbj@ blk b,De[~b,De[ wvqj fC%s[ hJ
aP. ljc[ df,DA[~df,DA[ fC%g ujHk m$$ fC%V Rpfi.a WjWj ug Rpl sg
Li%j wirjRpS v,e fH[ m Li%j wiV lq[G Vjv s[ ljog wpN W'v[ m
WjWj ug V[ L[i rieg FWw qjig@ cis[ h'H[ s'r[G w'ng s[ Yhv[
uj w[ vpw eH[ m Li%j wiV Rpfi.a dxi Rpl ejRpS rjvg s[ dli
41

$a[ h,o i,t w[ WyV wgaj@ ##W.seg wi w[ qVp,t uVq lxv wi' m$$
FHg fijfda qjVpt s[hpigbj mm
e'dW>s dqvS wg dHh a[ig Wigbj mm
\b>e 12|

dHl dqhi s[ lsw[ ^


duRp v'hj fjil Ap] y.sV rjlp dV>q qdhwjHg mm
flP fi[ahp s[r wi fPi[ ldaepi sg rdcbjHg mm
\FjHg episjl ug|

dHh `iqjV lda h' debj m


qpuij wiV rjvg Vjq ufS rjvg WS eHg m dxi rg siLV
wiV bjMsg ihg m us'G dwa[ siLV wiV bjMsg@ dw>Vj~dw>Vj
lqJ WjWj ug s[ b,De[ c.cRpa dry hg fHg idh>sg m wHg rji
aJ WjWj ug V[ hpwq s[ w[ RpnjRpSj m hi lq[G h,o dry qjvj
hg i,tsg@ idh>sg ljs[ dvWjl dry m
\dHh WyV v[tw } dfaj ug fjl'G dqdvbj@ Rpl lq[G l[rj dry lV m|

l'Hg h'dH du wia[ Fjr{ wdh w{


bjfp rNjrSj mm
\b>e 1086|

dHw rji wLqgi rjv[ qhjiju[ V[ dul sj Vjq f+ajf dl>z


lg@ Rpl V[ b?Wji dry ?Wi AfrjHg dw dHl lq[G Fjia riL
dry w'Hg b{lj l.a dwl[ F[t dry Vhk dul sj hpwq q>DVS a[
fp>V sjV I,e bjds wigH[ a[ fp,ai h' ujH[ m fpijS[ lq[G dry diLg
42

fpa=[LB I,e wirj w[ fp,ai s[ ds>Ds[ lV fi.aP hpS w'Hg Vhk u'
w'Hg b{lj h'r[ m us'G dHh ?Wi b?Wji ijhk l+g ijq dl>z ug
qvPw[ rjdvbJ fjl fhp.yg m aJ l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ WjWj ug }
lpSjHg@ WjWj ug V[ Rpfi.a WyV wgaj@ ##l+g ijq@ aplk iju[ w'v
ujRp@ dqv'@ bljcj Vjq v{ w[ s,Dl' dw bu[ dh>splajV epiP VjVw
sg d*fj Vjv b{l[ qhjaqJ a'G ?jvg Vhk h'dHbj m aP. ljc[ w'v
bj w[ dHw ljv ljc[ fjl ih' a[ WyV q>V@ dsV deS vrk@
a{} fp,a s[ w[ a'iJe[ m$$ dHl Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ l+g ijq dl>z
ug } bjf ujS sj hpwq wi ds,aj m qvPw[ f>Ddca l+g ijq dl>z
ug sj dHw dqD,ai ljZP lg u' dw Fp,Dy' hg idh>sj lg@ Rpl V[ dHh
WyV lpdSbj ba[ l+g ijq ug } wdhS v,ej@ ug@ aplk aJ
qhjiju s[ hpwq Vjv V[fjv uj bjH[ h' a[ dHl rji q{} WjWj
ug sj hpwq s[ w[ wLqgi F[u dsRp m ##Rpfi.a f>Ddca l+g ijq
dl>z ug V[ Rpl l[rw sj Vjq v{ w[ W[Vag wgag qhjiju@ u[
hpwq wi' aJ q{G Rpl sj Vjq v{ w[ dHl } F[u dsbJ m$$ Rpl
lq[G WjWj ug V[ w'Hg RpKai Vj ds,aj m l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ dHl
yp,f } bjdebj q>V Rpl l[rjsji } l+gVei F[u ds,aj m Rph
l[rjsji wLqgi fhp.y debj m ijuj f+ajf dl>z } dqvS a'G
fdhvJ iju[ s[ Fij Vjv qpvjwja h' eHg m Rpl l[rjsji V[ ljij
lqjyji lpSj w[ dwhj dw q{G qhjiju } dqv w[ s,lS bjdHbj
hJ dw bu[ Fjia riL qhJfpitJ a'G ?jvg Vhk h'dHbj m dHw
qhJ fpit Fp,Dy' Vei d;vj Wdn.cj f>ujW dry idh>Ds[ hV@ RphVJ
V[ hpwq wgaj ] dw ijuj ljc[ w'v lS[ ijSg bjH[ m dHw ljv
ih[@ fp,ai s[ w[ a'iJe[ m fi.aP iju[ sj FjHg yjhp.sj lg dw iju[
s[ zi b"vjs Vj h'r[@ iju~e,sg q{} dqv[ m iju[ s[ Fij V[ Rpl
l[rjsji } ajC w[ dwhj@ ##l.a ug@ aplk dHl[ r[v[ hg dibjla
dry'G Wjhi h' ujY@ u[ dwa[ aphj} b,u a'G Wjbs dHo[ r[t dvbj
43

aJ ljig Rpqi u[v% dry hg w,BSg fr[eg m$$ iju[ s[ Fij V[


bjfSg lg!bjHg!cg! rg A,cg h'Hg lg m dHl e,v } i'wS vHg
dxi aJ Rpl V[ h'i rg f,wj f+W.Z wi ds,aj m l[rjsji sj w'Hg
IaV Vj y,Ddvbj@ dur[G WjSg sj `piqjV ] ^
wWgi wjiVp Wfpij dwbj wi{ uRp ijqp V wi{ lhjdH mm
duh duh cjvg fep ZiRp l'Hg qpdi qpdi ujdH mm
\b>e 1369|

rjvg e,v h' eHg m dVijl h' w[ rjfl qpC dfbj m


\dHh f+l.e l! WvWgi dl>z ug wjdVbJ rjvg rjdvbJ fjl'G dqdvbj m|

ldaepip dlt wg wi{ f=dafjv mm


l[rw wRp epip lsj sdHbjv mm
\b>e 286|

WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug l.ea dry WyV wdibj wis[


lV dw l[rw } l[rj dry vj w[ Vjq ufj w[ fv~fv Rpl s[
qV b>si Njag qji w[ r[tSj yjhgsj ] dw dwa[ w'Hg t'B aJ
Vhk wi dihj m dur[G dw qJ bjfS[ fpa
, i sg fjvSj wisg ] m
fdhvJ f[B b>si@ dxi uVq s[S a'G Wjbs rg u[ hpwq Vjv l[rw
} dwa[ ligiw a"i $a[ sPi z,v s[hgH[ dxi rg dVejh i,tSg f{Gsg
] m bjfS[ dV,u bV.s } z,B wi w[ rg r[tSj f{Gsj ]@ dHh fiq
bV.s rjvg brloj dwa[ l"tg aJ Vhk v,esg@ fdhvJ aJ Lwag
bqjVa rJeP s[Hgsg ] m dxi dwa[ sjV s[ iPf dr,y wigsg ] m
bqjVa aJ q'C rg vHgsg ] fi sjV s[ w[ Vhk q'Cg uj lwsg m
dHw rjij WjWj bV.s dl>z ug V[ FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg w'v
WyV lpS[ u' dw lpS w[ dvdtbj uj dihj ]@ s,Ddlbj dw WjWj
44

ug wv[iJ rjdvbJ V[ blk dwa[ ila[ a'G sPi u.ev dry W{n[ lg@
s' ljZP dwa[ ljc[ w'v bj eH[@ blj} wdhS v,De[@ aplk b{cg
sPi u.ev dry W{n[ h'@ duo[ ilaj rg dwa[ V[C[ Vhk@ u[ W.seg
wiVg ] aJ ljZ W[vj Vjq ug dHw ue%j ]@ Rpo[ dli` af wiV
rjv[ hg ljZP idh>Ds[ hV m w'Hg w,fCj dihjdHL sj w'Hg d`wi Vhk@
aplk Rpo[ uj w[ ih' a[ bjf rg RpoG' hg bj ih[ lJ m ilaJ Fpv
,
w[ dHZi } bj eH[ m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ dHh lpS w[ ljc[
qV dry rg d?bjv t'C% duhj bj debj dw Rpo[ y,vgH[ m d?bjv
bjdHbj hg lg dw Rpl[ lq[G hg ljcg df,n RpKa[ c.cj r,Ddubj Vjv[
bjrj; bjHg dw dqvSj i,W } a[ lpVSgbJ W[v[ sgbJ e,vJ@ Rpo[
i'Bg sj d`wi Vhk m l+g WjWj ug V[ s,Ddlbj blk bjrj; fAjSg@
dHh aJ FpD, y' rjv[ qhjiju ug sg ] m blk Rpl[ r[v[ hg duo[ W{n[
lg@ F,u api[ m Rph ljZP ljc[ r,v s[ts[ a[ bjrj;J qjis[ ih[ m
blk dHw Vj lpSg m
duRp uVVg lpap udS fjvag ijt{ Vsdi qNjdi mm
b>adi Wjhdi qpdt s[ deijlp dtVp dtVp f'yjdi mm
daRp ldaepip epi dlt ijtaj hdi f+gda dfbjdi mm
\eRpCg W{ijeS qhvj 4@ b>e 168|

dHh WyV WjWj ug wv[iJ rjdvbJ a'G v[tw s[ dfaj ug


V[ lpdSbj m WjWj ug V[ s,Ddlbj dul lq[G blk Fp,Dy' fhp.y[ lF
a'G fdhvJ Fp,Dy' rjdvbJ V[ WyV wgaj@ #lj dwVSgbJ ljZ W[v[
sgbJ e,vJ$ blk yiVJ $a[ c.cRpda wi w[ qj`g q>eg@ qhjiju
Fp,v h' eHg m WyV wis[ lV dHl ai%J ldaepiP l[rwJ sg fjvSj
wis[ lV aJ dwa[ uj w[ fPig f{Gsg lg m
wWgi xv vje[ xvdV fjwdV vje[ bJW mm
ujdH fhPydh tlq wRp uRp Wgdy V tjhg wJW mm
\b>e 1371| \lv'w Fea wWgi w[|
45

iaV ur[hip vjvp hdi Vjqj


epdi wjdT avg dstvjdHbj mm
\b>e 880|

dHw rji WjWj ug sp,Z AwS v,De[ lV@ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug
qdhdSbJ rjv[ hpwq bVplji ?;jV[ dry'G wpN v{S yv[ eH[ lV m
dHw FuV dl>z Vjq sj l[rjsji hpwq bVplji w,fCj v{ w[ N,v
qji w[ sp,Z dry q,tg f{S a'G Rpcj dihj lg m sp,Z Aws[ lq[G h;Pi
V[ dHw sp,Z sj A'Bj WiaV Fi w[ dul lq[G qp,t s[ V[C[ v{ w[
eH[ byjVw Rpl dry dHw q,tg dc,e fHg a[ Rpl lq[G w,fC[
Vjv N,v qji ih[ FuV dl>z sg dVejh f{ eHg a[ Rpl[ lq[G hg
FuV dl>z V[ bjrj; s[ w[ bjdtbj@ ##qhjiju@ ndhi ujRp m$$
h;Pi V[ fp,DdAbj@ ##dwM wg e,v ] ($$ aJ FuV dl.z V[ dwhj@
##ug@ sp,Z dry q,tg dc,eg ] m$$ Rpfi.a Rpl V[ q,tg w,T ds,ag
ba[ h;Pi V[ sp,Z A,w dvbj m h;Pi sp,Z AwS lq[G sp,Z dry
iPh~dwRpCj LiWa l.sv@ WgwjV[ig dqLig bVjiJ sj il ba[
qagi[ sj fjSg bjdsw dqvj w[ ws[~ws[ e.ej uv rg dqvj
v{Gs[ lV m WjWj ug V[ sp,Z AwS Rpfi.a h,o lj` wi w[ hpwq
wgaj@ ##FudVbJ@ aP. h,o f{i Z' w[ hj;i h' m a{} dHw rji drtj
ih[ hJ@ aP. rji~rji r[tS sj hn Vj wik m dHh WyV wi w[
dHh WyV v{ w[ hpwq wgaj m hpwq bVplji FuV dl>z h,o f{i
Z' w[ hj;i h' debj a[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ q{G hj;i hJ m$$
dxi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aP. rjdhepiP~rjdhepiP uf a[ dHo[
W{n uj m$$ lda WyV wdh w[ FuV dl>z W{n debj m h;Pi V[
46

dli $a[ h,o dBwjdHbj aJ FuV dl.z qla duhj h' w[ W{nj dihj m
wpN lq[G Wjbs WjWj ug V[ dli a'G h,o yp,Ddwbj aJ FuV dl>z
V[ bjrj; ds,ag@ ##eigW dVrju dHh wg wgaj m$$ WjWj ug V[
WyV wgaj@ ##FudVbj@ aP. sl a{} faj v,ej dw l.lji dwo[
] a[ q{G dwo[ hJ m$$ FuV dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ q{}
aJ dHGM@ v,ej dur[G q[i[ w'v wi'CJ hg lPiu ba[ y.s yC% eH[
h'S m dxi WyV wgaj@ ##a{} q,tg ds,lg ($$ aJ FuV dl>z V[
dwhj@ ##ug@ Vhk m$$ WjWj ug@ ##FudVbJ@ blk aJ hi r[v[ dHo[
W{n[ hJ@ lj} q,tg sj dwr[G faj v,De[@ b?gi $a[ WyV wgaj@
##aplk awC[ h' w[ l[rj wi' aphj} lF } dHo[ fh>pyjRpSj ljcj
w.q ] m lqJ bjRpS $a[ lF wpN h'H[ej m$$ WjWj ug wv[iJ
rjdvbJ fjl wrg lg@ Vjq Rpl sj qZPlPsV dl>z lg@ fi.aP WjWj
ug wrg ug wdh w[ WpvjMs[ lV m RphVJ s[ dHw rji ds,vg
idhS lq[G wpN l.eg h'i rg lV@ dry sjl dvtjig rg lg@ wrg
ug V[ s,Ddlbj dw q{G fdhvJ WjWj ug fjl wv[ik bjdHbj lg@
dHw lq[G wrg ug } WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##wrg ug ljcg
f,e xCjHk m$$ wrg ug V[ hpwq bVplji@ dul lq[G WjWj ug }
f,e xCjRpS vHg vjhg h'Hg f,e } h,o vjdHbj aJ wrg ug
sg hjva rg RphVJ s[ s,lS bVplji wpN b{lg hg h' eHg lg m
duaV[ rg WjWj bV.s dl>z ug s[ dVwB riag l[rw lV lF
} b{lj uvrj d*fj ds=LBg spbjij drtj w[ hg l.ea dry
i,Ddtbj lg a[ dxi RphVJ sj qV dwr[G c'v ujH[@ b?gi aw
Vhk c'v[ m

47

uh bdWeap Feap ah bjdf mm


uh fli{ fjljip l.a fiajdf mm
\b>e 292|

dHw lq[G WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug bjfS[ ljHk i.e i,Da[
lsj rJeP bjlS RpKa[ dWiju[ h'H[ lV m lqp>si lsj rJe Fdibj
a[ e.Fgi rg ] m dul ai%J lqp>si dry RpAjvJ bjRpS lq[G h'i
rg e.Fgi h' uJsj ]@ byjVw WyV wgaj@ ##w'Hg hj;i ] ($$
ngw Rpl[ lq[G W{ng h'Hg l.ea dry'G FuV dl>z Vjq sj l[rjsji
] u' WjWj ug s[ h;Pi W{nj lg@ V[ W[Vag wgag h;Pi FuV dl>z
hj;i ] m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##h'i w"S~w"S hj;i
] m lF s[ Vjq deS' m$$ Rpfi.a FuV dl>z V[ hpwq bVplji Vjq
v{S[ LpiP wi ds,Da[ m dHw qjHg t[qg u.cJ rjv[ rjvg ci'vg rjvg
WgWg u{ w"i@ sjaji w"i njS[sjiVg Vgvj dl>z@ FjHg wfPi dl>z
ihijlgbj@ q>ev dl.z ap.erjvg dHaV[ hj;i hV m Rpfi.a WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m$$ dxi WyV wgaj dw aplk FeaJ
s[ siLV wiV[ hV dw s[rdabJ s[ m FuV dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag
dw qhjiju lF s[ wij dsRp m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ lF s[
Vhk h' lws[@ a[ig qi;g Vhk y,vSg m Rpfi.a FuV dl>z V[
W[Vag wgag@ qhjiju@ d*fj wi' lF s[ hg wij dsRp ljcg aJ
dHh' W[Vag ] m WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##b,Aj@ fdhvJ qPv q>ai
sj fjn wi'@ dxi FeaJ sg WjSg dry'G LWs uJ lv'w fC%' m$$
hpwq bVplji wiV Wjbs wg r[ts[ hV dw WjWj ug s[ bjlS
s[ bjl[~fjl[ dHw fjl[ dy,Bj a[ vjv i.e sg Nvw rjvj f+wjL
48

hg f+wjL h' debj ] m Rpfi.a WjWj ug s[ l,Du[ fjl[ bSdeSa


hg blyiu iPf rjv[ W{n[ hV m qVq'hSg lpe.Zg x{v ihg ] m
bV[w i.e Whp ai.e liW w' ZVg rjvj V;jij WS debj ] m
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dwM wg dsl dihj ] m$$ aJ u' wpN dsl
dihj lg l[rwJ V[ W[Vag wi ds,ag m WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m$$
Rpfi.a b,t s[ fvwji[ dry lF wpN bv'f h' debj dxi WyV
wgaj@ ##aphjc[ w'v'G fdhvg fRpCg sj ujf dHl vHg wirjdHbj
lg dw hpS lqJ epiP VjVw sj ]@ bjlS dVLjV rg epiP VjVw
hg ]@ FeaJ s[ siLV wijRpS wiw[ FeaJ sg WjSg aphj}
fC%jHg@ s[rdabJ s[ a[ FeaJ s[ siLV h'H[ m
dxi FuV dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag@ dxi qhjiju s[rdabJ sj
f+wjL WCj hp.sj lpdSbj ] aJ WyV wgaj@ ##u[ dHw,Dv[ s[ra[
h'S aJ hp.sj ] m dHo[ ljc[ ljhqS[ VjVw sg d*fj ] m dxi WyV
wgaj s[rdabJ sj vjv dHl wiw[ ]@ Rpo[ qjdHbj hp.sg ] m
epirjw ] ^
qjdHbj b>adi FgV[ s[r
\b>e 1160|

FeaJ dry qjdHbj Vhk hp.sg@ Fea qjdHbj a'G idha


hp.s[ hV m
\dHh f+l.e qjaj~dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m|

49

Fjr{ Zgiw Fjr{ Zw[ H[w rcjHg s[dH mm


\b>e 349|

WjWj ug dwl[ RpKa[ bjf d*fj wis[ m dwl[ RpKa[ dwl[ l[rjsji
s[ ijhk m h;Pi sj hi WyV WCj blyiuaj rjvj hp.sj lg m
dwl[ lq[G dHw qplvqjV `wgi WjWj ug fjl bjMsj ba[ WjWj
ug s[ bjlS a'G sPi wigiJ dry tv' w[ RpKyg~RpKyg bjrj; dry
wpN W'vsj ba[ bjf[ hg W'v w[ yvj uJsj m wpN dsV aJ dwl[
V[ w'Hg dZbjV Vj ds,aj m dHh W'vsj rg Whpaj lj` Vhk lg@
a'avg duhg ;WjV dry hg wpN bjtsj ba[ yvj uJsj m dHw
dsV s' l[rjsji Vei dry bjH[ ba[ RphVJ V[ WjWj ug } W[Vag
wgag@ qhjiju dHh wg W'vsj ] m dHl } hBjHgH[ m h;Pi V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m dHl } hBj w[ cij w[ Fuj dsRp fi qjiVj
Vhk m$$ Rpfi.a FjHg y.sj dl>z bjds l[rjsjiJ V[ cijdHbj ba[
Rph dHhVJ s[ b,De[ F,u apdibj m b,De[ t[aJ dry Rpl lq[G cp.q[
hp.s[ lV@ RphVJ Vjv hg cij w[ Fuj w[ A,c bjH[ m qpC WjWj
ug w'v bj W[Vag wi ds,ag@ qhjiju@ hpwq bVplji Wdn>Dc[ s[
V[C[ A,c bjH[ hJ m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ]@ Rph bjfSj
w.q wi debj@ aplk bjfSj w.q wi dvbj m$$ Rpfi.a dHl dry
wg F[s lg@ Vj dwl[ V[ fp,DdAbj Vj WjWj ug V[ w'Hg WyV wgaj m
\dHh WyV u'de>si dl>z dT,Dv'G fjl'G dqdvbj m|

50

dlZ ljdZw debjVg dZbjVgbj


wRpSp apZpV' a'v{ mm
\b>e 1102|

FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg h'iJ V[ s,Ddlbj dw blk dHw rji


l+g WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug sg l[rj wi ih[ lg m dHw f>Ddca
dulV[ q,Do[ RpKa[ davw vejdHbj h'dHbj@ dHw A'Bg duhg fplaw
Rpl s[ fjl ipqjv dry vf[Bg h'Hg@ WjWj ug fjl bj w[ hdi~hdi
W'v w[ tCj h' debj m h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##f>Ddca ug@ W{n' m$$
dxi WyV wgaj@ ##siLV ] dw f+LV ($$ Rpl V[ dwhj q[i[ f+LV
sj urjW aplk s[r'e[ m dHaVj wpN wdh w[ f>Ddca W{n debj
ba[ h,o rjvg fplaw sj ipqjv t'v%S v,e dfbj dxi bu[ fplaw
Rpl V[ t'v% w[ fC%Vg bji.F Vhk lg wgag dw WjWj ug Rpl lq[G
v[B[ h'H[ lV@ dxi h;Pi RpKn w[ W{n eH[@ bjfS[ q>Du[ s[ yiVJ
rjv[ fjl[ a'G w,fCj yp,Ddwbj@ h[n'G wjQ; w,T w[ Rpl f>Ddca r,v
lp,DB[ a[ WyV wga[@ ##vRp f>Ddca ug@ aplk fC%V sg b"dtbjHg
Vj wi' a[ fdhvJ bjfS[ f+LV sj RpKai fC% vRp m$$ f>Ddca V[
wjQ; xC dvbj@ fC%V a'G fdhvJ dvta s[tS lji hg W'v
dfbj@ dw b{h' duhg dvta aJ q[i[ drdsbj epiP sg hp.sg lg m
Rpl a'G Wjbs q{G dHo[ r[tg ] m WjWj ug V[ h,l w[ WyV wgaj@
##f>Ddca ug@ a[i[ bjRpS a'G wpN dyi fdhvJ a[ij epiP rg dHo[
bj w[ debj ] m$$ ]ijV h' w[ Rpl V[ dwhj@ ##ug@ q[i[ drdsbj
epiP } aJ lrierjl h'H[ } l,ai ljv h' eH[ hV@ dHo[ dwr[G
bj debj ($$ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dHo[ bjfSj sp,t hBjRpS
51

bjdHbj lg m$$ Rpl V[ fp,DdAbj@ ##ug dwhCj sp,t m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj@ bjfS[ l,Du[ h,o sj sp,t m Rpfi.a WyV wgaj@
##Wjdvbj@ bjfS[ yp,v%[ s[ qei wigi RpKa[ dHw vgi W.V%g ]@
dvbj m$$ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug hpwq bVplji dB,Dv[ s[ df,DA[ eH[ a[
dHw q{vg duhg vgi v{ bjH[ m dxi f>Ddca V[ rg r[tg a[ dli
dVrj w[ W'dvbj@ qhjiju@ lda ]@ lda ] m Rpfi.a h;Pi V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##a[ij epiP dHw dwl[ l.a Vjv yiyj wi dihj lg@ a[i[
epiP V[ l,Du[ h,o Vjv l.aJ s[ Z,xj qji ds,aj@ RphVJ V[ WyV
wgaj@ a[ij h,o dx,B ujr[ m Rph qhJ fpit lg@ dHh WyV lda
h' debj m Rpl sj h,o ev debj dHl[ ai%J qi debj m hpS Rph
ij;g h' w[ debj ] m Rpfi.a f>Ddca V[ yiVJ } h,o vjRpS sg
bjdebj q>eg h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Vhk@ aP. uea epiP ]G a{}
hpwq Vhk@ fi aP. wpN q>e v{ m$$ Rpl V[ N'vg b,c w[ dwhj ug
u' s[Sj ] s[ dsRp aJ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m aP. drL} FerjV
sj RpfjLw ]G a[ RphVJ sg RpfjlVj wdibj wi m q>eSj tjSj
yiyj wiVg A,c s[ m$$ Rpfi.a Rpl V[ dli dVrj w[ lda WyV
wgaj a[ yvj debj m
\dHh f+l.e dfaj ug fjl'G dqdvbj m|

l.a wj l.ep rcFjeg fjHgb{ mm


l.a wg l[rj Vjqp dZbjHgb{ mm
\b>e 265|

dHw aJ hp.sg ] lpq,a@ sPug hp.sg ] lhjdHaj m v[tw sg


lqN bVplji s'V' r[tS } b,c~b,c hV fi dry'G dHw e,v ] m
dHw lq[G sj d;wi ] m FjHg iaV dl>z ug ci'vg WjWj ug qhJ
hdiVjq dl>z ug } f,Dt[ sg l[rj wi ih[ lV a[ WjWj ug V[ WyV
52

wgaj dw aphjcj s'hJ ugbJ sj l[rj wiV a'G dWVJ dV,aV[q dw>Vj
wp ] ( aJ b,De'G W[Vag wgag@ qhjiju blk s'r[G ufp ug ljdhW
s[ f{Gag~f{Gag fjn wis[ hJ m b,De'G WyV wgaj@ ##dHh aJ uqJ
hg o'C%[ hV m fPi[ wiV df,DA'G ljij dsV drhv[ wg wis[ h' ($$
wpN s[i yp,f idhS df,DA'G WyV wgaj@ ##awC[ h' w[ y,wg N'dHbj
wi' m$$ Fjr dw dV,aV[q rZjRp m dxi WyV wgaj@ ##aP. hpS f,tj
wi a[ Vjv~Vjv fjn lpSj a[ a[i[ Vjv a[i[ zi'G s[rg rg wi[ m$$
hpwq bVplji dHr[G hg wgaj m dHw fjn fPij wiV df,DA'G hpwq
wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ]@ awC[ h' w[ dVaV[q wi' m$$ dHl a'G Wjbs u' wpN
bVpFr wgaj@ s,Ddlbj ] fi wdhS woV a'G Wjhi epiP rjw
] u' f[t[ dalp WdS bjr{ m dHl a'G Rpfi.a l[rj a[ dlqiV l.eg
ljog WS eH[ m wHg rji dwa[ dVaV[q wiV lq[G w'Hg wqg
bjRpSg aJ Rpl lq[G ljrZjV wi s[Sj aJ deSag i';jVj dVIq
bVplji zBS Vhk s[Sg aJ WjWj ug sg d*fj Vjv l,ai~l,ai
fjn i';jVj ufp ug ljdhW s[ wis[ lV m

31
dHw rji dHo[ l.aJ sj btjCj bj debj m hpwq bVplji
dB,Dv[ s[ df,DA[ fjl[ Rpajij h' debj m RphVJ fjl hjog lV m df,fvJ
s[ h[n hpwq Vjv W.V% ds,Da[ eH[ m df>c dry'G rjig~rjig dVMsj
bjRpSj bji.F h' debj m dxi dHw s' dsV Rpfi.a RphVJ V[
bjdebj q>eg m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj bu[ aJ ljcg qdibjsj
hg Vhk h'Hg m fPig wi w[ a'iJe[ m wHg rji RphVJ V[ bjdebj
q>eg hi rji dHh' hg WyV wis[ ih[ b>a } ujS sg dabjig
wi w[ bjdebj v{S bjRpS sg dabjig dry lV m RphVJ sj
dHw hjog tp,v% w[ byjVw hg dwa[ F,u debj m i"vj lpS w[ WjWj
53

ug V[ l[rjsji F[dubj dw ;ij faj wi' i"vj dwl e,v sj ] m


l[rjsji V[ faj wi w[ W[Vag wgag@ ug RphVJ sj hjog dwa[
tp,v% debj ] faj Vhk v,e dihj dw dwo[ yvj debj ] m h;Pi
V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] dHh l.a rg ujS sg wjhvg dry lV m
hjog dwa[ Vhk debj bjf[ bj ujH[ej m$$ Rpfi.a WC[ dVijL h'H[ m
hpwq bVplji Ljq } hjog rjfl bj debj m vejaji wHg dsV
dHl[ ai%J h'dHbj dxi RphVJ V[ bjdebj q>eSg A,c ds,ag m wpN
lq[G Wjbs bjf hg Ap,Bg s[ ds,ag m dHl ai%J wHg q,aJ s[ ljZP
rji~rji bjH[ m b?gi } bjRpSj A,c ds,aj m

liW wvj FifPip dsl{ ua waj mm


\b>e 965|

dHw lq[G dHw f>Ddca WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV bjdHbj m


WjWj ug V[ bjfSg qdibjsj bVplji dur[G lF s[ Vjq@ e'a@
VjVw[@ sjsw[ fp,As[ lV ba[ dHl f.Ddca } rg fp,AS v,De[ fi.aP
dHh f>Ddca wdhS v,ej dHhVJ sg wg v'C ]@ WjWj ug h,l w[
Rpl s[ dfaj sj Vjq a[ qjaj sj VJ v{ w[ W'v[@ ##s,l s[ hpS
aJ q"wj ] m$$ ?{i fi Rpl V[ VJ dvtjH[ m dHaV[ dyi v.ei f,w
w[ bj debj dxi v.ei sg qdibjsj hpwq bVplji h'S v,e fHg m
\dHh v.ei sg qdibjsj dHlai%J hp.sg dw s'~s' f+Ljs[ duaVg
s[i h;Pi #Lp,Z ]$ WyV Vj wis[@ dHh deSag rji~rji hp.sg
idh>sg m dxi sjv sg wCAg Fi~Fi sjv s[ dry hg fjMs[
idh>Ds[ m Rpfi.a WjWj ug #Lp,Z ]$ sj WyV wis[ dxi v.ei dry
f>ea v,e w[ v.ei riasj m duaV[ f+Ljs[ tjS[ hp.s[ RpaV[ dHw
rji hg dqv uJs[ lV dxi Vhk m uPnj f+Ljsj Vhk A,cSj Vj
dwl[ ujVri } fjRpSj@ FJc[ qJuS a'G fdhvJ Z'S[ dxi lp,w
54

qJu wi w[ hg v.ei dry i,tS[ m dwl[ V[ rg uPnj WiaV Vhk


qJuSj m dHl aiJ wiw[ qdibjsj ljsg a[ drv,tS lg m Rpl
f>Ddca } rg hpwq h'dHbj@ ##ujY v.ei dry bVpfjV wi' m$$
hpwq bVplji f>Ddca ug v.ei dry bjH[ f>ea dry W{n eH[
fi.aP dul rwa f>Ddca ug V[ f+Ljs[ bS~y'fC[ a[ sjv qP>eg
sg Z'ag dWVJ dqiy qljv[ hvsg a'G r[tg qV dry wpN dziSj
h'Hg m l.es[ h'H[ o'C%g sjv a[ dHw xpvwj dvbj m dul rwa
AwSj bji.F wgaj@ bV.s b{lj bjdHbj dw wHg rji q>e s[
sjv f+Ljsj Adwbj m Rpl lq[G f>Ddca ug s[ dyhi[ a'G hg bV.s
Nvw dihj lg m #FPt[ tjra vjup V bjr{$ #FPt[ ljs{ e.Tp$
bliyu lpbjs bjdHbj@ i,u w[ v.ei Adwbj m Rpfi.a h,o lp,Dy[
wi w[ h;Pi s[ yiVJ dry bj q,oj B[dwbj ba[ W[Vag wgag@
qhjiju q{o'G Fp,v h' eHg m hpS q[i[ lF b.e~ljwJ s[ Vjq u'
dvtSj yjh' dvtj vr' m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##f>Ddca ug@
aplk aJ ljsj b>V fjSg r[t w[ h'i l'dybj lg@ dxi q>e w[ lF
wpN Adwbj m$$ f>Ddca V[ W[Vag wgag eigW dVrju@ aphjcgbJ
aplk ujS'@ q{G aJ wpN h'i l'dybj lg fi dHo[ aJ lF wpN h'i
] m #lpSgb{ bri bri dWZ WpNgb{ WwV woV idha mm wpN b{l[
WyV bliyuaj dry f>Ddca V[ bjt[ m Rpfi.a f>Ddca V[ lF
s[ Vjq dvtjH[ dxi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aplk dwl sg
RpfjlVj wis[ h' ($$ RpKai dry f>Ddca ug V[ s,Ddlbj@ ##ug@
FerjV Vidl>z ug sg m$$ dxi fp,DdAbj ws[ siLV rg h'H[ hV m
f>Ddca ug V[ dwhj@ @@ug@ h' eH[ hV m$$ WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj@
##lqjZg dry uJ lpfV[ dry m$$ f>Ddca V[ W[Vag wgag@ ug@ lpfV[
dry m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##b,Aj b,u ija dHo[ ih' m
aphj} f+a,t siLV h' ujSe[ m$$ dxi WyV wgaj@ ##Vidl>z sg
RpfljV Feag blk rg wgag ] u[ f=a,t h' ujS f,pA w[ lj}
55

s,lSj dw ljc[ RpKa[ tpL ] dw Vhk m$$ Rpfi.a f>Ddca ug ija


} c[i[ dry hg ih[ m bev[ dsV WjWj ug V[ f>Ddca ug } l,s
w[ fp,DdAbj@ ##s,Dl' f>Ddca ug@ ija } Vidl>z ug V[ wg WyV
wgaj m$$ Rpfi.a f>Ddca ug WjWj ug s[ yiVJ $a[ Vqlwji wi
w[ W'v[@ ##qhjiju@ q{} bjf ug hpS Vidl>z FerjV s[ iPf dry
dsl ih[ h' m ija rg aplk hg lg@ q{G dwl } s,lJ m$$ h;Pi V[
WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ]@ Lp,Z ]@ Lp,Z ] m$$ Rpfi.a Rpl f>Ddca } qjS
ldawji Vjv drsj wgaj m dHl a'G Rpfi.a rg siLV wiV
bjMsj dihj m
\dHh WyV qjaj~dfaj fjl'G lpdSbj l! WvWgi dl.z ug
wjdVbJ rjvg rjdvbJ fjl'G wpN `iw Vjv lpdSbj m|

w'dH V dwl hg rdl lFVj dHw Zi mm


fjv[ Wjvw rjde s[ w{ bjdf wi mm
\b>e 957|

Fea l.lji dry idh>Ds[ h'H[ rg l.lji a'G bv,e idh>Ds[ hV m


l.ljig W.s[ RphVJ sg bjaqw brloj a'G W[~?Wi hp.s[ h'H[ RphVJ
sg l[rj~l.Fjv Vhk wis[ m fi.aP fiq[Li aJ lji[ l.lji sg l.Fjv
wisj ] m fi.aP Fea uVJ sg s[t~i[t hi lq[G a[ hi oJ wisj
] m a[i[ Fea FeaV wj bjf m epi `piqjV ] ^ VjVw ldaepi
dlt wRp ugb Vjv lqji{ mm dHw rji WjWj ug s[ lq[G v.ei
dabji h' w[ bjdHbj m v.ei sg ljig qdibjsj a'G Rpfi.a v.ei
riaS lq[G h;Pi V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##Wjdvbj@ v.ei dry'G s' f+Ljs[
a[ o'C%g duhg sjv fpbj w[ v{ bj m$$ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug hpwq
bVplji v{ bjH[ m dxi hpwq wgaj dw f'S[ dry vf[B w[ dB,Dv[
56

RpKa[ i,t dsRp m l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ dHl[ ai%J hg wgaj m


vejaji da>V dsV s' r[v[ dHl ai%J hg wis[ ih[ m dHw dsV
FuV dl.z qdhi[ dl,t V[ fp,A dvbj@ ##qhjiju@ dHh wg wis[
h' ($$ aJ hpwq wgaj@ ##ljHk v'wJ a{G ljcg e,v dry'G wg v{Sj@
a{} wg m aP. y,pf ihp m$$ agu[ dsV spfdhi lq[G s' ljZP Fer[
w,fdCbJ rjv[ fdhi[sji } bj w[ wdhS v,De[ dw blk l.aJ s[
siLV wiV[ hV m Rpfi.a fdhi[sji V[ WjWj ug w'v W[Vag wi
ds,ag dw qhjiju s' Fer[ WlaiJ rjv[ ljZP siLV wiVj yjhp.s[
hV m WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj dw RphVJ ljZJ } b>V~fjSg AwjRp@
fi siLV bu[ Vhk s[S[ m dHh RphVJ } rg s,l dsRp m l[rjsji
V[ dHl[ ai%J hg uj hpwq lpSjdHbj m Rpfi.a ljZPbJ V[ v.ei dry'G
f+Ljsj Adwbj m RphVJ V[ dxi siLV wiV sg bjdebj q>eg
aJ hpwq wgaj@ ##bu[ aJ blk aphjc[ Vjv s[ rjla[ i'BgbJ
T'b ih[ hJ@ Rpl s[ bjH[ a'G siLV dsbJe[ m$$ RphVJ ljZPbJ
} Rpl[ lq[G hg hpwq wi ds,aj@ ##Rph s' uS[ s' r[v[ v.ei dry'G
f+Ljsj A,w w[ dB,Dv[ $a'G fi[ df,fv h[n bjijq wdibj wiV@ bu[
ujSj Vhk m$$ s' dsV h'i v.z[@ WjWj ug dB,Dv[ RpKa[ sjv i'Bg
itrjMs[ ih[ m dHl a'G Rpfi.a agli[ dsV dHw rji byjVw
hg WjWj ug bjfS[ bjlS a'G da>V rji RpKn[@ o'C%j dyi tv' w[
W{n uJs[ ih[ m duhC[ l[rjsji Rpl r[v[ hj;i lV@ Rph rg r[ts[
ih[ m RpKnS lq[G qp,t a'G #hi[$ WyV wi w[ W{n ujS m dHw dsV
WyV wgaj@ ##b,u dHw Fea bj dihj ] m Rpl s[ vHg da>V
q[v sj f+Ljs WSjRp m$$ hpwq bVplji f+Ljs dabji h' debj m
wpN lqJ Wgdabj@ dHw h'i fpijS[ xB[ duh[ Fer[ w,fC[ fjHg
dHw qla duhg hjva dry ljZP fdhi[sji ijhk hpwq v{ w[
b>si bjdHbj@ duV%J sg WjWa ljdhW WjSg dry `piqjMs[ hV ^
duV fB b>sdi Wjhdi epsCp a[ Fv[ l.ljdi mm
57

daV V[hp vej iW l[ag s[tV[ rgyjdi mm


\b>e 473|

Rpl s[ bjRpS Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ h,o u'C w[ #hi[$ WyV


wgaj@ Rpl } dfbji ba[ ldawji Vjv dWnj w[ W'v[@ ##w[lij@
dHh Fea Whpa RpKyg wqjHg rjvj ]@ dHl } wg s[HgH[ ($$ aJ
w[li dl>z V[ dwhj@ ##ug@ dHl } b,De[ hg Whpa wpN dqdvbj
] m h'i u' wpN q>esj ]@ s[ dsRp m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##lp,Z ] m$$ dxi Rpl sg b>sivg a[ Wjhivg Li%j wirjHg m dxi
Rpl s[ dli $a[ h,o i,t w[ WyV wgaj@ ##W'v@ ijq~ijq m$$ dHl
ai%J dHw l" dHw rji ijq~ijq whj w[ dxi WyV wgaj@ ##Rph
u' s' ljZP fdhvJ bjH[ h'H[ hV@ RphVJ } hj;i wi' m$$ Rpfi.a
Rph rg hj;i h'H[ m dxi RphVJ } hpwq wgaj@ ##wi' siLV m$$
RphVJ V[ rg Vqlwji wgag aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dw aplk
fdhvJ aJ dHl } Vjv v{ w[ api[ a[ dxi ijh s[ dry hg A,c
api[ m RphVJ V[ WyV wi[ dw ##ug@ blk lr[i[ RpKn w[ dHLVjV
wi w[ FuV wi w[ A[ag api f{Gs[ lg m dHh W{n w[ FuV wisj
RpKnsj hg Vhk lg m blk l'dybj dw dH>Vj v.qj l`i api w[ ws'G
qp,Dw[ej m blk dHl } A,c w[ api bjH[ m$$ WjWj ug V[ s,Ddlbj@
##u[ aplk dHl } A,c api[ a[ i'Bg RpV[ dsV dHl } blk fh.pyjMs[
ih[ m$$ Rpfi.a hpwq wgaj@ ##dHhVJ } ljc[ bjlS a'G Wjhi wi
w[ dWnjRp a[ f+Ljs AwjRp m$$ dul rwa Rph ljZP f>ea dry
W{n w[ f+Ljs AwS v,De[ aJ Rpl[ r[v[ hg RphVJ V[ w'Hg
yqawji r[dtbj ba[ bjfl dry l{Va qjig fi aglij ljZP
qla hg W{nj dihj@ wpN Vhk W'dvbj m f+Ljs AwS Rpfi.a da>DV[
hg RpKn W{n[ ba[ l+g WjWj ug sg h;Pig dry fhp.y[ m WjWj ug
V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##dHhVJ s'hJ s[ bjlS b,De[ rjvg oJ RpKa[@ duhCj
b,u bjdHbj ] dHl sj bjlS w'ng s[ WiJc[ dry wijRp m$$
58

dHl[ ai%J hg wgaj debj a[ bev[ dsV da>VJ ljZPbJ } Wpvj


w[ hpwq wgaj@ ##hpS aplk ujRp@ aphj} bjdebj ] uj lws[
h' m$$ Rpl lq[G duhCj ljZP dHhVJ a'G Wjbs dHw,vj bjdHbj lg@
Rpl V[ WjWj ug } s' rji Vqlwji wgag m h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@
##lj} epfa idhS s[@ u' ] qV dry hg i,t m$$ Rpfi.a hpwq
h'dHbj@ ##ci'vg rjv[ s'r[G ugb hj;i wi' m$$ hj;i h'S $a[ hpwq
wgaj@ ##dHl ljZP } Vqlwji wi' m Vjqs[r rjvg brloj sj
qjvw ] dHh m$$ Rpfi.a FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w"i V[
Vqlwji wgag m
WyV wgaj@ ##lp,Z ] m$$ Rpfi.a dHh da>DV[ ljZP drsj wga[ m
\dHh f+l.e qjaj dfaj a'G v[tw } f+jfa h'dHbj m|

bfV[ l[rw wRp bjdf lhjHg mm


dVa f=dafji{ Wjf u{l[ qjHg mm
\b>e 202|

dHw WpTvjc[[ a'G WjWj ug sj dH,w l[rw lg m h;Pi V[ dHw


rji e.ej a'G uv dvbjRpS rjla[ hpwq wgaj m l[n V[ W[Vag
wgag dw eigW dVrju q{G WpTvjc[ a'G h' w[ dHw V"wi } ljij
w.q lqNj w[ yvj ujrJ aJ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##a[ij w.q blk
bjf[ l.Fjv vrJe[@ aP. A[ag e.ej $a[ fhp.y w[ ljc[ rjla[
e.ej~uv v{ bj m$$ hpwq bVplji l[n aJ e.ej ug } yvj
debj m Rpl a'G Wjbs dwl[ rwa byjVw hg l.a dy>a ijq ug
V[ fjSg sg q>e wgag dw q{} fjSg dfvjY@ q[i[ b>si dHM qjvPq
hp.sj ] dur[G b,e q,y ihg h'r[ m Rpfi.a l.a dy>a ijq ug fjSg
fgS v,e fH[ m FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg zdCbJ ijhk fjSg dfvj
59

ih[ lV m dy>a ijq ug W[b>a fjSg fg ih[ lV@ l,a zC[ fjSg
s[ fg yp,Dw[ lV a[ Vgvj dl>z V[ dwhj dw dHh aJ qhjiju sg
vgv%j ] m RphVJ w'v W[Vag wigH[ m dxi WjWj ug w'v W[Vag
wgag m h;Pi V[ yji~ypx[i[ bjfSg dVejh s"CjHg a[ Rpo[ dHw
A'Bg duhg w"vg fHg lg@ hpwq wgaj@ ##dHl w"vg } qJu w[ q,Bg
dry'G uv Fi w[ dvbjRp m$$ Vgvj dl>z V[ hpwq bVplji dHr[G
hg wgaj m Rpfi.a w"vg $a[ WjWj ug V[ dVejh wi w[ hpwq wgaj
dw dy>a ijq } dfbj dsRp m dxi Vgvj dl>z V[ Rph w"vg rjvj
uv dy>a ijq ug } Awj ds,aj m Rpfi.a l.a dy>a ijq ug V[
uv AwSj W.s wi ds,aj a[ Wjhi } yv[ eH[ m Wjbs dry
WjWj ug V[ qpSLg hids,a dl>z } wje; wvq spbja v{ w[
hj;i h'S sj hpwq wgaj m qpSLg ug hj;i h' eH[@ hpwq wgaj@
##b,u sj dsV@ rji@ aigw@ qhgVj lF wpN dvt vY ba[ lJF
w[ i,tSj@ dwa[ v'C f{ ujH[eg m$$ a[ hpwq wgaj dw dvt[ r[ir[
lq[a dy>a ijq V[ fjSg fgaj a[ wg WyV wh[ m Rpfi.a l[n e.ej
a'G uv v{ w[ bjdHbj a[ zi } a'i ds,aj m Rpl r[v[ w'Hg WyV
Vhk wgaj m dHl a'G Rpfi.a da>V qhgV[ Wjbs l[n siLV wiV
bjdHbj aJ WCj Rpsjl lg m Rpl sg Rpsjlg r[t w[ h;Pi V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##dwM FjHg@ aP. Rpsjl dwM ]G ($$ Rpl V[ zi } b,e
v,eS rjvg ljig whjSg s,l w[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju ug@ u'
h'Sj lg h' debj@ hjvg rg aphjcg d*fj ] m$$ WjWj ug } W[Vag
wgag dw qhjiju@ W;ji dry ljcg spwjV ba[ Rpfi ljcg
dihjdHL lg m Rpl } b,e v,e eHg@ v'wJ V[ WpNjRpS sg WCg
w'dLL wgag@ b,e rg WCg a[; lg m ljc[ fdirji V[ bjf ug
sj dZbjV Zi w[ bisjl wgag@ wpsiag bjwjL dry W,sv h'
eH[@ qkh ri%V v,e dfbj aJ dwa[ uj w[ b,e WpNg m ypWji[ sg
A,a dc,e fHg qlJ fdirji f"Cg ijhk Rpadibj m fdirji aJ
60

ij;g~?pLg ] fi qhjiju qjvg VpwljV h' debj m WjWj ug V[


hpwq s[ w[ Rpl[ r[v[ qpSLg } Wpvj w[ dy>a ijq s[ fjSg fgS
sj dsV@ rji@ qhgVj sl w[ dvta drtj w[ WyV wgaj dw ##a[ij
ljij w.q aJ dy>a ijq V[ wi ds,aj ]@ aP. d`wi Vj wi m$$
\dHh f+l.e qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj ba[ u'de>si dl>z dT,Dv'G V[
rg lpSjdHbj m|

hdi Vjq' q>a= ds=C%jdHsj wB[ hRpq{ i'ep mm


\b>e 957|

qhJ fpit l[rw sg qV' wjqVj bVplji spdVbjrg fsjio


bjf bjfS[ l[rwJ s[ ijhk W?L w[ v'w f+v'w lpZjiV vHg
epiWjSg sj fjn wirj w[ epiP s[ vC vj w[ epiP sj dLL WSjMs[
hV m dHl Fp,Dy' Vei sg qjHg dul sj Vjq VijdHS w"i lg@
qjV h.s f,ag dHl s[ f[dwbj sj zi lg@ sjV dl>z rjv[ dHl
s[ lhpi[ lV m dHl qjHg s[ w'Hg b"vjs Vhk lg m dHh WjWj ug
s[ siLV wisg@ us'G dwa[ f[w[ zi Fp,Dy' bjRpSj@ dHl sj V[q
hg lg m dHw rji qjHg V[ WjWj ug w'v fp,ai sg sja rjla[
W[Vag wgag@ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aplk w[li dl>z w'v bi;
wi' m$$ hpwq bVplji qjHg V[ w[li dl>z w'v'G fp,ai sg q>e wgag m
w[li dl>z V[ WyV wgaj@ ##h' ujH[ej m$$ FjHg w[li dl>z q>Du[
RpKa[ dfbj hg ufp ug ljdhW sj fjn wi dihj lg m wpN lqJ
Rpfi.a qjHg s[ zi fp,ai h' debj m Rpl W,Dy[ sj Vjq siWjij
dl>z i,Ddtbj m dxi qjHg siLV wiV bjHg aJ W,Dy[ siWjij dl>z
} Vjv v{ bjHg m siWjij dl>z r,v a,w w[ WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##dHl vCw[ V[ iju[ s[ zi uVq v{Sj lg@ dHh sjV[ rjv[
sj af,lrg ] fi dHl sg dHo[ v'C lg@ dHh ljij f+ajf ufp
61

ug ljdhW s[ fjn sj ]@ dHl sj dHo[ uVq h' debj m$$ a[ WjWj


ug siWjij dl>z } #Wjvj$ bjt w[ WpvjMs[ lV m dul rwa
siWjij dl>z sg Rpqi b,n~V"G ljv sg h'Hg dxi l.a sv dl>z
rjv[ c[i[ fC%V v,e dfbj m dHw rji siWjij dl>z WjWj ug s[
siLV wiV bjdHbj aJ WjWj ug V[ w'v dWnj w[ ufp ug ljdhW
sj fjn wirjdHbj m fjn wiV lq[G Vjv~Vjv QvagbJ s,l
w[ fjn Lp,Z wirjdHbj m dxi Rpl } fjn wiV sg qdibjsj
s,l w[ i'; fjn wiV sj hpwq wgaj u' hpwq bVplji b,u aw
wi dihj ] m dxi WjWj ug V[ qjHg Vi{S w"i } dHw yjsi ba[
s' ipfH[ s[ w[ WyV wgaj@ zi dry i,tS[@ fsjio sg zjB Vhk
bjH[eg m
\dHh WyV FjHg siWjij dl>z V[ dvtjdHbj@ Vei y.VS t[Cj V[ m|

rcg hP rcj bfji a[ij qiaWj mm i.e


fi.e bV[w V ujfdV wiaWj mm
\b>e 965|

dHw rji siWjij dl>z Vjv dHw f>Ddca@ dHl f>Ddca sj


df>c es'G c'W lg@ a[ Vjq hig d*LV lg@ WjWj ug s[ siLV
wiV bjdHbj m fdhi[sji ijhk siLV wiV sg bjdebj q>eg
aJ WjWj ug V[ Rpl } b>si Wpvj dvbj m f>Ddca V[ Vqlwji
wgag@ Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj@ ##dwr[G bjH[ f>Ddca ug ($$
a[ f>Ddca ug V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ siLV hg wiV[ lV m$$
Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##w'Hg f+LV ] aJ s,Dl' m$$ aJ
f>Ddca ug V[ W[Vag wgag qhjiju w'Hg WyV lpSjRp m Rpfi.a
62

WjWj ug V[ yji lv'w l.ld*a dry Rpyji[ lv'w lpS w[ f>Ddca


V[ W[Vag wgag@ ug dHhVJ s[ bio WC[ ePC%[@ q[ig lqN'G Wjhi
hV m q{G fdhvg rjig lpS[ hV@! Rpl lq[G blqjV dry dHw dV,wg
duhg W,svg h'Hg lg@ byjVw hg Rpl dry'G qkh bji.F h' debj m
f>Ddca W,svJ r,v r[tS v,e dfbj m f>Ddca } w'nCg s[ Wjhi'G
u{wji[ A,cS sg bjrj; bjHg a[ f>Ddca ]ijV h' w[ Wjhi r,v
} r[tS v,e dfbj a[ WjWj ug V[ bjfS[ f,B $a[ h,o qji w[
WyV wgaj@ ##Wjyj W.s$$ Rpl[ r[v[ wSgbJ ba[ u{wjdibJ sg
bjrj; W.s h' eHg m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##f>Ddca ug@ ci'
Vj bu[ aJ dHw hg L[i e,Ddubj ] m$$ dHl Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[
f>Ddca } fp,DdAbj@ ##f>Ddca ug a[i[ Vjv dHw W{Sj WjSgbj lg@
Rph dwo[ ] ($$ aJ f>Ddca V[ dwhj@ ##ug@ dHo[ Wdn>Dc[ Rplsg
vCwg ]@ Rpo[ b,u ih[ej a[ w,v% } dHo[ bjH[ej m dHo[ Rpl sg
Fagug ] m$$ dHhVJ ljigbJ e,vJ $a[ f>Ddca ]ijV h' w[ Vqlwji
wi w[ yvj debj m WjWj ug s[ lq[G wpN ue%j WjWj ug V[ Lij
wirj w[ i,tg h'Hg lg@ Rpo[ op,wS sg qVjhg lg@ u[ w'Hg op,w
s[Gsj aJ s'~s' zC[ fjSg s[ fpbj w[ lj` wirjMs[ lV m Rpl
lq[G c[i[ dry w[li dl>z } hg q>uj dqdvbj h'dHbj lg h'i ljig
l.ea ;qgV $a[ hg l"Gsg lg m
\dHh WyV l! siWjij dl>z V[ dvtrjH[ m|

63

u' aP> widh l'Hg firjSp mm


ljy[ ljdhW a[ij lyp xpiqjSp mm
\=b>e 376|

qhJ fpit dwl[ Vjv w{lj drhji wis[ hV dHh aJ Rph bjf
ug ujSs[ hV m f+>aP l[rwJ s[ qV dry L.wj bj ujr[ a[ lqi,o
fpit Rpl } A[ag hg Vdria wi ds>Ds[ hV m WgWg ljdhW w"i
sjsP q,n rjvg dHw dHl Vjv qjlBiVg WgWg bqi w"i lg@ WjWj
ug dHhVJ } hpwq Vjv sp,Z fgS vHg ds>Ds[ m dHw dsV Vgvj
dl>z s[ qV dry bjHg dw WjWj ug lj} l[rjsjiJ } fp,As[ Vhk
a[ dHhVJ vCwgbJ } sp,Z fgS } ds>Ds[ hV m dHZi WjWj ug
qV sgbJ Wp,NS rjv[ #drS W'dvbj lF dwA ujSsj$ rjvg
lqi,oj i,ts[ lV m bev[ dsV Vgvj dl>z } l,s w[ sp,Z sj
Fdibj WiaV s[ w[ hpwq wgaj@ ##Vgvj dl>bJ@ yp,w sp,Z fg v{@
aP. w,v% bjtsj lg lj} sp,Z ws[ fp,DdAbj Vhk@ dHhVJ WgWgbJ
} sp,Z dfbjMs[ hV fi u[ aP. dHaVj FuV wisj ]G aJ sp,Z
} h,o fjHk m Vgvj dl>z rg dHl iq; } lqN debj@ Rpl V[
N,B hg qj`g q>e vHg m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z
] m$$

64

qjVl wg whp w[aw Wja mm


uq a[ ijt{ s[ wdi hjo mm
\b>e 1149|

l[rwJ sg lsj hg i,Ddtbj wiVg bjds wjv a'G qdibjsj


yvg bjHg ] m w'Hg sp,t u[ l[rjsji } v,Ddebj fiq[Li V[
aawjv hg sPi wi ds,aj m l[rjsji } sp,t v,eSj rg dxi dHl
sp,t sg Vdriag wiVg dHl dry rg w'Hg i,Wg F[s hp.sj ] m dHw
rji FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w"i s'r[G hg v.ei fwjRpS
ujS rjla[ dabjig wi ih[ lV m byjVw hg FjHg iaV dl>z
ci'vg W[h'L h' w[ dc,e fH[@ qP>h dry fjSg fjRpS sg w'dLL wgag
ba[ fjSg rg Vj v.dzbj m dxi Rpl[ lq[G hg WjWj ug } ?Wi
wi ds,ag eHg m Rpfi.a h;Pi V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##Vgvj dl>bJ@ aP.
a[ FuV dl.z b,u s[rg Vjv v.ei fwj w[ dvbjRp ba[ aP.
Wjdvbj@ aP. ba[ wfPi dl>z iaV dl>z ci'vg } yp,w dvbjRp m$$
hpwq bVplji FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg } yp,w w[ WjWj ug sg h;Pig
dvbj w[ fj ds,aj m WjWj ug V[ hpwq wi w[ FjHg wfPi dl>z
} dwhj@ ##wfPi dl>bJ@ aP. ufp ug ljdhW s[ f,yg fjn ljc[ w'v
W{n w[ lpSj m$$ dHl lq[G WjWj ug bjfS[ h,oJ Vjv FjHg iaV
dl>z ci'vg sg Lij wiV v,e fH[@ dli a'G v{ w[ f{iJ aw bjfSg
qdibjsj bjf hg wis[ ih[ m Ljq sj v.ei f,w w[ bj debj@
dul lq[G v.ei f,w w[ h;Pig dry fhp.yjRpS sg W[Vag WjWj ug
w'v wgag@ h;Pi V[ v.ei sg ljig qdibjsj dur[G df,DA[ dvdtbj
]@ wirj w[ v.ei riajRpS rjla[ hpwq wgaj m RpZi v.ei
65

riaS v,e dfbj@ WjWj ug V[ FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg } Wjh


xC w[ dwvwjig qji w[ ;'i Vjv WyV wgaj@ ##ljc[ W{n[ w"S
] u' a{} wpN bjt lw[ m$$ Rpfi.a FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg RpKn
w[ W{n debj m dxi hpwq wi w[ WyV wgaj ##duhC[ fjn Wjwg
idh>Ds[ hV lpS w[ RpKng m$$ Rpfi.a lji[ fjn lpSjH[@ hpwq wgaj@
##uj v.ei dry bVpfjV wi v{ m$$ hpwq bVplji uj w[ f+Ljsj
A,w dvbj m Rpfi.a FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w"i } hj;i
wi w[ awC[ h' dVaV[q wiV sg bjdebj ds,ag m
\dHh f+l.e v[tw } qjaj~dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m|

VjVw epfap riasj dfbjij


epiqdt fieBp h'dH mm
\b>e 605|

WjWj ug qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug qhjiju ligiw a"i $a[ aJ


dHw oJ RpKa[ dWijus[ ih[ fi.aP dry dwo[~dwo[ dwl~dwl sg
lhjdHaj wgag@ dwl~dwl } iPhjVg berjHg wi w[ dVrjdubj
u' f+l.e dqv[ dh,Ddlbj dry bj yp,Dw[ hV@ b,u b,De[ h'i f+l.e
fC%' m epiWjSg dry `piqjV ] ^
aP wdi wdi r[tdh ujSdh l'dH mm
uV VjVw epiqdt fieB h'dH mm
\b>e 12|

dHw rji spfdhi s[ lq[G v.ei dabji h' w[ bjdHbj ba[


WjWj ug b{l[ lqjZg bldoa h'H[ dw dwl[ ai%J rg Vj W'v[ m l.a
Vi{S dl>z ug qdhdSbJ rjv[ b,De[ dul aigw[ Vjv bjrj; s[
w[ WpvjMs[ lV@ RphVJ V[ rg WpvjdHbj fi w'Hg RpKai Vj bjRpS
66

wiw[ Rph rg yp,f wi ih[ ba[ dxi FjHg w[li dl>z } wpN f+[qgbJ
V[ W[Vag wgag dw qhjiju sg lqjZg tpv%rjRp a[ RphVJ V[ rg
w'Hg RpKai Vj ds,aj m bj?i a[ Rpcgw widsbJ lr[i[ sj v.ei
f,w w[ bjdHbj spfdhi s[ TvS sj lqJ h' debj dHaVg s[i
} wpN l.ea Wjhi'G rg siLV wiV } bj eHg a[ fdhi[sji
RphVJ } b>si bjRpS sg bjdebj Vj s[r[ m RphVJ V[ hpwq
WQ{i b,De[ bj w[ siLV wga[@ df,DA[ qpCV@ dsV TvS rjvj
h' debj m l.ea ba[ l[rjsji lF Fp,Dt[ W{n[@ dHaVg s[i } l.a
dy.a ijq ug dB,Dv[ RpKa[ W{n[ lV a[ RpKn w[ tC[ h' eH[ a[ yC%s[
r,v qP>h wi w[ ;'i Vjv bjrj; s[ w[ WyV wgaj@ ##qhjiju@
aplk aJ Wsig VijdHS r,v api[ dxis[ h'@ dHo[ dsV TvS rjvj
h' debj ] a[ l.ea Fp,tg dahjHg W{ng ] m Wjhivg l.ea siLV
wiV bjHg ]@ dqhi wi'@ duV%J V[ siLV wiV[ hV@ RphVJ }
siLV dsRp ba[ v.ei sg qdibjsj wijRp m l.ea f+Ljsj Aw[ m
l+g dy>a ijq ug s[ bjrj; s[S sg s[i hg lg@ Rpfi.a WjWj
ug t>zPij qjdibj a[ WyV wgaj@ ##dy>a ijqj@ u[ aP. r[t dvbj
lg aJ lj} bjrj; s[ w[ yp,f wi uJsj@ blk bj uJs[ m a{}
duo[ blk W{n[ lg@ Rpl oJ sj VJ v{ w[ W'vS sg v'C Vhk lg m
b,De[ a'G aP. lj} r[t lw[Gej fi a[ij W'vSj W.s m$$ Rpfi.a v.ei
sg qdibjsj wijHg a[ l.ea dry v.ei ridabj m bjHg h'Hg
l.ea } siLV s[ w[ a'dibj m
bfV[ ydva bjdf wiS{hji mm
wRpaw wi{ i.e bjfji mm
qV qdh bjdf qV bfpV[ qjdh mm
VjVw wgqda whVp V ujdH mm
\b>e 279|
\dHh f+l.e r,cj N.cj dl>z l[q[ rjdvbJ a[ dxi qjaj~dfaj a'G lpdSbj m|
67

lFp a[i' t[vp apN qdh lqjdh mm


\b>e 1181|

df,DA[ fjnw fC% bjH[ hV dw WjWj ug s[ blojV RpKa[


f>ujh~l,n wp,Da[ lV m Rpl lq[G WjWj ug s[ blojV RpKa[ w'Hg
yji~sgrjig rQ{ij Vhk lg@ dul rwa WjWj ug sj bjlS dB,Dv[
a'G h[nJ bj debj@ ljig ue%j bjq a"i RpKa[ tp,v%g fHg hp.sg lg m
dul l[rw } hpwq hp.sj@ Rph hpwq bVplji dul ue%j sj WjWj
ug hpwq wis[@ Rpo[ NjCP x[iV sg l[rj wi ds>sj m dHw rji
FjHg Vgvj dl>z hpwq bVplji dB,Dv[ RpKa[ NjCP sg l[rj wiV
debj wg r[dtbj dw dB,Dv[ RpKa[ qi[ fLP sj wpi.e dfbj ] m Rpl
V[ wpi.e rg Rpo'G dwr[G Vj dwr[G yp,w~ypwj ds,aj@ V`ia a[ Qp,Dl[
dry lpFjdrw hg qP.Dh'G wp,DdabJ s[ Wji[ dVwv debj m YdH aphj}
Wgqjig f{ ujH[ m aplk wpi.e dHo[ v{ bjH[ m Rpfi.a Ljq s[ lq[G
dul rwa l[rjsji wp,DdabJ } i'Bg fjRpS eH[@ fi.aP l,sS s[
WjruPs rg wp,aj w'Hg Vj bjdHbj@ duo[ fH[ lg fH[ ih[ m Rpfi.a
l[rjsji V[ WjWj ug w'v W[Vag wgag@ qhjiju wp,Da[ Wgqji h'H[
v,es[ hV@ i'Bg } qP>h Vhk vjMs[ ba[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##ljc[ wp,Da[ Vgvj dl>z V[ Wgqji wga[ hV@ Rpl } wh' dur[G WyV
wi w[ Wgqji wga[ hV@ Rpl[ ai%J hg ij;g wi[@ WpvjRp Vgvj dl>z
} m$$ hpwq bVplji Vgvj dl>z } Wpvj w[ fp,DdAbj ba[ Rpl V[
W[Vag wgag@ qhjiju q{G Qp,Dl[ Vjv Vhk lg wpN dwhj q[i[ qP>Dh
dry' aJ lpFjdrw hg dVwdvbj lg aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##FjHg qP>h dry'G WyV wiV v,De[ V[ l'ySj lg m hpS aP. hg dHhVJ
68

} i'Bg fj w[ ij;g wi m$$ Rpfi.a FjHg Vgvj dl>z V[ WjWj ug


sg bjdebj Vjv i'Bg fjHg a[ WyV wgaj m dxi wp,Da[ rg ngw
h' eH[ m
\dHh r,Dc[ N.cj dl>z fjl'G dqdvbj m|

ljHg wji wqjrSg Zpdi A'cg


da>DV{ fjdH mm

\b>e 475|

hi dHw qhjaqj sg siejh dry'G w'Hg l[rj v,esg ]@ Rph


hg dHl } fPig wisj ] fi spVgbjsji W.sj lqN Vhk lwsj m
fi.aP qhJfpit dHl i,Wg F[a } ujSs[ hV m dwl[ rwa Rph dHl
} f+eB rg wi ds>Ds[ hV m dwl[ lq[G l.a debjVg lp.si dl>z
ug dF>ciJrjv[ Vei dry bjH[ m Rpo'G WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z
ug sg li'a ba[ dl`a lpS w[ siLV wiV bjH[ m WjWj ug sg
h;Pig dry hj;i h' w[ epiWjSg sg f>eagbJ fC%gbJ m
qV v'y{ hdi dqvS wRp dwRp silVp fjHgbj mm
q{ vt drCa[ ljdhWj u[ dW>s W'pvjHgbj mm
q{ yji[ wp.cj Fjvgbj apZp u[rc Vj ljHgbj mm
q{ sdlhp qjiep l.ah' dwRp f+DFP dqvjHgbj mm
\b>e 1098|

dHw sPli[ } bsW ldawji Vjv dqv[ m Rpfi.a WjWj ug


V[ RpKai dry f>eagbJ fC%gbJ ^
qVp bidfhp hRpq{ auhp dHap f>Ddo upvjHgbj mm
dVa l[drhp ljdhWp bjfSj ldal.de dqvjHgbj mm
lF[ bjlj fPigbj epi qhdv WpvjHgbj mm
apZp u[rcp h'ip V lpNHg q[i[ dqa+ e'ljHgbj mm
\qjiP rji qhvj 5@ ctS[| \b>e 1098|
69

a[ dxi u' WyV filfi h'H[ RphVJ dry'G wpN dHl f+wji hV ^
##duV%J qhJfpitJ qpev[ rjdvbJ V[ aphj} drdsbj sg sja
W?Lg ]@ aplk RphVJ w'v idh w[ wqjHg wgag ]@ Rph fPiV fpit
lV m RphVJ V[ hg i,Wg hpwq bVplji aphj} drdsbj s[ ?;jV[
W?L w[ dHl fjl[ vjdHbj ] m aplk u' wpN wi ih[ h'@ dHh rg
dHw i,Wg hpwq hg ] m blk u' wpN wi wij ih[ hJ@ dHh rg
i,Wg hpwq ] m spVgbJ } epiP zi Vjv u'C w[ epiqda sj debjV
W?L' m$$ dHl lq[G dfaj ug rg h;Pig dry hj;i lV m RphVJ
V[ hg dvtjig } WyV lpSjdHbj m
\dHh WyV qjaj~dfaj fjl'G lpdSbj m|

ljZ w{ l.de V wahP. Zjr{ mm


ljZ l.de bldoda qVp fjr{ mm
\b>e 271|

l[rw } l[rj W?L w[ dxi qV dry f,wj dlsw Fi'lj s[Sj m


dHh lF wpN lqi,o qhJfpit duaVg wp l[rj v{Sg ba[ duaVg
wp W?dLL wiVg Rpl s[ bVplji bjf hg lF wpN wis[ hV m
bjfSg l[rj bjf wijHg epiqda b.ai ujeg m dHh i,Wg `piqjV
fPij Tpwsj ] m l.a Vi{S dl>z ug qdhdSbJ rjv[ duV%J sg WjWa
df,DA[ d;wi bjdHbj ] m dwr[G WjWj ug V[ bjf d*fj wi w[
bSo,w dlqiV wijdHbj Vjv hg Vjv l[rj rg wijHg m dHw
dsV dHw l[rjsji h;Pi s[ rjla[ sp,Z v{ w[ bjdHbj m Rpfi.a
Rpl V[ sp,Z i,t w[ q,oj B[dwbj ba[ W{n debj m ba[ dHl a'G
Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##Wjdvbj@ ?;jV[ dry'G s' bjV[
v{ w[ bj@ dHl } s[HgH[ m$$ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug ?;jV[ dry eH[ m
70

Rpo[ dHw Fia sj eCrj dfbj lg m Rpl dry uj w[ f{l[ w,TS


} h,o fjdHbj m b,De[ eCrj ?jvg dfbj lg m Rpfi.a l.a Vi{S
dl>z ug Wjhi bjH[@ Rpl rwa WjWj ug fjl wpN l.ea h'i rg
W{ng lg fi l.a Vi{S dl>z ug yp,f wi w[ dHw fjl[ h' w[ tC[
h' eH[ m dHl a'G Wjbs l.a Vi{S dl>z ug } da>V rji WjWj
ug V[ ?;jV[ dry F[dubj ba[ da>V rji hg ?jvg Wjhi bj w[
tC[ h' uJs[ ih[ ba[ y"og rji WjWj ug bjf RpKn w[ b>si eH[
ba[ spbjVg dvbj w[ s[ ds,ag m Rpfi.a dHl a'G wpN lqJ Wjbs
WjWj ug V[ dxi l.a Vi{S dl>z ug } ?;jV[ dry qjdHbj v{S
F[dubj m hpwq bVplji l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ b,De'G dHVwji Vhk
wgaj@ Vj hg lrjv wgaj dw q{G b,De[ da>V rji debj hJ@ Rpo[
qjdHbj dwo' bjHg@ eCrj ?jvg dfbj ] m WyV h'dHbj@ b>si
ujRp m bjf b>si yv[ eH[@ dul rwa l.a Vi{S dl>z ug b>si
eH[ aJ duhCj eCrj b,De[ ?jvg dfbj s[dtbj lg@ Rphg eCrj
qP>h aw Fdibj h'dHbj lg m duaVg qjdHbj v{ bjRpS sj hpwq
lg@ RpaVg dvbj w[ s[ ds,ag m dHl a'G Wjbs l.a Vi{S dl>z
ug sj qV l.Fv debj ba[ dlsw bj debj dur[G WjSg dry
dwhj ] ^
epip fiq[lip H[w' ujSp mm
\b>e 864|

l.aj wRp qda w'Hg dV>shp l.a ijq ] H[w' mm


\b>e 793|
\dHh WyV l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ bjf l.ea } lpSjdHbj m|

71

dulp dlqia h'a lPw[ hi[ mm


dulp dlqia cPWa fjhV ai[ mm
\b>e 183|

Vjq ilgH[ a[ epiP VjVw Vjv bF[s qhJ fpit RphVJ s[


WyV ba[ RphVJ sg dqhi sg dVejh dry dwaVg Wiwa hp.sg
]@ dHh e,v ] aJ wdhS woV a'G Wjhi ] fi u' f+l.e dqv[
hV@ dHw dHo[ siu wi ih[ hJ m dHl Fp,Dy' Vei s[ s' Fij WjWj
ug fjl bjH[@ duV%J s[ Vjq Wta"i dl>z Fp,vi ba[ dV,wj dl>z
Fp,vi lg m dV,wj dl>z Fp,vi sj vCwj dul sj Vjq u'ij dl>z
ug@ dHh ligi wiw[ wpN dT,vj idh>sj lg a[ s'r[G Fij dqv w[
WjWj ug fjl v{ w[ W[Vag wiV bjH[ dw qhjiju W,Dy[ } s[h
bi'eaj W?L' m WjWj ug V[ bisjl wWPv wi vHg@ wpN lq[G
Wjbs W,Dy[ u'ij dl>z sg s[h bi'e h' eHg m Rpfi.a WjWj ug
fjl v{ w[ bjH[ a[ dxi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dHl qp>Dc[ sj
Vjq wg ] m$$ dV,wj dl>z Fp,vi V[ s,Ddlbj ug dHl sj VJ u'ij
dl>z ] m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##F'ij Fi qp>cj ] aplk
dHl sj Vjq u'ij dl>z i,Ddtbj @ dHh aJ ;'i sj hg sWjdHbj
dfbj ] m awCj dwr[G h'r[ m aplk dHl sj VJ qjCj i,Dt' dxi r[t'
dw>Vj awCj hp.sj ] m$$ Rpfi.a b,u aw qjCj dl>z Vjq hg
f+y,va ]@ Rpl Wgqjig sgbJ dVLjVgbJ ligi RpKa[ hV fi.aP
Rph Wgqjig dxi Vhk h'Hg m
\WyV qjCj dl>z Fp,vi fjl'G dqdvbj m|
72

i.w a[ ijRp wia dtV Fgadi f+DFp


q[i' bVjo w' Vjo mm
\b>e 828|

qhJfpit dqhi s[ zi dry bj w[ spVgbJ s[ fsjio W?LS


v,De[ s[i Vhk vjMs[ m dHw rji dHw qijlg dwa[ v.zsj h'dHbj
i'Bg tjS rjla[ c[i[ bj fh.pdybj m dul rwa WjWj ug sg h;Pig
dry f[L h'dHbj ba[ hpwq bVplji fdhvJ v.ei dry'G f+Ljsj
Adwbj@ sPlig rji dxi us'G WjWj ug fjl hj;i h'dHbj aJ
h;Pi V[ d*fj wi w[ Rpl } dHw ypbjVg s[ w[ WyV wgaj dw
dHl } ?;jV[ dry lJF w[ i,tg m ypbjVg v{ w[ qijlg aJ yvj
debj m Rpl dsV a'G qijlg sj w.q~wji b{lj y,Ddvbj dw Rpl
sg ]ijVg sg h,s Vj ihg m lg aJ dHw ypbjVg fi dHl $a[
qhJfpitJ sg dqhi@ Wiwa RphVJ s[ WyV sg hp.sg ] dur[G dw
WjSg dry wWgi ug sj WyV ] ^
wWgi ljig dliuVhji wg ujV{ Vjhg w'dH mm
w{ ujV[ bjfV ZVg w{ sjlp sgrjVg h'dH mm
\b>e 1373| \lv'w wWgi ugRp w[|

qijlg w'v w.q~wji Whpa h' debj m wpN lq[G Rpfi.a Rph
qijlg dxi Fp,Dy' bj debj m WjWj ug s[ siLV wga[@ dxi bjfS[
w.q dwl[ h'i df>c yvj debj m dHl ai%J bjRpSj~ujSj h'i rZ
debj m b?gi Rpl s[ qV dry dfbji f{ debj dw us'G dwa[
bjr[@ s'~s'@ da>V~da>V dsV vejaji ih[ ba[ WjWj ug NjCP x[iV
73

sg l[rj rg Rpl } W?L dsbj wiV m dHl ai%J Rpl sj dfbji


rZ debj m dHw dsV dwa[ WjWj ug V[ qijlg } l,s w[ WyV
wgaj@ ##sjsj@ ljcg ypbjVg q'C s[ m$$ dHaVj WyV lpS w[ qijlg
WjWj ug s[ bjlS s[ b,De[ v.qj f{ debj ba[ i' w[ W[Vag wiV
v,ej@ ##qhjiju@ i,W s[ rjla[ QigW qji Vj wi' m b,De[ ypbjVg
s[ w[ WiwaJ fj w[ q{} dHo'G aw fh.pyjdHbj ]@ hpS rg ail
wi' m aphjc[ w'v w'Hg ypbjVgbJ sj zjBj ] m$$ WjWj ug V[ h,l
w[ fp,DdAbj@ ##dwM WHg@ ljcg ypbjVg Vjv a{} wg `iw dfbj
] ($$ Rpl V[ dwhj@ ##q{} Whpaj aJ faj Vhk@ fi dul dsV sg
q{} ypbjVg dqvg ]@ q[i[ Fij~FjHg@ diLa[sji duhC[ dsV~ija
q{} Wpig dVejh Vjv r[ts[ lV@ Rph lji[ q[i[ Vjv dfbji wiV
v,e fH[ hV m b,De[ q[i[ w'v'G qjCj~q'Bj RpZji v{ w[ qp,wi eH[
lV@ Rph bjfS[ bjf hg q{} s[ eH[ m rdi%bJ sgbJ eHgbJ
h'HgbJ yg;J q{} dqv eHgbJ hV m q{G lqdNbj dw dHh aphjcg
ypbjVg sg Wiwa ] m$$ WjWj ug V[ h,l w[ dxi WyV wgaj@ ##Vhk
WHg@ ypbjVg aJ a{} q'CVg hg fH[eg m$$ dxi aJ qijlg V[ h,o
u'C[ a[ Whpa W[VagbJ wgagbJ m b?gi RpKa[ wdhS v,ej@
##qhjiju@ u[ aplk ypbjVg v{Sg hg ]@ W[L,w v{ vr'@ q[ij w'Hg
;'i Vhk m Rpl ypbjVg sg aphj} wg v'C@ a[ q[ij eigW sj wjiu
lig uJsj ]@ dur[G hpwq wi'@ q{G hj;i hJ m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj ug
V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dwM WHg w[lij@ dwr[G wigH[ m$$ w[li dl>z V[
dwhj@ ##ug@ aplk lqi,o h' m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##lp,Z ] m dHl sg fit hg wiVg lg@ h' eHg ] m$$ x[i qijlg
} w'v l,s w[ WyV wgaj@ ##ljcj dHw w.q wi[Gej m$$ Rpl V[
api.a hJ wi ds,ag ba[ WjWj ug V[ dHw qjvj yp,w w[ u' dw
Rpo[ hg fHg lg@ Rpl } xCj w[ WyV wgaj@ ##v{@ dHh alWg
i'; x[dibj wi m$$ Rpfi.a Rpl } wvqj Ijs wij ds,aj m WjWj
74

ug V[ da>V aigw[ wvqj fC%V s[ Rpl } lqNj w[ WyV wgaj@


##dHhVJ dry'G duhCj a{} l"tj v,De[ wi dvbj wi m$$ dxi WyV
wgaj@ ##a[i[ q;hW sj dHh blPv ]@ aP. wvqj fC%V lq[G q,Dw[
r,v qP>h wi dvbj wi m dwl[ lq[G a[ig W.seg r,Z eHg aJ a{}
bjf[ hg lF wpN faj v,e ujH[ej m$$ dHl a'G df,DA'G rg qijlg
l[rj dry bjMsj ba[ wHg~wHg dsV dHo[ hg ep;jisj dihj m
wWgi duh sdi bjra ujdabhp hBw{ Vjhg w'dH mm
l' sip w{l[ A'cgb{ u' sip b{lj h'dH mm
\lv'w Fea wWgi ug w[@ b>e 1366~67|

uV VjVw ldaepip q[v[


bjf[ hdi bjf[ Neip ypwjr{ mm
\b>e 720|

dHw dsV dHh' qijlg bjdHbj ba[ vejaji f>u~A[ dsV


dHo[ hg dihj m dHw dsV v.ei ria dihj lg@ df,DA[ qijlS rg
bj eHg ba[ bjRpS lji hg Rpl V[ qijlg Vjv vCVj bji.F
wi ds,aj m b{Vj vCg@ RpKyg~RpKyg W'vg@ dwl[ s[ wdhS $a[ rg
y,pf Vj wi[ m v.ei dry i"vj lpS w[ WjWj ug V[ Vgvj dl>z
} hpwq wgaj@ ##Vgvj dl>bJ@ v.ei dry i"vj dwl e,v sj ] m$$
Vgvj dl>z V[ faj wi w[ s,Ddlbj@ ##qhjiju@ qijlg duhCj dHo[
l[rj wisj ]@ Rpl sg zi rjvg bjHg ] a[ Rpl Vjv vC ihg
] m$$ WjWj ug V[ hpwq wi w[ Vgvj dl>z } F[dubj dw aP. uj
w[ qijlg a[ Rpl sg zi rjvg } whp dw s'r[G ljc[ w'v bjY
a[ s,DDl' dwM vCs[ h' m Rpfi.a qijlg a[ Rpl sg zi rjvg s'r[G
75

hj;i h'H[ ba[ WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj@ ##dwM WgWg@ a[ij fag Vjv
wg NeCj ] m$$ Rpl V[ dwhj@ ##qhjiju@ dHh wHg~wHg dsV zi'G
Wjhi hg idh>sj ] m q{} faj ]@ q[i[ w'Hg upbjw Vhk@ dHh
drbjh h'i wijRpS } dxisj ] m$$ dHh lpS w[ WjWj ug Whpa
h,Dl[@ h,ldsbJ h'dHbJ V[ WyV wgaj@ ##u[ a[i[ hg upbjw h'
ujS m$$ Rpl V[ wpN yp,f duhg r,Bg a[ dwhj@ ##ug@ q{} rgh ljv
drbjhg } h' eH[ hV m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##epiP VjVw
s[ zi dry w'Hg zjBj Vhk@ aP. ljvJ sg deSag~dqSag Vj
wi a[ WyV q>V@ u' whJe[ wi vHg@ a[i[ b"vjs h' ujH[eg m$$
ngw dHl[ lq[G ijqfpij q>cg a'G dHw l[n v,cPbJ sj f+Ljs v{
w[ bjdHbj a[ q,oj B[dwbj m f+Ljs sg Li%j wi w[ h;Pi V[ s'
v,cP yp,w w[ qijlS r,v dVhji wi w[ WyV wgaj@ ##v{ sjsg@
N'vg wi m$$ Rpl V[ N'vg wi ds,ag m h;Pi V[ s' v,cP Rpl sg N'vg
dry lp,B w[ WyV wgaj@ ##uj@ s' fp,ai v{ eHg a[ hpS vCjHg
Vj wik m$$ dHl a'G Wjbs qijlg siLV wiV bjMsj dihj@ dul
rwa Rpl s[ fdhvj fp,ai h'S rjvj lg@ qijlg siLV wiV
bjdHbj aJ WjWj ug V[ fp,A dvbj@ ##lpSj sjsj@ a[ij wg hjv
] ($$ Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ q[i[ zi Rpa[ bjf sj Whpa
idhq ] m$$ aJ WyV wgaj@ ##sjsj@ us'G zi fp,ai h'r[ aJ lj}
api.a hg faj s[rk m aP. ljcj l[rw hpS WdSbj ]G@ a[ij fp,ai
ljcj fdhv'G a'G l[rw ] m$$ Rpfi.a dul lq[G qijlg s[ zi W,yj
h'S sj rwa V[C[ bjdHbj aJ Rph hpwq bVplji hj;i h' debj m
WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##Wjdvbj@ ?;jV[ dry'G a[iJ ipfHgH[ deS
w[ sjs[ } dvbj w[ s[h m$$ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ hpwq bVplji
a[ij ipfH[ dvbj w[ h;Pi s[ ljhqS[ i,Dt[ ba[ WjWj ug V[ Rph
ipfH[ yp,w w[ qijlg } s[ w[ WyV wgaj@ ##sjsj@ bjh ipfH[ v{
uj@ sjsg } f>ugig ivj w[ tpbjHk a[ aP. alWg x[iVg Vj Fp,vk m$$
76

lda WyV wdh w[ WyV q>V w[ qijlg drsj h'dHbj m Rpfi.a


l[rj ba[ l.ea qijlg dxi rg wisj dihj m
\v[tw } qjaj~dfaj fjl'G dqv[ m|

l' dfip dfbjij q{ Vsdi V s[t{ hRp


dwRp wdi Zgiup fjrj mm
\b>e 562|

dHw l[rw aJ l[rj wi w[ bjfSgbJ v'CJ fPigbJ wi eH[


ba[ w'Hg l[rjsji l[rj bap,B wi dihj ]@ Rpl s[ qV b>si
wHg ai%J s[ Rpaji~yC%jb bjMs[ m wpsiag e,v ] dHhVJ e,vJ
} r[t w[ l[rjsji sj qV Tdh>sgbJ wvJ dry bj uJsj ] m
Rpl s[ qV sg hjva } lqN w[ Rpl[ r[v[ hg Rpl s[ qV } e,vJ
Vjv Vhk fiyjdHbj m blvgba drtj w[ f,wj wgaj m dHh f+l.e
FjHg Vgvj dl>z s[ Vjv rjfdibj@ dHo[ b>Ddwa wgaj uJsj ] m
WjWj ug s[ c[i[ duaVj fjSg i'; sg ria'G dry bjMsj lg@
Rph ljij fjSg FjHg Vgvj dl>z ug s[ ijhk tPhg dry'G dt,y w[
w,DdTbj uJsj lg m h'i ljig l.ea tPhg RpKa'G fjSg c[i[ v{ bjMsg
lg m WjWj ug s[ lq[G ljij fjSg FjHg Vgvj dl>z ug hg dt,y
w[ w,Ts[ lV m du>Vj lqJ WjWj ug ligi wiw[ l.lji dry ih[@
dHh l[rj Vgvj dl>z ug s[ d;>Dq[ hg ihg m Rpl lq[G l.a Whjv
sjl ug WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV bjMs[ lV m Vjv l.a~q>cvg
hp.sg ba[ WjWj bV.s dl>z ug wv[iJ rjv[ bjMs[@ RphVJ Vjv
ws[ qjN[ sg l.ea ba[ ws[ qjvr[ sg l.ea bjMsg m
FjHg Vgvj dl>z ug lF wpN r[ts[ idh>Ds[ ba[ WjWj ug sgbJ
77

sjaJ sg rdcbjHg lpSs[ idh>Ds[ m r[t~r[t w[@ lpS~lpS w[ Vgvj


dl>z ug s[ qV dry dryji bj debj@ dHhVJ l[rwJ } WjWj
ug V[ dHaVj wpN W?dLbj ]@ dwa[ q[ig rg rjig bjH[eg@ dwa[
q[i[ $a[ rg dqhi sg dVejh h'H[eg m
dhw sP. dhdw yjC[ bdVw dfbji[
dVa wis[ F'e dWvjlj mm
daV%j s[dt qdV yjRp Rpn.sj
hRp wds fjHg epSajlj mm
\u{alig qhvj 5@ A.a@ b>e 704|

RpZi Vgvj dl>z ug s[ qV dry Rpaji~yC%jb bjH[@ dHZi


b>aiujqg WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug lF wpN ujS eH[ a[ Vgvj
dl>z } fp,A dvbj@ ##Vgvj dlbJ@ wg l'ysj ]G m q{} wpN Vhk
dqdvbj@ Whjv sjl v{ debj@ wv[iJ rjv[ v{ eH[ m l+g ijq qvPw[
rjv[ v{ eH[@ h'i W[b>a v{ eH[ m a.P wjhvg Vj wi@ aP. dHw,vj
Vhk@ a[i[ Vjv s[ h'i rg Whpa hV m wpN lqJ ndhi ujRp@ aphj}
lF } sjaJ s[SgbJ hV m u' RphVJ } dqdvbj@ RphVJ } s[
w[ blk ?jvg Vhk h' eH[ m epiP VjVw sg d*fj ]@ du>Vj RphVJ
} ds,aj ] Rpl a'G r,Z bu[ Whpa dfbj ] m epiWjSg dry
`piqjV ] ^
debjVgbj wj ZVp Vjqp ] lhdu widh rjfjip mm
bVdsVp vjhj hdi Vjqp v{dV btpB Fi[ F.cji mm
VjVw a'dB V bjrHg sgH[ s[rShjdi mm
\dligijep qhvj 3@ b>e 68|

epiWjSg bVplji ^
iaV vjv uj wj wAP V q'vp mm

78

Fi[ F.cjip btPB ba'v mm


\b>e 186|

epirjw ]@ aP. awCj h' w[ l[rj wi@ a[ij fjSg sj dHw~dHw


zCj blk dvtg uj ih[ hJ m h'i u' rg dHo[ l[rj wis[ hV@ lF
sj dhljW ljc[ w'v ] m blk aphj} aphjcg wqjHg lS[ drbju
s[S sg dabjig dry hJ m$$ dHh WyV aJ Vgvj dl>z Vjv h'
eH[@ Rpl V[ lpS rg vH[ fi.aP r{ije dry hg dihj m ws[~ws[
b,tJ dry'G w'Hg b,oiP rg dwi uJsj m dHl[ hg dsV Ljq } ihijdl
ljdhW s[ fjn a'G Wjbs WjWj ug V[ hpwq wi w[ lF l[rjsji
Wpvj vH[ m dxi WyV wgaj@ ##dul V[ wpN s[tSj ] ljc[ l,Du[~t,DW[
W{n ujRp m$$ u' l[rjsji Rpl r[v[ hj;i lV@ qjHg t[q w"i a[
Rpl sg vCwg Ljq w"i u.cJ rjv[ a[ FjHg wfPi dl>z ihijlgbj@
FuV dl>z qdhij dl,t@ FjHg Vjui dl>z lPiqj dl,t@ lFijrJ
a'G q>ev dl>z@ ap.erjvg a'G FjHg Vgvj dl>z@ l.a HgLi dl>z
ug i'Cg rjv[@ qpSLg hids,a dl>z fdBbjv[ a'G@ qjHg t[q w"i
sj vCwj wjvj dl>z u.cJ rjv[ a'G@ FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg@
RphVJ s[ zi'G u{ w"i ci'vg a[ wpN h'i f+[qg lV@ duV%J s[ Vjq
q{} Fp,v yp,Dw[ hV m dHl lq[G WjWj ug bjfS[ qp,t a'G
rjdhepiP~rjdhepiP RpyjiV wig eH[ m wpN lqJ WgaS a'G Wjbs
WjWj ug s[ bjlS s[ bjl[~fjl[ f+wjL hg f+wjL h' debj m lF
s[ ligi lp.V h' eH[ m dHl lq[G WjWj ug V[ Vgvj dl>z } bjrj;
s[ w[ WpvjdHbj a[ Rph WCg qpLdwv Vjv RpKn w[ WjWj ug s[
o'C%j duhj V[C[ uj w[ W{n debj m Rpfi.a v.qj f{ debj m Rpl
sj ligi lp.V~qp>V h' debj ba[ bjfS[ bjf } wjWP Vj i,t
ldwbj m lF r[t ih[ lV dw WjWj ug V[ Vgvj dl>z s[ dli $a[
h,o i,t w[ WyV wgaj@ ##Vgvj dl>z@ awCj h'@ Lwag bj ihg
79

]@ l.Fjv m$$ Rpfi.a Vgvj dl>z sgbJ ygwJ dVwv eHgbJ m W?L
vRp@ W?L vRp wisj h'dHbj WjWj ug s[ b,De[ c.cRpa dry
v.qj f{ debj m y'B lhji{ lWs wg ajl epiP q{ sjl mm Rpfi.a
WjWj ug V[ dxi WyV wgaj@ ##Vgvj dl>bJ@ w,v~fil'G sj qV
dry deSagbJ deS dihj lg@ bu W,l dHw rji r[t w[ hg
i'S v,e dfbj m duhCg L{b aP. r[tg ]@ dHh a[i[ dhis[ dry
lqjRpSg ] m aplk du>DV[ l[rjsji dHo[ l[rj wi ih[ h'@ lF }
dHh rlaP s[Sg ]@ w'Hg ?jvg Vhk ih[ej m aphjc[ fp>V fjf lF
epiP VjVw V[ lj} s[ ds,Da[ hV m w'Hg lqJ bjH[ej@ ljo'G lajiJ
ljv Wjbs aphj} w'Hg wpN dHl ai%J Vj drtjH[ej m Vgvj dl>bJ@
wpN q>e v{ m$$ Rpfi.a Vgvj dl>z V[ dHh' wpN q>Ddebj dw q[ig
bjf ug s[ yiVJ dry hg d;>seg Waga h'r[ m WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m$$ df,DA[ f+l.e l+g ijq dl>z ug sj 14 V.Wi f+l.e
fC%' mm
l+g l.a qhJ hdiVjq dl>z hRp fdibj apZ liVjdH m
epS brepS Vj dyajigH[ ijt vhp ev vjdH m
ijt v[hp ev vjdH bjfSj dWis fAjV' m
q{ bujV qa q.s apqig dwbj dlxa WtjV' m
wh[ sjl ldaVjq dl>z q{ dAV dAV FPv wig m
apq fjrV faa fpVga fiq u'a fiq[Lig m

80

u{lj aP. a{lj aphg dwbj Rpfqj sgu{ mm


\b>>e 858|

slq fjaLjh sj ujf ljdhW dry WyV ]_Vqla.


bquW[ mm lji[ ZiqJ dry hp.sj h'dHbj rg lF a'G dVbjij ] m
epiP VjVw fjaLjh dwl[ F[t dry W,N w[ Vhk ih[@ WjSg dry
`piqjV ]_hdi wj dyhV l'Hg hdi uV wj hdi bjf[ uV qdh
bjf itjda mm l+g WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug Fg dwl[ Ziq s[
blPv dry W,N w[ Vhk ih[ m bjfSg lpa.ai idhSg WdhSg ba[
ljsg idha i,tg m blv qwls ugb sjV s[ Feag vjdHdV hdi
dlRp v{dV dqvjH[ mm l.a Whjv sjl ug Rpsjlg l.fisj dry@ l.a
dy>a ijq ug dLrug s[ RpfjLw@ l.a l+g ijq dl>z ug ijqy.si
ug s[ RpfjLw@ WjWj V.s dl>z ug wv[iJ rjv[ epiP VjVw ljdhW
s[ RpfjLw@ duV%J qplvqjV rgiJ sj df,DA[ f+l.e bjdHbj ]@ Rph
h;ia qph.qs ljdhW s[ qpigs@ duo[~duo[ dwl[ sg FjrVj Feag
lg@ l+g WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ lF } Rpo[~Rpo[ i,t w[
hg fif,w wgaj@ bjf dVbji[ hg ih[ m dHl[ ai%J dHw f>Ddca dul
} egaj fjng wdh w[ WpvjMs[ lV@ Rpl s[ df>c s[ Vjq ba[
Rpl s[ Wji[ w'Hg faj Vhk v,e ldwbj m dHh hi[ d*LV hi[ d*LV
sj ujf wisj idh>sj lg m bjfS[ wiq~Ziq dry y.ej f+f,w
lg m dHh dHw rji Ljq } WjWj ug } egaj sj fjn lpSj dihj
lg m dHw fjn fPij wiV Rpfi.a dHl } dHw fjn h'i wiV sj
hpwq h'dHbj m hpwq bVplji dHl V[ sPuj fjn bji.F wi ds,aj m
fjn widsbJ~widsbJ duo[ egaj dry biuV lrjv wisj
81

]@ FerjV d*LV urjW ds>Ds[ hV@ us'G Rph f>Ddca Rpo[ fhp.y
w[ fC%V v,De[ d*LV ug s[ RpKai rjvj lv'w fC%V r[v[ Rpl
} w'Hg r,tig duhg bjrj; lpSjHg ds,ag@ dHw rji bjrj; lpVS
lji hg Rpl V[ b,tJ t'v% w[ r[dtbj m dHh bjrj; WjWj ug r,Dv'G
bj ihg lg m sPli[ lv'w lq[G dxi Rphg bjrj; bjHg m hpS Rpl
} WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug d*LV iPf dry dsl[ m Rph f>Ddca
NB tCj h'dHbj ba[ wdhS v,ej@ ##Rph W.lg rjv[@ aP. dHo[ rg
]G m$$ Rpfi.a Rph V;jij WjWj ug V[ W.s wi dvbj ba[ WyV
wgaj@ ##dwM f>Ddca@ aP. aJ dHaVg e,v r[t w[ hg i"vj fjRpS
v,e dfbj@ bu[ a{} drijB iPf Vhk drtjdHbj m yp,f wi W'vS
sg v'C Vhk@ aP. Feag wig y,v@ w'Hg lqJ bjH[ej dHl } xv
v,De[ej m$$ Rpfi.a Rph egaj fjng WjWj ug s[ yiVJ sj bdab>a
LiZjvP WS debj m
l+g l.a qhJ hdiVjq dl>z a[ig qdhqj qhj qhjV m
Zia wje; WV iju wvq wi aRp V h'dH WtjV m
aRp V h'dH WtjV H[w ugr dwbj ujV{ m
aP wiaj hiaj uea w' fpit iPf FerjV{ m
aP. liW dVi.ai idr idhbj Viw dVrjiV Vihig m
Vqlwji ] Wji Wji Ziq u'a fiq[Lig m
b{l[ lqi,o lV WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug m
idrsjl FS{ u' ujS{ l' ujSp mm
l.a bV.adh b>aip Vjhg mm

82

\b>e |

bfV[ l[rw wRp bjdf lhjHg mm


dVa f=dafji{ Wjf u{l[ qjHg mm
\b>e 202|

dHw rji WjWj ug V[ FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w'i


s'hJ } Wpvj w[ fp,DdAbj@ ##aphjc[ df,DA[ zi w"S ] ($$ ljij wpN
b,De[ rg WjWj ug w'v W[Vag wgag lg@ s,Ddlbj lg@ b>aiujqg
lF wpN ujSs[ rg lV@ fp,A dvbj a[ dxi s,lSj ;iPig lg@ hpwq
bVplji W[Vag wi ds,ag@ dHw q[ig qa[i F{S drZrj ] a[ dHw
q[ig vCwg ]@ b,n~V"G ljv sg Rpqi dry@ Rph Rpl s[ w'v ] m
lpS w[ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aplk s'r[G ugb zi ujY a[ w.dVbj
} Vjv v{ bjY@ b,u hpS[ dabjig wi' m$$ W[Vag wgag qhjiju
v.ei dabji wi w[ dvbjRpS sj rwa ]@ aJ hpwq wgaj@ ##Lp,Z
]@ v.ei dabji wi w[ Awj w[ ujRp m$$ qpSLg } hpwq wgaj@
##qpSLg@ dHhVJ ci'vg rjv[ s'hJ ugbJ V[ zi ujSj ]@ bjRpS
ujS sj dwijdHbj dhljW wi w[ s,Dl' m$$ dul lq[G v.ei dabji
wi w[ Awj w[ hB[ dxi h;Pig dry Wpvj w[ hpwq wgaj@
##dwijdHbj v{ ujRp m$$ dul lq[G dwijdHbj v{S a'G dHVwji wgaj
aJ h,l w[ W'v[@ ##ljcj aphjcj wpN r.dcbj Vhk ]@ ujRp WyV
Vj q'C' m$$ Rpfi.a dwijdHbj v{ w[ bjdebj bVplji zi yv[
eH[ dHw ija idhS sj hpwq lg m bev[ dsV qpCV sg ajwgs
wgag lg m hpwq bVplji qpCV sg dabjig dry lV@ dHaV[ dyi
83

} ci'vg Vei dry'G dHw y.e[ epidl,t fdirji sg vCwg dul


sj Vjq svgf w"i lg@ dHh WgWg l.eiPi rjv[ iju[ s[ r,Dc[
bdhvwji l! hwgwa dl>z ug s[ Vjv drbjhg h'Hg lg@ lhpi[
zi dli` dHw rji hg eHg@ qpC w[ ljig d;>seg dfaj s[ zi
dxi FijrJ w'v hg W.seg wi w[ Waga wgag m Rpl V[ rg zi
bj w[ WjWj ug sj siLV wiV sg dH,Aj ;jhi wgag m dxi Vjv
dabji h' w[ Fp,Dy' } y,v fHg m Rpfi.a FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg@
u{ w"i dHw dHhVJ sg vCwg hiW.l w"i@ y"og WgWg svgf w"i
yji[ hg bev[ dsV y,v w[ Fp,Dy' fhp.y eH[@ lF a'G fdhv[ WgWg
svgf w"i V[ WjWj ug s[ b,De[ bjfSg W[Vag wgag m Rpl sg
W[Vag lpS w[ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##WgWg a[ij wHg uVq a'G
v[tj a[i[ fag Vjv dHr[G hg dvdtbj ydvbj bjMsj ] m ws[
aP. Rpl sj fag a[ ws[ Rph a[ij fag@ aphjcj drbjh h' uJsj
dihj ] fi aplk dHw,Dn[ h' w[ d;>seg ws[ rg Waga Vhk wgag
a[ hpS aP. bjfS[ zi W{n w[ FuV wi a[ij qV LJa ih[ej@
h'i wpN Vhk h' lwsj m$$ dHl a'G Rpfi.a WgWg svgf w"i } ujS
sg bjdebj dqv eHg@ ngw Rpl[ lq[G hpwq wgaj@ ##ci'vg rjv[
s'r[G ugb@ RphVJ } rg bjdebj ] m$$ dxi FjHg iaV dl>z h'iJ
s[ fdirji V[ W[Vag wgag@ qhjiju lj} dwM ujS sj hpwq
wgaj ] blk aJ aphjc[ hpwq bVplji hg zi } eH[ a[ qpC
bjH[ m dHh lpS w[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aphj} dHw,DdvbJ
} bjRpS~ujS sj hpwq lg m aplk dHl vCwg \svgf w"i| }
Vjv v{ w[ bjfSg qi;g dwM wgag m dHw rjig dHl s[ Vjv
zi ujRp ba[ dxi bj ujRp m Lp,Z ] m$$ hpwq bVplji dxi zi
} qpC bjH[ m dHw ija ih[ bev[ dsV dxi l[rj dry hj;i
h' eH[ m
84

dHh ljig hpwq sg t[c ] m fC%V lpSV rjvj aJ wdh s[r[ej


dw dHw rji zi ih[ a[ dxi qpC bjH[ a[ wg `iw ] m
Vhk fjnw uV'@ `iw ]@ hpwdq q>DdVb{ h'r{ firjSp aj tlq{
wj qhvp fjdHlg mm
\dHh lji[ f+l.e v[tw V[ qjaj~dfaj fjl'G lpS[ m RphVJ s[ l[rj
dry hj;i h'S lq[G b,tJ s[ ljhqS[ ria[ m|

f+F wj wgbj uV qgn vejVj mm


u{lj lj a{lj ds=lBjVj mm
\b>e 282|

dHw lq[G dul sg l.ea wi w[ dul sj siLV wi w[ qV


} LJag bjHg h'r[@ dwl[ lq[G w'Hg qV } wvfSj h'r[ aJ duo[
lpt bV.s dwl[ } dqdvbj h'r[@ Rpl[ fjl[ } hg udebjlP bj
w[ bjfSj sp,t Vdria wiV vHg IaV wisj ] m dul ai%J
dHw rjig fjSg fg w[ dfbjl WpNj w[ sPug rji fjSg s[ WiaV
r,v dVejh wigsg ]@ FjHg Vi{S dl>z dltCj duV%J sj f+l.e
dh,lj A[rJ V.Wi sl RpKa[ ]@ FjHg Vi{S dl>z sj Faguj l?a
Wgqji h' debj m b?gi RpKa[ w'Hg yjij Vj y,Ddvbj a[ dxi FjHg
Vi{S dl>z Fp,Dy' } y,v dfbj m RphVJ ldqbJ dry b,u rJeP.
A[ag fhp.yS s[ ljZV Vhk lV m f{svg api w[ Fp,Dy' fhp.dybj m
qV dry ?jdhL Fagu[ sg s[h bi'eaj rjla[ WjWj ug w'v
bisjl wiV sg lg m dul lq[G FjHg Vi{S dl>z Fp,Dy' h;Pi s[
fjl fhp.dybj@ Rpl[ lq[G hg h;Pi V[ WyV wi ds,aj@ ##FjHg dl,tj
dul w.q rjla[ a. bjdHbj ]G@ Rph aJ FjSj ria debj ] m
hpS wpN Vhk h' lwsj m aP. df,DA[ qpC uj m$$ Fjr dw dul sg
85

50
dHl Fp,Dy' Vei dry dHw qpvajVg Vjq sj qplvqjV hp.sj
lg m Rpl s[ Rpfi WjWj ug sg WCg d*fj lg m dHh qpvajVg fp,AJ
bjdsw rg ds>sj lg m Rpl } WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj h'dHbj
lg dw ##blk a{} us'G rg bjrj; s[HgH[ Rpl[ rwa lji[ w.q
A,c w[ ljc[ w'v fhp.yk m$$ Rpl V[ dHl hpwq sg wHg rji fjvSj
wgag m dHw rji t[a } uj dihj lg m b>aiujqg WjWj ug idhqa
s[ zi dry bjH[ m dHl sj w'Hg wLB BjvS vHg bjfSg bjrj;
dHl aw fhp.yjHg a[ qpvajVg bjrj; lpS w[ Rpo'G hg df,DA[ qpC
w[ WjWj ug fjl c[i[ b,fC debj m bj w[ Vqlwji wgag@ WjWj
ug V[ fp,DdAbj@ ##qpvajVg@ aP. dwZi } m$$ aJ dHl V[ W[Vag wgag@
##qhjiju@ q[i[ A'v[ Wgu[@ tC[ f,wS rjv[ hV m l[q[ Vei s[ v'w
fp,B w[ v{ uJs[ hV@ q{G ijtg wiV uj dihj hJ m$$ Rpfi.a h;Pi
V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dHo[ W{n uj m$$ WyV q>V w[ qpvajVg W{n debj@
dlsw sj f,wj lg m s' z>DB[ Wjbs WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##uj@
t[a e[Cj qji bj m$$ RpZi dul lq[G qpvajVg t[a debj aJ f,Dw[
h'H[ A'v[ Whpa lji[ fp,DB[ eH[ lV@ t[a ?jvg dfbj lg m hpS wg
h' lwsj lg@ qpvajVg t[a sj VpwljV r[t w[ NPisj h'dHbj rjfl
qpC w[ dl,Zj WjWj ug fjl fhp.dybj a[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@
q[i[ t[a dry'G f,Dw[ A'dvbJ sj e,cj Fi w[ w'Hg v{ debj ] m$$
lpS w[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##a[i[ t[a sj wpN Vhk dredCbj@
du>DV[ A'v[ fp,DB[ eH[ hV@ RphVJ sj zjBj tdCbJ dry'G fPij wi
dsbJe[ m aP. d`wi Vj wi@ a[i[ A'v[ fp,BS rjv[ da>V W.s[ lV m
aP. Rpo[ uJsj@ a[ig vCjHg h' uJsg@ b,u a[i[ h,Do'G W.sj qiVj
lg@ a[ij lqJ Bv debj ]@ d`wi Vj wi m$$ Rpfi.a qpvajVg
s[ s,lS bVplji A'v[ rg bVpqjV a'G r,Z h'H[ m
\dHh WyV qjCP dl>z Fp,vi fjl'G dqdvbj m|
86

fdaa fjrVp hdi dWisp lsjH[ dHwp


davp Vhg F.V{ zjv[ mm
\b>>e 785|

WjWj ug sg dHh qdibjsj lg dw u' rg w'Hg f+Ljs s[ a"i


a[ w'Hg rlaP rg v{ w[ uJsj@ Rpl s[ f{l[ s[ w[ hg Rpl sg l[rj
qV;Pi wis[ lV m dHw rji dHw l[q[G Vei sj d;qksji WjWj
ug fjl bj w[ W[Vag wiV v,ej@ ##l,Dy[ fjaLjh@ b,u ija q{G
zi'G hv u'C w[ bjdHbj lg@ ija r,cg lg a[ q{G dsV sj o,Ddwbj
h'dHbj h'S wi w[ t[a bj w[ l'dybj@ bu[ ija r,cg ] N,B
zCg l"G ujHgH[ a[ qhjiju q{G l"G debj a[ Wvs q{G hv sg r[v
Vjv W.V% w[ RpKa[ dli i,t w[ l"G debj m q{G b{lj lp,aj dw dsV
yC%[ aw uje Vhk bjHg a[ us'G q{G ujdebj@ s'r[G Wvs faj
Vhk w'Hg y'i v{ debj uJ bjfS[ bjf yv[ eH[ m q{G b,u ljig
dshjCg Fjv[@ dqv[ Vhk m qhjiju@ d*fj wi'@ Rpa'G l"Sg sg rjTg
a[ hjCg sg dWujHg q{G QigW W.sj A'B[~A'B[ Wjv~W,Dy[@ q[ij ep;jij
dwr[G y,Dv[ej m$$ lpS w[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aP. d`wi Vj
wi m fiq[Li lF sg fjvSj wisj ] m a.P dHw WyV q>DV m$$ Rpl
V[ dwhj@ ##ug@ W[L,w sl qVj vr' m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##Vgvj dl>bJ@ dHl sg Li%j wirj s[ m$$ Vjv hg hpwq
wgaj@ ##Li%j wiV lq[G rjdhepiP~rjdhepiP wisj ihk m$$ Lij wiV
Rpfi.a WyV wgaj@ ##hpS W[d`wi h' w[ zi uj@ dur[G dul rwa
b,De[ t[a bj w[ hv u'dCbj lg@ duZi } dli f{i wi w[ lp,aj
lg@ Rpr[G hg uj w[ l"G ujHk@ a[i[ Wvs bj ujSe[ m$$ Rpl V[ rg
87

dlsw i,Ddtbj@ b,Zg ija } zi'G RpKdnbj@ bj w[ t[a dry v.qj


f{ debj m o'C%j dyi h'dHbj aJ ]ijVg Vjv dHZi~RpZi r[tsj
dihj m b?gi Rpl } Vks bj eHg m wpN lq[G Wjbs b,t tp,v%g
aJ hCWCj w[ RpKdnbj@ Rpls[ s'V'G Wvs Rpo[ W.V%[ h'H[ lg m ?pLg
sg h,s Vj ihg m Rpl V[ RpKn w[ hv u'C w[ f{vg rjhg@ u'aj
vjRpS Rpfi.a Ljq } WjWj ug fjl sp,Z v{ w[ bjdHbj aJ WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##us'G blk iP.qg idh>Ds[ hp.s[ lg@ a[i[ dfRp V[
lj} sp,Z AwjdHbj lg a[ Rpl V[ dvbj wpN Vhk lg@ blk a[i[
Wvs dvbj w[ a[ij wi;j vjdhbj ] m hpS blk a[ij wpN Vhk
v{Sj m$$ Rpfi.a Rpl sj sp,Z q'C ds,aj m
\dHh WyV r,Dc[ N.cjdl>z l[qj dVrjlg V[ s,Ddlbj m|

qV wg qda qajevp qaj mm


u' dwAp W'vgb{ lFp ta' taj mm
\b>e 351|

W.sj u' rg w.q wisj ]@ y.ej ujS w[ hg wisj ] fi


Rpl sj xv dq,nj ] dw w"Cj@ lpt iPf ] dw sp,t iPf@ spdVbjrg
W.s[ V[ aJ b{lg Fp,v wiVg hg h'Hg dwMdw Rph aJ b{lj hg wi
lwsj ] m wHg rji dwl[ bdebjVaj sj w.q ljZP rg wi W{ns[
hV dul sj xv sp,t iPf h' w[ v,esj ] m WjSg dry `piqjV ] ^
tlqp drljdi wgH[ il F'e mm
aj adV Rpdn tv'H[ i'e mm
\b>e 1256|
88

b{lj hg dHw ljZP dwl[ qa sj lg@ w'Hg qplvqjVg wvjq


sj yjvgbj wiV v,e dfbj m fPig qdibjsj Vj ujVS wi w[
Rpl s[ ligi } i'e h' debj m dsV[ aJ B,BgbJ v,egbJ idhS
ija } qi debj wdh w[ Rpdnbj wi[ ba[ Rpl s[ hqsisJ V[
Rpl } sptg r[t w[ Whpa IaV wga[ wijH[ fi lji[ drbio hg
eH[ m dxi RphVJ } dwl[ V[ dwhj dw dHl } iP.qg rjv[ l.aJ w'v
Fp,Dy' v{ ujRp m ngw h' ujH[ej aJ dxi f>u l,a l[rjsji dqv
w[ Rpl } e,Dc[ RpKa[ fj w[ v{ bjH[@ dul rwa WjWj ug sg h;Pig
dry hpwq Vjv dvbj w[ fjdHbj@ r[tS lji hg h;Pi V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##YdH ljZj@ l,y s,l a{} dHh w.q wiV sg wg v'C lg@
aP. fiq[Li sg Feag wiVg lg u[ qi rg uJsj aJ a[ig d;>seg
l`v hp.sg a[ hpS ujH[G aJ f+[a WdSbj apdibj dxi[Gej m Vj a[ij
b,Dej Vj df,Aj m$$ Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag@ qhjiju@ dHw rji W?L
vY dxi dHh w.q Vhk wisj m aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj #Lp,Z
] m$ dHl sg Lij wirj w[ q,Bg dry'G b>Ddq=a s[ dsRp m hpwq
bVplji Lij wij w[ b>Ddq+a s[ ds,aj@ bi'e h' debj dxi WyV
wgaj u[ dxi awvg` h'r[ aJ f{Gag qphjiVg fC% vrk ngw h'
ujH[Gej m dwo[ aJ Rpl } q>Du[ RpKa[ fj w[ dvbjH[ m Rpfi.a WjWj
ug s[ WyVJ a[ siLVJ s[ lsw[ bi'e h' w[ debj m dHl a'G
Wjbs wg h'dHbj bev[ f+l.e dry fC%' m

89

u' l{ajdV r.EjdHbj l[ dwa x[idh dya mm


\b>e 1378|

dul rwa W.sj Wgqji h'r[@ bjfS[ bjf } vj~dHvju


lqNsj h'r[ aJ qV s[ d?bjv h'i hp.s[ hV m fi.aP a.sipla W.sj
h'i ai%J s[ qV Vjv l'ysj ] m dur[G WjSg dry ldaepiP V[
`piqjdHbj ] ^
qV tpBhi a[ij Vhg dWljl aP. qhj Rpsqjsj mm
\b>e 815|

wpN b{lg hg dHl l.a Vjv h'Hg@ dul rwa a.sipla h' w[
bjfS[ dBwjS[ RpKa[ fhp.dybj qV dxi b,De[ rjvg hjva dry
bj debj@ dryji h'i h' eH[ wpN dsVJ Wjbs Rphg yvglj
duhCj b,De[ wisj lg@ LpiP wi ds,aj@ Rphg awvg` dxi h' eHg m
wHg rji f{Gag qphjiVg fC%g fi bjijq Vj bjdHbj@ dul rwa
blv'G hg dVTjv h' debj a[ dxi RphVJ W.dsbJ Vjv dqv w[
iP.qg rjv[ c[i[ Fp,Dy' fhp.dybj m h;Pi V[ r[tS lji hg WyV wgaj@
##dwM YH[ WPpodVbj@ aP. Vj hdBbj bjfSgbJ wiaPaJ a'G m$$
fi.aP Rph wpN Vhk W'dvbj m WjWj ug V[ dxi WyV wgaj@ ##ljc[
hpwq dWVJ fC v{ f{Gag qphjiVg m$$ wpN bjijq wgaj Rpl V[ blk
aJ a{} WyjdHbj dw aP. dl,DZ[ ijh bj ujr[Gej@ Feag wi[Gej
a[ig lhjdHaj wiJe[ fi aP. qpCsj Vhk m hpS y,v beJh } a[ij
dHo[ w'Hg dHvju Vhk m$$ hpwq h'dHbj@ v{ ujRp[ dHl } dHl sj
w'Hg dHvju Vhk m Rpfi.a Rpl s[ Rph lhjdHw rjfl q'C w[ v{
eH[ dxi faj Vhk Rpl Vjv wg rjfig m
90

uV FeaV w'G wh' V qjV'G wgY bfV' fHg ] m


\b>e 524|

h'i
spt lpt wia qhj F=dq WPc' bdVw u'dV F=qHg ] m
wha wWgi ijq Vjq dWVp qP>c ZpV[ fApaHg ] mm

t'B[ ti[ apZp bjdf RpfjH[ mm


\b>e 119|

qhJ fpiLJ sg vgv%j hg wpN b{lg hp.sg ]@ RphVJ sg l.ea


dry y.e[ a'G y.e[ RpKaq udebjlP rg hp.s[ hV@ Vjv wpN W.s[
w'NgbJ hiwaJ rjv[ rg hp.s[ hV m y.debJ sg fit hg qjdCbJ
dry'G hp.sg ] m sl[ fjdaLjhgbJ s[ dHdahjl dry b{l[~b{l[ wHg
f+l.e dqvs[ hV m WjWj ug wv[iJ rjdvbJ sg l.ea dry rg
wHg l.eg l[rw b{l[ lV m dHl ai%J dHo[ Fp,Dy' rg dHw qjHg dul
sj Vjq sjaji w"i @ dHl sj fag ojS[sjig dry'G qpb,av h'dHbj
fi.aP dHl sj lpFjb Whpa l?a ba[ bCg rjvj lg m dul rwa
dHl qjHg s[ fdirji } l[rj dqvg dHl s[ da>V f+LV lV m
dHw q[ij fag V"wig RpKa[ v,e ujH[ m
sPlij q[i[ zi fp,ai h' ujH[ m
aglij q[ig vCwg s[ zi b"vjs h' ujH[ m
WjWj ug V[ duhCgbJ LiaJ l[rj s[S r[v[ hi dHw Vjv
wis[ lV m dHhVJ Vjv rg wgagbJ m
1!

dHw aJ aplk dwl[ l[rjsji Vjv Hgitj Vhk wiVg m


91

2!

dwl[ sg dl`jiL uJ ypevg Vhk wiVg m

3!

blk dwl[ } i,tgH[ dwl[ } a'igH[ aplk s?v Vhk s[Sj m


Rplada dV>sj s'RP dWWidua auhp qjVp bdFqjVj mm
\b>e 1123| \ijep w[sjij Fea wWgi ug|

qjV bdFqjV q.DZ[ l' l[rwp Vjhg mm


\b>e 51|

fi.aP dHl qjHg sjaji w"i sj lpFjb hg b{lj lg@ lisjiJ


rjvj i'hW~sjW hi lq[G hi e,v dry i,tSj@ hi dHw l[rjsi
Vjv w'Hg Vj w'Hg NeCj wi v{Sj@ ?jl wi w[ FjHg Vgvj dl>z
Vjv m dHw rji Vgvj dl>z Vjv dHl qjHg sj NeCj h' debj m
api.a hg WjWj ug V[ i'dwbj a[ WyV wgaj@ sjaji w'i[@ a[i[
wga[ h'H[ WyV aP. Ijs wi m l[rwJ Vjv NeCj Vj wi m fi.aP
Rpl qjHg V[ WjWj ug s[ WyV r,v w'Hg dZbjV Vj ds,aj m dHo[
l[rwJ dry l[rj wiV sj yjb WjWj ug V[ d*fj ds=LBg wi
w[ b{lj Fdibj lg@ l[rjsji } h;Pi V[ dul sj rg Vjq v{ w[
bjrj; s[Sg@ dwl[ bV't[ yjb Vjv l[rjsji F,u w[ WjWj ug
fjl fhp.ysj m dHl e,v } sjaji w"i y.ej Vhk lg lqNsg dwM
dw Rph r[tsg lg ligi sg Wjhivg d*bj ba[ WjWj ug fCs[
lV l[rw sj qV@ lF l[rjsjiJ } hpwq hp.sj@ duhCg aphj}
l[rj ds,ag ]@ Rpl l[rj a'G Wjbs drhv[ Vhk W{nSj@ dVaV[q
wi'@ u[ w'Hg Vhk fdC%bj fdhvg fRpCg uJ rjdhepiP LWs sj
ujf wi[ m dHl hpwq bVplji lji[ l[rjsji hg l[rj dlqiV dry
v,De[ idh>Ds[ lV m deSag dry aJ l[rw o'C%[ lV fi.aP dVaV[q
s[ dvhj; Vjv Whpa uS[ h' dV,WCs[ lV m l.a w[li dl>z ug
c[T l" fjn ufp ug ljdhW s[ i'; wis[ lV m l.a Vi{S dl>z
ug h;Pig l[rw WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji dHw l" dHw fjn ufp
92

ug ljdhW sj wis[ lV ba[ hi r[v[ WjWj ug sg h;Pig dry


bjlS rjvg w'nCg s[ sirj;[ ws[ l,Du[ fjl[@ ws[ t,DW[ fjl[ qP>h
RpKa[ w,fCj W.V% w[ tC[ hg idh>Ds[ lV m us'G dwa[ hpwq bVplji
WjWj ug } f,tj wiV v,e f{Gs[@ dur[G WjSg dry ljdhW V[
`iqjdHbj ]@ #v{ ftj df+b NvRp fjdH mm$ borj fjSg ftj fgl
sjl w{ aW h'dH dVhjv mm b{l[ b{l[ epiqpt WjWj ug s[ yiVJ
dry idh>Ds[ lV m dur[G df,DA[ FjHg Vgvj dl>z ug sj f+l.e
bjdHbj ] s[t' f+l.e V.Wi f>ajvg m Rpl dsV a'G FjHg Vgvj dl.z
rg qla duhj h' w[ wpN W'vsj idh>sj lg fi lqN Vhk lg
bjMsg m WjWj ug V[ dqhi wi w[ qV dwa[ u'C ds,aj lg m WjWj
ug sj siLV hg b{lj lg@ WjSg dry `piqjV ] ^
F[Ba l.de fjiW=hq dyda bjdHbj mm
l.eda wiV l.a'tp qdV fjdHbj mm
\b>e 889|

dHh `piqjV WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug s[ siLV RpKa[


Tpwsj ] m qjHg sjaji w"i wpN Vgvj dl>z ug Vjv dya'G tji
tJsg lg m dHw rji dwa[ FjHg Vgvj dl>z ug s[ Vjv dHh Whpa
vCg dxi WjWj ug V[ lqNjdHbj@ s[rg l[rjsjiJ Vjv NedCbj
Vj wi m dHl qjaj V[ w'Hg firjh Vj wgag m dHw rji dwa[
FjHg Vgvj dl>z } bjt ds,aj@ q[ij dHw w.q aJ h' debj@ Rpl
V[ fp,DdAbj dwhCj m sjaji w"i W'vg q[i[ f[B dry W,yj ]@ aP.
wg wi vr[Gej ( b,De'G FjHg Vgvj dl>z V[ ldhu lpFjb WyV
wgaj@ u[ a[i[ f[B dry W,yj ] aJ d`wi Vj wi@ u.qsj Vhk
f[B dry hg ih[ej m Rpfi.a Rpl V[ dHh' hg dLwjdHa WjWj ug
w'v wi ds,ag m h;Pi V[ Vgvj dl>z } l,s w[ fp,DdAbj@ Rpl V[
rg Rphg e,v sphij ds,ag m lpS w[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##sjaji w'i[@ aP. dHhVJ l[rwJ } A[dCbj Vj wi m dHh F'v[~Fjv[
93

hV m hpS aJ u' WyV Vgvj dl>z V[ wgaj ]@ Rphg h'H[ej m u[


W?LjRpSj ] aJ dHl s[ f{ik h,o vj s[ m sjaji w"i V[ dHh WyV
Vj q>DdVbj m
qV duRp bfpV[ f+F FjrRp mm
Vgyhp Vgyp Vgyp bda VjVj h'dH eigWp WpvjrRp mm
\b>e 529|

dHl qjHg b>si Vj dVqiaj bjHg ba[ Vj dHl sj w'Hg


wjiu l`v h'dHbj m

FPv[ wRp epdi qjide fjdHbj mm


bri dabjde hdi Feag vjdHbj mm
\b>e 864|

agio Ijaij wiVg qV li wiq sp,t Fp,t a[h ligi RpKa[


N,vSg m uJ fp>V sjV I,e bjdsw wiq wiV[ dHh wiq y.e[
hV fi.aP r,cj wiq ] dwl[ fiqjio s[ ila[ a'G Fp,Dv[~FBw[ h'H[
} dxi fiq[Li Vjv u'CVj m dHh w.q siejhg qhJ fpit hg wi
lws[ hV ba[ wgaj rg ] m l+g WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug V[
bjfS[ lq[G dry W[b>a ljZPbJ } fiq[Li s[ ila[ RpKa[
a'dibj@duV%J dry WjWj ug wv[iJ rjv[ Whpa f+dl,Z h'H[ ba[ h'i
W[b>a qhJfpiL epfa h'H[ duV%J s[ Vjq ba[ dBwjS[ sj faj
Vhk v,e ldwbj m fi.aP qjaj~dfaj s[ idhS lq[G wHg ljZP bjH[@
ljZVj wiw[ N'vgbJ Fi w[ fiqjio s[ fsjio v{ eH[ m dHw
rji da>V ljZP WjWj ug s[ h;Pi bjH[@ dul rwa WjWj ug s[
94

RphVJ V[ siLV wga[ a[ dHw ljZP W'v Rpdnbj@ qhjiju bjf


a' ueVVjo s[ q>si q[G eH[ o[@ Rpl ue%j fi q{V[ bjf wj H[w
Wji siLV wgbj ] m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ Rpl } bjfS[ fjl
Wpvj w[ WyV wgaj@ ##aP. dHhVJ e,vJ a'G wg v{Sj ]@ aP. bjfS[
qavW sg e,v wi m$$ dxi Rpl V[ s,Ddlbj@ ##ug@ q{G dli` uv
RpKa[ ligi i,Ddtbj yjvg~yjvg dsV@ ljZVj wnV a'G wnV wgag
ligi aJ wq;'i h' debj@ qV sg Ljag Vhk dqvg m$$ lpSV a'G
Wjbs h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aP. bjfSj qV dwl[ } s[ s[@ a{}
LJag dqv ujH[eg m$$ Rpl V[ fp,DdAbj dw qhjiju@ ##dwr[G ds,aj
ujH[@ q{} lqNjRp m$$ aJ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj dw blk u' wpN
whJe[ lF la wiw[ q>VSj h'H[ej m epiq>ai sj ujf wiVj ba[
hpwq dry idhSj u[ qV } LJag Vj bjr[ aJ ljcj d;>qj m
Rpfi.a Rph ljZP q>V debj aJ WjWj ug V[ Rpl a'G dHw l" dHw
rjig q{G a[ij~q{G a[ij sj WyV dvbj dxi Rpl } hpwq h'dHbj@
##u' q>ai a[i[ epiP V[ a{} s,Ddlbj@ Rph lpSj m dxi Rpl V[ Rph
rg lpSjdHbj a[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m$$ dHl[ hg q>ai
sj ujf wiVj h'H[ej@ aP. dli` b,nJ fdhiJ dry F'uV wiVj
h'H[ej@ dli` dHw rjig@ dwl[ Vjv e,v Vhk wiVg@ yp,f idhSj m
Rpl V[ lda WyV wgaj@ Rpfi.a hpwq Vjv Rpl sg Lij wirjHg
eHg ba[ WjWj ug s[ bjlS a'G dAfs[ fjl[ wpN l.zS[ duh[ dW+A
ba[ NjCgbJ@ Rpo[ Rpl sj bjlS s' W'igbJ s[ w[ wirj ds,aj
debj m dxi FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg } hpwq h'dHbj dw dHl sg
l[rj f+Ljs[ fjSg sg aP. wiVg ] m l.a dy>a ijq sg l[rj ba[
v.ei sg l[rj b,De[ hg wis[ lV m hpwq bVplji dHh l[rj rg
l..Fjv vHg m awigWV qhgVj~c[T qhgVj WgaS a'G Wjbs Rpl
qhjaqj } bjfS[ h;pi Wpvj w[ hpwq wgaj@ ##bu[ w.q w,yj
] dHl[ ai%J h'i dlqiV ljZVj wi' m$$ a[ dxi c[T qhgVj h'i
dlqiV ljZVj wiV a'G Wjbs bjfSg h;Pig dry Wpvj w[ WyV
95

wgaj dw hpS ngw ][@ f,w debj ]@ ujRp dHw ue%j RpKa[ W{n'
dBw w[ oJ~oJ dxiV sg v'C Vhk m dHl a'G Rpfi.a Rpl qhjaqj
} bjdebj s[ w[ a'i ds,aj m dHl ai%J WjWj ug V[ Fp,Dv[ FBw[
} dl,DZ[ ila[ RpKa[ a'dibj@ dlqiV dry vj w[ ljigbJ ljZVJ
l`v wij ds,agbJ m ugb sjVp s[dh Feag vjdHV hdi dlRp v{dV
dqvjH[ mm

hjo s[dH ijt{ bfV[ wRp


ljdl ljdl f+dafjv[ mm
\b>e 682|

dHhVk dsVk epispbjij lpZji vdhi h"vg~h"vg ;'i fwC


ihg lg m dwl[ lq[G dViqv[ ba[ Rpsjlg l.a epispbjdibJ sg
s[t~Fjv wis[ lV m duV%J ldqbJ dry dl>z u.evJ dry idh>Ds[
lV@ epi~blojVJ } dViqdvbJ ba[ Rpsjlg l.aJ V[ dur[G rg
h' ldwbj@ l.Fjdvbj ba[ dVLjV wjdHq i,Dt[ m wpN lq[G sj f+Fjr
b{lj h'dHbj dw dHl vdhi sj Vjq hg epispbjij lpZji
vdhi h' debj m lji[ dViqv[ uJ Rpsjlg l.a qjC[ Vhk lV m
dur[G hpS epispbjij f+W.Z sg y"Zi ?jai wg~wg h' dihj ] m
?{i@ dHl lq[G Rpsjlg l.aJ dry rg bxij~axig x{v eHg m dHhVJ
V[ wHg wjV`i.lJ wgagbJ m dHl lq[G WjWj ug V[ l.a Whjv sjl
u,lg f" rjdvbJ } Rpy[yj l[rw F[u w[ bjfS[ w'v WpvjdHbj
ba[ WyV wgaj@ ##Whjv sjl@ RpsjlgbJ s[ dwl[ dHw,n $a[ Vhk
ujSj@ dHhVJ dHw,nJ dry e,vJ lpS w[ qV dry t'F hp.sj ]
ba[ dy,a dWiag bc'v Vhk idh>sg m u[ a{} t'F h'dHbj ba[
dxi lj} rg h'H[ej m dHh u' wpN h' dihj ]@ hpwq dry hg h'
96

dihj ] m aP. bjV.s Vjv ihp m$$ Rpfi.a dxi WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj@
##a[ hpS dwl[ dHw,n dry aP. debj lg ($$ l.a Whjv sjl ug
V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##ug qhjiju@ sqsqj ljdhW s[ w'v dHw
dHw,n h'dHbj@ q{G Rpo[ debj lg m$$ dxi WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj@ ##Rpo[
wg e,v h'Hg ($$ l.a Whjv sjl V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ dHh'
hg e,v h'Hg lg dw bjfJ } bwjvg epispbjdibJ dry'G w,T
ih[ hV m bjfJ bwjvgbJ } qjigH[ m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##a[ aP. rg wpN W'dvbj lg ($$ l.a Whjv sjl ug V[ s,Ddlbj@ ##ug@
q{G wpN Vhk W'dvbj a[ lpdSbj Whpa wpN ] m$$ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@
##a[i[ qV } t'F h'dHbj ($$ Whjv sjl ug V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##ug
hJ qhjiju@ h'dHbj m$$ dxi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Whjv
sjl@ u[ a[i[ qV } t'F h'dHbj aJ lj} rg h'dHbj m dHhVJ
bwjvgbJ } qjiV rjvj w'Hg h'i bj ujH[ej@ Rpsjlg Vhk
qji lws[ m dHh lF wpN hpwq sg t[c ] m hpwq Vjv hg y,vg
] a[ hpwq Vjv hg W.s h' ujH[eg m bjfJ dHl dry s?v Vhk
s[Sj m$$
hpwq{ b>sdi lFp w' Wjhdi hpwqp V w'dH mm
VjVw hpwq{ u[ WpN{ a hRpq{ w] V w'dH mm
\l=g ufp ug ljdhW|

Rpfi.a l.a Whjv sjl ug V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ l.lji


dry idh>DdsbJ w'Hg Vj w'Hg dZi WSjRpSg f{Gsg ]@ dwl[ sg
e,v lpVSg f{Gsg ] m$$ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Vhk@ bjfSg dZi
fiq[Li ]@ h'i spdVbjrg dZiJ Vhk WSjRpSgbJ m$$ Rpfi.a l.a
Whjv sjl ug V[ lda WyV wiw[ WyV q>V dvbj m
WjWj ug s[ Rpfs[L sj lji dHl LWs dry'G f+eB hp.sj ] ^

97

O ldaepi f+ljds mm
ijep bjlj zip qhvj mm
dwl hg ZCj wgbj dqa= lpa Vjdv FjHg mm
dwl hg ZCj wgbj wpCq lw[ Vjdv urjHg mm
dwl hg ZCj wgbj dlwsji
yRpZig Vjdv bjfS{ lpbjHg
hqjij ZCj hdi idhbj lqjHg mm
hq hdi dlRp ZCj wgbj q[ig hdi B[w mm
q{ hdi dWVp ftp ZCj brip V w'Hg
hRp hdi epS ejrj bl.t bV[w mm ihjRp mm
duV dlRp ZC[ widh l[ ujdh NPnp ZC[ wdi fA'ajdh mm
doi V idhh qdV t'Bp wqjdh mm
hq hdi dlRp ZCj wgbj dul wj w'Hg lqiop Vjdh mm
H[h ldF ZC[ qjdHbj q'h fljig mm
qjdHbj wRp vPNdh ejrjig mm
uVdq qidh uPb{ Wjug hjig mm
hqi{ hdi ZCj du hvap fvap lFp lrjig mm
wdvupe qdh ZC[ f>y y'i NeCjH[ mm
wjqp *'Zp v'Fp q'hp bdFqjVp rZjH[ mm
dul V' d*fj wi[ dalp lal.de dqvjH[ mm
hqij hdi ZCj dudV H[h ZC[ ldF erjH[ mm
dqdobj sPuj FjRp ZC[ Wdh fjr{ mm
fijdHbj dAs= bBwv{ bjfSj bh.wjip rZjr{ mm
u{lj Wgu{ a{lj fjr{ mm
uV VjVw wj hdi ZCj Ziqp lF dl+ldB dudS bjr{ mm
\dHh WyV Fje dl>z u,lg f" rjvg s[ fp,ai q>ev dl>z y,wg
rjvj Wdn>cj dVrjlg a'G dqdvbj m|
98

epip fgip hjqj aj Fi[ uj


qpisjip V tjdH mm
\b>e 141|

WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV rjla[ s' f+[qg bjH[ ba[ s'hJ V[


hg rjig~rjig dHw~dHw ipdfbj q,oj B[dwbj m dul r[v[ dHh s'r[G
W{n eH[@ Rpl lq[G h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##i.e dy,Bj t>F wjv[@
RpKc uj daiqygH[ m$$ dHh WyV da>V rji sphijdHbj m Rpfi.a
RphVJ s'hJ dry'G dHw b,De[ dHw df,DA[ W{nj lg@ dfAv[ r,v dHLjij
wi w[ WyV wgaj@ ##WHg@ aP. bjfSj ipdfbj y,pw v{ ba[ A[ag
wi@ dHo'G apisj h' m$$ Rpl V[ bjfSj ipdfbj yp,w dvbj ba[ RpKn
w[ tCj h' debj a[ dxi fp,DdAbj@ ##qhjiju@ dHl sj ipdfbj aJ
qV;Pi wi dvbj@ fi q[ij q{} hg q'C ds,aj m Vjv hg wdh ds,aj
dw dHo'G apisj h' m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aphjcj
s'hJ sj df>c rg dHw ]@ dHl sj ipdfbj aJ h,w sg wqjHg
sj ] a[ aP. bjfSgbJ s' wpCgbJ s[ ipfH[ vH[ a[ RphVJ ipdfbJ
dry'G lj} ipdfbj q,oj B[dwbj m dHh ipdfbj fjf iPf ] a[ dHl
dry'G dHw lj} s[ dihj ]@ dul } aJ Vhk faj@ Rph aJ a[ij
ipdfbj v{ vr[@ lj} aJ faj ]@ blk dwM vHgH[ m a[i[ zi sj
fjSg fgSj rg fjf ] m$$ dHl a'G Wjbs Rpl Vjv w'Hg WyV
Vhk wgaj ba[ dxi sPu[ f+[qg r,v dHLjij wi w[ WyV wgaj@
##a[ig wg dH,Aj ]@ aP. s,l m$$ Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ zi
dry eigWg ]@ A'B'~A'B[ W,Dy[ hV m dqhi wi' m$$ Rpfi.a Wjvj ug
} hpwq h'dHbj dw dHl f+[qg sg Li%j wirj w[ hj;i wi' m dxi
99

Wjvj ug Rpl sg Li%j wij w[ v{ bjH[ m dxi Rphg ipdfbj bjfS[


h,o Vjv yp,w w[ Rpl } hg q'C w[ hpwq wgaj@ ##dHl } zi
dvuj w[ lJF w[ i,tSj m sp,Z~fp,a sg a'B Vhk bjH[eg m a[i[ df>c
w'Hg epispbjij ] aJ Rpo[ uj w[ s' r[v[ q,oj B[wSj m a[ hpS
aP. uj m$$ dHh ljij wpN Rpl s[ ljhqS[ rjfdibj m qhJfpit
W[firjh@ dur[G WjSg dry ljdhW V[ s,Ddlbj ] f+F wRp dlqidh
l[ W[qphaju[ mm dHw qjdHbjZjig ijulg W.sj vjfirjh ] m
W[firjh qhJfpit hg hp.s[ hV m
V ujVg l.aV f+F dWVp bjV mm
\b>e 1302|

bfpV[ uV wj fisj Tjw{ mm


bfV[ l[rw wg lifi ijt{ mm
\b>e 285|

dHw WjWj ug sj fpijSj l[rw lg m qjaj~dfaj s[ l[rj dry


ujS a'G fdhvJ hg l[rj wisj hp.sj lg m dHl sg V"urjV vCwg
drbjhpS I'e lg m dHw rji dHl sg zi rjvg V[ WjWj ug w'v
W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ ljcg wpCg drbjhpS I'e ] m$$ bjfS[
zi rjv[ r,v dHLjij wi w[ W'vg@ ##dHl } aJ w'Hg d`wi Vhk@
q{G aJ dHl } Whpa dwhj ] m dHh aJ firjh hg Vhk wisj
ug m aplk hg dHl } wpN wh' m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ Rpl }
fp,DdAbj@ ##dwM WHg@ aP. dwM Vhk vCwg sj wjiu wisj ($$
RpKai dry Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##ug qhjiju@ q[[i[ zi rjvg
yjhp.sg ] dw q{G wpCg s[ f{l[ v{ w[ drbjh wiJ m q{G f{l[ Vhk
100

v{S[@ fp>V sj drbjh wiVj ]@ dul r[v[ q[i[ dry dh>qa fRPeg@
wi dsbJej m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dwM s[rg@ Zg s[ f{l[
v{ w[ dwl uVq dry q'C[Geg ( b{Vj r,cj fjf dwa[ rg W?dLbj
Vhk ujH[ej m$$ Rpl WgWg V[ bjdtbj@ ##qhjiju@ u[ ljc[ dry
dh>qa h'r[ aJ blk wi ds>Ds[@ aplk s,Dl' hpS dwr[G wigH[ m dHh
aJ aphjc[ w'v hg W{nj idh>sj ] m$$ dxi Rpl l[rjsji r,v s[t
w[ WyV wgaj@ ##dwM WHg@ aP. ws[ bjfS[ zi sg w'Hg
sp,t~awvg` Vhk s,lg m$$ Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ q{G aJ
bjfSj b,ej lrjiV rjla[ l[rj dry v,Ddebj idh>sj hJ m q{G
rg aphjcj hJ@ fdirji rg aphjcj hg ] m$$ dHh lpS w[ WjWj
ug WC[ f+l.V h'H[ a[ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m lr[i[ aplk s'r[G us'G
zi'G bjdHY aJ w.dVbj } rg Vjv v{ w[ bjdHY m$$ Rpl a'G bev[
dsV Rph s'r[G a[ aglig vCwg Vjv v{ w[ hpwq bVplji hj;i
h' eH[ m WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##Wjdvbj@ lji[ fdirji sg Li%j
wirjY m$$ b>sivg Wjhivg Li%j hpwq bVplji l.a Vi{S dl>z
ug V[ wirjHg m Rpfi.a wpN lqJ lji[ fdirji } bjfS[ ljhqS[
dWnj w[ w'Hg dqhi sg dVejh wgag a[ hpwq wgaj@ ##ujY@ w'Hg
zi r[t w[ w.dVbj sj drbjh wi dsRp@ lptg ih[eg m$$ apiV
v,De[ Rpl f+[qg V[ dxi W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ faj Vhk ws'G w'Hg
zi dqv[ q[ig l[rj dry Vjej Vj fr[ m q{G dwa[ zi r[tS Vhk
ujSj m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aP. zi b,fC@ uj w[ r[t epiP
VjVw wg wisj ] m$$ Rph zi b,fdCbj@ b,De[ dHl sj V[C[ sj
l.W.Zg zi bj dqdvbj a[ wdhS v,ej dw q{G a[ig vCwg rjla[
dHw ue%j RpKa[ vCwj fl.s wgaj ]@ aP. y,v w[ r[t m dHh wdhS
v,ej dw u[ a[i[ fl.s ] aJ lF wpN ngw ] m dHh Rpl s[ V[C[
a'G diLa[sji lg m dHl V[ Rpl } LeV s[ w[ a'i ds,aj a[ Vjv
hg drbjh sj dsV Vgba h' debj m bev[ dsV dxi l[rjsji
101

sp,Z v{ w[ hj;i h' debj a[ WjWj ug V[ Rpl[ rwa hg api ujS


sj hpwq ds,aj m Rpfi.a l[rjsji s,l debj dw WjWj ug liW
wvj lqi,o@ u' yjhp.S l' wi rg lws[ hV a[ wirj rg lws[
hV m b,De[ rg dHh dirju hp.sj lg dw a[ hpS rg ]@ drbjh
Ljsg s[ q"w[ RpKa[ b>si dv,f f'y w[ lpbjiVj m u[ dh>qa fr[
aJ wpN VrJ rg dabji wi v{Sj@ dHh w'Hg w,yj w'nCj A'Bj
lqjV i,tS vHg dabji wi ih[ lV m wpN oJ fp,Bg@ ;qgV h[n'G
wpN yJsg s[ ipfH[ dqv eH[ m epiWjSg dry l,y bjdtbj ] ^
fjA. wi'da be+Sgrh dVijl. bjl fPiVh mm
dViZV FI. ZVr.ah i'egb> i'e t>cVh mm
Fea. Feda sjV. ijq Vjq epS wgiaVh mm
fjiW+hq fpit sjajih VjVw epi l[rj dw>V vFa[ mmmm
\lv'w lhld*ag@ b>e 1355|

fPiV qhJfpit sg dVLwjq l[rj V[ i.e vj ds,aj m qhJfpitJ


sg f+l.Vaj rjdhepiP sg f+l.Vaj@ zi dry ?pLg sg vdhi s"C
eHg m e+dhlag W.sj@ zi dry drbjh idybj h'dHbj@ eigWg
]@ byjVw hg qjdHbj dqv eHg@ ljigbJ l'yJ dryjiJ qp,w
eHgbJ m WjWj V.s dl>z ug WyV wis[ hp.s[ lV@ e+dhlag w'v
ep;ji[ u'eg qjdHbj Vj h'r[ aJ Rph w"cg a'G t'Bj ]@ dwMdw
e+dhlag sj w'Hg Fg wjiu qjdHbj a'G dWVJ dl,Zj Vhk h' lwsj m
u[ ljZ w'v qjdHbj bj ujH[@ Rpl sj qV Vjq ufS dry Vhk
v,esj m u[ ljZ h' w[ drwjiJ sg dyarVg dry ] aJ Rph rg
w"cg a'G t'Bj h' uJsj ] m ?pLgbJ dry drbjh h' debj aJ
drbjh s[ dsVJ dry dHl f+[qg V[ l[rj wiV sj V[q Vhk
dabjdebj m dHl f+[qg V[ vCwg sg Ljsg wi ds,ag ba[ lpi?iP
h' debj m dVIq bVpljji l[rj wisj dihj m wpN lq[G Rpfi.a dHh
f+[qg bjfSg vCwg } Vjv v{ w[ WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV Fp,Dy'
102

r,v } bj dihj lg m wpN lqJ rg ngw Vhk lg@ dHh s'r[G dfRp~Zg
vCwg s[ drbjh rjv[ wpN w,fC[@ qjCj~q'Bj edhSj rg fjdHbj
h'dHbj lg@ dHhVJ } ila[ dry vp,BS~t'hS rjv[ dqv eH[ m
dHZi c[i[ dry WjWj ug dWiju[ h'H[ lV ba[ byjVw hg WyV
wgaj@ ##Wjdvbj@ lj} dHw cJe dvbj w[ dsRp m$$ hpwq bVplji
l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ cJe dvbj ds,ag m WjWj ug V[ Rpl rwa
t,si sj lj`j bjfS[ qp,t RpKa[ vf[dBbj h'dHbj lg m cJe v{S
Rpfi.a hpwq wgaj@ ##ljc[ bjlS rjvg w'nCg sj sirj;j W.s
wi' m du>Vj dyi blk b>si'G bjrj; Vj s[HgH[@ Wji Vhk t'v%Sj m$$
hpwq bVplji sirj;j W.s wi ds,aj m wj`g lqJ awigWV dHw
uJ c[T z>Bj sirj;j W.s dihj m dHl[ s"ijV wpN f+[qg Wjhi'G
siLV wiV bjH[ a[ sirj;j W.s r[t w[ Rph ]ijV lV m b,u
sirj;j W.s dwM wgaj ] m wpN lq[G Wjbs sirj;j t'dv%bj
debj m dul lq[G sirj;j t'dv%bj@ WjWj ug sj ligi i[a[ Vjv
dv,WdCbj h'dHbj lg m dHh r[t w[ l.ea rg ]ijV lg ba[ l[rw
rg ]ijV lV m lF } hpwq h'dHbj@ ##ljc[ ligi a'G i[aj NjC' m$$
lji[ ligi } l.ea V[ dqv w[ lj` wgaj m ]ijV ba[ blyiu
lji[ lV m Rpfi.a Rph l[rjsji bjfSg vCwg lq[a bj hj;i
h'dHbj m q,oj B[dwbj@ Rpl[ rwa hg Rph vCwg W'v fHg@ wdhS
v,eg@ ##WjfP@ b,u bjfSg iPqg rjv[ WjdWbJ V[ i,Ddtbj wgag ] m
duhC[ bjfJ } t'hS rjv[ dqv eH[ lV@ Rpl r[v[ dul V[ bjfSg
i,Ddtbj wgag lg@ Rph dHhVJ WjdWbJ riej ba[ s' W.s[ dHhVJ
s[ Vjv h'i lg m$$ WjWj ug V[ Rpl[ rwa hg Rpl vCwg } yp,f
wij ds,aj m Rpfi.a Rpl vCwg s[ dfaj } zPi w[ dwhj@ ##a.P
zi'G apiV r[v[ r[vj~wpr[vj Vhk r[tsj@ u[ b,u a[ig ijtg Vj
hp.sg aJ wg WSsj@ RphVJ V[ vCwg t'h w[ v{ ujSg lg m$$
\dHh f+l.e r,cj N.cj dl>z l[qj dVrjlg a'G dqdvbj m|

103

dlZ lqjdZ widh dVa Neij


sphp v'yV dwbj h[i{ mm
b>adi u'da lWsp ZpdV uje{
ldaepip Neip dVW[i{ mmmm
\b>e 489|

qhJfpitJ sg dVa d*bj r[t w[@ idhSg~WdhSg r[t w[ wHg


ldal.eg l'yJ~dryjiJ dry bj w[ wpN l'y v{Gs[ hV@ us dw
blvgba wpN h'i rg hp.sg ] m dHw rji WjWj V.s dl>z ug wv[iJ
rjv[ Fp,Dy' siLV wiV bjH[ lV a[ WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug
V[ hpwq s[ w[ wv[iJ rjdvbJ sj bjlS dB,Dv[ Rpfi wirj ds,aj m
bev[ dsV lr[i[~lr[i[ WjWj V.s dl>z ug dB,Dv[ Rpfi f{iJ dry
u'Cj fj w[ Bdhv ih[ lV m Rpl lq[G qjHg sjaji w"i ojS[sjiVg
V[ WjWj ug fjl uj w[ dLwjdHa wi ds,ag a[ dwhj@ ##qhjiju@
V.s dl>z dB,Dv[ RpKa[ up,ag lS[ apdibj dxisj ] m$$ Rpl lq[G WjWj
qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug ldhu~lpFjb bjfSg q"u dry v.q[ fH[
lV@ RpKn w[ W{n eH[ ba[ WyV wgaj@ ##dHw rji dxi Rpl[ ai%J
wh' m$$ Rpl V[ dxi Rphg Rpfivg e,v sphijHg dw V.s dl>z dB,Dv[
RpKfi up,ag lS[ apdibj dxisj ] m WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z V[
i'h dry bj w[ WyV wgaj@ ##ujh@ dB,Dv[ RpKa[ uj w[ r[t dwa[
w'Hg up,ag sj dVLjV ] ($$ Rpl V[ r[t w[ ]ijV h' w[ WyV wgaj@
##Vhk qhjiju@ up,ag sj dVLjV Ziag RpKa[ dwa[ Vhk ] m$$ dHh
104

lpS w[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Rpl s[ f{iJ h[n s[rdabJ h,o


i,Dt[ h'H[ hV@ Rpl s[ yiVJ sg ZPC } s[ra[ rg v'ys[ hV m hpwq
dWVJ dwl[ } Vhk dqvsg m dHh V.s dl>z b,De[ rjvj V.s dl>z
Vhk ]@ hpS dHh bV.s dl>z ]@ qhJfpit ] m b,De[ rjla[ u[
ljc[ w'v w'Hg wpN wdhSj h'r[ aJ dHhVJ } qhJfpit wh' m lF
wpN dHl s[ dry ]@ dur[G a.P dwhj ]@ dHM ws[ ljc[ w'v Vj
bjtk m dHl rji aJ a{} W?dLbj m
\dHh WyV qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m|

60
dHw rji sjl dfaj ug Vjv VjVwli siLV wiV rjla[
debj m b,De[ WjWj HgLi dl>z ug Vjv dfAv[ Fp,Dy' s[ WyV y,Dv[ m
Rpfi.a WjWj HgLi dl>z ug V[ dfaj ug } fp,DdAbj@ ##WjWj ci'vg@
bjfS[ WjWj ug sj Fjr wv[iJ rjv[ WjWj ug sj blvg Vjq
wg ] ($$ b,De'G dfaj ug V[ RpKai ds,aj@ ##ug@ aphj} lF wpN
faj ]@ q{G wg s,lJ m$$ WjWj HgLi dl>z ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Vhk@
aP. hg s,l m$$ ##Fp,Dy' rjv[ WjWj ug qhJfpit rg wdh>Ds[ lV@ ditg
ug rg wdh>Ds[ lV@ duaV[ rg ldawjiI'e Vjq lV@ Rpl ai%J
WpvjMs[ lV@ vjc Vjv ws[~ws[ h'i Vjq Vjv rg Wpvj v{Gs[
lV m duhC[ blk Vhk wdh uJ dvt lws[ m$$ dxi WjWj HgLi
dl>z ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Vhk@ WjWj ug sj ligiw Vjq wg v{Gs[
lV m$$ aJ b,De'G W;pieJ V[ s,Ddlbj@ ##ligiw Vjq aJ V.s dl>z
rg v{Gs[ lV m$$ aJ b,De'G WjWj HgLi dl>z ug V[ WyV wgaj@
##WjWj ug sj blvg Vjq bV.s dl.z ]@ bV.s v`; fiq RpKy
brloj sj uSjdHw ] m bV.s FdHbj q[ig qjH[ ldaepiP q{
105

fjdHbj mm dHh f>eag WjWj HgLi dl>z ug V[ fC%g@ Vjv hg


s,Ddlbj dw blk w[hi dl.z ijeg } bjt w[ dHw fiwiS dabji
wirjdHbj ] ^
bVs' bVsp zSj q{ l' f+DFp cgnj ijq mm
yjdtbCj yjdtbCj q{ hdi ilp qgnj ijq mm
hdi ilp qgnj qV qdh rPnj
ldaepip aPnj lhup FdHbj mm
de+Dhp rdl bjdHbj q>evp ejdHbj
f>y splB YdH Fjde edHbj mm
lgav bjzjS[ b>Ddq+a WjS[
ljuV l.a Wlgnj mm
whp VjVw hdi dlRp qVp qjdVbj
l' f+DFp V{Sg cgnj mmmm
\bjlj A.a qhvj 5@ b>e 452|

dHh WyV WjWj HgLi dl>z ug sg ilVj a'G v[tw V[ bjfS[


w.Vk lpdSbj ] m q[ig lqN bVplji l" `glsg l,y ] m u[ w'Hg
l,uS bjfS[ bjf } WjWj HgLi dl>z ug Vjv'G dlbjSj lqNsj
] aJ Rph ujS[ m
h'i WjWj V.s dl>z ug s[ dVwBriag h;Pig l[rw WjWj
h;Pij dl>z ug rg WjWj ug Vjq ldawji ru'G bV.s dl>z hg
v{Gs[ lV m h'i l.a l+g ijq dl.z qvPw[ rjdvbJ sg u' dvta
dvtjig fjl ]@ Rpl dry Fp,Dy' rjdvbJ sj Vjq qhJ hdiVjq
dl>z ba[ wv[iJ rjdvbJ sj Vjq bV.s dl>z hg ] m Rpfi.a
u' wpN qjaj~dfaj a'G v[tw V[ lpdSbj@ WjWj ug sj Vjq bV.s
dl>z hg lpdSbj ] m
bV.s lWs figfPiS LWs ] m
106

W+hq debjVg w{ qdV fiqjV.s mm


W+hq debjVg w{ zdi lsj bV.s mm
lptqVg ljdhW sg b,nrk bLBfsg sg f>urk fRpCg ljig
fC% w[ s[t vr'@ ldaepiP V[ bV.s fs sg wg drbjdtbj wgag
] m epiP bqisjl ug V[ `piqjdHbj ] ^
w] VjVw bV.sp h'bj ldaepiP q{ fjdHbj mm
ldaepiP Vjv bF[s epiP VjVw Vjv dHw~dq,w bV.s LWs
WjWj ug sg fiq RpKy brloj } uVjRpS rjvj ] m v[tw sjl
V[ aJ hg ridabj ]@ q[ij w'Hg Vrk e,v dvt w[ bjfSg
drL[LajHg uVjRpS sj IaV Vhk ]@ duV%J LWsJ dry Fp,Dy'
rjdvbJ V[ WjWj ug rdcbjH[ ba[ RphVJ LWsJ Vjv hg WjWj
ug sg rdcbjHg v[tw V[ wiVg fiq Ziq lqdNbj ] m u[ sjl
V[ bjfS[ w'v'G w'Hg e,v WVjRpSg dvtg h'r[ aJ ldaepiP ujSs[
hV uJ sjl ujSsj ] m
lr{Ij
FPv yPw u' FHg hq a[ epi
l' dw>wi apq a[ W?Ljra m
vju it' dVu Vjq bfV[ wg
dl,t q{ apqi' ue qjdh whjra m
aP. Wtdl>s lsj lptsjdHw
l' qv Vjdh dWt{ ApdBwjra m
v'h[ a[ hq fjil@ bdi>c a[ y.sV
qjVpt a[ lpi aP. hg WVjra m
\v[tw_wrg l.a't dl>z ug|

107

u[ w' h'dH W] sjajip mm


dalp s[Vhjip ujV{ ejrjip mm
\b>e 282|

WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug qhjiju sg WCg Wdy,ai vgv%j


lg m ws[~ws[ dwl[ fjl'G RpZji[ ipfH[ q>e v{S[@ dwl[ V[ lqNSj
dw l.a WC[ v'Cr.s hV@ dHhvJ w'v ep;ji[ u'e[ f{l[ rg Vhk
hV m wHg rji dHw ipdfbj uJ b,n bjV[ w'v'G s[ w[ WyV wiVj@
bjfS[ ?;jV[ dry l..Fjv w[ i,tk WCg Wiwa fr[eg m duV%J~duV%J
V[ Rph ipfH[ l.Fjv w[ i,Dt[ V[ wHgbJ s[ f+l.e aplk fC% yp,Dw[ h'
Rph b,u v,tJfag WS[ hV m dtV qdh bri dtV{ qdh brij
byiu yva apqji[ m qhJ fpitJ } uJ aJ Rph lqN[ u' RphVJ
riej h'r[ uJ Rph lqN[ u' RphVJ s[ hi hpwq sg fjvSj wiV
rjvj h'r[m dHl ai%J Fp,Dy' dHw dl>z bjdHbj dul sj Vjq hig
dl>z lg m dHl s[ w'v w'Hg b{lg rlaP lg dul yg; sg dHl
} v'C hp.sg@ dHl } dqv uJsg lg m dHh w'Hg LWs sj ujf
wisj lg uJ wpN h'i upea lg@ dHl F[a } WjWj ug ujVS m
dul lq[G dHh f+[qg bjdHbj WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ bjfSj
riajRp dHl ai%J sj wi dvbj@ dul ai%J WjWj ug hi f,Dt'G
hi dHw yg; s[ WC[ v'Cr.s h'S m dHl f+[qg s[ qV dry faj
Vhk wg d?bjv bjdHbj@ dHl V[ d?bjv } v{ w[ wpN qjdHbj
WjWj ug } s[Sg yjhg duhCg upea dHl } s,lg lg wHg rji
dHl V[ riag@ fi.aP wjqIjW Vj h'dHbj m Rpfi.a dHl f+[qg V[
WjWj ug fjl W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ q[ig upeag dHo[ w.q Vhk
108

wisg m$$ WjWj ug V[ dHl } f,pDdAbj@ ##aP. dwhC[ LWs sj ujf


wisj lg m$$ dHl V[ LWs rg W'v w[ s,Ddlbj lpS w[ h;Pi V[
WyV wgaj@ ##a{} dHh upeag dwl V[ s,lg lg m$$ aJ Rpl V[
WjWj ug wv[iJ rjdvbJ sj Vjq dvbj aJ lpS w[ WjWj ug V[
WyV wgaj@ ##RphVJ w'v u' wpN rg ]@ Rph ljcj ds,aj h'dHbj
] m aP. dHh wpN wiV v,De[ V[ ljo'G bjdebj Vhk vHg aJ a[ij
w.q fPij Vhk h'dHbj m aP. Wjhi uj a[ hpS wi m$$ Rpl V[ Wjhi
uj w[ Rph wpN wgaj a[ qpC bjdHbj m WjWj ug V[ f,pDdAbj dwM
WHg a[ij w.q WdSbj ] ($$ Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag@ qhjiju b,De[
Vjv'G b,Zj WdSbj ]@ fPij aJ Vhk WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##b,De[
Vjv'G b,Zj hg ih[ej@ fPij Vhk h'H[ej m$$ Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag
qhjiju fPij dwM Vhk h'H[ej aJ RpKai dry WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##u[ a.P bjdebj v{ w[ wisj dxi aJ fPij WS uJsj aP.
bjfSg qi;g wiV v,e dfbj aJ fPij Vhk WdSbj m b,Zj rg
a[ij aJ dihj ] a{} dHh yg; qhJ fpitJ V[ W?dLL wgag ]
a[ij dvhj; wgaj@ Vhk aJ dHh rg Vhk lg idhSj@ hpS a{}
bjdebj ] m a[ aP. R[hg ]G Vj duhCj dHw rjig lj} u.cj rjv[
dqdvbj lg m Rpl V[ i' w[ dwhj@ ##ug@ q{G Rphg hJ m$$ Rpfi.a
Rpl f+[qg } Rpo'G yv[ ujS sj hpwq h'dHbj m
\dHh f+l.e v[tw } dfaj ug fjl'G f+jfa h'dHbj m|

109

dlthp lWsp dfbjdih' uVq


qiV wg B[w mm
\b>e 320|

lqi,o qhJ fpit l[rwJ a'G l[rj rg v{Gs[ hV@ l[rj s[


Vjv~Vjv Vjq dlqiV wiV sg dwl ai%J lpq,a s[Gs[ hV@ w'v
W{nj w[ dHw,vg~dHw,vg f>eag dwl ai%J lqNjMs[ lV m dHw rji
WjWj ug V[ iaV dl>z ci'vg } bjfS[ w'v Wpvj w[ hpwq wgaj@
##lj} lptqVg ljdhW sj fjn lpSjRp m$$ hpwq bVplji fjn
lpSjRpSj bji.F wi ds,aj m Rpl lq[G hg WjWj ug V[ lpq,a s[
w[ l.fB vjRpS sg qdibjsj lqNj w[ fjn wijdHbj dxi hpwq
wgaj@ ##dHw fjn i'; lpSjdHbj wi m$$ wpN dsVJ Wjbs s' fjn
i'; wiV sj hpwq wgaj@ h"vg~h"vg rZj w[ hpwq bVplji f>u
fjn i'; wiV sj hpwq ds,aj m wHg dsV vejaji f>u fjn
lpSjRpS a'G Wjbs da>V LWs h'i s,Dl[ ^
dayip qPdv V opCgs' duyip bjdf dw+fjvp mm
lWs btpBp WjWj VjVwj tjdh tidy ZVp qjvp mm
\lv'w rjiJ a[ rZgw@ qhvj 5@ b>e 1426|

Ziq bio bip wjq q't qpwda fsjio Vjo mm


lev qV'io fPdibj VjVw dvdtbj qjo mm
\ijqwvg A.a qhvj 5@ b>e 927|

uJ aP q[i{ rdv ] aj dwbj qphA.sj mm


apZp lFp dwAp q{V' lRpdfbj uj a[ij W.sj mm
110

vtqg a'dB V bjrHg tjdH tidy ih.sj mm


vt yRpijlgh q[sVg lF l[r wi.sj mm
H[h r{ig dqa= lF wgdabj Vh q>edh q>sj mm
v[tj w'dH V fpAHg uj hdi Wtl.sj mm
bVsp FdHbj lptp fjdHbj dqdv epi e'dr>sj mm
lF[ wju lrjdib{ uj apZp Fjr.sj mmmm
\qjiP rji ctS[ qhvj 5@ b>e 1096|

Rpfi.a da>VJ LWsJ sj rjig~rjig l.fB lptqVg ljdhW dry


vpbj w[ dxi da>VJ LWsJ sg qjvj Vjv fjn sg qdibjsj lqNj
w[ WyV wgaj@ Rpfiv[ s' LWs dwl[ lq[G wi v{S[ ba[ aguj
Vhk wiVj dHh dwl[ lq[G w'v dWnj w[ wijrJe[ m aguj lF a'G
r,Z wdnV d*bj rjvj ] dHl dry FjHg q>N rjvg f+gdtbj hp.sg
] m dHw rji dxi WyV wgaj Rpfiv[ s' LWs wiV[ h'S aJ
blk hpwq s[ w[ wijHgH[@ fp>DdVbj sg ija h'r[ dwl[ dB,DW[ RpKa[
a{} dWnj s[HgH[@ us'G fjn wis[ } da>V z>DB[ h' ujS aJ fajv
dry'G L[LVje sg W.l rjv[ dy,DB[ l,f qjdHbj v{ w[ bjRpSe[ m
dHw~dHw q'hi uJ hgij v{ w[ b,De[ i,tSe[ ba[ Vqlwji wi
w[ df,DA[ qpC ujSe[ dxi WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m bevg e,v dxi
wiJe[ m$$ dHl a'G Wjbs awC[ h' w[ l[rj wiV sj hpwq h'dHbj mm
\dHh WyV v[tw } qjaj dfaj a'G lpdSbj m|

63
sMqn kY sunIAq pRB kI bwq ]
kQw kIrqnu Awnd mMgl Duin
pUir rhI idnsu Aru rwiq ]1] rhwau ]
111

kir ikrpw Apny pRiB kIny


nwm Apuny kI kInI dwiq ]
AwT pihr gun gwvq pRB ky
kwm koD iesu qn qy jwq ]1]
iqRpiq AGwey pyiK pRB drsnu
AMimRq hir rsu Bojnu Kwq ]
crn srn nwnk pRB qyrI
kir ikrpw sMqsMig imlwq ]2]4]84]
\dWvjrvp qhvj 5@ b>e 820~21|

dHl lq[G WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug qhjiju fjl l[rjsji


Fjr[G deSag dry o'C%[ lV fi.aP l[rj dlqiV r,cg deSag dry
WjWj ug sg d*fj Vjv h' dihj lg m l.a Vi{S dl.z ug qdhdSbJ
rjv[ h;Pig l[rj wiV s[ Vjv Vjv dHw l" dHw fjn ufp ug
ljdhW sj i'; wis[ lV m l.a w[li dl>z ug hi lq[G ufp ug
ljdhW s[ fjn dry qeV idh.s[ lV@# dHhVJ } us'G rg r[t'
fjn wis[ #RPna W{na l'ra Vjq whp VjVw uV w{ ls wjq mm
dHhVJ sg dHh brloj lg m l.a dy>a ijq ug rg qla idh>Ds[
lV m FjHg Vgvj dl>z ug } dur[G dfAv[ f+l.e dry dvdtbj@
Rpl lq[G V;jij r[t w[ hi lq[G qlag dry NPqs[ idh>Ds[ lV m
FjHg wfPi dl>z ihijlgbj@ qjHg t[q w"i a[ Rpl sg vCwg u.cJ
rjv[ rjvg hi lq[G h,o dry qjvj v{ w[ dlqiV dry v,eg idh>sg
lg m FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w'i W[L,w eH[ dwl[ spdVbjrg
q>e ?jai lV@ fi.aP WjWj ug sg dqhi sg V;i lswj qV h'i
sj h'i hg h' debj lg m dHh lF W?dLLJ WjWj qhJ hdiVjq
dl>z ug qhjiju sg lg m l.a q>cv dry u' epS f>ur[G fjaLjh
V[ woV wga[ hV@ Rph lF dHo[ ngw Tpws[ lV m
sMq mMfl mih hir min vsY ]
112

sMq mMfl mih durqu sBu nsY ]


sMq mMfl mih inrml rIiq ]
sMqsMig hoie eyk prIiq ]1]
sMq mMflu qhw kw nwau ]
pwrbRhm kyvl gux gwau ]1] rhwau ]
sMq mMfl mih jnm mrxu rhY ]
sMq mMfl mih jmu ikCU n khY ]
sMqsMig hoie inrml bwxI ]
sMq mMfl mih nwmu vKwxI ]2]
sMq mMfl kw inhcl Awsnu ]
sMq mMfl mih pwp ibnwsnu ]
sMq mMfl mih inrml kQw ]
sMqsMig haumY duK nsw ]3]
sMq mMfl kw nhI ibnwsu ]
sMq mMfl mih hir guxqwsu ]
sMq mMfl Twkur ibsRwmu ]
nwnk Eiq poiq Bgvwnu ]4]
\F{iRp qhvj 5@ b>e 1146|

afda qjdh njdT riajHg mm


bVsp FdHbj spt Vjn[ FjHg mm
qhJfpit wiaj fpit Vjv bF[s@ u' wpN rg wiV@ dwl[ T.e
aigw[ Vjv wiV@ wiaj fpit } lF wpN qV;Pi hp.sj ] m
hdi ugRp l'Hg widh du Fea a[i[ ujydh H[hp a[ij
113

dWisp mm
\bjlj qhvj 5@ b>e 406|

dHw rji dHw w'hCg dwl[ aigw[ Vjv WjWj ug s[ blojV


RpKa[ bj fhp.dybj m fdhi[sji V[ b>si bjRpS a'G i'dwbj m Rpfi.a
Rpl V[ WjWj ug w'v W[Vag wi ds,ag dw ##qhjiju@ dHw w'hCg
q>eaj tCj ]@ b>si bjRpSj yjhp.sj ] m wg hpwq ] m$$ lpSV
Rpfi.a h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Rpl } b,De[ v{ bjRp m$$ bjdebj
dqvS Rpfi.a w'hCg q.eaj b>si bj debj m Rpl } ljhqS[
tCj r[t w[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m Wjdvbj dHl }
ljc[ avjb dry dHLVjV wirj w[ dvbjRp m$$ dHl hpwq Rpfi.a
l.a Vi{S dl>z ug Rpl } dHLVjV wirj w[ v{ bjH[ m dxi WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dHl s[ Rpfi h'i yjsi fj w[ dHl } a[iJ
fjn lptqVg ljdhW s[ lpSjRp m$$ FjHg wfPi dl>z ihijlgbj ba[
FjHg iaV dl.z V[ rjig~rjig a[iJ fjn lptqVg ljdhW s[ lpSjH[ m
fjn lpSjRpS a'G Rpfi.a WjWj ug fjl uj w[ W[Vag wi ds,ag m
dxi h;Pi V[ hpwq wi w[ bjfS[ fjl dWnj dvbj m dWnj w[ WyV
wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m dHl sg yjsi vjh dsRp m$$ hpwq bVplji yjsi
vjhpS Rpfi.a lF V[ s[dtbj@ Rpl s[ ligi RpKa[ wLB sj w'Hg
Vjq~dVLjV Vhk lg m Rpfi.a h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dHh lF
lptqVg ljdhW sj f+ajf ] m lptqVg sj dVaV[qg dwl[ wpLBg RpKa[
dVejh Fg wi s[r[ aJ dxi rg wpLB hB lwsj ] m$$ dxi Rph
w'hCg } fp,DdAbj@ ##dwM WHg@ w'Hg awvg` ] ($$ aJ Rpl V[
dwhj@ ##ug@ w'Hg Vhk m$$ a[ dxi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dHl
sg Li%j wij w[ dvbjRp m$$ hpwq bVplji Li%j wirjHg m Rpfi.a
WjWj ug V[ Rpl } fp,DdAbj dw aP. dh>sP ]G dw qplvqjV m Rpl
V[ h,o u'C w[ dwhj ug@ w'hCg sj w'Hg Ziq Vhk hp.sj m WjWj
ug s[ Wji~Wji wdhS $a[ Rpl V[ s,Ddlbj dw q{G dh>sP hJ m Rpfi.a
114

Rpl } ijq~ijq sj q>ai W?L w[ hpwq wgaj@ dHl } ufsj


ihk m epiP VjVw Fvj wiVe[ m
dxi Rpl } fp,DdAbj@ ##aplk dw>DV[ uS[ dHw,Dn[ h' w[ q>eS
bjH[ lg m$$ Rpl V[ dwhj@ ##ug@ A[ W.s[ q{o'G dWVJ h'i lV m$$ aJ
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m u[ aplk lji[ dHw,Dn[ hg dHo[
bj uJs[ aJ lF sj Fvj h' ujSj lg m b,u lqJ hg b{lj lg m
aP. hpS dwl[ Vjv w'Hg e,v Vhk wiVg a[ dHw,Dv[ V[ hg idhSj
a[ Vjq ufSj ] m$$
dHh f+l.e qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m qhJ fpitJ sg dqhi lswj

qpiq mwih TwiF vrqweI ] Andu BieAw duK nwTy BweIdHh] idh
jnm mrn ky imty AMdysy ] swDU ky pUrn aupdysy ]
Bau cUkw inrBau hoie bsy ] sgl ibAwiD mn qy KY nsy ]
ijs kw sw iqin ikrpw DwrI ] swDsMig jip nwmu murwrI ]
iQiq pweI cUky BRm gvn ] suin nwnk hir hir jsu sRvn ]7]
\eRpCg lptqVg qhvj 5@ b>e 287|

n.cj y.siqj rg ] ba[ y.sV rg n.cj ] blvg n.cg qhJ


fpit sg d*fj ds=LBg ] m #W+hq debjVg ds=LB b>Ddq+a Wilg m
y.sV y.s V lis ipda qPdv V dqBHg zjq
lgavp ogr{ VjVwj uf>sC' hdi Vjqp mm
\b>e 709|

afs[ lCs[ qV aV } n.c W?Lg a[ ijq q>ai W?l w[


f+v'w rg lpZji ds,aj m
\dHh f+l.e qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m|

115

65!
VjVw epiqpdt yvap ] r[thp v'wj bjdH mm
v'wp dw r[t{ WfpCj dul V' l'Ng Vjdh mm
dul r[tjv{ l' r[t{ dulp rdlbj qV qjdh mm
\b>e 847|

qhJ fpit s[ dVa Vr[G w"aw r[t w[ rg dwl[ driv[ sg LiZj


WSsg ] m WjWj ug WyV wis[ hp.s[ lV dw hpS blk W{n[ hJ
w'Hg Vhk bjMsj@ ljc[ qei'G bj w[ f,oiJ $a[ q,Do[ iedCbj
wiVe[ m b,u Rph' WyV l,Dy[ h' ih[ hV@ b{c[ b{c[ r,Dc[ w"aw
wi ds,Da[@ bu spVgbJ fC~lpS w[ ]ijV hp.sg ] qhJ fpitJ sg
qjdHbj b{lg f+Wv hp.sg ] us'G yjhpS qjdHbj fj w[ Fpvj ds>Ds[
hV m dHhVJ hg dsVJ dry WjWj ug V[ Fpv[tj s[S vHg dHw
VrJ w"aw idybj m df>c Fp,Dy' sgbJ q;hWSJ } l,s w[ s'~s'
da>V~da>V z>DB[ de,Zj fpbjRpSj ujS lq[G lF } s'~s' bjV[ s[S[
vejaji dHw qhgVj dHh w"aw idybj m dHw qhgV[ s[ b>si
b.si dul sj dwl[ sj qjCj q'Bj Fi'lj bjdHbj@ Rph rg Bp,B
debj m le'G lji[ df>c dry wHg ai%J sg dV>Ddsbj h'Sg LpiP h'
eHg m dwbj dryjij u.a uj bjdf FpvjdHbj mm dHl ai%J WjWj
ug V[ l.ljig W.s[@ Vei dVrjlg Fpv[t[ dry fj w[ h'i hg ai%J
sg vgv%j iy ds,ag m lF ai%J sg vgv%j drtj w[ fCsj fj ds>Ds[
lV m

116

wp.cvgbj
Fea uea w' nea ] Fea Vj nje{ w'dH m
FeaV w' l'Hg ne{ u' FeaV u{lj h'dH m
Fea u{lj h'dH qiV a' dWV qi ujr{ m
bjfj Fjr erjdH dlqiV l[rj dya vjr[ m
wh[ sjl ldaVjq dl>z Fpdvbj idh>sj uea m
bjfSj bjf ApfjdH uea w' nes[ Fea m
\dHh f+l.e qjCP dl>z Fp,vi Fp,Dy' dVrjlg a'G dqdvbj m|

bjdf FpvjdH bjf[ qda s[r{


\b>e 225|

WjWj ug fjl dHw l.a ljZjiV duh[ w,fC[ fjH[@ wpN qlajVg
duhg hjva dry byjVw dxisj~dxijMsj fhp.y debj m dul
lq[G fdhi[sji ijhk bjdebj v{ w[ WjWj ug s[ ljhqS[ bjw[
siLV wga[@ WjWj ug V[ Rpl r,v dVejh wi w[ WyV wgaj@
##Lp,Z ]@ duo[ bjRpSj lg bj debj m$$ Rpfi.a Rpl } W{nS rjla[
W'ig s[ w[ w'ng s[ WiJc[ dry bjlS vrj ds,aj m dxi hpwq
bVplji s' r[v[ v.ei dry'G f+Ljsj AwS sj hpwq h' debj m
Rpfi.a s' r[v[ v.ei dry'G f+Ljsj A,w v{Sj a[ dxi dHwJa dry
hg W{n[ idhSj m awigWV dHw qhgVj WgaS df,DA'G WjWj ug V[
117

dHw dsV dHl qhjaqj } bjfSg h;Pig dry Wpvj w[ WyV wgaj@
##a[ij epiq>ai wg ] ($$ Rpai dry Rpl qhjaqj V[ s,Ddlbj@ ##ug@
rjdhepiP ] m$$ dxi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dZbjV da=wpBg sj
dw dw>Ds[ sj m$$ Rpl V[ s,Ddlbj dw da=wpBg dry dZbjV wisj
hJ m dxi aglij WyV WjWj ug V[ fp,DdAbj@ ##a{} da=wpBg s[ dry
u' f+wjL bVpFr hp.sj ] Rph dwaVj wp ] m ##Rpl V[ s,Ddlbj@
##ug@ e'vw ] dHw npfjHg s[ du>Vj ] m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] a[i[ epiP sj wgaj h'dHbj WyV fPij wi w[ a'iJe[ m
awCj h' w[ ihk m$$ ngw dHl a'G wpN lqJ Wjbs Rpl sg hjva
WCg drbjwpv h' eHg[ dur[G WjSg dry dwhj ]@ dabwa uv.
Vh ugr qgV. Vh dabjde yjda+w q[z q>cvh mm WjS W[Z.y wpi.w
Vjs. bdv W.ZV wplq WjlVh mm yiV wqv iy>da l.ah VjVw
bjV V ipya[ mm \b>e | ba[ hi lq[G W{ije rjvg brloj
dry ih[ m n.c[ n.c[ ljh vr[G f>o dVhji[ wjqVg v'yV Fig v[
Rpljlj mm Rpl sj tjSj~ fgSj Whpa zB debj m dHw dsV WjWj
ug V[ w[li dl>z } fp,DdAbj@ ##w[li@ dHh duhCj ljZP VrJ
bjdHbj ] dHl sj wg hjv ] ($$ aJ w[li dl>z V[ W[Vag wgag@
##qhjiju@ Rph aJ dsV ija aCxsj idh>sj ] m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj ##u[ rlaP ailj~ailj w[ dqv[ aJ wsi hp.sg
] m Lp,Z ] m$$ dxi dHl a'G wpN dsV Wjbs WjWj ug V[ Rpl
qhjajqj } bjfS[ fjl l,s w[ WyV wgaj hpS a[ig f+gdtbj
h' yp,wg ] hpS bevg e,v a[i[ Vjv wiJe[ a[ dxi hpwq bVplji
bjlS iP.qg wij ds,aj a[ Rpl V[ hpwq bVplji iP.qg idh>Ds[ LWs
bdFbjl wgaj m dHw lq[G bj w[ F'uV A,w ujsj dHw dsV dul
lq[G F'uV AwS bjdHbj@ Rpl s[ qp,t $a[ bugW ai%J sg Nvw
ba[ ?pLg lg m b>aiujqg WjWj ug V[ Rpl[ rwa hg Rpl } bjfS[
h;pi Wpvj w[ hpwq wgaj@ ##v.ei dry'G F'uV A,w w[ hpS aplk
118

uj lws[ h' m aphjcj wjiu Lp,Z ] m$$ d*fj wBjt brv'wV wgV'
sjlp sj sPt dWsjdiY mm
ujl a[u wi y.s lPi wia[ f+wjlj m
ujl Vjq w' ufa Fiq F{ h'ra Vjlj m
ujl hpwq w' qjV frS dxiag y"x[i[ m
ujl Vjq w' ufa wjv Vdh bjra V[i[ m
l'Hg Vjq bypa wiaj
fpit da=epS baga ls idha ] m
l'Hg iPf qhJ hdiVjq dl>z
bV.s dl>z w' wdha ] m
\dHh f+l.e rg qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m|

ugbj qjdi ugrjv[ l'Hg brip


V w'Hg it{ mm
\b>e 150|

dHw rji y[a sj qhgVj lg a[ qkh hV[ig a[ eC[ W[b>a


fH[ m eC[ f{S wiw[ ujVri Fg qi[ m Rpl lq[G Ljq sj rwa
lg a[ WjWj ug V[ sp,Z AwS sg dabjig wi vHg m l.a Vi{S
dl>z ug V[ hpwq bVplji ljij ljqjV dabji wi w[ WjWj ug
b,De[ W[Vag wi ds,ag m Rpfi.a h;Pi bjfS[ bjlS a'G RpKn w[
sp,Z AwS vHg W{n eH[ m byjVw hg WjWj ug sg dVejh w'nCg
s[ sirj;[ r,v eHg@ Rpo[ dHw qig h'Hg dyCg fHg lg m h;Pi
V[ l.a Vi{S dl>z ug } fp,DdAbj@ ##Wjdvbj@ b"h wg dfbj ] ($$
RpKai dry l.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ b,u
119

eC%[ Whpa fH[ lV m duV%J dry dyCgbJ@ uV"i Whpa qi[ hV m


dHh dHw dyCg aphjc[ bjlS s[ ljhqS[ qig fHg ] m$$ Rpfi.a
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Wjdvbj@ RpKa[ dB,Dv[ rjvg qBwg dry'G uv
dvbj w[ dHl s[ RpKa[ fj s[ m$$ hpwq bVplji l.a Vi{S dl>z
ug V[ dB,Dv[ rjvg qBwg dry'G uv dvbj w[ dyCg Rpfi o'C%j
duhj fj ds,aj m dqiaw wRp ugrjvVhji mm qhJrjw bVplji
dyCg duMsg h' w[ Rpc eHg m Rpfi.a WjWj ug WC[ h,Dl[ Rpl
lq[G FuV dl>z Vjq sj qdhij dl,t WjWj ug sg h;Pig dry W{nj
lg m Rpl V[ W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ ujVri W[b>a qi[ fH[ hV m$$
lpS w[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##ljHk v'wj@ u' h'dHbj@ Rpl s[
hpwq Vjv h'dHbj dHh w'Hg aqjLj Vhk u' b{r[G drtjdHbj ujr[
aP. bV.s ihp m$$ dxi FuV dl>z V[ dyCg sg e,v yvjHg lpS
w[ h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ #blk dwa[ dfAv[ lq[G dry af,Ddlbj
wis[ lg@ dHw d;qksji sj fdirji ljcg l[rj wisj hp.sj lg m
dHh dyCg Rpl sg vCwg lg@ dHh vCwg us'G rg ljc[ w'v
bjMsg qV } t'v wiV rjvgbJ e,vJ wisg@ Whpa lqNjH[
a[ rg Vj lqNg m dHw dsV dwa[ ljc[ w'v'G dHl } WyV dVwv
debj aP. dyCg rJe W'vg uj ihg ]@ ypf wi w[ W{n m Rpl lq[G
a'G dHh qi w[ dyCg s[ iPf dry bj ihg ] m dHl rji qi w[
dHl[ ujq[ dry hg dHl } sPug rji dyCg sj ujqj Fpeaj dsaj
] m dHl a'G b,De[ dHl sj wdvbjS h'H[ej m
ujl Vjq w' Vje ufaj dsV ijag
ujl Vjq s' l.a Fea ejra fiFjag
ujl Vjq epiP e+.o q[G ldaepip Rpyji[
ujl Vjq V" t>c idrY W+dhq>c qNji[
l' Vjq fdaa fjrV fpVga qV uVq uVq wg sdha ] m
l' iPf qhJ hdiVjq dl>z bV.s dl>z w' wdha ] m
120

l'Hg h'dH du wia[ Fjr{ wdh w{


bjfp rEjrSj mm
\b>e 1086|

l.ea wiVg@ qhJ fpit sg l[rj wiVg@ i;j dry idhSj@


qhJ fpit sj siLV wiVj@ qhJ fpit sg iq; Vj lqN lwSg@
qhJ fpit wpN wdhS uJ Vj wdhS W.s[ sj Fvj bjfS[ bjf
wpN wdhSj@ qhJ fpitJ fjl'G l[rw wHg rji Fpv[t[ dry f{ uJsj
] m dHo[ WjWj ug fjl dHw l[rw lg@ Rpl V[ WjWj ug fjl lrjv
fjdHbj a[ wdhS v,ej q{G rg aphjcj l[rw hJ ba[ ci'vg rjv[
s'r[G uS[ aphjc[ l[rw hV@ Rph rg QigW hV a[ q{G rg QigW
hJ m u[ aplk hpwq wi' aJ RphVJ sg vCwg sj diLaj q[i[ vCw[
Vjv h' ujr[ m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##RphVj sg w.dVbj
aJ w.dVbj hg ih[eg@ e+dhla s[ u.ujv dry Vhk xl[eg m Rpl
V[ dHl WyV } Vj lqdNbj Rphg Rpfivg e,v wHg r[i sphijHg m
dHl a'G Wjbs us'G rg lqJ dqvsj aJ dHh l[rw dHh' hg e,v
wisj m WjWj ug w'Hg WyV Vj wis[ ba[ ypf hg idh>Ds[ m dHw
rji dHl l[rw V[ WjWj ug fjl dxi dHh W[Vag sphijHg dw
qhjiju q{G ljig Rpqi l[rj wgag@ wpN aphjc[ fjl'G q>Ddebj Vhk m
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##aP. hpS wpN q>e v{ m$$ Rpfi.a Rpl V[
Rpfivg diLa[ rjvg e,v dxi whg m WjWj ug dHh e,v lpS w[
h,l fH[ a[ WyV wgaj@ ##u[ blk a[i[ qp>Dc[ } dHhVJ sg vCwg
sj diLaj wijRpS v,De[ x[i aP. Vhk q>VSj m$$ Rpl V[ dxi W[Vag
wgag@ ##ug@ q{G dabji hJ m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@
121

##v{ lpS v{ a[i[ qp>c[ } diLaj f,wj@ dHl w.dVbj sg Rpqi b,n
dsV sg ] a[ij qp>cj rg ujH[ej diLaj f,wj m s,l@ a{} qV;Pi
] m$$ dHh WyV lpSs[ lji hg Rph l[rw yp,f h' debj dHl a'G
Wjbs Rpl V[ b,De[ rjla[ e,v wiVg W.s wi ds,ag m
\dHh WyV qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m|

a[ij hpwqp bfji ] w'Hg b>ap V fjH[ mm


\b>e 396|

dHw rji WjWj ug V[ FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w"i@


agug dHhVJ sg vCwg da>VJ } h;Pig dry Wpvj w[ hpwq wgaj@
##Vgvj dl>zj da>VJ sg Lij wi w[ dvbjRp m$$ Rpfi.a hpwq
bVplji Vgvj dl>z ug Li%j wij w[ dvbjH[ a[ dHl a'G Wjbs
iaV dl.z ci'vg a[ u{ w"i } dVaV[q Wji[ fp,DdAbj aJ dHhVJ
V[ du>DV[ hpwq bVplji ufp ug ljdhW s[ fjn wis[ lV s,Dl[ m
ug s'r[G l,ai~l,ai fjn ufp ug ljdhW s[ wis[ hJ aJ WyV
wgaj@ ##Lp,Z ] m$$ dxi fp,DdAbj w'Hg ds=LBJa V;i bjdHbj a[
dxi W[Vag wgag@ ##qhjiju@ lj} s'hJ } dHM dsdlbj dur[G
blk tC[ hJ@ ljc[ b,De[ dHw tPh ] Rpl sj fjSg bjfS[ bjf
Wjhi } bj dihj ] m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dHh q[hi sg
dVLjVg ] awC[ h' w[ dVaV[q a[ l[rj wi' m$$ ngw dHhVJ dsVJ
dry WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj@ ##ljc[ w'v qhJ fpit bj ih[ hV@
RphVJ Vjv l.ea Fg h'r[eg@ aphj} Rpl l.ea sg l[rj wiV
sg upeag s,lgH[ m$$ aJ FjHg iaV dl>z ci'vg ba[ u{ w"i V[
W[Vag wgag@ ##s,l' qhjiju m$$ aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dw
122

us'G qhJ fpitJ s[ Vjv bjHg l.ea v.ei A,w w[ hB[ aplk RphVJ
s[ uPn[ FJc[ qJuS rjla[ v{ ujS[ u[ fp,AS aJ aplk bjfS[ bjf
} VjHg wdh s[Sj m dxi dHh l[rj dqv[eg@ du>DV[ A'B[ WS w[ l[rj
wi'e[ xv rg RpaVj hg r,cj dqv[ej m
qV duRp bfpV[ f+F FjrRp mm
Vgyhp Vgy Vgy bda VjVj h'dH eigWp WpvjrRp mm
\b>e 529|

dHl upea Vjv l[rj wiV sj T.e ba[ qhjaq lqNjdHbj m


\dHh f+l.e qjaj dfaj fjl'G dqdvbj m|

bjfS{ FjS{ u' yv{ FjHg


drApdC y'Bj tjr{ mm
\b>e 602|

dHw rji u[n~hjC s[ qhgV[ WCg hV[ig bjHg m ljig ija


dq,Bg Rpcsg ihg m Rpl lq[G duaV[ l[rw WjWj ug sg h;Pig dry
lV lF V[ ija uje w[ dWajHg m b,De[ dul lq[G WjWj ug s[ bjlS
sj sirj;j tp,v%sj lg Rpl[ lq[G hg sirj;j tp,Ddv%bj aJ h;Pi
V[ WyV wgaj@ ##Wjdvbj@ wpN l[rjsji Wpvj w[ ljc[ ligi ba[
bjlS RpKa'G i[aj dq,Bg NjC dsRp m$$ Rpfi.a Vi{S dl>z ug V[
duV%J duV%J l[rwJ s[ Vjq WjWj ug V[ vH[ RphVJ } Vjv v{
w[ WjWj ug s[ ligi ba[ bjlS RpKa'G i[aj bjdsw NjC ds,aj m
i[aj NjCV lq[G WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dHh duhCj i[aj ljc[
ligi Vjv dy>WC debj ] dHh i[aj y"rg WgqjigbJ sg srjHg
123

] m$$ dHh ljig l[rj wiV Rpfi.a FuV dl.z cjvg qpC w[
bjdHbj aJ wpN lq[G df,DA'G FuV dl>z s[ f[B sis LpiP h' debj m
;'i~;'i sg hjH[~hjH[ wiV v,e dfbj m c[i[ dry WjWj ug sj
hpwq lg@ w'Hg l[rjsji Wgqji h' ujH[ lj} ?Wi wi' m dHh hpwq
bVplji WjWj ug w'v FuV dl>z sg Wgqjig sg ?Wi wi ds,ag
be'G WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##FuVj rg v'wJ sj dHvju wisj
] hpS aJ w.q dHr[G hg y,Dv[ej m Rpl } fp,DA' wg h'dHbj ] a[
dwr[G h'dHbj ] m$$ dul lq[G FuV dl>z } fp,DDdAbj aJ Rpl V[
dHl ai%J s,Ddlbj b,u lr[i[ dul r[v[ WjWj ug s[ ligi RpKa'G
i[aj NjC ih[ lg aJ WjWj ug V[ dwhj lg@ ##dHh i[aj y"rg
WgqjigbJ sg srjHg ] m$$ dHh lpS w[ wpN i[aj bjfS[ w'v i,t
dvbj lg m dul r[v[ q{G df>c dry cjvg wiV debj b,e[ dHw
zi dr,y vCw[ s[ dT,c dry sis h' dihj lg@ q{G ail wi w[
Rph qhjiju s[ ligi rjvj NjdCbj i[aj dHw ypBwg Rpl qp>Dc[
} tpbj ds,aj@ qp>cj aJ Rpl[ r[v[ hg ij;g h' debj fi q[i[ dT,c
dry o'C%j sis duhj h'S v,e dfbj a[ dxi h"vg~h"vg rZ debj@
cjvg wi w[ bjRpS df,DA'G Whpa rZ debj m dHh' ?Wi WjWj ug
w'v s,lg Vjv hg W[Vag wi ds,ag@ ##qhjiju@ FuVj aJ Whpa
b"tj ]@ dqhi wi' m$$ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ ##dsV Tvs[ aw
dHh' w.q ih[ej dxi bjijq wiJe[ m V.s vjv sg dHh' i;j ] m$$
bjfS[ FjS{ u' yv{ FjHg drAC y'Bj tjr{ mm
\dHh WyV r,cj N.cj dl>z l[qj dVrjlg a'G dqdvbj m|

124

l>a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug


q>si qphji VjVwli a'G FppKy' ljdhW a,w
l.a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug sj uVq df>c qphji adhlgv
ugij d;v%j dxi';fpi drt[ qjaj l'qjr>ag w"i ba[ dfaj lisji
ueaji dl>z s[ e+dh drt[ 1 hjC \15 uPV 1954| } b>dq+a
r[v[ h'dHbj m WjWj ug s[ dfaj ug dHvjw[ dr,y fPi[ qjV ba[
ldawji rjv[ fpiL lV m bjf ug s[ dfaj ug 25 ljv bjfS[
df>c s[ lif>y ih[ m WjWj ug bjfS[ fdirji dr,y 6 Fij ba[
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