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epi l.a lFj sptp dqB{ i'ep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
wRpS ujS{ yva a[i[ b>dZbji[ qdh sgf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
epVh Rpl w[ lev bjxP a[i[ uV s[tdh sgsji m.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
lFp dwAp a[[i{ rdl a[ij zip Fvj mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
fPiW wiq b>wpi uW f+eB[ F[dBRp fpitp idlw W{ijeg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
bejhj wP a+jdz dfAj x[di V qphcCj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
bjf lhjHg h'bjly[ sj lyj T'bj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
ZVr.a Vjq w[ rSuji[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
RPS[ Fi[ Fi[ Fdi RPS[ H[dh yva lpbjqg w[ wjiSj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
aP bjf[ bjdf bjdf lFp wiaj w'Hg sPuj h'dH lp bri' whgb{ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
u{lj wi[ lp a{lj fjH[ bdFqjVg wg uC lifi ujH[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
wiqj Rpfdi dVWC{ u[ v'y{ lFp w'dH mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
lPy{ Fjc{ ljyp lqjr{ driv[ lPyjyjig mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
l.a lidS l.a Bhv wig.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
u' apq wihp l'Hg Fvj qdV v[aj qpwaj mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
dltg dldtbj epi rgyjdi m Vsig widq v.zjH[ fjdi m.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
l[rw wRp l[rj WdV bjHg mm hpwqp WPdN fiq fsp fjHg mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
qjV{ hpwqp l'h{ sdi ljy{ bjwg qidh bxjig mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
h'dV Vugdw tpsjdH s{ F[ap V dwl{ s[dV mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
dudV dudV wig brdebj m uV wg a[ a{ sgH[ ipCjHg mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
lj l[rj wgag lxv h{ duap ldaepi wj qVp q>V[ mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
u[ YdH dsldh Vidw ujs[ aJ RpVwj sjVp V v{Sj mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
u' qdV dyda dHwp bijZs[ daV wg Wiwda tjdh bl.t wi'C[.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
dlZ ljdZw debjVg dZbjVgbj wRpSp apZpV' a'v{ mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
l+g ijq i.e bfji fPiV Vh dVqt qV qdh rPdnbj mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
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l[rw wRp dVwBg h'dH dstjr{ m.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58


dul wj wjiu daV hg wgbj qjSlp dwbj r[yjij ijq mm$$.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
duV qdV h'ip qpdt h'ip dl wJT[ wdybj.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
bfV[ l[rw wRp bjdf lhjHg.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Vjdq ia[ da+FrS l'Ng h'dH mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
bjf[ Wgdu bjf[ hg tjhp mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
bfVg l[rj bjdf wijHg mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
bjlj Fiq dWwji q'h dHV qdh v'FjVj mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
dsaj vHgH[ bjfSj bSdsaj dwAp ho Vj bjr{ mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
u[rcp bjdf a[rc a[ig sjda mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
u' qjedh l'Hg l'Hg fjrdh l[dr hdi w[ yiV iljdHS mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
##ljdhWp l[rwp dHwp dHwp ds+lBjdHbj$$.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
ujdH Wlhp rcFjeSg ltgH[ l.aj l.de lqjHgb{ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
ujdH Wlhp rcFjeSg ltgH[ l.aj.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
bVaj ZVp aiSg ai{ bVa V yjdhbj ujdH mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
ldaepip r[firjhp dli.sj mm V uqwjdS V A.sj W.sj mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
epfap f+eBp lF ujSgb{ u[ qVp ijt{ njdH mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
didZ dldZ lF Feaj yiSg vjeg epi w{ ldhu lpFjHg mm.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
##silV dVqt ajf a+Hg q'yV fila qpwda wia de+h wPf mm$$.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
c[ij WjWj i.pqg rjvj Fp,y'G wvJ.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
l>a WjWj lpts[r dl>z ug.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
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uVq qiV wB Vsdi wi Vsig Vsdi dVhjv m
lF wpA a[i[ h,o h{ WtLL wi' dwifjv
WtLL wi' dwifjv q[hi s[ zi dry bj w[
dihj Vj tjvg w'dH a[i[ si a[ bj w[ m
wh[ wrg uV sjl a.P lq>=o wjiV wiV
Vsig Vsi dVhjv wi'@ spt wjB' f+F uVq qiV m
fdaa fjrVp hdi dWisp lsjH[ dHwp davp Vhg F.V{ zjv[ m
\b>e 785|

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xv Rpl a'G wHg epSJ r,Z hp.sj h{ ##VjRp VjVw WtdLL W'hv
##epirjw h{ W.sj dH,w rji dlqisj h{@ Rplsj xv WtdLL s[
iPf dr,y wHg epSJ r,Z hp.sj h{ m fi.aP epi dl,t dlqiV wisj
ih[@ w'Hg lqJ WtdLL sj ws[ bj hg uJsj h{ m dH,w lq[G WjWj
ug V[ Vgvj dl>z } hpwq wgaj dw ##FpBjV sj ijuj ljc[ siLV
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A,c w[ Wjhi bj ujrg bevj w.q blgG wiJe[$$ m WyV a'G
Rpfi.a dul lq[G FPBjV rjvj ijuj bjdHbj hpwq bVplji Vgvj
7

dl>z Rpl} L'wgV zi dr,y A,c bjdHbj dxi Vgvj dl>z fdhi[
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lji hg FPBjV rjv[ iju[ } hpwq wgaj ##bjfS[ dHLB } Ijs
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dw siWji v,Ddebj h{ m dH,w dsW fpit wpilg a[ W{nj h{ m Rpl}
WjWj ug V[ dHLjij wiw[ hpwq wgaj ##dHlsj dhljW dwajW
s[t'$$ m RplV[ s,Ddlbj dw dHl V[ air.uj ljv af wgaj h{@
ba[ yjvg ljv dHl s[ w,DB[ eH[ hV@ a[iJ ljv Wjwg hV Rpfi.a
h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj ##a[ig a[iJ ljvJ sg afKdlbj Vjv aJ
a{} Wdn.cj Ldhi ba[ bljcj faj VhgG vKdebj m dxi a{}
s,lS vHg lj} epfa iPf dr,y brj; s[Sg fHg m duhCg yg;
yjh.psj h{@ Rpl vHg a{} WCg Fjig afKdlbj wiVg fr[eg m$$
b>a } iju[ V[ W[Vag wgag dw qhjiju dwifj wiw[ q{} bjfS[
q,B dry'G b>dq+a uv WtL' m uJ q,w[ sj h,u wijRp m Rpfi.a
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##bu[ a[ig af,DdlbJ fPig VhgG h'Hg
ba[ q,B rjvj b>dq+a rg a{} VhgG dqv lwsj m$$ iju[ V[ dxi
W[Vag wgag dw q,w[ sj h,u VhgG wirjRpSj aJ Vj lhg@ fi
b>dq+a uv ;iPi WtL' Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ Vgvj dl>z } hpwq
wgaj dw ##dHh i.P sj x.Wj uv Vjv dFRpG w[ s' W.PsJ dHls[
q>Ph dr,y fjY@ r,Z VhgG fjRpSj$$ m iju[ } hpwq h'dHbj dw
bjfSj q>Ph t'v WjWj ug V[ bjfS[ h,o Vjv s' W.PsJ Rpls[ qP.h
dr,y dVy'CgbJ@ q>Ph dr,y W.PsJ f{S lji hg ijuj dfA[ uj dfbj m
Vgvj dl>z u' Rpo[ hpwq bVplji q"uPs lg r[t w[ wdhS v,ej
##qhjiju@ dHo[ eiqg WCg h{ dwa[ qi hg Vj ujr[$$ m WjWj ug
V[ hpwq wgaj ##dHl} wpN VhgG hp.sj dfbj idhS dsY m$$ uj
wRp bjdHY H[wp ilj mm tjV fjV bjV VhgG tpdZbj aj w{ dya
V Wlj mm$$
8

sl dsV dHl ai%J Wga[ m sl dsVJ Wjbs WjWj ug V[


hpwq wgaj ##s[lg w,sP ba[ dzRp v{ bjY m s[lg w,sP Wdn.c[
a'G VhgG dqv[@ fdBbjv[ a'G v{ w[ bjH[ m dli dr,y dzRp sg qjdvL
ba[ f{iJ dr,y s[lg w,sP sg qjdvL b,n fdhi vejaji wgag m
Rpls[ b,tJ t'vS Wjbs WjWj ug V[ fp,dAbj ##dwRp ijuj wg
r[dtbj ($$ RplV[ W[Vag wgag eigW dVrj; u' aplgG drtjdHbj
da.V v'w s[ siLV h' eH[ hV m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj
##Hgs rjv[ dsV a.P q,wj rg r[t dvbj wigG m hpS dfA[ fhp.y m
Rpo[ uj w[ FuV wiVj h{ m aJ hg dHh yg; a[i[ w'v ih[eg m$$
epirjw h{ m
dlqihp dlqihp ljdl ljdl qa dWvq wi[hp
A'dc f+f.yp f+F dlRp iyhp adu wPC[ V[hp m m
\dWvjrvp q! 5 b>e 812|

\l.a l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ dHh WyV l.ea dr,y lpSjdHbj m|

wRpS ujS{ yva a[i[


b>dZbji[ qdh sgf
\b>e 724|

l! Fje dl>z u,lg f" rjvj WjWj ug sj fpijSj l[rjsji


lg duls[ dH,w s' f+l.e df,A[ rg bj yp,w[ hV m Fje dl>z
dH,w rji WjWj ug s[ siLV wiV bjdHbj m dul r[v[ RplV[
Vqlwji wiw[ bjfSg W[Vag wiV sg bjdebj q>eg aJ WjWj
ug V[ hpwq ds,aj@ Fje dl>z bwjv ata RpKa[ fhp.y ba[
b>dq+a A,w w[ ljc[ w'v bj w[ dxi bjfSj f+LV wigG m hpwq
bVplji l+! Fje dl>z Fp,y'G a'G dl,Zj hg l+g b>dq+ali ljdhW
fh.py w[ b>dq+afjV wiw[ Rpfi.a WjWj ug sg h;Pig dr,y Fp,y'G
9

hj;i h'dHbj m Rpl rwa Fje dl>z s[ ejai[ dw+fjV fjHg h'Hg
lg ba[ ejaiJ w,fC[ sg oJ yqC[ sj lg m fdhi[sji V[ WjWj
ug fjl W[Vag wgag dw qhjiju u,lg f" rjvg rjvj Fje dl>z
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ba[ ejaij y.q sj h{ m h;Pi V[ RpKai ds,aj ##Rph ljcj hpwq
q>Vw[ bjdHbj h{ Rpl} bjRpS dsY m Rpfi.a Fje dl>z yiVJ
dr,y hj;i h'dHbj m WjWj ug V[ ljij dW+aJa fp,DdAbj m ##lpSj
Fje dl>z dxi dwr[G Wgag Rpo[ m$$ Fje dl>z V[ ljig Wgag lpSj
w[ W[Vag wgag dw l,y[ fjaLjh Rpo[ qlaPbjS[ rjdvbJ sj
sgrjV v,ej h'dHbj lg m q{G aphjc[ hpwq bVplji b>dq+a AwS
a'G Wjbs sgrjV dr,y fhp.dybj m wgiaV lpdSbj dy,a WCj
?pL h'dHbj m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj Fje dl>z@ ljc[ w'v ditg
ug hV wv[iJ rjv[ Rpo[ rg wgiaV hp.sj h{ m Fje dl>z } hpwq
h'dHbj ##hpS a.P fdhvJ rjvj bjfSj f+LV s,l dw ljc[ w'v
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aplgG bjdebj WtL' aJ q{G bjfS[ qp.c[ } dqwiS dr,y z,v
dsbJ m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dw ##a[ig a[ a[i[ qp.c[ sg dHo[
hg dqwiS WSj dsbJe[ m a.P u,lg a'G Wdn.c[ bj ujrgG lF wpN
h' ujr[ej m fi WS[ej lF wpN ljo'G Wjbs m fi a..P r[t vrgG m$$
Rpfi.a Fje dl>z } zi ujS sj hpwq wgaj Rpfi.a Fje
dl>z } tpLg s[ w[ a'i ds,aj m b,e[ Fje dl>z WjWj ug s[ hpwq
bVplji l.a Whjv sjl ug fjl u,lg f" rjvg fhp.dybj m faj
VhgG dHl dr,y wg F[a lg m l.a Whjv sjl ug V[ duRpG hg
Fje dl>z } r[dtbj ba[ wi'Z dr,y bj w[ WyV wgaj ##dVwv
uj ydqbjij dHo'G$$ m Rpfi.a Fje dl>z dHo'G zi y,Ddvbj debj m
i'; V[ dVIq bVplji us'G l.a Whjvsjl ug s[ l[rw RpV%J
s[ blojV a'G sp,Z v{ w[ y,vS v,e[ aJ dH,w e{Wg brj; WCg
wCwrgG lSjHg ds,ag ##blgG aphcj sp,Z VhgG fgSj m l[rwJ
10

V[ Rpo'G hg f{i df,A[ q'C dvbj ba[ l.a Whjv sjl ug } uj


ljig e,v s,lg dw qhjiju dHl ai%J sg lj} brj; lpSjHg
ds,ag h{ m Rpla'G Wjbs ljcj b,e[ ujS sj h"Glvj VhgG dfbj m
lpS w[ l.a Whjv ug rg lqN eH[ m bVujS fpS[ w'Hg brKdebj
h'Hg h{ m y,v w[ bjf WtLjHgH[ m apiV lq[G h,o u'C vH[ m qPhi[
h' w[ api fH[ m TjHg da.V wsqJ apiVj ba[ dxi v.q[ f{w[ c.c'a
wiVg a[ y,v f{Sj m u,lg a'G v{ w[ WjWj ug s[ blojV a,w
ljij ilaj dHl[ ai%J hg fPij wgaj m dur[G dwl[ V[ dwhj h{ m
fi rjh f+[qg idhqa a{}@ a.P lg a,w Vj wgag m
bjfSg Fp,v bjf WtLjHg u' Wgag l' Wgagm
t{i dul rwa l.a Whjv sjl ug fdhi[sji ijhgG bjdebj
v{ w[ WjWj ug s[ ljhqS[ f[L h'H[ aJ WjWj ug V[ wCwrgG brj;
$y WyV wgaj ##y.ej h'dHbj a.P bj debj h{G m u[ VJ bjRpGsj
aJ b,u a{} V.e wi s[Sj lg m a{} Rpo[ dHl rjla[ aJ VhgG
dWnjdHbj dw a.P v'wJ } y.e[ qjC[ fit[G m Rph Fje dl>z ljcj
l[rw ljc[ hpwq Vjv a[i[ w'v debj lg m aP. Rpl} wg W'dvbj
] b,e'G@ ##l.a Whjv dl>z ug V[ yiVJ a[ q,oj B[w w[ r{ije
dr,y V[ai Fi vH[ a[ W[Vag wgag eigW dVrju dur[G rg ujSs[
h' WtL vRp Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ hpwq wiw[ l[rwJ a'G sp,Z v{
dvbj ba[ l.a Whjv sjl ug } Zgiu s[ w[ a'i ds,aj m
f[+qj Feag s[ ila[ b.si RpKyj W'vS q>sj m
ljdhW ljdhW ih[ hq[LJ W.sj YCw W.sj m
dHh WyV Fje dl>z s[ fp,ai q>ev dl>z y,wg rjv[ a'G
dqdvbj m

11

epVh Rpl w[ lev bjxP


a[i[ uV s[tdh sgsji m
\b>e 724|

dHw qjHg dHl Vei sg idhS rjvg lg dul sj f+dl,Z


Vjq e.eg lg m dVIq bVplji hi i'; WjWj ug s[ dB,v[ Rpfi
NjCP wisg hp.sg lg m dwl[ lq[G dHl qjHg sj fp,ai lta Wgqji
h' debj lg m WjWj ug sg dw+fj bVplji Rpl V[ s[h bi'eaj
f+jfa wgag lg m \dHh f+l.e dfA[ f>ur[-A[r[G dh,Dl[ dr,y bj yp,wj|
] m dVIq bVplji qjHg dB,v[ RpKfi l[rj wi ihg lg m qjHg
s[ ws[ ws[ b,tJ dry'G b,oiP re ujdHbj wiV m qjHg V[ b,tJ
} w,fC[ Vjv ljx wi v{Sj a[ hi rji WjWj ug a'G Wyj w[
l[rj wisg ihg wg WjWj ug r[t Vj v{S m wHg rji qjHg bjfS[
dli rjv[ w,fC[ Vjv b,tJ } ljx wisg ihg m dur[G WjSg dr,y
bjdtbj m
dWVp WwV[ dWVp whVp whjrVp b>aiujqg ujV{
\b>e 1228|

s[ WyV bVplji WjWj ug V[ e.ej qjHg } fp,dAbj ##dwRp


qjHg b,tJ dr,y fjSg dwRpG bjdHbj( a{} w'Hg sp,t awvgx
h{ aJ s,l s[@$$ lpS w[ qjHg V[ h,o u'C w[ W[Vag wgag dw
bjf lF wpN ujSs[ h' q{G wg s,lJ(
us'G q{G bjfS[ dfAv[ rwa a[ Nja qjisg hJ aJ q[ij
qV Fi bjRpGsj h{ m aJ WjWj ug V[ qplwij w[ bjdtbj dw
duhCg e,v a'G qV cisj ##Rph sl s[$$ aJ qjHg yp,f r,B eHg m
sPug rji dxi WyV wgaj dw ##qjHg b,u[ rwa ] e,v Apfj
12

Vj$$ aJ qjHg dlix b{Vj hg W'vj lwg u[ aplgG Vj ujSs[ h'


aJ q{G s,lJ m s,lsg } Liq duhg bjRpGsg h{ m WjWj ug V[ WyV
wgaj ##dw u[ WtLjRpS[ hV aJ dHw,v[ dHw,v[ wi s[ s,l s[ m
aJ dxi bjf[ hg WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj u[ a.P qP.h' VhgG W'vSj
aJ dHw,v[-dHw,v[ epVjh bjfS[ q>Ph dr,y W'v w[ ;qgV RpKa[
vwgiJ rjhg y,v$$ m qjHg vwgiJ rjhpS v,e fHg m us'G f>u
l,a vwgiJ h' ujS aJ WjWj ug RpKfi h,o x[i w[ vwgiJ q[B
s[S m qjHg vwgiJ rjhpS sj w.q vejaji wi ihg lg m Wtdl>s
qhJfpit ljigbJ vwgiJ a[ h,o qjis[ ih[ m us btgi a[ qjHg
V[ vwgiJ W.s wgagbJ@ aJ WjWj ug V[ dwhj dw qjHg bu[
s' e,vJ Wjwg idh eHgbJ@ hpS Rph rg vwgiJ rjh w[ WtLj
v{ m dHh q'wj dxi VhgG h,o bjRpSj m qjHg s' h'i vwgiJ rjhpS
a'G l.w'y wi eHg m a[ WjWj ug V[ h,l w[ bjfS[ h,o Vjv s'
vwgiJ rjh ds,agbJ a[ wdhS v,e[@ v{ qjHg@ bj a[igbJ s'
vwgiJ sj rg a[ig l[rj lsw[ v[tj qp,w debj m hpS a[ig l[rj
rg lxv h' eHg h{ m$$
ZiqijdH sdi wjes xji[ uV VjVw v[tj lqNj mm
b>e 698

dHl rwa Rpl qjHg sj f'aij xPc qdhwq[ dr,y dH.lf{wBi


h{ ba[ dH,w wiVv cjwBi qdh.si dl>z h{ ba[ dH,w bqiuga
dl>z b{q cg sg bjfSg spwjV h{ m dH,w qjHg sg f'aig WgWg
h{ dul sj fag u,u h{ m
dHl qjHg sj fPij Vjq f+ajf w"i rg h{ m

13

lFp dwAp a[[i{ rdl a[ij zip Fvj mm


\b>e 965|

w,yg Fp,y'G a'G dH,w bjsqg lg dul sj Vjq e.cj dl>z lg m


dHh ligiw a"i a[ wHgbJ WgqjigbJ sj a.e wgaj h'dHbj
WjWj ug w'v bjdHbj m dHl sj blvg Vei qjHglitjVj lg m
ba[ dHh s[rg qjaj sj Fea h'S wi v'wg dHl } FeaFea wdh.s[ lg m dHl s[ ligi a[ x'C[ dVwv h'H[ lV a[ WjWj
ug fjl bj w[ wdhS v,ej ug q{G x'dCbj a'G Whpa a.e hJ
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wi v{ lF h,B ujSe[ a[ a[ig sjC% sj dHvju dxi wiJe[ m$$
WyV lpS w[ dHLVjV vHg yvj debj m us rjfl bjdHbj
aJ Wjbs dr,y Vgvj dlRpG } hpwq h'dHbj@ ##dHl } dH,w f+Ljsj
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f+Ljs[ r,v r[t[ a[ ws[ bjfsg sjC% r,v r[t[ m WjWj ug V[ Rpl
} r[t w[ dwhj dw ##Feaj tjS sg wi b,ej-df,Aj Vj r[t m$$
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W.s h' debj dur[G fdhvJ ws[ h'dHbj VhgG Rpfi.a dH,w i'Bg
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Wjbs dr,y bjdebj q>eg WjWj ug V[ hpwq ds,aj ##bu[ VhgG m$$
WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dw ##Feaj a[i[ vHg lrjig bj
ihg h{@ a.P wjhvg Vj wi m$$ wpN lq[G s[ Wjbs bjf[ hg a'i
14

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a'G Wjhi bjdHbj aJ b,e'G dH,w RPn rjvj tCj lg m Rph fp,AS
v,ej a.P dwo[ ujSj h{ m b,e'G e.cj dl>z wdhS v,ej w,yg Fp,y'G m
RPn rjvj wdhS v,ej dw q{G fPhv[ a'G bjdHbj hJ a[ FjeP
ujSj h{ m a.P q[i[ Vjv W{n uj m a{} q{G w,yg Fp,y'G Rpaji s[rJej m
\dHh WyV vAqS dl>z Fv[igH[ w,yg Fp,y' a'G dqdvbj|

fPiW wiq b>wpi uW f+eB[ F[dBRp fpitp


idlw W{ijeg
\b>e 204|

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h.psj h{ m hpwq q>VS rjdvbJ vHg v.q[ ba[ dWtC[ ila[ RpV%J
vHg w'Hg ipwjrB VhgG tCg wi lws[ m
duVj FjS[ wj ilp bjdHbj mm daV dryhp Fiqp ypwjdHbj mm
b>e 73

15

lqp>sp ljeip h'r{ Whp tjij epidltp


v.dz epi fdh ujHg
\lPhg q! 4@ b>e 757|

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qpa,vw lF L.w[ Vdria wi ds,a[ ba[ FjrVj f+f,w h' eHg m
dHh f+l.e l+g ijq dl>z ug s[ l[rw WjWj Wvdr.si dl>z
ug a'G dqdvbj m

bejhj wP a+jdz dfAj


x[di V qphcCj
\b>e 1096|

l.V 1914 sg u.e v,e eHg m b>ei[; liwji V[ fpvgl


ijhgG uWig Fiag bi.F wgag h'Hg lg m dHw,v[ l[q[ df>c dry'G
Apf>uj qp.c[ Fiag wiw[ v{ api[ m ila[ dr,y RpV%J V[ fpdvl }
dwhj dw blj} WjWj ug s[ siLV wi v{S dsY m Rpfi.a Rph
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blj} fpdvl V[ uWislag Fiag vHg xdCbj h{ m RpV%J dr,y
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16

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\b>e 628|

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b>e 807

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20

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21

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24

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v.z eH[ a[ Vjv hg WyV wgaj dw dHh' duh[ qhjaqj sg l[rj
wiVg yjhgsg h{ m us'G vAqS sjl ug V[ fp,dAbj dw dHh qhjaqj
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duo'G v.z ujS b,wJ } dqLig rg v,e lwsg h{ m u[ a.P RpV%J
s[ VJ fp,AS[ hV aJ VJ rg s,l ds.s[ hJ m dHV%J s[ Vjq e'fg
y.s a[ Fioig ug lV m
dHh WyV V"i y.s bjlj ijq a[ vAqS sjl sj fdirji
ngwig rjdvbJ a'G dqv[ hV m

26

aP bjf[ bjdf bjdf lFp wiaj w'Hg


sPuj h'dH lp bri' whgb{
\b>e 594|

dHw FjHg rugi dl>z w,yg F,py'G sj idhS rjvj WjWj ug


sg l[rj dr,y sp,Z v{ w[ bjdHbj wisj lg m Rpl V[ i'; s[ dVIq
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dul wiw[ dHl sg Avw r,u[eg sp,Z h'i VhgG dqv lwsj lg m
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deSagbJ-dqSagbJ dr,y h"vg-h"vg apdibj bjRpGsj lg dw
sp,Z dwa[ cp,v rg Vj ujr[ m be'G ijh dry'G w'Hg w,lg sj tjvj
v.zSj f{Gsj lg m v.zS lq[G Rph sp,Z sj s'hS[ dli a'G o,v[
bj dfbj m h{ijVg dHl e,v sg h'Hg dw s'hSj dc,e aJ dfbj@
fi sp,Z dWvwpv rg cp,Ddv%bj VhgG m RplV[ s'hSj ljx wiw[ dxi
dli Rpfi yp,w dvbj m Rpl[ ai%J l.w'y Vjv apisj apisj WjWj
ug fjl fhp.y debj WjWj ug V[ be'G lqNjdHbj dw duhCj
sp,Z ljcj lg@ duV%J lj} dVi.wji V[ s[Sj lg Rph cpdv%bJ VhgG m
a[i[ qV dr,y xpiV[ WSs[ ih[ m fi lj} f+qjaqj V[ dHaVj hg
s[Sj lg m ljcj sp,Z h'S wiw[ cp,Ddv%bj VhgG m dHh a[i[ qV dr,y
u' xpiV[ WSs[ lV m Rph a{} drtjH[ hV dw u' lj} f+qjaqj
V[ s[Sj h{@ Rphg s[Sj h{ m
r;gi dl>z W[Vag wgag dw lj} qhjiju dHl ai%J idh.sj
h{ dw blgG r,Z a'G r,Z l[rj wigH[ aJ dw w'Hg wqg Vj
idh ujH[ m WjWj ug V[ xpiqjHgbj@ # #dw lj} bjfS[ l[rwJ
27

s[ qV s[ l.l[ w,TS rjla[ w'Hg Vj w'Hg wRpaw riajRpSj


f{Gsj h{ m$$
Rpfi.a r;gi dl>z qpbjxg q>eg a[ ujS sg bjdebj q>eg m
fi WjWj ug V[ ujS sg bjdebj Vj ds,ag m bev[ dsV r;gi
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h{ m a[ dxi rg r;gi dl>z a[ Rpl s[ fp,ai } bjdebj Vj dqvg m
dxi agli[ dsV dHV%J sj lgig zi'G v{S rjla[ bjdHbj m us'G
dxi agli[ dsV W[Vag wgag WjWj ug WyV wgaj Lp,Z h{@ ujY)$$
bjdebj Vj s[S sj wjiV fp,dAbj aj qhjiju ug W'v[@ a[ij
w'Hg wLB sPi wgaj h{ m hpS zi ujY m Lp,Z h{ m$$
Rpfi.a r;gi dl>z } a[ Rpl s[ fp,ai a[ Vjv hg dHV%J
sj lgig da>VJ } bjdebj s[ ds,ag m
dHh WyV r;gi dl>z w,yg Fp,y'G s[ f'ai[ fjl'G dqdvbj m

u{lj wi[ lp a{lj fjH[


bdFqjVg wg uC lifi ujH[
\b>e 869|

WjWj ug s[ lq[G dr,y dHh' duhj lqJ rg lg dul dr,y


fjSg sj WCj a'Cj idh.sj lg m dH,w rjig fjSg sj dHaVj
a'Cj dfbj dw WjWj ug s[ dHLVjV wiV rjv[ A,fC u' dw
dB,vj ljdhW s[ dfAv[ fjl[ V[C[ hg lg dry'G fjSg dWvwpv
z,B debj m fjSg sg a.eg lji[ Vei dr,y h' eHg m WjWj
ug V[ Vjvg sj fjSg \dul dr,y Vdhi sj fjSg resj lg|
r,T w[ A,fC FiV sj hpwq ds,aj m a[ Veij rjv[ l[rwJ
V[ hpwq bVplji A,fC Fi dvbj m us'G A,fC Fdibj Vdhig
fBrjig V[ r[dtbj aJ Rpl V[ RpKfi dif'iB wi ds,ag a[ fBrjig
28

sg dif'iB lpS w[ b{l cg Y b>ei[; bxli fCajv wiV


rjla[ fhp.y debj m Rpl V[ q"w[ a[ fPij r,cj A,fC fjSg
sj Fdibj s[dtbj m liwjig wj}V bVplji dHh ;piq lg m
btgi fPig ai%J fCajv wiV a[ faj v,ej dw u' wpN rg
wgaj h{ dHh l.aJ rv'G h'dHbj h{ m RpV%J V[ hg fjSg r.Ddcbj
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wirjH[ liW,a s[ Fv[ rjla[ m fi w.q RpvBj f{ debj m dri'ZgbJ
} q"wj dqv debj m LwjdHaJ wiV sj m u' wpN rg wgaj lg
lF Vei rjdvbj V[ dqv wgaj lg m
Rpl q"w[ a[ w'Hg rg b,e[ Vj bjdHbj dwRpGdw b>ei[;J sj
iju h'S wiw[ v'wgG cis[ lV m lF V[ bjfSj tdhCj ApcjRpS
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sg fit VhgG lg a[ h.wji rg lg m hwPqa sj VLj b{lj hg
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} w'Hg rg wsi VhgG hp.sg m Rpl V[ WjWj ug } qjqPvg ljZ
lqN w[ fp,A fCajv wiw[ dB,v[ Rpfi uj fhp.dybj m e,vJ-e,vJ
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qji[ m WjWj ug s[ bjfS[ Vjv s[ ljog a'G l'Bg v{ w[ Rph rg
qjig m WjWj ug bjfS[ bjlS a'G o,v[ dc,e fH[ m dxi rg Rpl
V[ W,l Vj wgag a[ WjWj ug s[ sjC%[ } h,o fjdHbj m dul r[v[
sjC%[ } h,o fjdHbj aJ Rpl r[v[ WyV wgaj m L[i rieg brj;
dr,y bj w[ ei; qjig Vi dl>z sj iPf ZjiV wi dvbj m WyV
wgaj dHaVgbj l'BgbJ tj w[ a{} qpbjx wis[ ih[ m hpS a.P
epip s[ WtL[ h'H[ i'qJ a[ rg h,og l.w'y VhgG wgaj a[ dxi b{lj
WyV qP.h dry'G dVwjdvbj a[ Rph WyV lhji Vj ldwbj m Rpl
29

Rpfi w'Hg b{lg NfB fHg dw Rph ipCsj-ipCsj dB,v[ a'G o,v[
bj debj m diCsj-diCsj Rpl sg wiVg sj xv dqdvbj aJ
rjfl yvj debj m Wjbs dr,y h'i rg sp,t awvgxJ h'HgbJ m
lji[ fdirji dr,y dHaVgbj sp,t awvgxJ h'HgbJ u' dw wdhS
a'G Wjhi hV m bjdti a[ Rpl rv'G rg a[ Rpl rg a[ fdirji
rv'G rg WCgbJ W[Vagbj wgagbJ eHgbJ m fi w'Hg Vj lpSg m
l.a wj vgbj Zida dWsjiRp
l.a wj dV.swp bwjl a[ BjiRp
b>e 867

dHl WyV bVplji Rpl qhJ fjfg sg Whpa spi-sLj h'Hg


ba[ Whpa Wpig ai%J FBwsj dihj m
dHh WyV qjaj dfaj fjl'G v[tw V[ wHg rji lpdSbj m
Rpfi.a WjW[ Wp,Z dl>z s[ f'ai[ epvr.c dl>z dTv'G V[ alsgw
wgag a[ dvdtbj m
dHh WyV Wp,Z dl>z dTv'G s[ f'ai[ fjl'G dqdvbj m

2
dul lq[G WjWj ug qhjiju iP.qg idh.s[ lV@ Rpl lq[G sg
dH,w Vdhi s[ lir[ wiV lq[G duo[ WjWj ug sj bjlS lg Rph
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30

wgaj lg a.P lj} s' Z,w[ qji[ hV m a{} dHV%J sj lr[i[ xv


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dsV Rpl w'v tWi bjHg m Rpl blojV Rpfi Vdhi sg fpBjHg
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lWPa h{ m Rpfi.a Rpl bxli V[ Whpa dtqj q>eg m dxi q[hi
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dHh WyV r,c[ N.cj dl>z l[q[ rjv[ fjl'G dqdvbj m

wiqj Rpfdi dVWC{ u[ v'y{ lFp w'dH mm


\b>e 157|

dHw l[n bjfS[ fp,ai s[ drbjh dr,y VrgG drbjhg }h


} v{ w[ q,oj B[wS vHg lS[ fdirji bjdHbj m ljdibJ sj
Vjq@ oJ fp,AS Rpfi.a WjWj ug bjfS[ dVIq bVplji lF
sg Lij wirjHg m dul a[ drL[L dw+fj hp.sg Rplsg ljig qdiIjsj
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wiV Vjv i'eg W.s[ Rpfi bV'tj hg bli f{Gsj lg m fi dHl
e,v } w'Hg drivj hg ujSsj ba[ lqNsj m Vj lqNS wiw[
wHg r[i RpvBg e,v WS uJsg lg m l' Rpl fdirji dr,y
r,cg Rpqi sj l[n lg m Rpls[ qV dr,y wHg ai%J s[ eva
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31

VrgG drbjhg h'Hg vCwg sg ljig qdiIjsj dry[ hg i'w ds,ag


ba[ WyV wgaj@ blgG aJ epiP VjVw sg dw+fj Vjv dHl
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qdiIjsj W.s wi ds,ag ba[ Rpl fdirji } ujS sj hpwq
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epirjw h{ m
bjfS vgbj u[ dqv{ aj lFp w' Fjenp h'dH
wiqj Rpfdi dVWC{ u[ v'y{ lFp w'dHmm
\b>e 157|

dHh f+l.e epvr.a dl>z dTv'G fjl'G f+fja h'dHbj m

lPy{ Fjc{ ljyp lqjr{ driv[ lPyjyjig mm


a.a{ wRp fiq a.ap dqvjdHbj VjVw lidS apqjig mm
\b>e 597|

hjCg sg rjTg taq h' yp,wg lg m wHgbJ V[ sjS[ w,T vH[


lV ba[ wHgbJ s[ idh.s[ lV m WjWj ueaj dl>z dT,v'G rg sjS[
w,TS dr,y fAC debj lg ba[ dfC dr,y hg W{nj lg m eiqg
rg W[b>a f{Gsg lg m l.a e.cj dl>z ug dViqv[ Fp,y'G a'G RpKai
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V[ fjSg sg Fig h'Hg A'Bg q,zg r,v dHLjij wgaj ba[ fgS
32

vHg bjdtbj m l.a e.cj dl>z ug dHaV[ dahjH[ lV ljig q,zg


fjSg sg vejaji fg eH[ m fjSg fgS Rpfi.a wpN lqJ ndhiw[
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33

faj VhgG m fi.aP wHg dsV dHo[ dBw[ ba[ us'G WjWj ug a'G
bjdebj v{ w[ eH[@ ujS lq[G WjW[ ueaj dl>z }P dqv[ aJ
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lqi,o hV m l.a e.cj dl>z ug s[ WyV u' RpV%J WjWj qhJ hdiVjq
dl>z ug sg Rplaa dr,y wh[ WjSg ijhgG dHRpG hV m
lidV lq+o bwo lptsjaj dwifj dl.Zp Wc' sdHbjv
\dWvjrvp q ^ 5@ b>e 824|

dHh f+l.e u'de.si dl>z dTv'G fjl'G dqdvbj m

l.a lidS l.a Bhv wig


Z.Zp W.Zp zip lev u.uji' bri wju a[ APdB fig m
\b>e 823|

dHw V.s ijq \uJ vjv| dulsj blvg df>c dsbjv fpij
dqiu[ wj lg ijuj dl,t \VjHg| lg m dHh rg y.ej ufg afg
ljZP lg ba[ dHlsj dVaV[q WjiJ fjn lptqVg ljdhW i';jVj
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blojV ijq dB,v[ s[ ds,aj lg m dxi dHo[ hg dBw debj lg
df,A[ l+g ijq dl>z ug s[ Fp,y' bjRpS lq[G dHh rg Vjv hg
lg m dHls[ RpKa[ WjWj ug sg dw+fj h'Hg lg m dH,w WhjVj WdSbj m
dHlV[ w,fC[ Z'S vHg ljWS q>debj h;Pi s[ hpwq bVplji
l[rjsji V[ b>si'G ljWS dvbj w[ ds,aj m Rpfi.a dHh w,fC[
Z'S vHg y,Ddvbj debj m w,fC[ Z'Gsj Z'Gsj dfLjW wiV yvj
debj m dxi bj w[ wg r[dtbj dw ljWS wJ c'c yp,w w[ v{
34

debj h{ m Rpfi.a WjWj ug fjl'G h'i ljWS sg q>e wgag m h'i


ljWS sg a{} wg v'C h{( WjWj ug fp,dAbj m dHl V[ W[Vag
wgag ug ljWS aJ wJ c'c v{ debj m h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj
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w[ wg r[dtbj wJ c'c duhj bjdHbj ba[ RpKcsj h'dHbj dB,wg
lpB w[ yvj debj m dHls[ qV dr,y blyiu ba[ h{ijVg Vjv
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s[ fjn wiV sj hpwq wgaj a[ dHlV[ la WyV wiw[ q>V debj m
dxi ljig Rpqi dVaV[q a[ l[rj dr,y epujig m
uV bjrV wj dHh{ lpbjRp mm uV w{ l.de dyda bjr{ VjRp mm
\b>e 295|

dHh WyV iaV dl>z dTv'G qvPw[ rjv[ a'G dqdvbj m

u' apq wihp l'Hg Fvj qdV v[aj qpwaj mm


b>e 809

dHVljV hi lq[G bjfSg qa bVplji hi w.q wiV vHg


dabji idh>sj h{ m dHl wiw[ dw W.sj fiv'w rv'G W[-tWi
hg idh.sj h{ m
ejxv hg idh.sj h{
epi wg qda a.P v[dh dHbjV[ mm Feda dWVj Whp cPW[ dlbjV[ m$$
\b>e 288| \eRpCg lptqVg q! 5|

lF wpN lpSw[@ r[tw[ dHVljV qhJfpitJ sg l.ea dr,y


35

bjw[ wpN f+jfa VhgG wi lwsj b{l[ fpiLJ sg WjWa ldaepiP


V[ WjSg dr,y hpwq wgaj h{ m
qjdHbj qds qjaj h'Ag Wjaj dqvSp V ujHg Fiq ZCj$$
\ijqwvg A.a q! 5|

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ba[ qhjijuj } bjfS[ ugrV sjV s[S rjv[ qhJ fpit epirjw
h{@ ljZ iPf bjfSj aV Zjdibj mm$$
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w"v h'i rg bdhvwjiJ lq[a ijSg svgf w"i siLVJ rjla[
dB,v[ RpKfi fhp.y eH[ m Vqlwji wiV Rpfi.a W{n eH[ qdiIjsj
f+La'q h;Pi V[ lpt bV.s fp,Ag m Rpfi.a dlix qhjijSg svgf
w"i V[ hg Rpdy,a T.e Vjv dVqiaj ldha W[Vag wgag m qhjijuj
Fpdf>si dl>z WjWj ug r,v dH,w B,w vejaji dyhi[ r,v r[tsj
dihj lg@ dur[G fAjS wisj h'r[ m b>aiujqg WjWj ug V[ l.a
l+g ijq dl>z ug } l.W'ZV wiw[ Rph iujHg q>ej w[ Wp,wv qjiw[
WyV wgaj v{ ijuj hpS dlbjS v{ WHg m Rpfi.a qhjiju[ h,o
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ba[ dwaV[ lq[G Wjbs qhjiju[ V[ W[Vag wgag dw qhjiju bjf
dHaVg lqi,oj s[ qjvw bjf dHh' duhg oJ RpKfi W{n[ h' m WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj ijuj blj} bu[ aw dHl[ ai%J hg idhS
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Rpl lq[G Rpl RpKfi y"Gsj v,t ip,Ddfbj tiy h'dHbj lg m dHh
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36

u[ q{} hpwq h'r[ aJ q{G bjfS[ dr,a bVplji l[rj wi lwsg


hJ m dHl a'G Wjbs WjWj ug V[ qhjijSg svgf w"i } bjdebj
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a'G h[nJ hpwq q>Vw[ l[rw sp,Z v{ w[ dabji tC[ lV m l+g ijq
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bjdtbj m
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V[ WyV wgaj da.V rji ljx-ljx-ljx m dHl rwa WjWj ug
s[ y[hi[ Rpfi Wgi il rjvj uvjv yqw dihj lg m Rpfi.a
liWS dl>z Fjeg rJsi rjvj dB,v[ a'G h[nJ bjdHbj m RDp,Zi
WjWj ug iju[ } lZjiV a"i RpKa[ Rpfs[L wi ih[ lV m ijuj
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bljc[ Vjv dH,w lojV sj Vjq s,l w[ WyV wgaj Rpo[ a,f
wgaj lg m bljcj f+q[Lri f+jfag rjla[ a,f lg ba[ a[i[ qV
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hpS a[i[ Vjv dqvS sj lqJ wpsia V[ WSj ds,aj h{ m
sjV. fij fPiW[S F.py.a[ qhgfa[ mm dWfiga WpZ.% qjia v'wh
37

VjVw dyi.wjv spt F'ea[ mm204 mm


\lv'w lhldw+ag q! 5@ b>e 1356|

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w.q wisj h{G m a[i[ bqgi rugi s,l w.q eva wis[ hV m RpV%J
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38

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s[ Vjq deSw[ sl' m lF s[ Vjq deS w[ l[rjsjiJ V[ s,l[@ duV%J
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b>e 317

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39

dltg dldtbj epi rgyjdi m


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\b>e 465|

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\dvta l+g ijq dl>z ug@ ijhgG WjWj Wvdr.si dl.z|

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s[ w[ wdraj wiV' i'w ds,aj ba[ Vjv hg WyV wgaj dHh
iyVj W.s wi'$$ m uVq qiV aJ hg wdBbj ujH[ej aJ hg
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40

h{ m$$ ws[ ws[ WjWj ug l+g ijq dl>z } sjsj wdhw[ WvjRpGs[
ba[ ws[ ws[ apvlg sjl rg Rpyji w[ WvjRpGs[ lV m dH,w lq[G
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} Rph drsrjV Vqlwji wiw[ dtqj q>e w[ yvj debj m
f+F VijdHS eiWp f+hjig mm
\b>e 225|

s[ WyV bVplji
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dHh WyV iaV dl>z dT,v'G qvPw[ rjv[ a'G lpdSbj m

l[rw wRp l[rj WdV bjHg mm


hpwqp WPdN fiq fsp fjHg mm
\b>e 293|

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41

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ije bjlj WjSg Fea Z.V[ ug wg

WjSg sj b,ti b,ti la h{@ f+aga bjRpGsg h{ @ l[rw }


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42

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a.P W[Lw r[t vrgG m
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bjwg qidh bxjig mm
\b>e 992|

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43

lxv wi v{ m$$ dHlV[ dxi rg dHVwji wgaj m WjWj ug V[ dxi


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\b>e 315| \eRpCg rji q! 5|

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h'dV Vugdw tpsjdH s{ F[ap V dwl{ s[dV mm


\b>e 1384|

dHw lq[G Fp,y' Vei tpsj WtL Vjq sj a[vg lg m Rpl }


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bVplji ija h' eHg a[ Rph WgV v{ w[ bj debj m dxi ljig
ija RplV[ WgV vejaji rujHg m WjWj ug lpSs[ ih[ m dul lq[G
44

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WgV lpSs[ lV m

2
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45

dudV dudV wig brdebj m


uV wg a[ a{ sgH[ ipCjHg mm
\b>e 1235|

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47

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48

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49

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\b>e 306|

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50

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2
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51

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3
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4
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52

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53

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2
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54

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h{ m$$
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eHg m Rpfi.a dHl sj dlsw dHaVj lg lji[ W,dybJ } Rpl[
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ug lji[ w.q wis[ ih[ m epiWjSg bVplji dHls[ w.q WjWj ug
q[hi wiw[ wis[ ba[ wijRpGs[ ih[ m
bfpV[ uV wj fisj Tjw{ mm bfV[[ l[rw wg lifi ijt{ mm
\b>e 285|

dHh WyV WgWg dH.si fjv w"i V[ dvtjH[ m

55

l+g ijq i.e bfji fPiV Vh


dVqt qV qdh rPdnbj mm
\b>e 705|

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2
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eigWg h'S wiw[ h,ogG l[rj hg wis[ lV m dHl lq[G fdBbjv[
56

a'G dH,w l[rw WjWj ug fjl fp,ai sg dH,Aj v{ w[ hj;i h'dHbj m


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aj RplV[ Vj Vpwi wgag fi h;Pi a[ wdhS a[ Rph f{l[ v{ debj m
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s[ Vjq v{ w[ deSag wiV v,e fH[ m deSag wiV r[v[ Rpl
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WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj@ Rph aJ b{r[ hg debj h{ m$$

57

l[rw wRp dVwBg h'dH dstjr{ m


\b>e 403|

WjWj ug wv[iJ rjv[ i,Wg q'u dr,y dryis[ Tp,cgw[ Vjq


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58

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buga rjv rjvg lCw RpKfi dHh blojV h{ ba[ q";Psj l.a
Rpujei dl>z RpKy[ c[i[ Tp,cg w[ rjdvbJ V[ dHh blojV s[dtbj h{ m

2
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h' eHg m
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59

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\b>e 784|

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60

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61

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xpiqjS h{ m
u[ w'Hg Rplwj l.eg h'r{ Vjv[ vH[ dlZjr{ mm
\b>e 373| \bjlj q! 5|

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duV qdV h'ip qpdt h'ip dl wJT[ wdybj


\b>e 488|

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62

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\b>e 202|

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63

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\b>e 941|

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64

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v{ w[ WjWj ug fjl hj;i h'Hg ba[ W[Vag wgag dw qhjiju
dHl vCwg sj Vjq hi w"i h{ m dHl s[ drbjh } la ljv
h' yp,w[ hV m dHls[ w'Hg W,yj VhgG h{ m hpS lhpi[ rg dHl} fl.s
VhgG wis[@ q[hi wi' m w'Hg W,yj h' ujH[ aJ lptg ih[ m h;Pi
V[ fp,DdAbj qjHg a[ig vCwg i,W i,W wisg h{ dw VhgG m dHl}
wh' dw Vjq u,Ddfbj wi[ m$$ Rpfi.a vCwg a[ wpN lqJ dVaV[q
wiV sj WyV wgaj m dxi WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj dw u[ dHl
WyV } fpejH[Geg aJ w.dVbj a[ig a'Cg dr,y lrj l[i vPS
65

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h{ m wpN lq[G Rpfi.a WgWg hi w"i s[ Vjv dH,w h'i WgWg bjHg m
RplV[ rg W,y[ sg q>e wgag m Rpl} WyV wgaj l[rj dlqiV
a'G dWVJ wpN VhgG dqvsj m u[ wpN v{Sj h{ aJ l[rj dlqiV
wi' m$$ Rpl WgWg V[ l[rj wiV a'G bjfSg q;WPig s,lg@ dulsj
Fjr lg VhgG h' lwsj m aJ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dw b{ r [ G
VhgG dqvsj m dHh dwa[ W[igbJ s[ W[i V[ duhC[ ype vr[eg m$$
Rpfi.a Rpl fjl'G Vj l[rj h' lwg Vj b"vjs sj xv dqdvbj m
\dHh WyV qjHg iju w"i V[ dvtjdHbj m|

2
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RplV[ l'dybj q[i[ RpKa[ t[l h{ m q{} dHaVg lisg v,esg h{ m
WjWj ug aV RpKa[ qjqPvg wfC[ v{ w[ W{n[ hV m dHV%J } aJ
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bjrJ m dHRpG dryji w[ zi bjdHbj a[ bjfSg qjaj } dwhj
dw WjWj ug Wjhi n.T dr,y W{n[ hV m b{Vg n.T h{) a.P qjHg
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lq[G lp,yj dl>z v'Hg v{ w[ WjWj ug fjl bjdHbj a[ r[t w[ s.e
idh debj m WjWj ug s[ bjl[ fjl[ lp,wg oJ Rpfi.a lp,yj dl>z
V[ Rph v'Hg WjWj ug s[ RpKa[ s[ ds,ag m dxi WjWj ug V[ Rph
v'Hg bjfS[ w'v WCg s[i aw i,tg ws[-ws[ WyV wiVj a[
wdhSj dw dHh lp,yj dl>z sg dVLjVg h{ m

66

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\b>e 667|

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sj q"wj WtL' m$$ dxi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj WgWg fi Rpl
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tJ ba[ VujW tJ VgIa wga[ eH[ m dH,w x"uj dl>z dTv'G ba[
yai dl>z Fp,vi s' hg VjrJ sj faj h{ m ba[ Fp,Dy'G q>cg lB[LV
RpKa'G e,cgbJ s[ Vjv c[i[ dr,y dH,BJ sg TpbjHg h'S v,e fHg
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f>dca l+g ijq dl>z ug } w.q sg s[tFjv wiV sj hpwq h'dHbj m
i;j s[ qjvw WjWj ug V[ hpwq wiw[ f>dca l+g ijq dl>z }
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67

bVplji l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ lF wpN wgaj lg m lF qhPia lF


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hpwq q>VSj hg h{ m fdhvJ i'C dHw,n[ wiw[ ljC[ eH[ m i'CJ
s[ lCV Rpfi.a WjWj ug F,ngbJ s[tS eH[ m dH,w vwCg sj
qp,T dry'G f'vj h'S wiw[ ba[ b,e a'G Wjhi idh debj lg
ba[ Rph ldCbj VhgG lg m WjWj ug w'v tdCbj a'G dH,w q;sPi
V[ dHl qp,T RpKa[ l.s Vjv l'B qjig m Rpl dry'G dH,w yPhj dVwv
w[ F,Ddubj m r[tw[ WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj Rph r[t'@ i,W uj
dihj h{$$ a[ Vjv hg qplwijH[ m

2
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WVjRpS vHg dqlaig q;sPi dHw,n[ h'S[@ h;Pi V[ WyV wiw[
fdhvJ lFVJ a'G fi[c wirjRpSg m fi[c wijRpS vHg w'Hg h'i
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dHVwji wi ds,aj a[ W'dvbj blgG aJ dqhVa wiw[ i'Bg
wqjRpSg h{ m ljcj dHV%J fi[cJ Vjv wg qavW m$$ bev[ dsV
us Rph w.q a[ Vj bjdHbj Rpfi.a ljog dqlaig } fp,dAbj
aJ RplV[ s,dlbj dw Rpl s[ aJ e'c[ sis wis[ hV m WjWj
ug w'v Rplsg W[Vag fhp.yjHg eHg m WjWj ug V[ l[rw F[u
w[ hpwq wgaj u[ ljcg fi[c wi[Gej aJ ij;g h' ujH[Gej VhgG
aJ dHr[G hg ih[ej m$$ Rpfi.a hpwq q>V w[ h"vg h"vg c[i[ bjdHbj@
fi[c wgag@ dxi ngw h'dHbj m

68

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tiy wiw[ ViwJ dr,y ujS sj ilaj dabji wisj h{ m WjSg
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} lhg ila[ vjdHbj sl[ fjaLjhgbJ V[ dxi WjWj qhJ hdiVjq
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V[ FjV dl>z } wpN q>eS vHg bjdtbj m be'G FjV dl>z V[
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h'r[ m aJ VPisgV V[ FjV dl>z } dwhj dHh yg; q[i[ w'v aJ
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f+jfa wi vHg m qV aJ b,e[ hg drwjig lg ba[ dxi drwji
h'i rg r,Z eH[ m

69

2
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ih[ hV m RpV%J } bljc[ w'v VhgG bjRpS s[Sj m awCj h' w[
fdhij s[rg m$$ dHaVj WyV wiw[ h;Pi V[ dB,vj ljdhW sg w'nCg
sj sirj;j W.s wi dvbj m Rpl[ dsV us'G dfAvj fdhi h'dHbj
aJ ljs[ duh[ dvWjl dr,y W.s[ bjH[ duV%J V[ WjWj ug s[ siLV
wiV sg bjdebj q>eg m Vgvj dl>z V[ WjWj ug s[ hpwq bVplji
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dxi bjH[ a[ siLV sg bjdebj q>eg m dxi dHV%J s'hJ } dHo[
tC[ wiw[ bjdebj q>eg m b,e'G WjWj ug V[ RpKyg brj; dr,y
VJh wi ds,ag m Vgvj dl>z } hpwq wgaj dHV%J } hpS[ hg
a'i s[ dHo[ tCV VhgG s[Sj m$$ dHl ai%J dHh wHg dsV bjRpGs[
uJs[ ih[ m btgi dH,w dsV aJ dHV%J s'hJ V[ siLV wiV sg
dH,Aj ;jhi wgag ba[ dwhj blgG siLV wga[ We{i VhgG ujSj
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fjl uj w[ ljig hwgwa s,lg m lpVS a'G Wjbs WjWj ug V[
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ujS m RpV%J sj y'i ba[ dry'vj y'ig wijRpS rjvj lji[ hj;i
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s,Ddlbj ba[ yv[ ujS vHg bjdtbj m Rpfi.a Rph s'r[ hg yv[
eH[ m

3
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fdhi[sji V[ h;Pi s[ yiVJ dr,y hj;i h' w[ W[Vag wgag@
70

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wiw[ W{n eH[ m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj y'i rg bj debj
a[ y'ig wijRpS rjvj rg$$ sPug rji@ dxi fdhi[sji V[ W[Vag
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hV m$$ h;Pi V[ RpV%J } rg Rpl[ r[v[ dB,,v[ RpKfi F[uS sj hpwq
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71

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dsaj vHgH[ bjfSj bSdsaj dwAp ho Vj bjr{ mm


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aJ a[ig wqjHg dry'G hg Rpls[ wjiu h'H[ej ba[ a[ij w.q h'i
df,A[ fr[ej m$$ dur[G WjSg dr,y hpwq h{!
u[hj Wgu{ l' vpS{ wiqj l.sCj t[a mm$$
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dl>z Fs"C rjvj bjfS[ yjy[ l+! dwifjv dl>z } v{ w[ bjdHbj m
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Fs"Cgbj dHlsj aJ ljc[ w'v w'Hg dhljW VhgG h{ m u' wpN
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lpVS Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ hpwq wgaj dHl} l'Bg xCj w[ a'i' m$$Vjv
hg l'Bg xCj w[ apiV sj hpwq wgaj m b,e[ dHaVg wq;'ig lg
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lisji ug V[ i'Bg a[ c[dvbJ sj bjyji q>debj m v,lg fgS
} q>eg m hpwq h'S Rpfi.a Wjui[ sg i'Bg v,lg ba[ c[dvbJ
sj byji dqv debj m l+! dwifjv dl>z duhCj wHg qhgV[
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72

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df>epv fiWa fjdi fi[ tv yapi Wwgaj m
b.Zpv[ da+FrS lPdNbj epi F[dB fpVgaj mm
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W{n'@$$ lisji ug W{n eH[ m dxi lisji sj h,o xC w[ hpwq
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v{S Rpfi.a hpwq wgaj RpKn tCj h' m a{o'G bu[ spVgbjsjig
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73

ijq VhgG h{ m$$


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drz[ ;qgV sjV wiJej m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Lp,Z h{ m$$
74

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V[ WjWj ug fjl W[Vag wgag m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##q,v
dl>z a.P bjfSj WyV Ijs wi m$$ api.a hg q,v dl>z V[ qpbjxg
q>eg a[ bisjl wirj w[ da.V drz[ ;qgV b,u a'G l+g epiP
e+.o ljdhW ug s[ Vjq wirj ds,a[ m WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
##Lp,Z h{ m$$ Rpfi.a FPij dl>z a.sipla h' debj m dxi rg q,v
dl>z siLV a[ l[rj wisj dihj m
dHh f+l.e q,v dl>z s[ lfp,ai FPij dl>z dVrjlg w'Bvg
wvJ fjl'G dqdvbj

##ljdhWp l[rwp dHwp dHwp ds+lBjdHbj$$


l[rwJ s[ qV dr,y w"S A'Bj a[ w"S r,cj dHl ai%J s[
dryji lsj hg bjRpGs[ hV m dxi l.dlbJ } Vdria qhJfpit
bjfS[ bjf hg wi ds.s[ hV m dH,w rji Fp,y'G Vei s[ s' l,uS@
dH,w u{ ijq f>dca q>si sj fpujig a[ dH,w dHlsj dq,ai@ s'r[G
hg WjWj bV.s dl>z ug s[ siLV wiV rjla[ vdhi[ tjV[ r,v
} uj ih[ lV m ila[ dr,y i[v sg lCw RpKfi dH,w w'nCg
lg@ u' bu[ rg q";Ps h{ m WjWj ug wv[iJ rjdvbJ sj bjlS
dHl w'nCg dr,y lg ba[ Wjhi dH,w l[rjsji fdhij s[ dihj
lg m dHV%J s'hJ V[ Rpo[ fhp.y w[ l[rjsji w'v s,Ddlbj dw blgG
Fp,y' Vei a'G bjH[ hJ ba[ siLV wiV[ hV m l[rjsji V[ dwhj
75

bu[ siLV VhgG hp.s[ m dHV%J V[ h{ijV h' w[ fp,DdAbj dwRpG VhgG
hp.s[ m RpKai dr,y l[rjsji V[ dwhj dw siLV aJ Ljq } h'Se[
a[ hpS rwa VhgG m Rpfi.a dHh s'r[G WC[ dVijL ba[ h{ijV
h'H[ m hpS dfA[ qpCVj rg qpLdwv lg@ ba[ Rpo[ ipw rg VhgG
lg lws[ m bjdti dr,y s'r[G u{ ijq f>dca ba[ ljog W[rL h'
w[ df,A[ r,v qpC[ hg lV dw dHV%J } bjrj; s[ w[ WjWj ug
V[ bjfS[ fjl Wpvjw[ fp,dAbj dw ##dwo'G bjH[ h'($$ dHV%J s'hJ
V[ wpN v{ygbJ sj f+Ljs i,t w[ q,oj B[dwbj ba[ dwhj ug
Fp,y'G Vei a'G bjH[ hJ m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj dw wiqj
rjv[ h'@ ljc[ epiP wg Veig a'G bjH[ ba[ blj} siLV ds,a[ m
Vjv hg WyV wgaj dw f+[qgY us'G rg bjY lq[G dli bjY m
a[ dxi f>dca ba[ dHls[ ljog } wpN v{ygbJ sj f+Ljs ds,aj m
Wjwg f+Ljs fPCg lq[a bjfS[ w'v i,t dvbj ba[ ujS sg bjdebj
ds,ag m Rpfi.a dHh s'r[G hg rjfl Fp,y'G } y,v fH[ m Fp,y'G fh.py
w[ s'r[G hg iPqg rjv[ c[i[ WjWj qhJ hdiVjq ug fjl bj w[
Vqlwji wiw[ W{n eH[ m Rpl[ lq[G hg WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj
##dwYG@ wi bjH[ qhJ fpitJ s[ siLV m aplgG eH[ aJ dWVJ
lq[G a'G lg a[ qhJfpit WCg sPi eH[ h'H[ lV m blgG l'dybJ
ljc[ df>c s[ l[rjsji dVijL Vj qpCV s[ dxi RpV%J } l,Ddsbj
aJ aphjc[ Vjv WyV wga[ a[ f+Ljs ds,aj m$$ bjfS[ w'v'G v{ygbJ
sg Rphg fpCg w,T w[ dwhj m ##bjh vY@ Wjwg W,DdybJ f+Ljs
h{ m$$ Rpfi.a Rph fPCg u{ ijq s[ ljog } xCj ds,ag m Vjv hg
WyV wgaj ##aphjcj f+Ljsj RpV%J V[ ljc[ w'v fpyj ds,aj m blgG
s'r[G dry'G dH,w hg hJ Wjhi s' ves[ hJ m ljcg qdiIjsj h'i
h{ RpV%J sg h'i h{ m$$
76

hq YdH dqv h'dH dHw i.ej mm


\F{iRp q! 5|

\dHh f+l.e u{ ijq f>dca q>si s[ fpujig a'G dqdvbj m


qhjijSg svgf w"i WjWj ug s[ blojV RpKa[ WSg h'Hg
w'ng duo[ b,u w,v bjt>c fjn y,vs[ idh.s[ hV sg l[rj wirj
ihg lg m dHh l[rj l.a l+g ijq dl>z ug qvPw[ rjdvbJ sg dVeijVg
h[n h' ihg lg m dH,w rji l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ WjWj ug fjl
W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ wpN qjdHbj sg v'C h{ m$$ Rpfi.a WjWj
ug V[ WyV wgaj bjfS[ w'v'G tiy wi dsY m fi ijSg w'v'G
VhgG q>eSj m$$ hpwq bVplji dHr[G hg h'dHbj m
\dHh wjwj u'de.si dl>z fjl'G dqdvbj WyV h{ m|

2
dHw rji WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug V[ Fp,y'G Vei s[ idhS
rjv[ dH,w epiqpt dulsj Vjq FjHg dVi.uV dl>z lg } WyV
wgaj ##b,e[ a'G ljcj v.ei a[i[ zi f,Ddwbj wi[ej m$$ FjHg dVi.uV
dl>z V[ la WyV wdhw[ q>V dvbj m dxi vejaji awigWV
s' ljv v.ei dHl epiqpt s[ zi'G WdSbj m
liWg i.eg iPfg a.P h{ dal WtL[ dul Vsdi wi[ mm
dHw lq[G WjWj Wp,Z dl>z dTv'G siLV wiV bjdHbj b,e[
WjWj ug Ljhg dvWjl fdhV w[ W{n[ h'H[ lV m dHh dvWjl uigsji
fpLjwj@ da,v[ rjvj uigsji u'Cj@ w.eSJ sg u'Cg@ i[W fujqj@
AjfJ o[r[ rjvgbJ@ dHh Ljhg dvWjl ejqj Vjq sg l{GlS dul}
l'Bg v{ w[ ijSg WSjdHbj lg V[ fp,ai h'S a'G Wjbs F[GBj wgaj
lg@ dulsj f+l.e df,A[ bj yp,wj h{ m b,u WjWj ug } Vr[G iPf
dr,y r[t w[ Wp,Z dl>z dTv'G V[ W[Vag wgag ##qhjiju@ b,u aJ
77

Ljhg Wlai fdhV[ hV m$$ RpKai dr,y h;Pi V[ WyV wgaj@ ##blgG
dwl[ lq[G iju rg wiVj h{ m ba[ duo[ W{n[ hJ dHo[ ljcg da.V
q>d;v w'ng WS[eg m ljcg WCg Fjig l{Vj h'r[eg m f>u qhJfpit
x"u s[ uiV{v h'Se[ ba[ W+hq debjVg rg h'Se[ m a[iJ-a[iJ
sg deSag h'H[eg m duhC[ A[ ditg hV@ RpV%J V[ bjfSgbJ zi
rjvgbJ } dabjdebj h{ m RpV%J sj q[v wijrJe[ m y.sqJ sj
rZSj@ zBSj W.s h'r[ej m dH,w rji Ziag b>V s[S a'G urjW
s[ ujr[eg m dxi ljc[ iju dr,y dH,w rji Wgu[ a'G l,a xlvJ
dsbJ wi[eg m bipS df>evj h{ m dHl} ngw wiJe[$$ b{l[ bV[w
Fdr,ta WyV wga[ m Rpfi.a WjWj Wp,Z dl>z dTv'G } hpwq wgaj
##b,u blgG f>dca } F'uV wijRpSj h{ RpV%J } WpvjY m$$ hpwq
bVplji WjWj Wp,Z dl>z dTv'G V[ f>dca Wpvj dvbJs[ m dxi dHV%J
} f+Ljsj AwjdHbj a[ swLVj ds,ag ba[ Ljhg dvWjl Rpajdibj m
\dHh WyV Wp,Z dl>z dT,v'G s[ f'ai[ epvr.a dl>z V[
dvtjdHbj m|

ujdH Wlhp rcFjeSg ltgH[ l.aj


l.de lqjHgb{
b>e 803

qjdHbj V[ l.ljig W.s[ RpKa[ bjfSg fwC dHaVg q;WPa


wgag h{ dw qhJfpitJ s[ siLV wiw[ dHRpG Fpvsj h{@ dur[G
wpN r[dtbj hg VhgG hp.sj m fPiWv[ wiq wdh dsY uJ i,Wg q[hi
wh' dxi dwl[ Vj dwl[ WhjV[ f+q[Li Ijs wirj hg ds.sj h{
dur[G w'Hg lp,a[ h'H[ } uejRpS rjvg e,v h{ m FjHg iaV dl>z
ci'vg Vjv rg dHr[G riag m u' RpV%J sg bjfSg ;WjVg s,lg
78

Rph dHl ai%J h{ m RpV%J s[ zirjvg qjaj u{ w"i dwl[ rwa


Wgqji h' eHg m Rpls[ rjla[ srjHg v{S rjla[ FjHg iaV dl>z
ci'vg@ ci'vg FjHg a'G fhjC rjv[ fjl[ awigWV yji f>u
dwv'qgBi RpKa[ df>c lv%gSj drt[ dH,w r{s w'v eH[ m Vei lv%gSj
fhp.y w[ srjHg v{ w[ qpCV lq[G wpN y.e[ far.a[ l,uS xpvJ
s[ hji vHg uj ih[ lV m dHV%J V[ r[t[@ fpAS a'G faj v,Ddebj
lpbjqg L.wiJ fpig ug bj ih[ hV m W;ji dry'G f+ljs v{ w[
FjHg iaV dl>z ug rg L.wij fpig ug s[ siLV wiV vHg
dHV%J s[ Vjv hg api[ fH[ m b,e[ dHV%J s[ fhp.yS a'G fdhv'G l.wij
fpig bj yp,w[ lV m f+[qg LiZjvP bjf' bjfSg rjig bVplji f+Ljs
i,t w[ q,oj B[w ih[ lV m FjHg iaV dl>z V[ rg rjig dqvS
a[ f+Ljs i,t w[ Vqlwji wgag a[ W{n eH[ m ljig l.ea r,v
r[tw[ FjHg iaV dl>z s[ r,v rg L.wiJ fpig ug V[ r[dtbj m
dxi dH,w l[rw } dHLjij wiw[ bjfS[ w'v l,s w[ FjHg iaV
dl>z } WpvjRpS vHg dwhj m l[rw dHV%J } Wpvj w[ v{ debj m
FjHg iaV dl>z V[ lpbjqg ug fjl uj w[ Vqlwji wgag m lpbjqg
ug V[ fp,dAbj dwhCj Vei h{ a[ij dltj( FjHg iaV dl>z ug
V[ RpKai ds,aj ug FjHg wg ci'vg@ dxi dHo[ dwr[G bjdHbj(
sPuj lrjv lg m RpKai ds,aj ug q[i[ zi'G Wgqji h{ srjHg dHo[
v{S bjdHbj hJ m dxi lpbjqg L.wij fpig ug V[ fp,dAbj dwl[
ljZP qhJfpit sg l.ea wisj h{ dw VhgG m RpKai ds,aj ug VhgG m
dxi lpbjqg ug V[ bjfS[ l[rjsji } dHLjij wiw[ WyV wgaj
dHl ci'vg rjv[ dl,t V[ duhCj f+Ljs F[Bj wgaj h{@ Rph bljc[
V[C[ hg dfbj h{ m dHlsj f+Ljsj q'C dsY ba[ Vjv hg WyV
wgaj dl,tj Fp,y'G dH,w qhJ fpiL hV m a.P RpV%J sg l[rj wiVg
79

h{ m dHh a[ig qlaw sg i[tj W'v ihg h{ m a.P Rpo[ fhp.ySj h{ m


dHh a[i[ f+Ljs V[ Rpo[ ujSj h{ m a[ij Rpo[ ujS sj lqJ rg
V[C[ hg h{ m$$
wWgi ljZP l.ep fijfag dvdtbj h'dH dvvjB m
qpwda fsjiop fjHgb{ njw V brzB zjB mm
\b>e 1377|

Rpfi.a FjHg iaV dl>z ug bjfS[ Vei ci'vg FjHg r,v


yv[ bjH[ m

2
dxi dwl[ l.ljig w>qJ s[ lW.Z bjfS[ lhpi[ Vei V,oPrjvj
us eH[ m Rpl[ lq[G qhjV drsrjV f>dca FjV dl>z ug V[ rg
WyV sphijdHbj u[ l[rj wiVg h{@ zi Wji rg A,cSj h{@ aJ
dH,w qhJ fpit Fp,y'G hV m RpV%J sg l[rj dqv ujH[ aJ Rpaq
h{ m F,py'G rjv[ qhJfpit uhj; epiP hV m duhCj rg uhj; RpKa[
yC[ fji h' uJsj h{@ b{l[ hg lqi,o WjWj ug Fp,y' rjv[ hV m
FjHg iaV dl>z aplgG uvsg fhp.y' aJ a[
aj a[ dWvqp fvp dTv Vj wgu{@ ujdH ljZP yidV vegu{ mm
\wdvbjV q! 4 b>e 1326|

borj
ijdq Vjdq dyap ijf{ uj wj mm Rpfu.df silVp wgu{ aj wj mm
\eRpCg q! 1 b>e 228|

3
dHw l.a Zjig ijq ug h'H[ lV m dHV%J sj Vei qpswg lg m
l.a Zjig ijq ug h'i l[rw Vjv WyV wis[ FjHg iaV dl>z
V[ lpS[ m dw Fp,y'G rjv[ qhJfpit Whpa hg RpKy[ hV m RpV%J sg
80

ljo'G dlxa VhgG h' lwsg m

4
WjWj ug s[ c[i[ a'G fpi[ sg aix Rpl lq[G dHh oJ W[ bjWjs
lg m Ljq s[ rwa h;Pi hpwq s[ w[ ljWa s[lg A'v[ Rpo[ dtvji
ds.s[ lV m awigWV i'; rje.P hg dHh l[rj dwl[ } ds,ag uJsg m
h{ijVg h{@ dwl[ fLP uJ f>Ag s[ w'Hg dVLjV VhgG ws[ rg dstjHg
ds,a[ m s,ls[ hV@ eHg ija } vpw w[ r[tS s[ Vjv rg w'Hg
faj VhgG lg v,esj m

bVaj ZVp aiSg ai{ bVa V yjdhbj ujdH mm


bVa wRp yjhV u' eH[ l[ bjH[ bVa erjdH mm
\b>e 157|

dHVljV Whpa w.q wisj h{@ w'Hg t[ag wisj h{@ w'Hg spwjV
wisj h{@ w'Hg drRpfji wisj h{@ w'Hg y'ig wisj h{@ w'Hg n,egbJ
qjisj h{ ba[ w'Hg uPbj t[csj h{ m lF sj dVLjVj qjdHbj
sg f+jfag rjla[ h{ m dwl[ } dqv rg uJsg h{ m fi WhpdabJ
s[ f,v[ tpbjig f{Gsg h{ m bevg dqvg h'Hg qjdHbj rg epbj
W{ns[ hV m
dHl WjWa epiWjSg s,lsg h{ m
bjfS vgbj u[ dqv{ aj lFp w' Fjenp h'dH mm
wiqj Rpfdi dVWC{ u[ v'y{ lFp w'dH mm3 mm
\ije eRpCg q! 1 b>e V.! 157|

dHl ai%J hg dH,w dl,t dulsj Vjq wjwP dl>z lg dulsj


Vei V,oP rjvj usgs lg m dHls[ uPbj t[c w[ hji hg f,v[
81

fHg lg m zi ujdHsjs ;qgV lF wpN edhS[ h' debj m dHls[


Vei dH,w qhjaqj f>dca FjV dl>z ug lV m RpV%J } dqvw[
bjfSj sp,t s,dlbj@ f>dca FjV dl>z ug rg WjWj qhJ hdiVjq
dl>z ug } ujSs[ ba[ fAjSs[ lV m f>dca FjV dl>z ug
V[ rg wjwP dl>z } Fp,y'G fhp.y w[ W[Vag wiV sg lvjh ds,ag
Rpl lvjh bVplji wjwP dl>z F,py'G fhpp,dybj@ Rpfi.a WjWj ug
V[ bjfSg qdiIjsj bVplji Vjq e'a dul ai%J dw lF } fp,DdAbj m
Rpfi.a hpwq h'dHbj ##a[ij f+LV wg h{$$ be'G wjwP dl>z V[ W[Vag
wgag dw qhjiju q{G uPH[ dr,y lF wpN hji debj hJ m dw+fj
wi' m Rpfi.a WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##a[ig d;.seg dr,y hg
a[i[ fp,ai y.eg wqjHg wiw[ lF wpN WSj v{Se[ a.P dHr[G hg
ih[Gej m hpS a{} ujS sg bjdebj h{$$ b,u Rpl fdirji sg
hjva Whpa hg y.eg h{ dHh WyV la h'H[ m
\dHh f+l.e l+! wjwP dl>z s[ fdirji fjl'G dqdvbj m|

ldaepip r[firjhp dli.sj mm


V uqwjdS V A.sj W.sj mm
\b>e 1024|

W[f+rjh ldaepiP h{@ epiP VjVw ljdhW rg W[-f+rjh hV m


ba[ Rpls[ sl liPf rg W[-f+rjh hV m dul dhis[ dr,y Vjq
WjSg rl ujr[ LWs Vjv bF[s h' w[ qhJfpit W[-f+rjh h'
uJs[ hV m epirjw h{ ##lda fpitp dudV ujdVbj ldaepi dalwj
VjRp m$$
dHh WyV WjWj bjV.s dl>z ug V[ v[tw s[ dfaj ug }
82

bjfSg ilVj a'G lpSjdHbj u' dHo[ dvdtbj uj dihj h{ m dH,w


rji wv[iJ rjv[ WjWj ug Fp,y'G rjv[ WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z
ug s[ siLV wiV rjla[ Fp,y'G fhp.y[ ba[ dxi wHg ai%J s[
f+qjio s[ epu[ WyV h'H[ m WyV widsbJ-widsbJ Fp,y'G rjdvbJ
V[ xpiqjdHbj mm vRp qhJ fpit blgG b{awg sgrjvg a'G Wjbs
ligi A,cJe[$$ wv[iJ rjv[ WjWj ug V[ xpiqjdHbj dHh WyV
lpSs[ lji hg lj} dHYG v,ej dur[G h[n ;qgV dVwv ihg h'r[@
qV dr,y h{ijVg ria eHg@ Rpl lq[G lj} h'i aJ wpN Vj lp,dNbj@
blgG Fp,y'G rjdvbJ s[ yiV fwC vH[ ba[ dli RpV%J s[ yiVJ
RpKa[ i,t w[ b{Vj r{ije wgaj ba[ r{ije qHg W[VagbJ wgagbJ
duV%J dyi Fp,y'G rjdvbJ V[ lj} fp,dAbj Vj ##wg yjhp.s[ h'$$
blgG yiV VhgG A,c[ dul lq[G dHh WyV wgaj y.ej dxi ##wpN
lqJ h'i idh f{Gsj hJ$$ dHl ai%J wHg rji ws[ dH,w ljv Wjbs
ws[ s' ljv Wjbs dHh WyV wiVj@ dHl ai%J sl WjiJ ljv
v.z eH[ m

epfap f+eBp lF ujSgb{


u[ qVp ijt{ njdH mm
\b>e 57|

qhJ fpit s[ hpwq b>si l[rw ih[ m l[rj ba[ dlqiV rv'G
ejxv Vj h'r[@ aJ qV dWiag RpKyg br,loj rjvg h' uJsg
h{ m RpKygbJ br,lojrJ dr,y WC[ bV't[ w"aw rias[ hV m f>dca
l+g ijq dl>z ug dHl lq[G l[rj dr,y hj;i lV m RpV%J dH,w epfa
yqawji r[dtbj u' dHo[ dvdtbj uj dihj h{ m f>dca ug V[
83

dH,w V;jij r[dtbj dw b>ei[;g iPf i.e dyhV y,wi rjv[ W.s[
hV@ duV%J dry'G yji W.s[ WjWj ug s[ fv.z } yp,wg uj ih[
hV m h'i rg W[b>a hV dwl[ w'v y"i@ zdCbjv Vidl>z[ hV
ba[ u{ u{ wji rjv[ LWs W'vs[ h'H[ uj ih[ hV m aJ f>dca
l+g ijq dl>z ug RpV%J s[ b,e[ h' w[ fp,AS v,e[ dw aplgG WjWj
ug } lS[ fv.z dwo[ v{ w[ uj ih[ h'@ aJ RpV%J V[ b,e'G urjW
ds,aj dw dHhVj qhJ fpitJ } ljigbJ ajwaJ s[ v{ w[ spVgbJ
s[ Fv[ vHg f+q[Li V[ F[dubj lg@ fi spVgbJ rjv[ v'w dHV%J
sg l[rj l.ea wiVj VhgG yjhp.s[ RpvB dVijsi wis[ hV m lj}
f+q[Li V[ hpwq wgaj h{ aplgG RpV%J } v{ bjY@ l' WHg hpwq
bVplji blgG dHV%J } v{ w[ uj ih[ hJ m dHaVg Nvw Rpfi.a
f>dca ug sg b,t tpv eHg ba[ qV dr,y WCgbJ dryjiJ
bjHgbJ m qV WCj drbjwpv h'r[ Zgiu Vj dihj m btgi RpKa[
h"lvj wiw[ f>dca ug V[ WjWj qhJ hdiVjq dl>z ug } W[Vag
wiw[ fpA dvbj ##eigW dVrj; q{G b{lj ds+LBJa r[dtbj h{
q{} lqN VhgG bjHg aplgG dw+fj wiw[ lqNjRp m aJ be'G WjWj
ug V[ RpKai dr,y WyV wgaj ##u' wpA a.P r[dtbj Rph ngw
h{ dHh lj} yp,w w[ v{ ujS rjv[ b>ei[; VhgG lV m dHh W+hqj@
drL}@ dLr bjdsw a[ag wi'C s[ra[ lV m$$dxi f>.dca l+g ijq
dl>z ug V[ W[Vag wgag dw l,y[ fjaLjh l.a Whjv sjl ug
rg bjf ug fjl'G wpN f+jfa wi eH[ hV@ l.a l.fPiV sjl ug
ba[ ditg bV.s dl>z ug rg N'vgbJ Fi w{ v{ eH[ ba[ l.a
dy.a ijq W[-b>.a ri'l w[ eH[@ eigW dVrj; q{G A'Bj duhj
bjf ug s[ si bjdHbj ba[ bjf ug sg WtdLL a'G dwa[ tjvg
hg Vj idh ujrJ@ q[i[ eigW RpKa[ rg dwifj wiVg m W[Vag lpVS
84

Rpf>ia WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##Lp,Z h{ a[ij lj} y[aj VhgG


Fpdvbj u' wpN a{} fsjio s[Sj h{ Yh a[i[ b>si hg e.T W.V
w[ i,dtbj h{ b,t xiwS a'G fdhvJ hg Rph e>T tpv ujH[eg
hiV FiV uj wj V[a+ x'ip f>dca ug h"lvj it' l[rj wig ujY$$
Rpfi.a f>dca l+g ijq dl>z ug V[ W[Vag wgag dw qhjiju u[
Rph s[ra[ lV aJ b>ei[;J s[ iPf dr,y dwRpG bjH[ wg s[rdabJ
s[ dsW liPf dur[G dw e+.oJ dr,y dvt[ hV m Rpl ai%J s[ VhgG
hp.s[ m Rpf>ia l+g h;Pi WjWj ug V[ WyV wgaj ##u' raV sg
liwji h'r[ Rpls[ iPf dr,y s[ra[ bjRpGs[ hV$$ Fjr dw RpV%J
sgbJ risgbJ bjdsw liPf ZjiV wiw[ bjRpGs[ hV ##w'Hg
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86

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87

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88

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92