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1.

Sedimentary Basin
Sedimentary basins correspond to depressions in the upper parts of the
Earths crust, generally occupied by a sea or an ocean. These depressions are
initiated by geodynamic phenomena often associated with the displacement of
lithosphere plates. The basement of the sedimentary basins is formed of crust
made up of igneous rocks (granite on the continents and basalt in the oceans).
Sedimentary rocks such as clays, sandstones, carbonates or massive salt have
accumulated in these basins over geological time. Sedimentation generally
involves a process extending over tens of millions of years, at a rate of several
millimetres per year on average. Chiefly due to the weight of the deposits, the
ongoing geodynamic processes and the accumulation of sediments lead to
deformation and progressive sinking of the underlying crust. This accentuates
the initial depression, giving rise. To a sedimentary filling that is often many
kilometers thick. This deepening of the basin, which is known as subsidence,
results

from

the

combined

effects

of

tectonic

movements

and

sedimentary overburden. In extreme cases, subsidence can reach as much as 20


km.
The tectonic setting is the premier criterion to distinguish different types
of sedimentary basins:
1. Extensional basins occur within or between plates and are associated
with increased heat flow due to hot mantle plumes.
2. Collisional basins occur where plates collide, either characterized
by subduction of an oceanic plate or continental collision.
3. Transtensional basins occur where plates move in a strike-slip
fashion relative to each other.
2. Basin Analysis
Basin analysis involves interpretation of the formation, evolution,
architecture and fill of a sedimentary basin by examining geological variables
associated with the basin. It provides a foundation for extrapolating known
information into unknown regions in order to predict the nature of the basin

where evidence is not available. It helps the exploration and development of


energy, mineral and other resources (e.g. water, brines, etc.). That may occur
within sedimentary basins.
A basin model is built on a framework of geological surfaces that are
correlated within the basin.
Stratigraphic framework can be expressed in terms of rock type
(lithostratigraphy), fossil content (biostratigraphy), age (chronostratigraphy), or
rock properties such as seismic velocity (seismic stratigraphy).
3. The Importance of Basin Analysis on Petroleum Industry is Decided By
Geographic location.
kind of basin
Tectonic history.
The sedimentary history, and the effects of thermal changes on

these sediments.
Content, age, thickness and facies of the sediments of primary
petroleum concern, such as the reservoir, cap rock and source beds.

Basin analysis encompasses many topics since it integrates several


fields within geology. But it emphasis on evaluation of strata that fill
stratigraphic basins.

Major approaches:

Basin formation and character, plate

tectonics.
Basins fill characteristics, processes and

evolution.
Basin analysis techniques.
Description
and
correlation
stratigraphic

basin

of

fill(sequence

stratigraphy). Petroleum System.


Prospect generation and evaluation.

4. Purpose of Basin Analysis


Determine the physical chronostratigraphic framework by interpreting

sequences, systems tracts, and parasequences and/or simple sequences on


outcrops, well logs, and seismic data and age date with high resolution

biostratigraphy.
Construct geohistory, total subsidence and tectonic subsidence curves on
sequence boundaries.
Complete tectonostratigraphic analysis including:
Relate major transgressive-regressive facies cycles to tectonic

events.
Relate changes in rates of tectonic subsidence curves to plate-

tectonic events.
Assign a cause to tectonically enhanced unconformities.
Relate magmatism to tectonic subsidence curve.
Map tectonostratigraphic units.
Determine style and orientation of structures

with

tectonostratigraphic.

5. Stages of Basin Analysis


a. Initial Stage Analysis
During the initial stages of exploration the broad framework of a basin
may be worked out with the help of satellite imagery, aerial photo, surface
geological data, gravity, magnetic and seismic data. Stratigraphic and
sedimentological information obtained from wells and Seismic data helps in
reconstructing the depositional history and inter relating the structural patterns
with sedimentation. The stratigraphic and record of the basin full is the basis for
interpreting the casualties of hydrocarbon generation and accumulation. From
knowledge of the worldwide sedimentary basins, certain associational
characteristics of hydrocarbon accumulation, their distribution in space and
time and the potential of the total basin are broadly indicated.
b. Middle Stage Analysis
The second stage of basin analysis is reached during the advanced
phases of hydrocarbon exploration, when the tectonic framework, nature of
sedimentary fill, structural styles and habitat of oil/gas are better known and

more refined and quantitative analysis becomes feasible. Detailed lithological


and paleoenvironmental studies, paleogeomorphic, structural and paleotectonic
analysis, working out depositional systems, geochemical studies and
identification of petroleum systems are the key elements at this stage. This
results in a more precise definition of oil and gas generation and accumulation
zones and their relationship with the stratigraphic and tectonic settings in
various parts of the basin leading to a predictive exploration model.

c. Final Stage Analysis


The final stage is basin analysis, which forms the major part of
exploration activity, is the search wit the help of the above exploration model, to
locate favourable structural, stratigraphic, paleogeomorphic and other subtle
prospects for exploratory drilling.
The information generated at various stages may require reinterpretation, due to improvement in techniques or concepts or discovery of
new plays in the basin. Basin analysis is thus, a continuous process carried out
in stages, directed towards discovery of hydrocarbons.
With this background, it is clear that basin analysis requires a synergistic
approach, with different geoscientific activities playing their pivotal role during
stages of work. The detailed scheme of basin analysis encompassing the
major activities, sub-activities, while the flow chart following it provides a
broad overview.