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3/13/2015

Structuralload­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Structuralload

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Structuralloadsoractionsareforces,deformations,oraccelerationsappliedtoastructureorits components. [1][2]

Loadscausestresses,deformations,anddisplacementsinstructures.Assessmentoftheireffectsis

Mechanicalstructures,suchasaircraft,satellites,rockets,spacestations,shipsandsubmarines,have theirownparticularstructuralloadsandactions. [3]

Engineersoftenevaluatestructuralloadsbaseduponpublishedregulations,contracts,orspecifications.

Contents

1TypesofloadsContents 2Loadsonarchitecturalandcivilengineeringstructures 2.1Deadload 2.2Imposedloads 2.3Environmentalloads

2Loadsonarchitecturalandcivilengineeringstructures

2.1Deadload2Loadsonarchitecturalandcivilengineeringstructures 2.2Imposedloads 2.3Environmentalloads 2.4Otherloads

2.2Imposedloads2.1Deadload 2.3Environmentalloads 2.4Otherloads 2.5Loadcombinations

2.3Environmentalloads2.1Deadload 2.2Imposedloads 2.4Otherloads 2.5Loadcombinations 3Aircraftstructuralloads

2.4Otherloads2.1Deadload 2.2Imposedloads 2.3Environmentalloads 2.5Loadcombinations 3Aircraftstructuralloads 4Seealso

2.5Loadcombinations2.2Imposedloads 2.3Environmentalloads 2.4Otherloads 3Aircraftstructuralloads 4Seealso 5References 6Externallinks

3Aircraftstructuralloads2.1Deadload 2.2Imposedloads 2.3Environmentalloads 2.4Otherloads 2.5Loadcombinations 4Seealso 5References 6Externallinks

4Seealso2.3Environmentalloads 2.4Otherloads 2.5Loadcombinations 3Aircraftstructuralloads 5References 6Externallinks

5References2.2Imposedloads 2.3Environmentalloads 2.4Otherloads 2.5Loadcombinations 3Aircraftstructuralloads 4Seealso 6Externallinks

6Externallinks2.2Imposedloads 2.3Environmentalloads 2.4Otherloads 2.5Loadcombinations 3Aircraftstructuralloads 4Seealso 5References

Typesofloads

Deadloadsarestaticforcesthatarerelativelyconstantforanextendedtime.Theycanbeintensionor

compression.Thetermcanrefertoalaboratorytestmethodortothenormalusageofamaterialor

structure.

Liveloadsareusuallyunstableormovingloads.Thesedynamicloadsmayinvolveconsiderationssuch

Animpactloadisonewhosetimeofapplicationonamaterialislessthanone­thirdofthenaturalperiod

ofvibrationofthatmaterial.

Cyclicloadsonastructurecanleadtofatiguedamage,cumulativedamage,orfailure.Theseloadscan

berepeatedloadingsonastructureorcanbeduetovibration.

3/13/2015

Structuralload­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Loadsonarchitecturalandcivilengineeringstructures

Buildingcodesrequirethatstructuresbedesignedandbuilttosafelyresistallactionsthattheyarelikely tofaceduringtheirservicelife,whileremainingfitforuse. [4] Minimumloadsoractionsarespecifiedin thesebuildingcodesfortypesofstructures,geographiclocations,usageandmaterialsofconstruction. [5] Structuralloadsaresplitintocategoriesbytheiroriginatingcause.Intermsoftheactualloadona structure,thereisnodifferencebetweendeadorliveloading,butthesplitoccursforuseinsafety calculationsoreaseofanalysisoncomplexmodels.

Tomeettherequirementthatdesignstrengthbehigherthanmaximumloads,buildingcodesprescribe that,forstructuraldesign,loadsareincreasedbyloadfactors.Theseloadfactorsare,roughly,aratioof thetheoreticaldesignstrengthtothemaximumloadexpectedinservice.Theyaredevelopedtohelp achievethedesiredlevelofreliabilityofastructure [6] basedonprobabilisticstudiesthattakeinto accounttheload'soriginatingcause,recurrence,distribution,andstaticordynamicnature. [7]

Deadload

Thedeadloadincludesloadsthatarerelativelyconstantovertime, includingtheweightofthestructureitself,andimmovablefixtures suchaswalls,plasterboardorcarpet.Theroofisalsoadeadload. Deadloadsarealsoknownaspermanentorstaticloads. [8][9][10]

Imposedloads

Liveloads,orimposedloads,aretemporary,ofshortduration,ora

movingload.Thesedynamicloadsmayinvolveconsiderationssuch

materialfatigue.

Deadload

Deadload

Liveloads,sometimesalsoreferredtoasprobabilisticloads,includeallthe

forcesthatarevariablewithintheobject'snormaloperationcyclenot

includingconstructionorenvironmentalloads.

Roofandfloorliveloadsareproducedduringmaintenancebyworkers,

equipmentandmaterials,andduringthelifeofthestructurebymovable

objects,suchasplantersandpeople.

Bridgeliveloadsareproducedbyvehiclestravelingoverthedeckofthe

bridge.

Environmentalloads

Theseareloadsthatactasaresultofweather,topographyandother

naturalphenomena.

Snow ,rainandiceloads Snow,rainandiceloads

Imposedload(liveload)

Imposedload(liveload)

Livesnowload

Livesnowload

Ponding loads Pondingloads

Lateralpressureofsoil,groundwaterorbulkmaterials

Loadsfromfluidsorfloods

Permafrost melting Permafrostmelting

Dustloadsorbulkmaterials Loadsfromfluidsor floods Permafrost melting Otherloads

Otherloads

Engineersmustalsobeawareofotheractionsthatmayaffectastructure,suchas:

Foundationsettlementordisplacement

Creep orshrinkage Creeporshrinkage

Impactfromvehiclesormachineryvibration

Loadcombinations

Aloadcombinationresultswhenmorethanoneloadtypeactsonthestructure.Buildingcodesusually specifyavarietyofloadcombinationstogetherwithloadfactors(weightings)foreachloadtypeinorder toensurethesafetyofthestructureunderdifferentmaximumexpectedloadingscenarios.Forexample,

indesigningastaircase,adeadloadfactormaybe1.2timestheweightofthestructure,andaliveload

factormaybe1.6timesthemaximumexpectedliveload.Thesetwo"factoredloads"arecombined

(added)todeterminethe"requiredstrength"ofthestaircase.

Thereasonforthedisparitybetweenfactorsfordeadloadandliveload,andthusthereasontheloadsare

initiallycategorizedasdeadorliveisbecausewhileitisnotunreasonabletoexpectalargenumberof

peopleascendingthestaircaseatonce,itislesslikelythatthestructurewillexperiencemuchchangein

itspermanentload.

Aircraftstructuralloads

Foraircraft,loadingisdividedintotwomajorcategories:limitloadsandultimateloads.Limitloadsare

oftenjustflightloadsandarefurtherdividedintomaneuveringloadsandgustloads.Ultimateloadsare

crashloads.Maneuveringloadsaredeterminedbasedontheperformancelimitsoftheaircraftwhether

imposedbytheflightmanualorbytheactualaerodynamicperformanceofaircraft.Gustloadsare

determinedstatisticallyaretakenfromguidelinesorrequirementsgivenbytheapplicableregulatory

agency.Crashloadsarelooselyboundedbytheabilityofhumanstosurviveextremeaccelerationsand

arealsotypicallytakenfromregulations.

Otherloadsthatmaybecriticalarepressureloads(forpressurized,high­altitudeaircraft)andground

loads.Loadsonthegroundcanbefromadversebrakingormaneuveringduringtaxi.