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CONCEPT MAPS

Unit 1: Electrostatics
(08 marks)
Revise: SI units and dimensions of electric charge, field, dipole moment, flux and charge
densities, potential, capacitance and polarisation. Drawing field lines and EPS for dipole,
two charge and single charge system.
Vector form of Coulombs Law. Gauss Theorem, electric dipole, electric field lines and
equipotential surface. capacitor, Van de Graff Generator
Remember: Charge is scalar but the electric field created by it is a vector, whereas the
potential is again a scalar. Electric flux is a scalar. A dipole experiences no force but pure
torque in uniform electric field whereas it does experience a force and torque both in

non-uniform field. Gausss Law is valid only for closed surfaces. Three types of charge
densities viz linear, surface and volume are different physical quantities having different
unit and dimensions. Along a field line, potential decreases at the fastest rate. The dipole
moment per unit volume is called polarisation and is a vector. Whether its a solid or a
hollow conducting sphere, all free charges reside on its surface. Dielectric constant is
also called relative permittivity and is dimensionless, unitless.
Unit 2:Current electricity
(07 marks)
Revise : SI units and dimensions of mobility, resistance, resistivity,conductivity, current
density and emf. Ohms Law , drift velocity, colour coding. Parallel/ series combination of
cells. Potentiometer. Numericals on finding equivalent resistance/current using Kirchoffs
laws
Remember:Current is scalar as it does not follow laws of vector addition but current
density is vector. Kirchoffs junction/ loop law is charge/ energy conservation laws. If the
Galvanometer and cell are interchanged in balanced Wheatstone bridge, the balance
does not get affected. For a steady current along a tapering conductor, current remains
constant but current density, drift speed and electric field varies inversely as area of
cross-section. Ohms law is not universally applicable such as vacuum diode,
semiconductor diode.
Unit 3: Magnetic effects of current and magnetism:
(08 marks)
Revise : SI units and dimensions of permeability, relative permeability, magnetic
moment, field, flux, intensity, susceptibility, torsional constant and their nature as vector
or scalars. Magnetic field lines. Biot-Savart and Amperes law, solenoid, toroid, MCG,
Cyclotron, para, dia and ferro magnetism, permanent and electromagnets. Numericals
on ammeter and voltmeters
Remember: Parallel currents attract and anti parallel currents repel. Amperes law can
be derived from Biot- Savarts law. MCG has two sensitivities voltage and current as
deflection per unit voltage/ current, respectively. Angle of dip is also called inclination, its
value at poles and at equator are 90 degrees and 0 degree, respectively.
Superconductors are perfect diamagnets. T(tesla) is SI unit for magnetic field, the other
being G(gauss,non-SI),1 T is equal to 10,000 gauss.
Diamagnetism is universal - it is present in all materials.
Unit 4: EMI and AC
(08 marks )
Revise : SI unit and dimensions of self and mutual inductance, capacitive and inductive
reactance, impedance, Q-factor, power factor. Faradays/ Lenzs law, eddy current,
motional emf, self/ mutual inductance, AC generator, transformer

Remember: Lenzs law is consequence of energy conservation. Eddy current has merits
and demerits. AC is scalar but follows phasor treatment as it is periodically varying. At
resonance power factor is 1, hence maximum power is dissipated. A transformer works
in AC but not in DC. The power consumed in an AC circuit is never negative. Rated
values of ac devices for current and voltages are rms whereas for power it is average.
Higher the Q-factor sharper the resonance, smaller the bandwidth and better the
selectivity
Unit 5: Electromagnetic waves
(03 marks)
Revise : Properties and frequencies, Ampere-Maxwell law, displacement current,
drawing of EMW. Numericals on finding frequency, speed etc from given equation.
Remember : An oscillating charge produces EMW of the frequency of oscillation. IR
waves are also called heat waves as they produce heating. The AM (amplitude
modulated) band is from 530 kHz to 1710 kHz. TV waves range from 54 MHz to 890 MHz.
The FM (frequency modulated) radio band extends from 88 MHz to 108 MHz. TV remote
uses IR waves. LASIK and water purification uses UV rays.
Unit 6: Optics
(14 marks)
Revise : Lens and Lens makers formula, magnifying and resolving power, limit of
resolution, Hygens principle and polarisation, YDSE. Numericals on image location and
its nature for lens-mirror combinations
Remember: Resolving power is inverse of limit of resolution. Unpolarised light after
passing through a polaroid gets linearly polarised with half the intensity for any
orientation of the polaroid. Diffraction, interference and polarisation prove the wave
nature of light. Polarisation proves the transverse nature of light. Compound microscope
has eyepiece of larger aperture and objective smaller vice versa in a telescope.
Reflecting telescope removes chromatic and spherical aberration fairly. If the source of
light is white in YDSE the central fringe is white and others are coloured in sequence
from nearest red to the farthest blue.
Unit 7: Dual nature of matter and radiation
(04 marks)
Revise : Einsteins photoelectric equation and all the graphs in the NCERT book.
Davisson-Germer experiment. Numericals based on de Broglies and photoelectric
equations.
Remember : de Broglie equation relates particle to wave. Wave nature of electrons are
used in electron microscope. Photoelectric effect was explained using photon picture of
light.

Atom & nucleus


1. Discovery of nucleus

In 1897 J.J. Thomson discovered the electron in the rays emitted from the
cathode of discharge tube filled with gas at low temperatures.

Again 1910 Thomson suggested a model for describing atom , known as


'Thomson's atomic model' which suggests that atom consists of positively
charged sphere of radius 10-8cm in which electrons were supposed to be
embedded.

Thomson atomic model failed as it


explanation
for
several
phenomenon such as, spectrum
of atoms, alpha particle scattering

could

not

give

convincing

and many more.

In 1909 Gieger and Marsden employed


projectile to bombard thin metallic

-particles (Helium ion) as


foil.

According to Thomson atomic


since all positive charge of atom
neutralized by the negatively
would be rare event for an -particle
deflection , as expected force of
strong.

model
was
charged electrons, there
to suffer a very large
repulsion would not be very

Surprisingly experiments of Gieger


Marsden showed large deflections
many orders of magnitude and more

and
of alpha particles that were
common then expected.

This result of Gieger and Marsden particle scattering experiment was


explained by Sir Rutherford in 1911.

Rutherford proposed a new atomic model in which electrons were located


at much greater distance from the positive charge.

Rutherford proposed that all the positive charge , and nearly all the mass
of the atom, was concentrated in an extremely small nucleus.

The electrons were supposed to be distributed around the nucleus in a


sphere of atomic radius nearly equal to 10-8cm.

In explaining this experiment Rutherford made simple assumptions that


both the nucleus and -particles (Helium ion) were point electrical charges
and the repulsive force between them is given by Coulombs inverse
square law at all distances of separation.

These assumptions made by Rutherford were not valid if -particle


approaches the nucleus to a distance comparable with the diameter of the
nucleus.

From this experiment there emerged a picture of internal structure of


atoms and it also confirmed the existence of the atomic nucleus.

Approximate values for size and electrical charge of nucleus were


calculated using data of various scattering experiments.

2. Nuclear Composition

Atomic nuclei are build up of protons and neutrons.

Nucleus of hydrogen atom contains only single proton.

Charge on a proton is +1.6x10-19 C and its mass is 1836 times greater then
that of electron.

Neutrons are uncharged particles and mass of a neutron is slightly greater


then that of a proton.

Neutrons and protons are jointly called nucleons.

Number of protons in nuclei of an element is equal to the number of


electrons in neutral atom of that element.

All nuclei of a given element does not have equal number of neutrons for
example99.9 percent of hydrogen nuclei contains only one proton , some
contain one proton and one neutron and a very little fraction contains one
proton and two neutrons.

Elements that have same number of protons but differ in number of


neutrons in their nucleus are called ISOTOPES.

Hydrogen isotope deuterium is stable but tritium is radioactive and it


decays to changes into an isotope of helium.

In heavy water instead of ordinary hydrogen deuterium combines with


oxygen.

Symbol for nuclear species follows the pattern AXZ where


X= Chemical symbol of element
Z= Atomic number of element or number of protons in the nucleus of
that element.
A= Mass number of nuclide or number of nucleons in the nucleus.
A=Z+N where N is the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

In symbolic form
(1)
hydrogen = 1H1 and Deuterium = 2H1
(2)
Chlorine isotopes are 35Cl17 and 37Cl17

3. Atomic mass

Atomic masses refer to the masses of neutral atoms , not of bare nuclei
i.e., an atomic mass always includes the masses of all its electrons.

Atomic masses are expressed in mass units (u).

One atomic mass unit is defined as one twelfth part of the mass of
atom.

So the mass of

Value of a mass unit is


1u=1.66054x10-27Kg

We now calculate the energy equivalent of mass unit. We know that


Einsteins Mass-Energy relation is
E=mc2

12

C6, the most abundant isotope of carbon is 12u.

12

C6

here,
m = 1.60x10-27 Kg and
c = 3x108 m/s
therefore
E = (1.60x10-27) x (3x108)2
=1.49x10-10 J
but 1eV = 1.6 x 10-19 J
therefore,
1.49 x 10-10

E =

1.60 x 10-19

or,
E = .931 x 109 eV
E = 931 MeV
Thus 1 amu = 931 MeV

Mass of proton is 1.00727663 u which is equal to 1.6725 x 10 -27kg or


938.26 MeV.

Mass of neutron is 1.0086654 u which is equal to 1.6748 x 10 -27kg or


939.55 MeV.

4. Isobars and Isotones


40

Nuclei with same A but different Z are known as Isobars for example
and 40Ca20 share same mass number 40 but differs in one unit of Z.

K19

Although isobaric atoms share same mass number but they differ slightly
in their masses.

This very slight difference in masses of isobaric atoms is related to


difference between energies of two atoms since small mass difference
corresponds to considerable amount of difference in energies.

Nuclei with same number of neutrons but different number of protons are
called Isotones for example 198Hg80 and 198Au79

5. Size of nucleus

First estimate of size of nucleus was provided by Rutherford scattering


experiment.

In Rutherfords scattering experiment incident alpha particles gets


deflected by the target nucleus as long as the distance approached by the
alpha particles does not exceeds 10-14m and Coulombs law remains
consistent.

Apart from Rutherfords scattering experiment various other experiments


like fast electrons and neutron scattering experiments were performed to
determine the nuclear dimensions.

Since electrons interact with nucleus only through electric forces so


electron scattering experiments gives information on distribution of charge
in the nucleus.

A neutron interacts with nucleus through nuclear forces so neutron


scattering provides information on distribution of nuclear matter.

It was found that the volume of a nucleus is directly proportional to the


number of nucleons it contains which is its mass number A.

If R is the nuclear radius then relationship between R and A is given as


R=R0A1/3
Where value of R0 1.2 x 10-15 1.2 fm and is known as nuclear radius
parameter.

Since R3 is proportional to A this implies that density of nucleas ( = m/V)


is a constant independent of A for all nuclei.

The density of nuclear matter is approximately of the order of ! 17 Kg/m3


and is very large compared to the density of ordinary matter.

1) Introduction

Phenomenon of radioactivity was first discovered by A.H.Bacquerel in 1896 while studying


fluorescence and phosphorence of compounds irradiated by visible light

these phosphorescent materials glow in dark after being exposed to visible light

while conducting experiment on uranium salts, he found that uranium salts has a capability to
blacken the photographic plate kept in a dark place wrapped through a paper

Subsequent experiments showed that radioactivity is a nuclear phenomenon in which an


unstable nucleus under goes a decay process referred as radioactive decay

There are three types of radioactivity decays that occur in nature .These are decay , decay
and decay.

We now define radioactive decay as the process by which unstable atomic nucleus looses
energy by emitting ionizing particles or radiations ( , and rays)

Radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus is a spontaneous process and can occur without any
interaction of other particles outside the atom

This process of radioactive decay is random and we can not predict whether a given
radioactive atom will emit radiations at a particular instant of time or not

Phenomenon of radioactivity is observed in heavy elements like uranium and unstable


isotopes like carbon 14

2) Properties of radioactive decay

Radioactive rays ionize the surrounding air and affect photographic plate

Radioactive rays acts differently on different biological cells and tissues

A beam of radioactive rays from a radium sample into three components in presence of strong
magnetic or electric fields

I.The alpha rays(particles)

The alpha particles are nuclei of helium atoms

Alpha particles was first identified by Rutherford and Royds in 1909 by spectroscopic method
where they found traces of helium in an originally pure sample of Radon gas which is an
emitter.

Examples of decay are


(A)

222

Rn864He2+218Po84

(B) 238U924He2+234Th90

rays can be stopped by thin sheet of paper.

rays can cause intense ionization in air.

Any group of particles emitted from same type of nuclei always have definite energy and
definite velocity.

Most particles are emitted with velocities between 1.5x10 7 and 2.2x107.

The particles cover a definite distance in a material without any loss of intensity and
suddenly in a small distance they are absorbed completely.

The distance rays travel within a given material is called their range in that material.

II.The beta rays(particles)

particles are identical with electrons.

They have mass 1 1836 of mass of proton.

examples of decay are


(A) 234Th90 234Pa91+e(B) 210Bi83 210Po84+e(C) 14C6 14N7+e-

Mass number and charge are conserved and the daughter product moves one place up in the
periodic table, as loss of negative charge by nucleus implies gain of positive charge.

rays cause much less ionization in air , but are 100 times more penetrating then rays.

rays can penetrate a aluminum sheet of few mm thickness.

A particular active element emits particles with energies varying between zero and a
certain maximum.

This maximum energy is called end point energy.

III. The Gamma rays:

They are part of EM spectrum < X-rays

ray photons are more energetic and more penetrating then X-rays
photons

rages between 1.7X10-8 cm and 4.0X10-6 cm

Ionization due to Gamma rays is a photoelectric effect

Owing to their large energies ,the Gamma rays photons can dislodge
electrons not only from outer orbits( valence orbits on conduction band) of
atoms but also from the inner orbits

Besides photoelectric effect ,gamma rays loose energy by


i) Compton effect ,in which the gamma photon collides with an electron
and gets scattered with a shift in wavelength

ii) Pair production ,in which a gamma photon is converted into a pair
consisting of an electron and a positron( particle having mass and charge
equal to electron but carrying positive change)
3) Law of radioactive Decay

Radioactivity is a nuclear phenomenon

When a nucleus disintegrates by emitting a particle ( and ) or by capturing an electron


from the atomic shell( K-shell) ,the process is called radioactive decay. This decay process is
spontaneous.

Let us take a radioactive sample containing N0 at time t=0 i.e, at the beginning. We wish to
calculate the number N of these nuclei left after time t.

The number of nuclei of a given radioactive sample disintegrating per sec is called the activity
of that sample is
dN/dt=rate of decrease of nuclei with time=Activity of sample at time t
--(1)

Experimentally it is found that the activity at any instant of time t is directly proportional to the
number N of parent type nuclei present at that time

Where > 0 is proportionality constant and negative sign indicates that N decreases as t
increases

From equation (2) we get

i.e. , is fractional change in N per sec


=> is not merely a proportionality constant ,but it gives us the probability of decay per unit
interval of time

Hence is called the probability constant or decay constant or disintegration constant

dN is the no of parent nuclei that decay between t and t+dt and we have taken N as
continuous variable

From (2)

N0=No of radioactive nuclei at t=0

From (4) we see that law of radioactive decay is exponential in character

From figure it can be noted that only half the amount of radon present initially after 3.83 days
and 1/4 after 7.66 days and so on

Plot shows that in a fixed time interval a fixed fraction of the amount of radioactive substance
at the beginning of interval decays

This faction is independent of the amount of radioactive substance and depends only on the
interval of the time

The decay constant is a characteristics of radioactive substance and it depends in no way


on the amount of the substance present

a) Half Life

Time interval during which half of a given sample of radioactive substance


decays is called its half life. It is denoted by T

b) Mean Life

Individual radio atomic atoms may have life spans between zero and
infinity

Average or mean life is defined as


=Total life time of all nuclei in a given sample/Total no of nuclei in that
sample
--(6)

From curve one can see that each of dN number of radioactive nuclei has
lived a life of t sec i.e. the total life span of a dN nuclei is (dN.t) sec .

Therefore equation (6) can be written as

4) Unit of activity

The most commonly used unit is the curie

Curie was originally based on the rate of decay of a gram of radium

There are 3.7X1010 disintegrations per sec per gram of radium .This no is taken as a standard
=> One curie=3.7X1010 disintegrations per sec

One curie of activity is very strong source of radiation


=> 1 milli curie=1mCi=10-3 Ci
1 microcurie=1Ci=10-6 Ci

Another unit of activity is Rutherford


1rd=106 dis/sec

Activity |dN/dt|=N=.693N/T
=> A very short lived substance gives rise to large activity ,even it is present in minute
quantities

The SI unit of radioactivity recently proposed is Becquerel (Bq) which is defined as activity
done to one disintegration per sec hence
1ci=3.7X1010 bq
=37G bq

5) Alpha decay:

Nucleus before the decay is called parent nucleus and after the decay is called daughter
nucleus

In Alpha decay, the parent nucleus AXZ emits an particle (=4He2) leaving behind a daughter
nucleus of four mass unit less and two charge units less i.e. A-4XZ-2

decay shift the element two places to the left in the periodic tables of elements ex

All nuclides of A >= 210 and Z > 83 tends to decay by emission

209

decay in heavy nucleus occur because a too heavy nucleus becomes unstable due to
coulomb repulsion and by emitting an particle the nucleus decrease its A and Z to moves
towards stability

Now the rest mass energy of parent nucleus AXZ is greater then the sum of rest mass
energies of A-4XZ-2 and 4He2

The difference between the rest mass energies of initial constituents and final products is
called Q-value of the process

For decay process ,Q value is


Q=[mp -(md+m)]c2
where mp -> Mass of parent nucleus ZAX
md -> Mass of parent nucleus Z-2A-4X
m -> Mass of parent nucleus 24He

Bi is the heaviest stable nuclide in nature

6) Decay

There are two types of decay , - and +

In decay an nucleus decay spontaneously emitting an electron or positron

Under - decay one of the neutrons in the parent nucleus gets transformed into a proton and
in the process an electron and an antineutrino are emitted
n-> p+e-+-

The daughter nucleus thus formed in - decay would be an element one place to the right of
the parent in the periodic table of elements

Examples of - decay

- is common over entire range of nuclides and amongst the naturally occurring heavy
radioactive nuclides and in fission products

In + decay one the protons of the parent nucleus gets transformed into a neutron emitting a
positron and neutrino
p->n+e++

In + decay the daughter nucleus would be one place to the left of parent nuclei in the periodic
table

Examples of + decay

In both + and - symbol - and represents antineutrino and neutrino

Both antineutrino (-) and neutrino() are charge less and nearly less particles and interact
very weakly with matter which make their detection very difficult

In these decay( + and -) mass number A of nucleus remain same after the decay

7) Decay

After alpha or beta decay processes it is common to find the daughter nucleus to be in an
excited state

Just like atoms ,nucleus also have energy levels

So an nucleus in excited state can make transitions from higher energy levels to lower one by
the emission of electro magnetic radiation

The energy difference in allowed energy levels of a nucleus are of the order of Mev and the
photons emitted by nuclei have energies of the order of Mev and are called rays

As an example, decay of 60Co27 nucleus gets transformed into 60Ni28 nucleus in excited state
which then de -excites to its ground state by successive emission of 1.17 Mev and 1.33 Mev
gamma rays as shown in energy level diagram,

IMPORTANT FIVE MARKS QUESTIONS


1. Derive an expression for the Electric field at a point on the (i) axial line and (ii)
equatorial line of an electric dipole
2. Describe the principle construction and working of Van de Graff Generator.
3. State Gauss theorem and apply it to find the electric field at a point due to
1. A point charge

2. A line of charge
3. A plane sheet of charge
4. A charged spherical conducting shell
4. Derive expression for the potential energy of a system of point charges.
5. Derive expression for the torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
6. Derive expression for the work done in turning a dipole in a uniform electric field.
7. Derive an expression for the potential energy of a dipole in a uniform electric field.
8. Explain the principle of a parallel plate capacitor
9. Derive an expression for the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor.
10. Derive an expression for the effective capacitance when three capacitors are connected in
(i) series (ii) parallel
11. Derive an expression for the energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor.
12. Derive an expression for the loss of energy when two conductors at different potentials
are brought into electrical contact. Account for this energy.
13. Derive and expression for the energy density of a parallel plate capacitor.
14. Derive I = nAeVd
15. Define drift velocity and derive an expression for it.
16. Deduce Ohms law from elementary concepts.
17. State Biot Savarts Law and apply it to find the magnetic field at a point due to long
straight conductor carrying current
18. State Amperes circuital theorem and apply it to find the magnetic field inside a (i)
solenoid (ii) toroid
19. State the Principle of a potentiometer and Explain how is it used (i) to determine the
internal resistance of a primary cell (ii) to compare the emfs of two primary cells
20. State Kirchhoffs laws and apply it to derive Wheatstones bridge principle.
21. Explain how will you use a metre bridge to find the resistance of a given resistor wire?
22. Describe the elements of earths magnetic field.
23. Compare the properties of para dia and ferromagnetic substances.

24. Derive an expression for the effective resistance when three resistors are connected in
(i) series (ii) parallel
25. Describe the principle construction and working of CYCLOTRON. Derive an expression
for cyclotron frequency. Why electrons cannot be accelerated in a cyclotron?
26. Derive an expression for the force between two straight long parallel conductors carrying
constant current and hence define one ampere.
27. Describe the principle construction and working of Moving Coil Galvanometer.
28. Derive an expression for the torque on a current carrying loop kept in a uniform magnetic
field
29. Explain how will you convert a galvanometer into (i) an ammeter (ii) a voltmeter
30. Define motional emf and derive an expression for it.
31. What are eddy currents? Explain its applications
32. What is self induction and self inductance? Derive an expression for the self inductance
of a long solenoid carrying current
33. Define mutual induction and mutual inductance. Derive an expression for the mutual
inductance of a pair of solenoids. What are the factors affecting the mutual inductance of a
pair of solenoids?
34. Derive an expression for the average value of ac for a half cycle.
35. Derive an expression for the RMS value of ac
36. Explain the principle and construction of a transformer and the various losses in a
transformer.
37. Derive an expression for impedance of a series LCR circuit. Define resonance is series
LCR circuit and derive an expression for resonant frequency.
38. Derive an expression for average power in an AC circuit. Define power factor and show
that the average power consumed in a pure inductor or a pure capacitor is zero.
39. Define Q factor of resonance. Derive an expression for Q factor.
40. Derive lens makers formula
41. Derive mirror formula
42. Derive a relation connecting object distance and image distance when a point object kept
in from of a convex refracting surface forms a real image inside the denser medium. (Also
practice other similar cases for real images and virtual images as well as for convex interface
and concave interface)

43. Derive an expression relating angle of prism, angle of incidence, angle of emergence and
angle of deviation when light is refracted by a prism
44. Derive n = sin (A+D)/2 / sin (A/2) for refraction through a prism.
45. Derive an expression for the effective focal length of the combination of two lenses in
contac
Two circular coils X and Y having radii R and respectively are placed in horizontal plane
with their centers coinciding with each other. Coil X has a current I flowing through it in the
clockwise sense. What must be the current in coil Y to make the total magnetic field at the
common centre of the two coils, zero?
With the same currents flowing in the two coils, if the coil Y is now lifted vertically upwards
through a distance R, what would be the net magnetic field at the centre of coil Y?
A straight thick long wire of uniform cross section of radius a is carrying a steady current I.
Use Amperes circuital law to obtain a relation showing the variation of the magnetic field
(Br) inside and outside the wire with distance r, ( ) and ( ) of the field point from the centre of
its cross section. Plot a graph showing the nature of this variation.
Calculate the ratio of magnetic field at a point above the surface of the wire to that at a point
below its surface. What is the maximum value of the field of this wire? 5
State the principle which helps us to determine the shape of the wavefront at a later time from
its given shape at any time. Apply this principle to:
(i) Show that a spherical/ plane wavefront continues to propagate forward as a spherical/plane
wave front.
(ii) Derive Snells law of refraction by drawing the refracted wavefront corresponding to a
plane wavefront incident on the boundary separating a rarer medium from a denser medium.