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Cambridge GCE A level 2003

Suggested Answers

What are the two justifications of zoos underlying the verbs preserve and exhibit (lines
Own Words
we keep them as pets, preserve and exhibit 1. Zoos ensure the survival of certain animal
them in zoos or make them entertain us in
species by protecting them / Zoos can help
in the breeding of endangered species
line 7-8
2. Zoos provide people with the opportunity to
see the animals up close for educational/
entertainment purposes.

In what way does the author suggest in paragraph 3 that animal rights supporters are selective
in animals whose rights they champion. Use your own words as far as possible.

Own Words
The right which animal rights supporters have They choose to champion only those animals
in mind is their own right not to have their own which look like humans (1m)
susceptibilities offended by what happens to
animals especially if they are recognizably
akin to us.

It is sentiment, not reason, that fuels their fanaticism (line 29)

Explain what the author is saying by bringing out the meaning of the italicized words.
Own Words
It is sentiment, not reason, that fuels their Feelings (1/2), rather than logical thought (1/2),
fanaticism (line 29)
are what drives (1/2) their extreme views (1/2)

a) Why does the author put quotation marks round suffer, enjoy and desire (line 34)
Own Words
The basic difference between homo sapiens
These words do not apply to animals
thinking man That animals, too, may suffer
and enjoy and desire, and that they can
They are emotional states which only
develop strategies to defend themselves, is,
of course, true. But in all this they remain, as
humans experience
far as we can tell, totally unaware of
Animals lack the self-awareness to
themselves as individuals : their activity is
instinctive, not rational, and their feelings are
feel these emotions
physical sensations, not emotional states such Any one of the above
as we experience.

Cambridge GCE A level 2003

b) Why is exploit in quotation marks in line 40?

Of course, no right-thinking person wishes to

inflict unnecessary pain on animals or to

exploit them in ways that cannot be justified

Own Words
This is a word animal rights supporters
use and the writer thinks that this word
only applies to humans and not animals
The writer thinks this word is too
extreme when used on animals

The writer was being sarcastic; he does

not agree that animals are being

Any one of the above

red in tooth and claw (line 44) inevitably at the expense of animal competitors (lines 45-46).
What view of Nature can you deduce from these phrases?
Own Words
Like them, we are a species whose primary That nature is violent / competitive / full of
instinct is to ensure its survival; like them, we aggression / fighting/ blood-letting / cruel and
are part of that nature which the poet Tennyson only the fittest survive
described as red in tooth and claw,
dependent for our survival on our ability to
supply our needs from our environment
inevitably at the expense of animal competitors

What point is the author making in the last sentences (lines 58-59)?
Own Words
We may deplore the reduction in global bio- It is we, not the animals, who wish to preserve
diversity and make desperate efforts to bio-diversity, who regret the extinction of
preserve a handful of endangered species species. (1)
the ones we find useful or admirable. But
these actions are prompted by our own
needs: to lessen our discomfort, to extend our
resources or to enrich our environment. The
last tiger will not mourn its own passing.

Cambridge GCE A level 2003

Summarise the authors reasons for believing that animals have no rights, and his account of the natural
relationship of humans and animals.Using material from paragraphs 2 and 5, write your summary in no more
than 120 words, not counting the opening words which are printed below. Use your own words as far as

1. Such claims misuse the concept of a right, which is only
appropriate to beings which have self-awareness,
and can be held accountable for their actions.





Own Words
Animals have no rights because, unlike
humans, animals are not conscious of what
they are doing / their deeds / behaviour / be
responsible for what they do
have some sort of social system whose values its and are not organized in communities with
members agree to uphold,
generally accepted beliefs
can express their preferences
cannot say what they want
Human have rights because they belong to a moral Humans live by a set of rules
community in which they have agreed to abide by certain
codes of behaviour
and to accept the consequences of break them.
and allow themselves to be punished if they
violate them
But animals are not humans. They have no capacity to but animals have no sense of right and wrong
make moral decisions
or to act other than how their instincts direct them, [ so having no choice but to obey their innate
that it would be absurd to charge a lion with murder or impulses
accuse a cat of cruelty when it plays with a mouse => eg]
No right-thinking person wishes to inflict unnecessary Though humans avoid cruelty to animals as
pain on animals or to exploit them in ways which cannot far as possible,
be justified,
but the over-riding principle guiding our treatment of They do use them for their own purpose
animals must be that of self-interest.
This is, indeed, where the animals and ourselves are at and like the animals
Like them, we are a species whose primary
put their needs for continued existence first
instinct is to ensure its own survival;
like them, we are part of that Nature which the poet They are in competition for the same
Tennyson described as red in tooth and claw, resources
dependent for our survival on our ability to supply our
needs from our environment inevitably at the
expense of animal competitors.
As we have developed in power and sophistication as and the ever-growing human population
well as in numbers,
those needs have correspondingly developed and and their greater expectations
The legitimate aspiration of the teeming millions of increases the pressures on animals
human beings now crowded on the Earth must
inevitably impact ever more severely on the creatures
that also strive to sustain themselves on it.

Cambridge GCE A level 2003

16. Their habitats shrink, they are farmed more efficiently

and they help us to survive or avoid disease.
Questions from Passage 2

and where they live

the mentally-handicapped child or the clinically insane adult (line 28)

Explain in your own words as far as possible the two attributes the author suggests both these
examples of the handicapped humans lack. Explain how the examples are used to develop the
authors argument.
Own Words
Perhaps, you say, they do have inherent value Reason: logical /rational thought
but less than humans. Because of their lack of Autonomy: ability to control their own lives /
reason or autonomy? We do not deny equal independence
rights to humans with these deficiencies the
mentally-handicapped child or the clinically
insane adult; neither can we say that animals
We do not deny equal rights to humans with The author uses these examples to show that
these deficiencies the mentally-handicapped just as these handicapped humans are
child or the clinically insane adult; neither can accorded full rights despite their limitations, so
animals which have the same limitations are
we say that animals
entitled to the same rights

Suggest and briefly explain three distinct consequences that might arise from the adoption (line
38) of the aims of the animal rights movement as set out in paragraph 1.
Own Words
total abolition of the use of animals in science increased human mortality rate when drugs
may no longer be tested on animals /
in commercial agriculture
change of land-use / farmers may become
unemployed/ suffer from reduced profits
total elimination of
sporting hunting



and animal-related institutions (eg. circuses, pet

shops ,riding stables etc.) may disappear

10 Questions from Passages 1 and 2

Give the meaning of the following words as they are used in Passage 1 and Passage 2. You
may write your answer in one word or a short phrase.
1 mark
1/2 mark
0 mark
multifarious (P1 line 3) many and varied
to make a strong/ severe/
impact (P1 line 49)

Cambridge GCE A level 2003

inexorable (P1 line unalterable/ inescapable

inborn/ innate/ intrinsic
inherent (P2 line 8)
asserts (P2 line 9)

claims / affirms/ insists /



11 With which of the two authors are you most in sympathy? Explain the reasons for your choice.
How relevant are the views raised by both authors to Singapore society?