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A FRENCH PAYPHONE (in France!).

ON

THE

Photo by John Drake

COVER:

Using a special computer language created by AT&T Bell Laboratories


scientist Gerald Holzmann. two Polaroid photographs showing opposite sides
of a woman's face were combined to create this image. The two 4-inch by 5inch Polaroid photographs, through the use of an optical scanner. were digi
tized so they could be processed by a computer. Using his special computer
language, Holzmann made a mirror image of one of the photograph5, then
combined the three of them to create the effect. The combination is completely
seamless, revealing no discontinuities where the three photos meet -- even
under magnification.
l/olzmann's language and techniques are the subject of a book, Bevond
PholOgravhy: The Digital Darkroom.from Prentice-Hall.

December 10, 1988

Literally for years now, we have


been pestering New York Telephone
for an exact date on the cutover of
our ancient #5 Crossbar offICe to a
more modern and efficient switch.
And recently, we were shocked to
hear that the date had been set:
December 1 0, 1988. We thought of
having a contest. A prize for the first
person to call in after the cutover.
But this was not to be.
You see, our office is going to go

"equal access" on that date. But


we're not getting a new digital
switch until at least 1990. What
we're getting now is something
called an "adjunct frame", a device
which allows a crossbar to emulate
E.S.S. to a degree. Supposedly, it
causes lots of problems, so we'll
have something to talk about. In this
way, N.Y. Tel will fulfill Judge
Greene's equal access orders with
out spending lots of money.

STAFFBOX
Editor-In-Chief

Emmanuel Goldstein

Office Manager

Cover Art

Bobby Arwatt

Ken Copel

Writers: Eric Corley . Thomas Covenant. John Drake. Mr. French.


The Glitch. Chester Holmes. Lex Luthor. Phantom Phreaker. Bill from
RNOC. David Ruderman. Silent Switchman. Mike Yuhas. and the
usual anonymous bunch.
2600 (ISSN 0749-3851) is published monthly by 2600 Ente rpris es Inc . . 7 Strong's Lane. Setauket.
York.

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Autumn 1988

2600 Magazine

Page 3

OUTSIDE Loop DISTRIBUTION PLANT


by Phucked Agent 04
Introduction/Outline
Basically, the outside local loop distri
bution plant consists of a l l of t h e facilities
necessary to distribute telephone service
from the central office (CO) out to the sub
scri bers. These facilities i nclude all wire,
cable , and terminal pOi nts along the distri
bution path. In this article, we shall fol low
this path from the CO to the subscriber,
exam ining i n depth each m ajor point along
the route and how it is used. This i s espe
cially useful for checking if any "unautho
rized equipment" is attached to your line,
which would not be attached at the Central
Office. I suppose this article can also be
interpreted to allow someone to do just the
opposite of its intended purpose . . . .
Note that t h i s article is intended as a
reference guide for use by persons famil
iar with the basics of either LMOS/MLT or
the o p e ration of the ARS B/C RAS (or
hopefu l l y both), because several refer
ences will be made to i nformation pertain
ing to the above systemslbureaus.
Serving Area Concepts (SAC) Plan
In order to standardize the way loop
distribution plants are set up i n the Bell
System of the U.S. (and to prevent chaos),
a reference standard deSign was created.
For urban and suburban areas, this plan
was called the Servi ng Area Co ncepts
(SAC) plan. Basically, i n the SAC plan,
each city is divided into one or more Wire
Centers (WC) which are each handled by
a local central office switch. A typical WC
will handle 4 1 ,000 subscriber lines. Each
WC is divided into about 1 0 or so Serving
Areas (depending on the size and popula
tion of the city) , with an average size of 1 2
square miles each (com pare this to the
Page 4

2600 Magazine

RAN D (Rural Area Network Design) plan


where often a rural S e rv i ng Area m a y
cover 1 30 square miles with only a fraction
of the number of lines). Each Serving Area
m ay handle around 500-1 000 l i n e s or
more for m aybe 200-400 housing u n i t s
(typically a tract of homes) .
From the CO, a feeder group goes out
to each Serving Area. This consists of
cable(s) which contain the wire pairs for
each line i n the SA, and it is almost always
underground (unless it is physically i m pos
sible). These feeder cables surface at a
point cal l ed the Servi ng Area I n te r face
( SAl) in a pede stal cabinet (or "bo x").
Fro m the S A l , the pairs (or i n d i v i d u al
phone lines) are crossed over into one or
several distribution cables which h andle
different sections of the SA (i.e . , certain
streets) . These di stribution cables are
either of the aerial or underground type.
The modern trend i s to use buried distribu
tion cables all the way to the subscriber
prem ises, but there are still a very large
number of exi sting loop plants using aerial
distribution cables (which we will concen
trate mainl y u po n i n this article). The se
distribution cables are then split up i nto
re side nce aerial drop w i r e s ( o n e p e r
phone l i n e ) a t a pol e clo sure ( i n aerial
plant) , or at a cable pair to se rvice wire
cross box (in buried plant). The cable pairs
then end up at the station protector at the
custo m e r's pre m i s e s , where they are
spliced into the pre m i se "inside wire" ( IW)
which services each phone in the cus
tomer's pre m i se s (and i s also the c u s
tomer's responsibility)
Although thi s is the "standard" de sign,
it i s by no m e ans the only onel Every telco
makes its own modification s to thi s stan-

A utumn 1988

OR HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE
dard, depending on the geographic area
or age of the network, so it's good to keep
your eyes and your m ind open.
At thi s paint, we will detail each point
along the Loop Di stribution Plant.
Cable Facility F1 CO Feeder
The F1 cable is the feeder cable which
originates at the Main Distribution Frame
(MDF) and cable vault at the local CO and
terminates at the SAL This cable can con
tain from 600 to over 2000 pairs, and often
more than one physical F1 cable is need
ed to service a single Serving Area (at an
S A l ). The F1 is almost a lways located
u nderground, because the size , weight,
and n u m ber of feeders leaving the CO
makes it impossible to put them on normal
telephone poles. Since it is also im practi
cal t o use o n e single piece of cable , the
F1 usually consi sts of several piece s of
l a rg e , pre s surize d , or arm o re d c a b l e
spliced together underground (this w i l l be
covered later) i nto a single cable.
Cable Numberi ng
In order to m ake locating cables and
pairs easier (or possibl e, for that matter),
a ll of the cables i n the loop distributio n
plant are numbered, a n d these num bers
are stored i n databases such as LMOS at
the ARSB or other record s at the LAC
(Loop Assignment Center) or maintenance
center. When trying to locate someone's
cable pair, it helps a g reat deal to know
the se n u m bers (although it can be done
without them with experience and careful
observation). Probably the most com mon
place to find these num bers is on a BOR,
in the Cable and Assignment Data" block.
The F1 is usually assigned a number from
00 to 99 (although 000-999 i s sometimes
used i n large offices). Cable pair number

ing is d iffe rent h owever, e specially in older


offices; typic al F 1 pair numbe rs range
from 0000 to 9999 . Keep in m ind that the
pair number is not concrete -- it is merely
nominal, it can change , and it doesn't nec
e ssarily h ave a n y spe cial me an in g (in
som e well organized offices, h owever, the
cables and pairs may be arrange d in a
certai n way wh ere you can de te rmin e
what area it serves by its num ber ...such
as i n m y area, heh heh). In any case , it's
up to you to figure out your area's layout.
The cable-pair number i s usually written in
a form at such as 02-1495, where 02 i s the
cable and 1495 is the pair (inc identally,
since this i s the CO Feeder cable pair that
is connected to the MDF, it is the one that
will be l isted in COS MOS) .
F1 Access Points
Although the F1 is run unde rground,
there is really not a standard access point
down there where a certain pair in a cable
can be singled out and accessed (as will
be explained ne xt). The re is, howe ver, a
point abo ve ground whe re all the pairs in
the F1 can be accessed -- this point is
known a s t h e Se rvin g Are a In terface
(S Al) , and it will be de tailed later. In LMOS
or other assignment records, the address
of the SAl will be l isted as the TErm inal
Address (TEA) for the F1 cable handling a
ce rtain pair in q u e stion; therefore , it is
where facility F1 stops.
Underground Plant

The term "Underground Plant" refers to


any facilities located be low the surface of
the e arth . Th is in clu d e s t ru ly "b u rie d "
cable s , w h ich are loc ate d 6- or-so feet
unde rground su rrounded b asic ally by a
conduit and d irt, as we ll as cables placed
in underground cement tunnels along with

Autumn 1988

2600 Magazine

I'age

eRA WLING INTO MANHOLES


other "below-ground" equipment (such as
seen in most urban areas). Whereas the
first type i s really i m possi ble to access
(unless, of course , you want to dig for a
day or so and then hack into an armored,
jel ly-filled PIC cable -- then you should
take a bit of advice from our resident Icky
PIC "Goo" advisor, The Marauder), the lat
t e r type can be acce s s e d t h ro u g h
manholes which lead to the underground
tunnel.
Manholes
B e l l S yste m m an h o l e s are u s u a l l y
found along a main street or area where a
feeder cable group passes through. Usi ng
an underground cable location map i s the
best method for locating cable paths and
manhole appearances, although it may not
always be available. These maps can be
acquired fro m the Underground Service
Alert (USA) (at 800-422-4 1 33), but often a
"cable locater" will be dispatched instead
(usuall y he will just m ark off how far down
or where you can d i g without h itting a
cabl e ), so t h i s i s not a very practical
method. Of course, you can always fol low
the warn i n g s i g n s on tel e ph o n e p o l e s
("call before y o u dig", etc.) a n d the spans
between SA l bridging heads until you find
a manhole. The F1 for the SAl nearest the
m a n h o l e s h o u l d be f o u n d down there
along with others en route to the areas
they serve.
There are several type s of m anhole
covers, both round and rectangular. The
recta n g u l a r o ne s are so m e t i m e s j u st
hinged metal plates cove ring an under
ground term i na l o r cable closure , and
these are easily opened by one person. A
non-hinged one may require two people.
Round manhole cove rs (wh i c h , b y the
Page 6

2600 Magazine

way, are ro und so that a l ineman can't


aCCidentally d rop the cover down the hole)
are basically all the same , except for the
types known as "C" and 0 type manhole
covers which util ize locking bo lts (these
can be removed using a standard crescent
or hex socket wren C h). These covers are
the sam e as the standard "B","A", a n d
"SA" type c o v e r s o n c e the b o l t s a r e
removed. The best way t o open a cover i s
to u se a m a n h o l e c o v e r l i f t e r ( i . e . ,
De f i a n ce C o r p . P TS - 4 9 o r B - t y p e
Manhole cover lifter) , although a n ordinary
3/4 - 1 inch crowbar (hook-side) can be
used. Put the tool i nto one of the rim slots
and press down on the bar u nt il the hook
is pressing up ag a i n st the cove r flange.
Then push or lift the cover a fe w i nches up
and slide it off the ho le. You can use a
bent sprinkler turn-off wrench on the other
side to lift up if there are two of you . You
"

"

"One must use good


sense when entering a
manhole."
should have no problem with two people ,
altho ugh it can be done alone provided
you are strong enough.
Once inside, check around for any test
e q u i p m e nt or papers w h i c h may h a v e
b e e n left i n s i d e . Basical ly, there i s really
no pair access down there, as it is mainly
a place through which the protected feed
er cables are run and spliced together.
These splice poi nts are usually sealed in
pressuri zed air and wate rproo f closure s
which protect the open splices from corro-

A utumn 1988

AND CLIMBING Up POLES


sion and ultra-violent rodent attack. If for
some reason you happen to find an open

ing a manhole, however, especially if you


don't have the right equipment. First, you

splice case or a cable with its armor and

could drop the cover on your foot, or get a

sheath removed, then it may be possible

crowbar or bent sprinkler tool ( the

(although not easy) to match color codes

worsn

(see chart) and find a certain pair. You

in the groin. Secondly, you must take pre


cautions if you stay down long, because

would have to strip the wire near the

the atmosphere in the hole will become

splice, though, and this is not recommend

oxygen depleted in a matter of

ed. Don't get the bright idea to pry open,

and there may be

or (worse yet) blow open a splice case, as

dangerous

they are often pressurized (see "manhole

you tamper with n itro ge n - p r e s su rized

minutes
suffocating or otherwise

gases in the manhole. Third, if

dangers"), and the telco will frown on your

cables or closures, a depressurization

actions sooner or later. Anyway, the feed

alarm signal may be set off at the

er cables generally are labelled at a point

nance center, and technicians could be

near the manhole, so it is easy to find and

sent out while you are still in the hole. It is

follow any certain cable. Because of this,

also known that expensive electronic

the manhole access points in your neigh


borhood are good places to examine (and
even sketch or map) the cable distribution
plant in your area. This could be interest

mainte

equipment mounted below ground ( i . e . ,

SLC remote terminals) may be eq u i pped

with tamper alarms, and they are securely


locked as well.

Serving Area Interface SAl

ing, especially if you find a lot of recently


installed groups or special service cables,

T he Ser v in g Area Interface (SAl) is

etc. There could even be several types of

b asically the point on the loop distribution

apparatus cases co n ta i n ing e ithe r analo g

path where the F1 feeder cable is cross

0, L, or N analog), pair gain systems,

(o r b u ri ed) distribution cable. This terminal

or digital carrier equipment (i.e.,


or

T1 dig ital

repeaters, equalizers, or loading coils


(which help compensate for shunt losses
caused by the parasitic cap acitance

connected over i nto one or more

F2 aerial

can be pole, pad, or pedes ta l mo unted

however, for this article, we will conc en

trate on the pedestal mounled cabinet as it

between pairs in pressurized cable). A typ

is b y far the most common (the other

ical underground apparatus facility is the

fo rms are functionally similar, anyway).

BERT (Below ground Electronics Remote

These things are seen all over .- Ihe 4-foot

Terminal). However, it's unlikely that you

high gray-green "boxes". There are sever

will find any of this special equipment


down there (other than loading coils,
which look like metal cylinders) unless you
are in a very rural or specialized area, or
you happen to be in a manhole :;er ving an

Interface), but it is usually called a

Bridging Head, Pedestal, B-Box (lineman


term), or just plain "Box". The standard

cabinet

inter-office trurk span (smile here).

Manhole Dangers

al names for this terminal teclinically it is


called the SAl or FDI (Feeder Distribution

One must use good sense when enter -

is the Western Electric 40-Type

cabinet, and it comes in several sizes,

depending on the amount of cable pairs in

Aufumn 1988

(("ontinl/cd

26()() :H (lK(d I//'

0/1

/)(I,f;f' 28 )

1'1IK/' 7

ce{{u{ar update
by The Glitch
There is ri sing interest in the cell ular
scene, the retail and the free aspects of i t.
Here's som e insight into what's going on!
Expanded Spectrum -- yes, the cellular
system, designed not to be overcrowded
like the earlier m obile system s, is now get
ting packed in so m e urban areas. The
FCC allocated 156 m ore channels to the
system, bringing the total num ber of chan
nel s from 666 to 832. All manufacturers in
the current m arketplace are c o m ing out
with new phones (or u pgra d e s to o l der
p h o n e s ) t o c o v e r t h e new c hanne l s.
Uniden has u pgraded their pri m ary l ine,
the CP-1000, to the CP-1100. Motorola
has a new line, the Mini-Tac, which i s fea
ture-packed and m uc h smaller than their
previous Oyna-Tac serie s. This a l so has
832 channel s. The NEC P-9000 portable
(about the size of a cordless) also has 832
channel s with an available upgrade to the
earlier portables. Mitsubishi had designed
the radio circuits of their older model line
to be able to cover extra frequencie s, so
a l l it n e e d s is a c hange of s o ftware
EPROMS for its upgrade. Audiovox has a
new m odel called the BC-20 with not only
832 channe l capabi l i ty, but also a very
u seful "se lf-test" m ode (available to ser
vice technicians) which allows full manual
control of the phone, including receiving
any of the 832 channe l s ind ividually (for
testing purpo ses only, o f course ). I do
expect to see other m anufactu rers, such
as Novatel, Oki, H i tach i ( a . k.a. AT&T),
Fujitsu, Panasonic, and m any others.
The new channels are non-li near with
the rest, with som e appearing "above" the
old cel lular band and the rest "below" the
band . Likewi se, so m e c e l l u l a r test gear
Page 8

2600 Magazine

m anufacturers, such as IFR, are co m ing


out with new software upgrades to faci l i
tate testing of the newer phone s.
For the c e l lul ar sy ste m to have the
ability to know if a subscri ber's phone i s
capable o f being told to move t o a higher
c h anne l , the phone must some how be
able to tell the ce llular switch that it can
acce pt suc h a comm a n d . Fo rtunately,
when cellular came out, there were some
extra bytes in the progra m m ing to allow for
t h i s. T h i s i s cal l e d the "Station Cl a s s
Mark" o r SCM. I t i s a 4-bit binary number.
Bit #1 is a "1" for 832 channels or "0" for
the old 666. Bit #2 is "1 " for voice-activat
e d transmit (used a s a battery saver i n
portables) or "0" for a mobi le unit. Bits #3
and #4 i dentify the power c l a s s of th e
phone: 00=3 watts, 0 1 = 1 .2 watts, 1 0=.6
watts, and 1 1 is currentl y undefined.
So when the phone sends out a call, it
will send something to this effect:
703-59 1 - 1 635 (sample phone number)
8EOF1234 (sample serial number)
1000 (sample SCM)
00 (thi s i s the "group 10")
05 (thi s i s the "a c c e ss overload class")
M o s t c e l l ul a r s y stems wil l not b e
upgrading their equipment for quite some
time , or at least unti l they begi n to ge t
overcrowded. But come the time that they
do , the c e l lular sy stem w i l l try to ke e p
these newer phones on the upper chan
nels when space permits so that the older
cel lular equi pment won't have to deal with
overcrowded conditions. If you are in the
m a rke t for a cel lul ar phon e , don't worry
a bout getting a n older or even a newer
phone with 666 channels, as I seriously
doubt they will fall inlo obsolescence for
many years to come.

Autumn 1988

WHO THE HELL WAS ALMON STROWGER, ANYWAY?

I t could be fai rl y s ta ted that Almon


Strowger was the first phreak ever to exist.
I t seem s he had thi s thing for operators . . . .
Strowger, to beg i n at the beginning,
was an undertaker who l i ved i n Kan sas
C i ty toward the c l o s e o f the century.
Accounts of his l ife are rather sketchy, but
it does seem rather fair that he may have
had something of a problem with authority.
He became convi nced that the Kansas
C i ty Telephone Company operators had
conspired to force him out of business.
They we re , he thought, swi tching cal l s
intended for him to h i s com peti tion. When
he tried to place call s him self, the opera
tors always seemed to report nothing but
b u s y s i g n a l s and w r o n g n u m b e r s .
Registered complaints g o t h i m nothing
and nowhere. It drove Strowger to such a
pitch of exasperation and inspiratio n that
in 1 889 he invented what he called the
first "girl-l e s s , cussless tel e ph o ne", o r
more neutrally, the Automatic Switch. The
dialed call was the ultimate result.
Strowger first pared the defi nition of
phone service to a single function: con
necting Party A with Party B. In the old
days operators did much more than this.
They would forward cal l s to som eone's
l i ke l y l o ca ti o n , to o k m e s sag e s , and
advised callers whom best to cal l fo r a
sol ution to a plum bing or m edical problem.
To Strowger these extra services reflected
power that invited abuse . (He was not
necessarily being paranoid. I n the early
years of phone service , there were m any
complaints of back-talk, biased se rvice,
and eavesdropping. Lily Tom lin's routi nes
speak to a half-forgotten memory of those
experiences.) The more things change ....
T he n , by substituting an a u t o m a t ic

swi tc h i n g m ac h i n e f o r th e o p e rato r ,
Strowger gave subscribe rs the power to
place the i r own ca l l s . I n ove rs i m pl i fied
terms, his system worked like this: A sub
scriber who wished to call Mr. Strowger,
say, would punch a button on the phone a
specific number of times. The number that
would be assigned to Strowger 3 per
haps. Each punch would send an electri
cal p u l s e to a c e n t r a l o f fi c e , w h e re
Strowger's switch was installed . A motor
would drive the arm of the switch a num
ber of steps around a circle corresponding
to the n umbe r of ti m e s the button had
been pushed. In the exam ple here , the
arm would stop at Mr. Strowger's num ber,
the third step. The arm would stay there
for the duration of the call, with the voice
Signals passing back and forth throughout
the switch arm . When the parties hung up,
the switch would reset. No matter which
subscriber wished to call Mr. Strowger, the
same number of pulses would make the
same connection in every case .
In effect, the dial pulses replaced the
operator. The pulses worked l ike electrical
trail breakers. They built the path to the
destination phone by com manding switch
es to move to the proper point and free z
ing them in that pOSition, thus reserving
those connections for the voice signals to
fo l l o w a l o n g. W h e n t h e ca l l e d party
answe red , h is "Hello?" retraced the path
the digits had built, back to the original
caller. You now know what a step-by-step,
or crossbar, office is, and although they
are very rare, anyone who's ever been in
one can tell you the noise from all those
cross-bars mo ving and "ker-plunking" into
position is extremely loud.

Autumn 1988

--

Almon Strowger Jr.


(No, not the real one)
2600 Magazine

Page 9

What's Going On
Only Five Left
We've been running out of
many things recently. Clean air,
clean water, trees, and space, to
name a few. But that's minor in
comparison to the ultimate crisis
facing Americans today. We've
got a mere handful of unassigned
area codes left. And just what
the hell are we going to do when
those are gone?
Already, plans are well under
way for the splitting of the 415
(San Francisco) area code in
1992. We don't know what the
new area code will be. Perhaps
they'll take suggestions from the
public. But there are only fi ve
possibilities left: 708, 903, 908,
909, and 917. And it's not very
likely that 903 will be used since
that used to be used as an area
code for part of Mexico.
Reassigning it could cause confu
sion. Theoretically, area codes
200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 could
also be assigned. But those
would be such nice numbers to
waste. It would also be possible
to assign 210, 310, 410, 510, 610,
710, 810, and 910. But w e
haven't heard an y definites.
So w hat's the s olution?
Fortunately, there is one. But it's
not going to be easy.
Beginning in July of 1995, a
brand new numbering scheme
will begin to take effect. On the
first of that month, area codes
will be liberated. They will be
able to be any number they wish,

Page 10

2600 Magazine

no longer having to have a one or


a zero in the middle.
What it basically means is
that the makeup of an area code
will be as flexible as that of an
exchange insofar as the number
of variations that are possible.
554-556-1234 could be a phone
number with area code. Don't be
surprised when people start
noticing how much phone num
bers are starting to look like
social security numbers....

The Right Choice


Bugs in computer software are
being blamed for this summer's
massive failures in an AT&T
System 85 phone system. The
customer in this case was the
House of Representatives in
Washington, DC. According to
the Washington Post, the out
ages have moved mysteriously
around the various House office
buildings, sometimes affecting
all of the 16, 000 lines it ties
together and sometimes only
affecting one building. The $16
million system went crazy four
times in a single week.

Calling Morality
A code of practice has been
established on British Telecom's
Callstream network covering the
content of the messages, as well
as advertising and promotional
material. Call stream is the
equivalent of America's mass

Autumn 1988

With Phones/Computers
announcement (often 976) num
bers that are creating such a stir.
Call stream uses phone numbers
beginning with 0898, 0077, 0066,
and 0055. They are billed at
higher-than-normal rates.
Here's some of what the code
says: (1) Communications must
not encourage or incite anyone to
commit a criminal offense; create
racial disharmony; contain false
or misleading information;
involve an unreasonable invasion
of privacy; or cause outrage or
gross offense by reason of sexual
( 2)
or
violent
content.
Communications aimed at audi
ences which include children
must not include references to
sexual practices or contain lan
guage that reasonable parents
would not want their children to
hear.
Speaking of reasonable par
ents, it is now legal for married
couples to place wiretaps on their
horne telephones in order to
catch their spouses doing nasty
things like having affairs. U.S.
District Judge Roy Harper says
it is no longer necessary in such
cases for one of the parties to
know they are being recorded.

A Legend Apprehended
For eight years a man known
as James Clark has been jour
neying back and forth across
America robbing pay telephone
coinboxes. Such a feat had been
considered impossible, but Clark

supposedly developed a lock


picking device that no one has
been able to figure out. Not only
that, but he has been able to stay
at least 24 hours ahead of whoev
er has been looking for him.
Until now, that is.
Clark was arrested in late
August
in
Buena
Park,
California. The 49-year-old was
supposedly arrested at a house in
which he was living. He was sup
posed to have been returned to
Akron, Ohio to face charges.
Security officials have said they
are eager to find out his meth
ods.
Clark had developed a kind of
folk hero status among many,
including the
FBI.
They
described him as the only person
in the United States capable of
picking the locks on the approxi
mately 1.8 million pay phones in
America.
His annual salary from his
endeavors got him about $70,000
before taxes. (That was a joke.)
An Ohio Bell security official had
said, "Unless somebody gets
lucky, he'll probably never get
caught. He's well organized, he's
smart, and he's not greedy. He
only hits a few widely spaced
spots each day. He's always look
ing over his shoulder to see if
there's a police car or a telephone
company vehicle." According to
Pacific Bell security, Clark's abil
ity to open the phone's coin draw
er, remove the box, and close the

Autumn 1988

2600 Magazine

Page 11

The World of
drawer again meant that nobody
would notice what he had done
until a company coin collector
came around.
So another dangerous criminal
is off the streets. Now if they
could only find the people who
keep scraping "Praise God" on
every pay phone in N ew York
City.

Mystery Hacker
Authorities are all upset about
a hacker who penetrated the Jet
Propulsion Laboratory's comput
er system in May. The mystery
person managed to get into three
computers in a single outing,
including one belonging to the
Navy. JPL says it's going to use
stricter security measures, a
move that could wind up costing
them 4 million dollars. One of
the things that J PL says is at
least theoretically possible for a
hacker to do on its systems is to
send "bogus commands" to one of
the eight unmanned interplane
tary explorers they currently
operate.
***

Almost as upsetting are the


mysterious phone calls that have
started pouring into Arizona
b ased
CS C
Management
Corporation over the past couple
of months. They made the mis
take of hooking up an 800 num
ber. Now people are calling them
thinking it's a dating line,
demanding money back from the

Page 12

2600 Magazine

phone company, and even threat


ening suicide. A spokesman fig
ures the callers think it's some
kind of emergency hot line.
Apparently somebody's going
around putting stickers on pay
phones telling people to call the
number 24 hours a day which is
exactly what they're doing. And
the company won't change it's
number because then they would
have to notify all of their clients,
which they say would cost them
even more than all of these toIl
free calls they're now accepting.

AOS Happenings
You may have noticed that
everyone is ranting and raving
about AOS. That stands for
Alternative Operator Services,
w hich basically means that
another company other than
AT&T completes your AT&T call
ing card call from a payphone,
usually without your knowledge.
You become aware of the fact
when your phone bill arrives and
the price for the call is many
times what you thought it would
be. Customer owned pay phones
sometimes hook into other com
panies and the only clue the
caller has that AT&T isn't
putting through the call is an
operator or computer that doesn't
make any reference to AT&T.
There are ways around it. You
can always ask to be hooked up
to an AT&T operator. If that
doesn't work, you can try dialing

Autumn 1988

Technological Games
800-950-1022 (MCI) or 800-8778000 (Sprint). Their rates are
almost always lower than the
AOS companies.
Once the ripoff artists get put
out of business, you may actually
see some good come out of all of
this. International Telecharge is
an AOS company that offers
operators who are fluent in sev
eral languages. Micro Devices
and Automatic Communications
both have services where you can
leave a message for an unan
swered phone. They keep redial
ing every few minutes and when
the phone is answered your mes
sage is played.
A new trade group has been
formed for AOS companies called
Operator Service Providers of
America. About 25 of the 40 AOS
companies have joined. Basically,
the group calls on the companies
to be more up front, to lower
prices, and to not block calls to
other services. Of course, all of
this is voluntary.

New Call Forwarding


Invention
Remote call forwarding may
soon be a feature for us tele
phone users. Two companies in
New Jersey seem to have come
up with the same idea.
One of the hardest parts of
remote call forwarding is commu
nicating with the home tele
phone; remember, all calls are

being forwarded.
The Planum Technology
Corporation of Hillside, NJ has a
device that waits for two sepa
rate calls within 30 seconds. (A
short ring is generated before the
call gets forwarded.) The second
call is interpreted as a command
to disable call forwarding. The
machine then dials 73 or whatev
er the number is in that area to
disable call forwarding. The user
can then call back and communi
cate with the machine, giving it a
new phone number to call for
ward to.
The machine does require an
access code, however it seems
incredibly easy to disable some
one's call forwarding. Just call
twice within 30 seconds and
hang up each time. It would be a
good idea to add a feature that
resets the call forwarding if the
third "confirmation" call isn't
received. And hopefully the
access code is longer than two
digits.
The other invention comes
from H erbert Waldman of
Measurement Specialties Inc., in
Wayne, NJ. (This guy patented
the first remote access answering
machine, back in 1956!)
With this system, the caller
dials his number and hangs up
right after the short ring. The
machine then calls the number
that the calls are being forward
ed to. If it gets no answer, call
forwarding is disabled. The

Autumn 1988

(continued on page 42)

2600 Magazine

Page 13

THE 516 AREA CODE

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Page 14

71

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2600 Magazine

CODE
CODE

Autumn 1988

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2600 Magazine

Page IS

A LOO K AT EV E RY EXC H A N G E

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5 8 1 BAY 5HlJj( UM5- 100

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5BJ f i kE ISL AN O t . , . S .

kE

584 5 ft I i H IOWN 0"5- 10v

RE

IiU

585 kONKONKONA t5 . 5 . 5 .

kt

58b o m PARK CROSSBAR

kE

587 8AtilLGH 0",-10U

61 1 "AArE,uA "", - l uU

kt

b91 HUN I i N. r U" t . ' . '


bl! "UNwURK I Nb

094 ' A, " I NauALE '0 , " , . 5 .


NUN"U'K I Nb

kE

bjS

b9b ILDN Oft5- luu

Nk

0') NuNuk K I N6
.ilI SflOEN "ftS - i OU

RE

b 99 NON.ORK IN
)00 AREA OOE

70b ARlA OOE


7 U 7 AKtA CuuE

b4, NUNWOkK I Nb

70, NONWORA I N ti

590 NONWO K 1 Nti

b50 IIONWUkK 1 M.

51 NUNWOkA I Nb

65 1 NUNWORK I NG

591 NONWOkKINb

kt

55 om

594 IIONWUk K i NG
6 Ll NBkOO. E . 5 . o .

NE

5 9 7 f i RE I!!lANu . 5 . 5 .

liE

59ll lIASSAI'lQUA DftS- I OO

IlE

5 LIII8ROO1: L 5 . 5 .

654 PAICHObU tlA E . S . S.

714 AkEA UlOl

.S5 NOh(jj( m6

715 AREA COOE

YU

illl6BACK

01

bb3 SAiDEN e m E. S. S.

RE

"5 BAI SltORE "ft5 - 1 0"

RE

.oo 8AI SHORE Oft5 - 1 0v

Rl

"7 liEER PoRK COS,8Ak

if

6.8 ftON I AUK IS L , . , .

RE

b6i iA . f LON Oft- 10U

WOE

609 AREA COU

1 1 8 ARtA CODE

&58 11ONWllRm6

6b1 iABILIlII lNIS - l 00

.08 AkiA CODE

7 1 7 AREA CODE
7 1 AREA CODE

&59 IIIlftW OkKIN6

6bO

6<)1 AREA CODE

71. Am OOl

.5b GlEN COVE E . S . S .


6 5 7 NOhlOJR K l h6

TE

tiOb AkEA LODE

7 1 2 ARlA COOl

7 1 3 AREA UOt

RE

RE

6<)4 AREA COOl

)11 NUWHtKt

.53 \lSIItAIII' ;ON 0"5- 1 0U

I AREA CODE

6<)5 AREA CGIIt

7 1 Q NOHWOkK i No
IW

6 00 IIIlNiIOilK lII6

'uJ AIIEA WOE

709 A k E A LOOt

.52 NONilOkK I Nb

E . S. S.

kE

704 AREA CODE

7U5 AHA cUOt

bIb NONWORK I NIi

b4 NUNWOkK I N.

sn LYN,kOUK 0"5 - 1 0U

701 AREA COOl

703 ARH COuE

6 4 7 !,ARDEN C I I I l . 5 . , .

5Sij kONKONOM .5 E . S . ' .

kl

IVI AlIA COUl

b44 GARDEN c I l Y U. S .

), ,A I V I LLE U", - I VU

6b2 IIONIIOk ( / 1I6


" 4 NONWONK I N6

6 1 0 NONWOk K l MG
6 1 1 RlP A l R

b9v N O N wukK I No
RE

b4 S NUNWUkK i Nb

vl

NUN.O' A i Nti

b8.

b,9 SETAUA [ "O,;;A,

it

643 OUK PAkK CRuSS8AR

RE

IS

bB 7 NUN,uRK I Na

b4Z NONWOk K I N"

kE

AREA

obb I<USU u- l !J U

uN

oi l NUNWUk K I NG

581 . . lNTWOOD 15 l . 5 . 5 .

&02

bB4 MNHA"tT . 5 t . ' . ' .


b&5 NuPow ';' i r.tJ

b4V NONWORK I Nb

kE
kE

PARK

b,u ,0NWuk< lNO


bill H i l.k;:d Lli O:uSiiAK

,t

72lI

IIOtIIIOkKlIIti

III IIONWOlll llIti

it m RI VERiIAO

15 E. 5.S.

IlE

123 IIONNUI!KIN&
724 SMIIHIOWN uftS- I OO

RE

725 Sltb ItIIk9UR CRUS8Ak

IlE

72. SOUIHHAftPION lROS5iAk

iE

7i1 R I VEkHtAD .5 . . .

r.E

72 ItIIftP T ON BAYS CRuSSSA'


721 NUM"O'K I NG
73u NONWOK I Nb

670 IIONWORK ING

7 3 1 LEV l T lUliN lR,,8AK

ICE

b 7 1 bUN COV . 5 . , .
6 7 2 IIONWORK I Nb

kl

732 SELDEN !)IIS- I OO

RE

i> I J I1UN f l Hti f Uli t . 5 . S .

UN

733 H I CKSILLE LkGSS8A,

kE

b 7 4 bUN lOVE t . , . ' .

if

7 3 WICHO"uE kOSSBA.

.75 IIONWlJI(K I NQ

ICE

735 LEV lT lOWN CROSSBA.

kE
NU

kE
ICE

73f. SELDEN 0"5- 1 0U


737 RONKuNr.uNA 15 t . 5 . S.

b l a AREA LOD

.71i bUN COYE. t. S. ,.


b77 S Y US,E t ""S - I OV

ti 1 AkEA cuu

III

b78 UNbkUUK D", - 1 0U


6 7 1 WANT AG" t. 5. S .

YU

73i " I NlULA "",- I VU

b l 2 AR E A CODE
ti 1 3 AREA CODE
.14 AREA COOt
6 1 5 AlI tA CIllI E
. I i> AlIEA CODE
6 i 7 AkEA CODE

Page 1 6

26()() Magazine

Autumn 1988

738 NONkOkK l Nb

- I N 51 6

't
Nt

14U 'N.U.nN'
741 l'I u tl:.uU\ U"- l IJ\,l

bUO AilEA UU
bO I OKtA WDt

14l " 1 Ill:. OlA Oft.- I OO


1 4J NUN_W , .

802 AiEA LDilE

'bo NdN"U." Nb
bb l NUN'lJH I Nti
bbi ," i T H I UwN oft'- I OU

,E

b&J UN'UK I NG

"oj AKEA UOt

KE

I 44 'HUEHAft U.S&AK

ilU4 .kEA LODE

Nd

745 GAiuEN Cl I t t . > . S .

1jQ:i AKEA CODE

8b4 lONMlk I t

kE

IIO:! NUN,UK. I No
ibb

NUN,Uk. i N"

KE

1411 "INtilLA OIlS- I OU

80b .KEA COOE

iE

74 7 ft l lll:.ulA IIII' -IOU

e07 ..EA UOE

14" IIIJ IIIlftIK KINli


1 41 6kWII'uR I I(oS.BAk

8 0 8 .iEA 1.00E

kE

bll" ;-kEru.1 "ft,- I OU

RE

8U AktA CUDE

NE

&b ftANHAS&E i 15 t . S . S .

750 IIOfIIIO kK i Nli

b I 0 IIIJN WOKkl No

8 1 0 NUNWOkK I Nli

iE

7 5 1 & E I AlJ m CKO>S&A.

8 1 1 NUHWUKKl""

B i l NOHWUit l ll6

kE

m fAkftIRIiDAlE U . S .

b l 2 Al< E A COot

RE

m LYNBROOK !)ftS- IOO

Mx

BIJ MEA COOE

RE

8 1 J ft l lll:.UlA liftS- IOU

iE

1 5 3 fARftlHbOAlE E . S . S .
754 E IIOIIT hI'ORI !)ft5-luO

8 1 4 AREA COot

IlR

814 ftAme 15 l . S . S .

110

m f Aift lN6DAlE .5 E . S . S.

8 1 5 AkEA CODE

RE

1 f Akft l N6DAlE E . S . S .

it

m E IIOUHPOIH OlIo- IOU

RE

158 mcH06U IIA E S.

j(E

15 blH COVE E . S . S .

RE

m wESIBUiY 0"5- 1 00

8 1 7 AKEA COOt

iE

e l 1 ft l lll:.Ul A 0"'- 1 00

8 1 8 Al<EA CODE

kE

818 MST I C n E . S . S .

m AREA CODE

lD

81 NOWHERE

IE

820 SPEC IAl ElCHANS

880 IIOfIIIOi UNIi

7 & 1 NOHlIIJk klHb

821 SltUEHNI CkOSSIlAR

8111 NOfIIIORk l Hb
882 IIIOOiUI!K l Nli

1123 HEftPSIEAO IIIIS -IOU

RE

883 PORT WA>H I N 6 I UN CkUOS8A.

B24 HEIil'SIEAD i)ftS- l UO

QE

8 8 4 &A BI L UN DftS- I OU

1&2 il(HHjOKK I Nti


j(E

7 & J LIHiuu( E . S . S .

\III

iE

7&4 LYNBiOtJl( l . S . S .

kE

1 & 5 lUTCttObUI: CKOSSIlAK

01

RE

7&0 LYNBR IlOl E . S . 5 .

RE

it

167 POR I WASII I Nti IUN I E . S . '.

822 H I CKSV ILLE CiO!>sBAk

88 IIIJHlIIJl( K I N6

825 MANIA&H
82& wAN I.I6H CiOSSBAR

NY

"III> LON. BEACH

821 _ORKlN6

Rl

887 L YNBRIJU( Dft, - I UU

828 NONWOllKlHb

it

888 iAB Y L ON DR,- IOU

82 bkE A l HECK E . S . S .

it

88 LONG f.AlH CkOSSAK

110 flllllWORI. 1 1l6

830 IIONWOiKlllti

IE

7 1 l 1 1Iti

83 1 IIOIIWOKK I Il6

7118 IIOMIO/(Ullti
1' NUNtHlRI.IIl6

1 1 2 QWORI. I II6
173 ..tAT IItU
174 flIIIIIIIiIQj( l lili

lIE m

RE

Sf

8J3 fIlIItIOI(U Hb

flORAl PAR' IIA E.5.S.

890 IESI El.:llAHG E


8'J l IIOIIlIIiI1K l Il6

832 lIESlBUll Y

E.S.S.

8'l2 IlOfIIIIIR( l ll6


J IlABYLilII i)ftS- IOII

1IOIMII(1 l1l6

8J4 IIIIIIiIOO. I Il6

8'l4

835 1IOfI1IOR1I 1l6

8'l5 IlOIIIIORK I N6

776 IlOIIlOItk I Iii

Q; IIOIIIKIRI.l Il6

171 M11111Oi1: I Il6

831 1lOIIdl 1N6

ni IlOfllllllcK lN6

8J8 IIilIIIIllI!I: I IIIi

'IOllIlORU Iii

I3'J IIllIItIW I Il6

m
RE

WI:; IIIJNWUI1K I Nli

BI b ARE A LOOE

7&0 HON'OkU'"

RE
RE

NO

811 1 f kEtPOk l UftS- I u u

Ill!

8'i

IUIIIORI( llii

8'll 1lO11OK lIl6

I'lII lIOIIIJiI( l lii

m llOllllOfll( l ll6

180 1lOlllU
lOl1 IIi

840 IIOIIiIOjj( l ll6

900 AW I:IlIIE

781 IINIliIIitt E . S . S .

841 IIIIIIIORk I Il6

901 AW COlE

IB2 iIOIIIIOO: l N6
RE 183 IINIIA611 E.S.S.

184 IIOIltIOil I Il6

III

iE

185 llAIHA6It U.S.

1115 fAl<ftllllilAl
l E E.S. S

lB. IIilIIlIIlkmb

846 IIIJIIIIOR KIIl6

781 1lUtliliJRl. 1 N6

VII

B47 fAkftlNliDAlE E . 5 . 5 .

142 llllllElUlliS l
I4J MliIIIIlRtI. I Il6

903 1IOIMIRk1N6
904 AREA I:IlIIE

1144 fAiftlN6DAlE l.S.S.

RE

168 f lSHtRS ISl.AIIII &IEP IY STEP

84lI NOfIIIOiK l Il6

lIE

18'J II NllENItURS r 15 E. . S.

84'1 IIONWOiK l II6

7'lO IIOIIIIOf<J. I Il6

850 IlOflllUkK l N6

Rt

791 IIOOUllEit CROSSBM

85 I I1011W01(U N6

m IIIl/IUk l ll6
1 9 3 _UI1K l N6
RE 194 bAkDd WI t . S . ) .

902 MfA tOD

115 E.S.S.

'lOS AREA CODE


906 AREA COOE
907 AREA COIlE
908 1l1lf111ORm.
90 NUNWORll1l6
9 1 0 IIilIMIORUII6

IS

9 1 1 POl i CE EIlER6ElIl.I

852 I1OflllOiK l Il6

m AR E A COIlE

853 _lIKK I II6

m Al<EA CODE

854 IIOfIlIIlR KlII6

914 Aj(EA CODE

iE

7'15 ftAS:;1IbA DftS-l UO

855 IIOIlllORK i Hoi

9 1 5 AltEA CUDE

RE
flo(

1% LEY l T TOIoll CiUSSBAK


m ftA:;:;AI'ElIIJA U"" - I UU

B IlONWOiK I N6
lI57 1lO1111ORk l ll6

916 AREA COOE


I l NOH.Oj( I Hb

kf.

m ftASSAtguA !)ftS-IOU

RE

1\\ ftA'5APEIJA to S.

858 IIllNIIOf(K iN6

\III

859 iAY SHUiE Dft>- I UU

A utumn 1988

9 1 8 A R E A ODE

II AItEA CuDt

2600 Magazine

Page 17

5 1 6 A REA CO DE
.' I=unk nown use
tl U = O U S l n e s s on l Y

lH=cnor.E'

l I ne S

T o r laSS D I a l ing

U t.I = t\ r o o r n a ven " a t l on a l l.. a D S il i l;

RE
kE

!l".uIlUMa

no
m SYOS ;E r .ft'- IOu

.t

912 OYSIER .AI CROSSSAk

82

23 IIOMtIilRK l h"
RE

960
I

tfNoO.. Ib

kO.OII'UM IJ
NOHouk.IN"

6j NONWOkKI b

24 YAPhANK 15 l o S . 5 .

64 hOhwOkK l 1Iti

925 IIOMwORK I II&

5 NOh1lUkK 1 1Iti

926 IIOIIW OkKlllti

98b hOMwO INo

m IIOIIIIORK l Io6

h"

'181 SEUIJl.tT

RE

918 POKI JEfFERSOM fllIS- IOO

RE

92'1 SHOREhAft Cko.saAR

6'

930 IlONWomN6

u hOMWUkKiNIi

RE

m h i CKSV ILLE L S . 5 .

m II(JhWOl!K l hS

VU

932 HIUSV I LLE L S . S .

III(

m hOMlI1lkkIM6

93J H I CKSV ILLE E . S . S .

M8

J IIONWORKIM6

934 HiCKSV I LLE .. s.s.

994 IIOIIWORK l Illl

RE

935 H I CKSV I LLE E . S . S .

5 NUIIWuRKl IIti

g6 NOhWO 1 1IIi

9 36 IIOIIw uRKlNG
kE

u l =u " e < t I n w a r . u t a l

t.,.'.

NtJIIoOi<K1MIi

9 % IIONWOj(kJ1I6

37 HICKSVillE E . S . S .

RE

7 wS I IlUU DftS-\W

RE

938 hiCKSVILlE CROS;AR

8 NOMWOKKIII 6

1IU

9J9 H I CKSV illE E.S.S.

9 NUII1IOkUlIIi

941 SE I dEl CkOSSBAk

m llllNWOkKI J16
NO

RE

,01DI

U:,:::: Uf" Stony .broOk 1105" 1 t i l 1I li!


"A=U5S announ(Uents
"t=rteno Une c e l l U l a r alii - I n s
N=nI!W, bUSi ness l i nes on l y

u=n e w , D I U
Hk=n,w, rfSI Dent u l sef Y l c e
N,=n.w, SUN! ,tony 8root u l O
NU;n ,,,, unused
NW=no l onger wor k i ng

Y =NINEI "OO l I . nel l u l a r o W - I n s


Rf=r e g u l a r r e s i o en u a l ser V l c e
k l =nuloers li r e Il up i l c u ell I n ] 5 1
'"=50.,,0 I y Pop u l i l .a
T =t 2 \ ( 0 use
T S = t e l epl'lone c oepany Ser V l ( f

l i1=loo . n a h.1 f OU5Y ' S . f t . r 3 D

UN=unusea

V? = v e r y nev, Unk nown use


'=ver y new, O u s l ness t i nes on l y
vC = v e r y new, c e l l u l a r a U i - l n s on l y

VU= , e r , new. U I D
Vb::ver y n e w , br uII.n l.orpOr a t l Ofl 1J 1 1i

942 HIUSVILlE E . S . S .

v::ver y n e w . s p a r se i y OODu L a t ea

94J HlI.KSVILlE E . S . S.

VU = v ery n e v , unused

944 PORI 1IASHIJI61OM CROSSBAR

l l =o l o !:IUNl c en t r e x oeJnCl pnasea OUl:

94S NOMtIilkU IIIl


946 IIONWORKIJ16
947 IIOhtlilkK I II6
'l4iI NONWORK l J16
949 NOMtIilkK I II&

I S 95u LONG DISIMIC DIAlUPS


1 1IIJIItIOI(t( 11I6
2 N1l111101!l iJ16
Y

953 RIVERHEAD E . S . S .

lD

'IS4 IIOIIItERE

CII

DUR PAll SELDEN E . S . ' .


956 1IOIIIIOI!l 1 J16

11 7 LlIUlEIlllUiSI 15 E. S.S.
1 '8 uln IJOTif ICATl IlII
, I( m lESl EICItAJI6t
': ' 960 IIllIIIIOIl I J16
961 IIOIIIIOint l J16
962 1I01ll10RlU J16
lIUfIIjfJnlJ16
964 I101H101!U J16
965 1IOI1IIOil 1J16
'" IIOIIIIORl I J16

967 11I&
Ki

BAY SIIORE OIlS- IOU


96g IilIItIilR Kilo6
910 DIAL- I T SERYICES E o S. S .
m NIlIIWORK I Io6
972 IIOHWOi!K I N6

9H IIOIIIIORK lJ16
914 1IOII1IIlKK 1J16
S/5 QIIilkUIo6

IIA

'/i DiAl- I T SERVICES cRtlssm


m NIlHtIilRKl Io6

RE

m Sft I THIOtiN Dft:HW

'78 IIOIIIfORK I NS

Page 1 8

936 and 999 were former dial mass announcement services, 903 was a fOlll1er area
code for Mexico. 233 was an unconfirmed former exchange for Selden. 440 plus any
four digits used to connect to police emergency (9t t ),
In the 5t6 area, its currently not necessary 10 dial a one before any calls, This makes
scanning l easier, In OIher area codes, 1 plus a nurrber may do something entirely dif
ferent than the sarna nu.mer witholf a 1 in front of it Because 5t6 doesn' require a I ,
its impossble for any number that is an area code to also be used as an exchange,
This scan was done from our oftice in the 751 exchange, We believe l to be at least 90
peIC8nI accurate. H you know of any correct ions, please forward them to us. In cases
where we were not absolutely certain if an office was a .5 ES.S., a it A ES.S., or a
DMS-l 00, the generic term "E.S.S." is printed.
H you wish to do a similar scan from your area code, we would be happy to print the
results. Btf you mUS1 be thorough. First, go through your phone book and mark down
where each exchange is listed as being from. H your phone book doesn't list ewry
exchange in your area code. you'll haw to find the other books. This list of locations is
NOT the location of the central offices. Getting that will take some enginee ring and inge
nuity on your part,
Sometimes test numbers exist that identy the location and type of a central office
(around here irs xxx-9901). You mUS1 also be able to 111 1 the difference between generic
E.S.s. and crossbar. 51 6751 9970 is a crossbar busy, 51 6-360-9970 is an E.S,S, busy.
But 51 6-423-9970 is a crossbar busy, even though l sounds wry much liIe an ES,S,
busy, You can tell because the relays click on both sides 01 the busy, An electronic or
digital swlch has no relays and therefore doesn' elicit
Once you haw a list 01 valid exchanges and where they come from, you must see what
al 01 the OTHER exchanges that don' exist do when you dial them, I your area code
requires a 1 before some caJs. you mUS1 try each and fN8ry exchange with and witholf
a I , This is how you find interesting features.
The final step is 10 see if the exchanges you ha't'8 logged actually show up in the phone
book , H not. odds are they are being used only by businesses or as a Direct Inward Dial
(DID) for a large corporation or instllfion, DID's contain many beepers, fax machines,
CO""lf8lS. etc.
Two copies of this list, one sorted by exchange and the other sorted by central office
name, can be found on 2600 bulleti n boards.

2600 Magazine

A utumn 1988

-
-

<:l'I
......

to

.e

AN NOU NCI NG TH E N EW
PARTY LI N E SERVICES
TH E SAFE WAY TO M E ET
N EW P E O P L E , MAKE N EW
F R I E N DS O R J U ST LISTEN I N
FO R TH E F U N O F IT.

JU ST 1 1

A M I N UTE
i n " 1 Eac h '6
TRY THESE NUMB ER S: (2 0 1 st M 0
UGHT

SSG-LOVE SSO-WI LD
THE M E ETING P LAC E FOR
LONG ISLAND ADULTS

W H E R E CITY PEOPLE COME


TOG ETH ER (ADULTS O N LY)

EXPERI E N C E " (AD U LTS O N LY)

T
PARTY BY PHONE

5R:u2wY L !9 !!9.!,
FOR EXCITING PARTY UNE NEWS CAll 540-3733 FOR JUST $1.50

ci

T
H
N EW YOR K
TELEPH O N E

@M

1 988 U N ,

_.

QJ
,gQ. _

_QJQJ .e

Es..

Os.. "CQJ

00 =

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EOO
O
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00

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Z btl
'7 .eQJ :

Q - o
Z "C
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EQ. =
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:::::

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......
-

:::::

::s

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.....':.

DATIl:,

..-=:

:iTED

STATES GOvERNMENT .

10 November 1986

2Dl1

Unauthoriz ed Access

TEire':

of DOCKMASTER

Reo:ebed

IVfill'

. 012.l1

NOv lOBi .

1.
On 2S and 3 1 october 19 8 6 , there were success ful
unauthoriz ed accesses to DOCKDSTER.
The f ol l owing information
b e en gathered to dat e :

has

a.
The connection to DOCKMASTER was lIIade from Ii: lo cati o n
in France via the Telenet network.
Telenet has determined the
addres s of the connection po int and has requested Transpac ,
Tel enet ' s European counterp art, to determine the identi ty of the
fo r e i qn host .

netwo rk

b.

The chr o no l o gi cal order of events is as f o l l ows :


1 0/ 2 5/ 8 6 0 9 : 5 6

SUcces s ful access was lIIade to DOCKMASTER from


The user was disconnected at 10 : 0 1 du e to
Tel enet/Transpac . communi cation,problems .

1 0/ 3 1/ 8 6 0 9 : 5 0

Success ful access was made to

DO

f r om

France .

France .

1 0/ 3 1/ 8 6 1 0 : 2 0
The owner of the account was denied access to DOCKMAS
-R
when he attempted to log in bec ause the account was
already active .
a dministrator

. DOCRMAsTER

notified his proj ect


. who noti fid the

1 0/3 1/ 8 6 10 : 2 7

User was bumped from the system and

the userid l ocked .

1 0/ 3 1/8 6 13 : 3 5

Two attemDts
us er i d .
-

19 8 6 .

from France ere denied due to the locked

c.
The u s e r ' s password was last changed o n 2 8 August
There were no bad password attempts against this us er s ince
indicating that the user ' s password was not gues s ed , but

compromised.

Ap r il ,

r;;

::omD!!_rs!!o.or .
OP"T'IOHAL PO"'" NO . 10
(REV. 1-ooM )
GSA PPMIl ( C7IIJ lal_ll.1
.'0..1 1"
11 QO s 1!J35 0 - 461-275 (4:8)

Page 20

2600 Magazine

Autumn 1988

" ' ;;'

'

:n lt'I'i%fOGlf:f;:::ll' p:..:.,,:
minute'login

t
that a substantial amount of proprietary information was
compromised . , Based on the 3 0
time and a maxim= data
trans fer rate o f , 2 4 0 charaCters per second , the us er could have
, transferred up to 4 22 KB of data , ( 3 0min * ( 6 0 sec/mini * ( 2 4 0
char/ s ec . ,
..

"
This compromise
uid ' not ave been prevented by the use o f
AD!! ( DOCKMASTER ' s implementation o f Mandatory Access Contro l ) since
the userid which was compromised had valid AD!! access to the data .
The use of a separate authentication/identification device , such as
the Sytek Passport , could have :prevented this access .
We are
currently working on purchasing the
'
3. ,

syt.

DISTRIBUTION
&-SCS C
ef , .
D/Chi ef ,
C Chief scienti st

f'

reprinted from

w . o. r. m.

1.5

NOTES
DOCKMASTE R is the N SA's compute r system hooked u p to A R PA N ET . Its T e l e n et ado ress
i s 30 1 22 ( N U l req u i red ) , On I N TE R N ET it is "DOCKMASTE R . A R PA", I am sti l l wait i n g for
additional FO IA docu me nts but the NSA has asked for $ 3 . 400 to conti n u e looki n g .

Autumn 1988

2600 Magazine

Page

21

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63

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t on e

c od e

t or i = l t o : p o k es+4 , 3 : p o k es+4+ 1 , 3

t c, r

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r em

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1 u C>
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t on e

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t or j = 1 t 03u : n e x t

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n i c kel "

g e t !l; $ : i f x $ = " " t h e n 5 1 0


i f :t; $ = " q " t h e n g c, s u o 5 0

f x $ = " d " t t1 e n g c, s u b 1 0 0

530

540

i f X $ = " n " t h e n g '::o s u b 2 0 0

550

g o t '::o 5 1 0

Page 22

2600 Magazine

A utumn 1988

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Page 23

LETTE RS
The Virus
The Schematic
2 600:
I really enj oyed the article in
your Summer
88
i s su e ,
"Building a Red B ox" . I wish
and hope in future issues you
publish more circuits on boxes
and t h e sort . I ' m really glad
you p ri n t e d t h e p a rt s l i s t
because I can't read half o f the
c omponent s on the layout on
page 2 3 . I understand h ow in
the condensing and trying t o
make i t fit o n a n 8 1 / 2" x
5 3 / 4" p age along with t ext ,
etc . What I 'm getting a t i s
could you send m e a n enlarged
and clear copy of the red b ox
plans? I would greatly appreci
ate it . I h o p e you are n ' t like
m o s t o t h e r d u mb - a s s m a g s
a n d don't reply . I realize you
get a lot of mail, so do the b est
you can. To make it easier, I've
enclosed a SASE . I j ust w ant to
add that your magazine is
great !
Dear

The Bug Brother # 1

We're sony about the mess


up regarding the s chema tic.
A n y o n e w ho s t i l l needs an
e n larged copy of t h a t p ag e
should either write t o u s o r call
us at (5 1 6) 75 1 -2600. In either
case, give us your s ubscriber
number.

Page U

2600 Magazine

2600:
Just a note to say thanks for
k e e p i ng a l ev e l h e a d i n a
warped world. Your publication
is w e l l w o r t h w a i t ing t h r e e
months for . Unfort u nately , I
am a rather impatient sort and
also a rec e nt sub scrib e r so I
am enclosing a request for the
back issues from the past three
years . Th at should keep this
inquiring mind b u sy for some
time to c ome . Also I want to
offe r my a p p l a u s e regarding
the article "Th e D ark Side of
Viruses" . H aving read too many
articles c oncerning h ow awful
viruses are , yours was such a
breath of fresh air. I t was a
repugnant . putrid blast of air
to be sure but it came from an
angle that was so different from
the masses that it was indeed
refreshing. I suspect that T.
Plague was rather brutally mis
t r e a t e d a s a c h il d . I c a n n o t
i m a g i n e c om p l e t e a m o r a l ity
such as h is without some form
of trauma. I do agree on certain
aspects of his dissertation such
as the need for frequent back
ups and his lack of respect for
program pirates . He is a bit of
a hypocrite th ough (to go along
with the rest of his conditions) ;
after all . his program does its
b e st to c irc u mvent e v e n t h e
s afety of fre quent b acku p s . I
also don't think it is quite his
Dear

A utumn 1988

AN D A FEW N U M B E RS
place to j u dge program pirates.
Q u ite frankly , h e is not bal
anced enough to weigh proper
ly anybody's guilt or innocenc e .
It's too b a d since h e i s obvious
ly not an idiot or a fool . Nor do
I feel that he should be pitie d .
He does not deserve my or any
b o dy ' s p it y . N o n e t h e l e s s ,
though I obviously do not agree
with Mr. Plague's article , I d id
learn a lot from it . It showed a
rare insight int o t h e m ind of
the virus generator, the serial
killer, the child molester, or the
arsonist . Take your p ick. Th e
lack of remorse or simple
m o r a l s a n d t h e fe e l i n g s o f
validity of th e ir actions seem to
be prevalent in all these peopl e .
I w o u l d l ike t o fe e l t h at M r .
P l ag u e w o u l d r e s e n t b e i n g
e q u a t e d t o a c h ild mole st e r ,
b u t h e probably doesn't . M ost
of h is prey is j ust as innocent
and h elpless as a chil d . H e is
j ust as guilty of taking advan
tage of these same attributes
existent in a novice computer
user.
In any case , I am looking for
ward to re a d ing t h r e e y e a rs
worth of wonderfu l , controver
sia l , and informative article s .
Keep u p the good work.
Jonathan Porath

2 600:
I very much appreciated the
issue on viruses. I think it is a

Dear

b a d t h ing t o d o if s om e o n e
really destroys data other than
in his own compu ter, but the
p h e n om e n on o f s p r e a d i ng a
viru s automatically fa sc inat e s
me a n d I think i t d o e s for a lot
of people . It would be better if
those wh o write viru ses would
program them not to destruct,
but to play a tune , print silly
m e ssage s , o r t o d o similar
things once they are activated.
F u rt h e rm o r e , t h e s e v i r u s e s
s h o u l d b e t e s t e d th o r o u gh ly
before spreading, to avoid era
sure of data. Of course, a virus
s h o u l d d e l e t e i t s e l f aft e r a
w h i l e from th e i n fe c t e d p r o
gram , a s in real life a flu gets
cure d , even wh en you do noth
ing to cure it .
Greetings from the
Netherlands
Paul van Hattum

2600:
My God, man , fifteen pages
were given to an article which
d o e s e s s e n t ially n o t h i ng b u t
rag o n viru s writers and pro
mote a piece of software . That's
almost twice as many pages as
t h e re once was in the whole
m ag ! If I write a s h a re w a r e
viru s protection program, can I
have fifteen pages to hype it in
too? As for the actual message
in t h at artic l e , why on e arth
s h o u l d I t r u s t Ro s s M .
Greenberg after h e has basicalDear

A utumn 1988

2600 Magazine

Page 25

AUTU M NAL
ly scared me into trusting no

X R8 0 3 8 C P .

one? Let alone send h im ten

XR8038AC P . and XR803 8AP .


EXAR also has many de alers

clams? I 'll protect my


d am d at a .

own god

t h a n k y o u v e ry

much .
ASide from too few articles

XR8 0 3 8 P .

through out the U . S .A.

and

Canada. By the way. EXAR I s


also t h e manufacturer of t h e

on too much .

oth er two most pop ular blu e

2600 is still a fine publication.

b ox c h ip s ; t h e XR2 2 0 7 and

I especially found the red box


a r t i c l e h e l p fu l . a s w e l l a s

XR2209 .

Thunder Seven's number list.

ple will pay 8 or up to 1 5 dol

t h at

ramb l e

Tommy
Sysop, THC-J[ BBS,
6045950085
P . S . AN I in t h e 6 0 4 N PA

I don't understand why peo


lars a p i e c e fo r t h e s e c h i p s
through private ads when they
are availab l e everywhere for
around 4 dollars each .

Rubber Soul
Toronto, Canada

varies from CO to C O . but is


usually 2 1 1 or 1 1 6 . In some
step or x-bar exc h ang e s . it 's
necessary to put a 1 in front of
that.
P . P . S . Anyone else work with
4Tel? 604-38 1 -37 1 7 has one of
these versatile line test b oxes
on it . . . .

Apparen t l y , y o u ' ve n e v e r
heard oj designer chips, have
you?

Another ANI

Dear 2600:
Th e ANI fo r the 2 1 3 are a

The Chip

code (Los Angeles) Is 6 1 056.

Dear 2 600:

Congratulations . We've also


heard t h a t p a r t s oj 2 1 3
respond to 1 223 jor a read
back oj your phone number. In
sections oj 2 1 3 served by GTE.
1 1 4 seems to work. O t hers
we've gotten word oj are 290
jor parts oj Illinois , 200-xxx
xxxx jor other parts oj Illinois,
760 jor the 4 08 area code,
3 0 0 -xxx-xxxx in some areas,
7 1 1 in parts oj 9 1 9, 9 70-xxxx
in parts oj Texas s erved by
GTE, 9 9 7 - 5 5 5 - 1 2 1 2 in area
code 5 0 2 , 2 0 0 - 2 2 2 - 2222 in

The Soldier

I wish I knew where these

rumours

st art .

but

the

ICLS038 i s still being produced


by GE S o l i d State (fo rm e rly
called G E / RCA / lntersil) . G E
Solid State h a s many regular
dealers in both the U . S .A. and
C anad a . Never mind that the
8038 is also handled by most
electronic surplus c omponent
dealers . In addition. the 8038
is also manufactured by a com
pany called EXAR who makes
.

it u n d e r th e ir p art numb e rs

Page 26

2 600 Magazine

A utumn 1988

LETTE RS
area codes 3 1 3 , 6 1 6, 906, and
5 1 7, 1 9 1 # in DMS- 1 00 switch
es, 990 in the 9 1 4 area, and
9 58 in the Ne w York me tro
area. If you find an ANI, send it
in to us!

BLV Tidbits

Dear 2600:
I 've
been
d o ing
s om e
r e s e arch
on
B u sy
Line
V e rific a t i o n ( B LV ) . I f y o u
remember, BLV i s the technical
name for an emergency inter
rupt . The information I h ave
p ertains to an AT&T TSPS or
inward operator.
An operator cannot make an
emergency inte rrupt without
h aving a c u st o m e r o n h o ld ,
with one exc eption. There is a
procedure known as a service
test call used to check if the
B LV c i rc u it s within a TSPS
switch are functioning proper
ly. Th is test is done w i tho u t
anyone o n h old, but every time
it is done a message prints on
the security printer.
Th e r e is a fe a t u re w h i c h
prints call d etail for any emer
gency interrupt which exceeds
a preset period of time on the
security printer. The threshold
can be anything from 0 to 2 5 5
seconds. Multiple interrupts on
the same call are accumulated,
but time when the interrupted
party is on hold is not.
Th e tone generator, which
beeps when an operator breaks

in on the line . makes a tone of


440 Hz at a 13 dBm 0 level .
The first tone i s 2 seconds and
every 1 0 seconds there is a half
second burst .
A TSPS's verification network
is limited to 8 NPA's. A maxi
mum of 800 l o c al offic e s in
each NPA can be served by a
TS P S fo r v e rifi c a t i o n ( t h a t
seems like a lot t o me) .
BOC's have the capability to
e xc l u d e t e l e p h o n e n u mb e rs
and even w h o l e offic e s from
verification.
Th e B LV tru n k g ro u p i s
always trunk group number 35
in every TSPS office (I thought
that was neat) .
U nfo rt u n a t e ly . AT&T h a s
stopped doing emergency inter
rupts in many areas. recently.
due to local operators .
-

The Zeppelin

What the Point?

2600:
Th i s l e t t e r w o n ' t d o a ny
good. but I will write it anyway.
I called several of the BBS's
you have listed . After a while . I
hung u p . I don't have time to
screw with them. What is the
point? Are the u sers frustrated
hackers?
I call a lot of BBS ' s and they
are easy to use . My time is too
v a l u a b l e to w a s t e . and even
more s o when it is long dis
tance to learn some stupid sys
tem j u st to use a silly BBS .
De ar

(continued on page 43)


A utumn 1988

2600 Magazine

Page 2 7

OUTSIDE Loop

(continuedfrom page 7)
the Serving Area. The size and style of the
cabinet is usually stenciled or m arked on
the cement pedestal at the base of the
cabinet (Le . , S-40-E 40 type , E size, SAl
cabinet) . These cabinets can handle any
thing from 400 (A size -- 200 feeder in,
200 distribution out - 43"H x 1 S"W x 1 2"0)
to 1 800 (E size - 900 in, 900 out - S4"H x
40"W x 1 2"0) , with som e newer size F, H,
and some 3M series -- 4200 cabinets han
dling up to 3600 pairs at one site ! Also
note that 4O-type (or look-alike) cabinets
=

are not exclusively for use as an S A l ,


especially i n areas using a buried F2 dis
tribution plant. Note that all Bell System
(Western ElectriC) cabinets, c ross-boxes ,
etc. which are pedestal mounted are paint
ed a standard grey-green . (Technically,
they are painted per Munsell Color Code
Standard, EIA RS-3S9 . This color is sup
posed to be the least obtrusive and most
pleasing to the eye . ) This also helps to
distinguish telco boxes fro m sprinkler and
signal control boxes. Also note that there
are still a large number of older loop plants
in the Bell Syste m , and the terminal boxes
may differ (Le., nut-bolt type binding posts,
panel - re m oval type c a b i nets , e tc . ) i n
appearance, but they are all functionally
similar.
To open a 40-type or other com m o n
cabinet, o n e must use a 7/1 6" h e x wrench
(also called a "canoN or " 2 1 6-" tool) . Place
the wrench on the bolt and turn it 1 /8 of a
turn clockwise (you should hear a spring
release inside). Holding the bolt, turn the
handle all the way to the right and pull the
d o o r o u twa rd . If you happen to see a
locked cabinet pried open by a crowbar
placed in the slot above the right door, you
should report it to the telco at once! On the
Page 28

2600 Magazine

inside o f the door, there should b e a circu


lar attachment with a " O"_type test cord on
it which m akes accessing pairs with a test
set easier (if you don't have a test set, I
will describe how to m ake a basic one
later i n this article). You should hook the
alligator clips on your test set to the two
bolts on the attachment, and then use the
specialized cord to hook u p to binding
posts on the panel (it is specially designed
to do so, whereas alligator clips aren't) .
There are usually also spare decals and 2
reels of #22 solid "F" cross-connect wire
stored somewhere in the cabinet, either on
the doors in a box (along with a "788 N 1 "
tool for seating and trimm ing jumpe r wires)
or m o u n te d in the s p l i ce c h a m b e r
(described in the next section) .

Locating Pairs and Cross-Connects


Basica l l y , the S A l cab i n e t conta i n s
several term inal block panels (size A=1
panel, size C + O (800+ 1 200 pai rs, respec
tive l y ) =2 pan e l s , s i z e E = 3 pane l s ) of
either 76-type screw b i nd in g posts (the
most common) or more modern 1 08 -type
"quick-connect" connectors. These panels
are divided up into six blocks of 1 00 cable
pairs ( 2 screws = 1 binding post, per cable
pair) each , with block 1 - 1 00 on the top and
50 1 -600 on the botto m . In a 2 -panel cabi
net, the l eft panel typical ly contains the
pairs from the F 1 (feeder) cable , and the
right panel contains the F2 distribution
cable pairs. This i s accom plished by either
a harness or cable stub whose pai rs are
i nternally con nected to the binding posts
on a pane l . The harness or stub i s then
splice d , usual l y with " 7 1 0" splicing con
nector modules, to the respective F1 o r F2
cabl e . In the case o f the harne s s , t h i s
splice is located in the back o f t h e cabinet,

A utumn 1988

DISTRIBUTION PLANT
i n the splicing chamber, which can be
accessed by rotating the notched circular
latch o n the top of the term i n a l block
asse m bly and letti ng the panel fall fo r
ward. Often the splices are covered with
plastic bags. Note the color code of the
pairs; if you can locate the pair you want,
this is an excellent location to cove rtly
access it, because thi s area is rarely seen
during normal use of the cabinet (it i s usu
ally only opened during a cable cutover or
"throw" , in which a whole section of feeder
or di stribution cable is replaced at one
time). I n the case of cable stub, the splic
ing is usually done underground at a clo
s u r e , b e ca u se t h e raw-e n d e d c a b l e
extends 2 0 t o 1 00 feet from the cabinet; i n
this case, there won't be a splicing cham
ber. Thi s type is often used for aerial pole
mounted SAl's. Also note that i n an F-size
cabinet, you have to re move the whole
back panel i n order to access the splice
cham ber. Anyway, the pairs from the feed
e r panel are cross-connected with w i re
jum pers over to the binding posts on the
d i stri bution pane l ; in this way , the two
cables are connected.
There are several ways to locate a pair
i n an SAL Fi rst, and best, i f you have

assignment data from LMOS or equiva


lent, there should be an F1 Binding Post
(B P ) number l i sted alongside the cable
numbers. This number is usually a 3 digit
number, 00 1 -999, and it will correspond to
a binding post pair i n one of the hundred
blocks on the feeder panel side. The first
digit of the BP is the block. and the other
digits represent the pair in that block.
The color of the pair label is important,
also -- feeder pairs are always marked
with green labels. Seco ndl y , if you don't
have a binding post number, there may be
a log or other chart posted on one of the
doors of the cabi net showi ng the cable
pairs and the i r correspond i n g b i n d i n g
posts ( o r the posts m ay i n some cases be
arranged or labelled in a way such that the
cable pai r n u m be r c o u l d be d e r i ve d ) .
Thirdly, a s a last resort, you could connect
a test set to each pair in the terminal, and
dial your a rea's AN I number (This "AN I "
number i s usually a m ulti -digit te st code
which, when dialed, responds with a voice
announcement of the D i rectory N u mber
(ON) for the line you are dialing from ) . This
would have to be repeated until you hap
pen to hook up to the line you are looking
for ( it's ti m e consu m i n g , but i t works ) .
T en i n a l Pane l

( Gr e en )

-- F 1
fl

8 I ND I N
I 025
( AA

POS!

F eeder

Ixl1111111

l XXXXlxllX

--- --- - -

SAl

XUlllXlU

( B l ue )
F 2 D 1 S t . ----

1111111111

f l pa1 r s

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post

o f t h e t 1 T St hun d r e d b l o c k ( la r k e d t f t ) ---- !

F I 8

1)25 :

XIX !

1 0 1 -200

XIX

lXl !
XXX

3lJ 1 -401)

IU

Xli

40 1 -500

- - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ '\

b 1 na 1 n g

F I ----F 2--

20 1 -31)0 ! X l l

UXUXHH

c i os e UD v i ew o f f 1 r s t J o f 1 0

--

= = ) 00 1 - 1 00 ! t t t

HI

HX

5U I - 6 1)1) : x u
xu I
! ---------- - !

U = f 1 r s t I Ou-a l oc K , 2 = p a s s o v e r L f U l l r a w s ( g o
t o 3r o r o w G O wn ) , j

p a I r s f r el l e f t ,

A utum n 1988

2600

Magazine

Page 29

OUTSIDE Loop
rarely used simultaneously ; this would be
Some sam pl e AN I numbers are :
im practical , because if one of the pairs
2 1 3 NPA - Dial 1 223
was discovered to be faulty, or if a sub
2 1 3 NPA (GTE) - Dial 1 1 4
scriber wanted another l ine, a whole new
408 NPA - Dial 700
feeder cable would have to be added. To
9 1 4 NPA - Dial 990
These numbers will vary from area to solve this, e xtra faci lities are left in the
area, and some areas m ay not have such loop plant as a provision for ex pansion.
a service (in this case, you may have to For e xam ple : on the feeder panel, all of
dial a TSPS operator and have her read the binding posts may be connected to F 1
off the n u m be r on h e r A N I panel -- i n cab l e pairs, b u t not a l l of the m m a y b e
som e areas, you may have to say a code crossed o v er t o distribution pairs. T hese
word or phrase in order for her to give you spare pairs are not connected t o t h e
the number) . In any case , it would be a switch, s o they won't "have dial tone", but
good idea to ask a lineman or testboard they are n u m b e red. Since t h e se l ine s
em ployee for the procedure to use in your aren't assigned, they won't be found in
area to get AN I , because it's very useful LMOS, but they will definitely be l isted in
and you'll need it sooner or later.
LAC re cords. T h e s e re c o rd s a re the
Anyway, once an F1 BP is found, the D e d icated P lant A s s i gn m ent Cards
cross-connect wire can be traced over to (DPAG) / Line Cards and the Exchange
the distribution pane l , and in this way, the Cable Conductor R e c o rds ( E CCR ) , o r
F2 p a i r c a n be fo u n d . T h e se F 2 e ve n co m p u t e r i zed databa s e s ( i . e . ,
distribution pairs are always m arked with MODE) . If the numbers can b e found (or
blue labels. Note also that the binding post even noted, i f the num bers on the binding
numbe r of the cross-connected F2 pair is posts at the SAl correspond with feeder
not recorded in LMOS (the F2 BP is not in cable pair num bers), then the lines can be
the SAl , so don't confuse an F2 BP num activated via a COSMOS service order.
ber with a BP in the SAl ) ; however, when This is aided even further by the fact that
the cables are first i nstal led, the feeder since F 1 's usually last longer than F2 facil
pai r s and d i s t ri b u t i o n p a i r s are i n ities, there are often more spare provi sion
sequence - - this m akes i t easy to visually al F2 facilities in the loop plant ( i . e ., 100
assume where the F2 pair is. This order feeders in, 300 F2 out (200 aren't cross
can be upset when cable pairs are added connected to Frs)). So there is a good
or changed, however, so it can't always be chance that you will find one that is dis
relied upon to produce valid F2 cable pair tributed to your area. Other spare facil ities
num bers (also, there may be two distribu i nclude "floaters", which are like spare
tion cables, with the low-numbered pairs feeder pai rs, except they are active l ines.
on the bottom and the h i gh-num bered Ofte n , a telco w i l l extend whole feeder
pairs on the top! It all depends on how the groups to more than one SAl in provision
for future expansion, i ncluding active cabl e
local telco sets things up) .
pairs. If you find a working pair o n a feeder
Floaters / Multiples
All of the pairs in a feeder cable are panel which is not crossconnected to a
Page

30

2600 Magazine

A utumn 1988

DISTRIBUTION PLANT
distribution pair, that pair is a floater. This
is by far the best way to covertly access a
certain pair, because m ost linemen will
probably not be aware of the pair's pres
ence (it looks unused o n the surface).
Beware! If you think you can hook up to
someone's floater and get free service,
you're probably wrong ( so m any othe r
people have been wrong, i n fact, that
Pacific Bell has a special "Form K-33" to
report thi s type of fraud), because the
telco is more aware of this than you m ay
think. Obviously, any toll call you make will
show up on the bill for that line . A do -it
yourself spare pair activation can avoid
this problem, if done correctly.
Cable Facility F2 - Distribution

The F2 distribution cable is the cable


which originates from the F 1 feeder in the
SAl and distributes individual cable pairs
to each subscriber. This cable can be one
of two types : aerial or buried. The most
common is the aerial distribution cable,
although buried cable i s the m ode rn trend.
In the case of aerial F 2 , the cable o r
cables leave the S A l underground, and at
the first telephone pole on the distribution
span , the cable is routed up the pole . It
then is suspended on the span, such as
down a street, and at each group of hous
es there i s a terminal on the span. This
terminal is the aerial drop splitter, and its
purpose is to break off several pairs from
the distribution cable in order to distribute
them (in the form of aerial drop wires) to
each house or premise . The location or
address of the prem ise nearest th i s aer ial
d ro p splitter is the TErminal Add re ss of the
F2 serving a certain pair (each group of
pairs in the F2 will have its own term inal
address, unlike the one address for the F 1

terminal (SAl)). The F 2 cable is always the


lowest cable on the telephone pole, and it
i s usually a great deal larger than the elec
tric pow e r di stri bution c a b l e s above it.
Often more than one F2 can be seen on a
single pole span. In this case, the top F2
will usually be the one which i s being dis
tributed to the subscribers on that street,
and the lower (and m o s t often l a rger)
cables are other F2's coming from an SAl
and goin g to the streets which they ser
vice . These c a b l e s consi s t of m u l t i p l e
spliced spans, and they wil l not have any
d ro p w i r e s c o m ing off t h e m ( t h e y a r e
marked every few poles or s o a t a splicing
po i n t called a "bullet closure" which is fully
enclosed and can be quite large ( i. e . , 6"
dia, 20" long) as com pared to the normal
drop spl i t te rs (i. e , or similar 4"w x 5"h x
1 2"1) these closures are clamp pressur
i z e d and are no t m e ant to be o pened
unless the cable is being replaced or splic
ing work i s being done. They are not stan
dard cable/pai r access poi nts).
Buried F2 plant is si m i l a r to aeri a l ,
e xc e pt t h a t t h e cab l e i s n o t v i s i b l e
because i t i s unde rgro u n d . I n stead of
go i n g to a pole from the S A l , the cable
continue s undergro und. The dro p wires
are also underground, and the method of
breaking them from the distribution cable
is si m i la r to that of the aerial drop splitter,
except it is a small pedestal or box located
on the ground near the houses it serves.
This address closest to this pede stal is the
TEA for the F2.
F2 Cable Numbering
T h e F2 distri b u t i o n cable is usual l y
given a 4 or 5 digit number, depending o n
the office . T h e fi rst 2 or 3 digits should be
the num be r of the F1 that the F2 wa s

A utum n 1988

--

2600

Magazine

Page 3 1

OF PAIRS AND BOXES AND POLES


branched off of, and the last 2 or 3 digits
identify the distribution cable. Example :

F2), and the lowest num bered facility will


be the feeder from the CO (like a "normal"
Fl ). The extra spans will be somewhere in
F2 Cable
F1 Cable
between, like an intermediate feeder or
25
2531
extra distribution cable with separate cable
This F2 cable came from feeder #25.
access terminals. One such facility is the
The cable pair numbers may be set in Rural Area Interlace ( RAI), which can be
a sim ilar way, with the last 3 or 4 digits used in a "feeder-in, feeder-out" arrange
identifying the pair, and the first digit ( usu ment. This is usually seen on cable routes
ally a one identifying the pair as a feeder of 50 pairs or greater, with a length of
longer than 30 kft (about 6 miles) . In this
or a distribution pair. Example:
case, there will be two terminal cabinets in
the feeder path, labelled RAI-A and RAI-B.
Fl Cable Pair
F2 Cable Pair
The
RAI-A is special because it has a two
25 1 748
2531
748
A--slgnlfles Fl (feeder) cable pair part terminal block: the top has switching
panels with 1 08-type co nnectors which
Generally, the F1 cable pairs are num cross-connect feeder-i n and fe eder-out
bered higher than the F2 cable pairs, due pairs using jumper plugs, and the bottom
to the fact that a feeder cable may contain has standard 76-type binding posts which
several distribution cables' worth of cable cro s s-con nect fee d e r s to d i stribution
pairs. Note once again that all of this num cables for subscribers i n the local area of
bering plan is the standard, and it may be the RAI-A. The jum per plugs can only be
far from real life ! As soon as one distribu connected in o ne way to the swi tching
tion pai r is replace d , c ro s se d over to panels, so random cros s-connection of
another feeder pair, or taken from service, feeder-in/feeder-out pairs is prevented . In
the set order is interrupted. In real life , it is this way, the cable and pair num bers stay
most always necessary to get both F1 and the same as if the feeder cable was unin
terrupted. This is used a lot in rural areas;
F2 cable assignment data.
it allows part of a feeder group to be split
Facilities F3-F5,
off at the RA I-A like a distribution cable
Rural Area Interface (RAI)
Although cable facilities F3, F4, and F5 near a town along the route, and the rest
may be specified in any loop plant, they of the feeder group continues on to a town
are rarely seen anywhere except in rural further away, to the RAI-B where it is ter
areas under the RAN D plan (Rural Area minated as in a "normal" SAL In order to
Network Design) . Basically, plants using access a pair, just use the last RAI in the
these extra facilities are similar to F1 /F2 span (whichever it is) and treat it just like
plants, except there are extra cable spans an SAL If the pair term inates at RAI-B, you
and/or term inals in the path. When locat can also access it at RAI-A! ( If you can
ing cables, the highest numbered facility locate the pair using color code, BP num
will be at the end of the path, terminating ber, or (ughh) AN I , there should be te st
near the subscriber's end (like a "normal" terminals on top of the jum per plugs con(continued on page 34)
Page 32

2600 Magazine

A ut umn 1988

fed e ra l B u rea u o f I m e s t i ga t i o n
An t i - P hone Se x D i vision

i1A .

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Back!

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THIS IS WHAT WE HAVE TO PUT UP WITH.


A u tumn 1 988

2 6()() Magazin e

Page 3 3

OUTSIDE Loop

(continued from page 32)

necting the 1 08's o n the switchi ng panel


where you can hook your test set -- you
can 't hook onto a raw 1 08 connector very
easily.) Anyway, the RAI term i nal is usual
ly a ground pede stal with a cabinet such
as a 40-type , but it can be aerial mounted
on a pole (hard to access).
Pair-Gain, Carried Derived Feed e r
Another common facility in rural areas
(and i n cities or suburbs, especially near
large housing com plexes, etc.) is the pair
gain syste m . It is basically a system which
consists of a digital link which is distribut
ed, almost like a normal cable pair, out to
a t e r m i na l ca b i n e t c a l l e d a R e m o t e
Terminal (RT) which contains equipm ent
which dem ultiplexes the digital line into
m any "normal" m etallic analog telephone
lines which go to each subscribe r in the
area. Because the digital line can transmit
the audio from several separate lines and
m uitipl3X them o nto one cable , only one
special cable pair i s needed to come from
the CO as a feeder, i nstead of several
separate ones; this is why i t i s called a
"pa i r gain" syste m . The remote term inal
(R T) conta i n s both the d e m u ltiple x i n g
electronics a s wel l a s a small "SAl " type
terminal block for connecting the pai rs to
distribution cables on the side of the path
toward the subscriber. Because the "feed
er" is not a m ulti pair cable but a digital link
(i.e., T-carrier), this arrangement is known
as a "carrier-derived feeder". The SAl part
of the RT is used just like a normal SAl on
the distribution side (blue), but the feeder
s i d e w i l l be s l i g h t l y d i ff e re n t . Carri e r
derived feeders a re always marked wi t h
yel/ow l a be l s , a n d t h e i r p a i r s wi l l be
crossed over to di stribution cables just like
Page

34

2 600 Magazine

i n an SAl . So , i n order to access a pair i n


a system like this, y o u m ust do so on the
distribution s id e, because you can't hook
an an a l og test set to a 1 .544 Mbps digital
T -carrier line! (or worse yet, a fiber optic
cabl e ) . Th i s may be d i ff i c u l t , beca u s e
these cabinets are always locked (wi th few
exceptions), so you 'll have to find a t erm i
na l closer to the s u b sc ri be r . . a l so be
aware that many RT's are equi pped with
s i l e n t i nt r u s i o n a l a r m s . A n yw a y , so m e
com m o n pair-ga i n syste m s a r e the
We s t e r n E l e c t r i c S L C - 8 , 4 0 , 9 6 , a n d
G T E 's M X U , ranging i n size from 8 t o over
96 l i n e s . RT cabinets can often be ide nti
fied b y the ventilation grill es (with or with
out a fan inside) which are not present on
SAl 's or other non-RT cabinets.
Aerial Distribution Splice Closure,
Drop Wire Splitter
Thi s terminal is the poi n t where the
i nd i v i d u a l cable pai r for a certa i n sub
scr i b e r i s s p l i t from the F 2 d i s t r i b u t i o n
cable a n d spliced o n t o a n a e r i a l d r o p or
"messenger" wire which goes to the sub
scriber's pre m i ses. In an aerial distribution
pl ant , two types of this terminal are com
mo n :
1 ) W e s t e r n E l ec t r i c 4 9 t ype R e a d y
Access Closure / Cable Terminal
2) Wes tern E lectric 53A4, N -type Pole
Mount Cable Term inals
Type 1 : The 49 -type , 1 A 1 , 1 8 1 , and
1 C 1 c los u re s are all functionally sim ilar.
Thi s term i n a l i s a sem i -rectangular clo
sure , ab o u t 1 5 " L x 3"W x 5 " H , usua l l y
black , which i s connected directly t o the
a e r i a l cable i t se l f ; it is coaxial with the
c a b l e , so t h e c a b l e p a s s e s s t ra i g h t
through it. I t splits u p to 1 2 pairs from the
di stribution cable to a small binding post

A utumn 1988

DISTRIBUTION PLANT
term inal block inside the closure . Aerial
drop wires are then connected to these
binding posts, and the wires exit the term i
nal through holes o n the botto m . These
wires are strung via strain relief clamps on
the pole down to the subscriber's site. The
terminal closure is opened by pulling out
and l ifting either the whole cover or the
front panel after rem oving the cover fas
teners on the bottom and/or the sides (the
closure is a thick neoprene cover over an
aluminum frame). Inside the case , there is
a terminal block and there may be some
sort of loading coil as wel l . The cable and
this coil are not openable, but the term inal
block is. Since the F2 pair terminates in
this c l o s u re , the F 2 BP num ber (cab
le/assignment data) corresponds to a
binding post on thi s terminal block. As
mentioned earlier, this terminal will also
contain spare pairs, in case a subscriber
wants another line. In order to use one of
these pairs, you m ust either get an F2
(and then F 1 ) CP num be r from LAC using
the BP, or you can put a trace tone on the
pair at the aerial closure and then locate
the pair at the SAL T n a cross-connect
would have to be m ade to an active F 1
pair, and a drop wire (ughh) would have to
be added back at the aerial c l o s u re .
Anyway, both the binding posts a s wel l as
the holes (inside and out) are num bered
left to right, so you may not even have to
open the closure if you are just looking for
an F2 BP number -- just trace the drop
wire from the house i nto the num bered
h o l e on the c l o s u r e . T h e T E r m i n a l
Address for the F 2 is the address o f the
house or prem ise closest to the pole near
this closure. These te rm i nals (especially
1 A 1 , etc.) are also used for straight and

branch splices for aerial cables, so you


may see one cable i n and two out; also,
the closure can be used for splicing only,
so there may not be drop wires (in this
case , it won't be listed in LMOS because it
i s not a terminal point). There i s generally
one of these every pole near a quad of
houses or so, mounted on the cable about
an arm's length from the pole.
Type 2 : Both the 53A4 and the N -type
terminals serve the sam e function as the
49-type just descri bed, except they are
used in situations where there are m ore
than 4 houses (8 lines, including provi sion
al pairs). This term inal is mounted directl y
on the pole, about a foot down from the
aerial cable . It is not connected in line with
the cable, so there is no F2 splicing area
in the cabinet (rather, a cable stub comes
from the termi nal block and is spliced onto
the span close to where it touches the
pole). It is about 22"H x 9"W x 4D, rectan
gular, and silver (unpainted). The door is
similar to that of a 40-type cabinet. but it's
much smaller; it is opened using a 7/ 1 600
tool in the same manner as before , except
that the door must be lifted before it can
be opened or closed . In this way, the door
slides down on its hinges when opened ,
so it locks in the open position and you
won 't have to worry about i t ( e speCia l l y
n ice because hang i ng o n to a pole i s
enough o f a problem ). The term inal block
can handle from 25 to 50 pairs, with 32
holes i n the back for aerial drop wi res .
Just a s in the Ready Access Closure , this
is the F2 term inal . and the num bered bind
i ng posts and holes correspond to F2 BP
n u m bers . The TEA will be the address
nearest the termi nal O ust as before). This
terminal is com mon at the first pole on a

A utum n 1988

2600

Magazine

Page 35

GETTING DIRTY,
street, on cul-de-sacs, apartments, m ari
nas, and harbors, or anywhere there are
m any drop wires.
Burled DIstribution Cross Box
and Other Pedestals
This term inal serves the sam e function
as the aerial closures, except it is used in
areas with a buried distribution plant. This
cable assignment for this terminal will be
the F2 term inal , and the BP numbers and
TEA will be the same as for the aerial ter
minas. Probably the most common cross
boxes are the PC4, 6, and 1 2; these are
around 50 tall by 4, 6, or 1 2 squ are
respectively, and they are painted gray
green l i ke SAl cabi nets. These are the
smallest pedestals i n the distribution plant,
and they don' have doors (they look like
waist-high square poles). In order to open
one of these pedestals, the two bolts on
either side halfway d own the pede stal
m ust be loosened with a 7/1 6 hex wrench ;
then the front cover can be lifted up, out,
and off the rest of the closure. These ter
m i nals are l ocated generally near small
groups of houses (up to about 1 2 lines
usually) o n the g round, often near other
utility cabinets (such as e lectric powe r
transformers, etc.). These are becom ing
more common as the new housing tracts
use buried distribution plant. The F2 cable
will enter as a cable stub, and it is s p l i t into
service wires which go back underground
to the subscribers.
All small pedestals are not necessarily
the above type of term inal ; these pedestal
closures are often used for other purpos
es, such as splicing points in underground
di stributio n , loading coil mounting, and
even temporary wire storage containers. If
the term inal contains a terminal block or it

Page 3 6

2600 Magazine

is a significant point on the l i n e , however,


i t will be listed in LMOS. An example of

this is a distribution path found by Mark


Ta ba s in a Mountain Bell area there was
a small PC 1 2-type closure on the ground
near a street in a remote suburb, and it
was se rving as a termi nal point for a whole
_.

F l cable. It was listed as the F1 terminal,


and it was at the right TEA; however, there
was no te rminal block because it was a
splicing point Oust a bunch of pairs con
nected with Scotchlok plastic connectors
which are hung on a bar in the pedestal
closure} , so LMOS had no BP num ber.
Instead , a color code was listed for the
pair in the splice. Anyway, the whole Fl
went up to an N-type closure o n a pole
and was split into drop wires.

MultiL1ne Building Entrance Terminals


This term inal takes the aerial drop or
service wires and cross-connects them
over to the Inside Wire ( IW) in the sub
scriber's bui l d i n g ( h o te l s , businesses,
etc. ) . There are many di fferent types of
terminal blocks for this term inal , although
by far the most com mon is the Western
Electric 66 block. The 66-type term inal
u s e s a block of metal clips; the wi re is
pu shed onto the Clip with a punch-down
tool which also strips the wire . The block is
divided i nto horizontal rows which can
have from two to over six clips each. Since
each row group terminates one pair, two
rows are needed for x-connect, one on top
of the other. The service or drop wire usu
ally enters on the left, and the inside wire
is connected to the far right. In orde r to
locate a pa ir, usually you can visually
trace either the service wire or the inside
wire to the block, and often the inside wire
side will be numbered or labelled with an

A utumn 1988

BEING SNEAKY
address, phone number, etc . I t i s also pos
sible for this terminal to serve as an F2
termi nal point, if there are a lot of lines. I n
this case, LMOS will l i s t the T E A usu all y
with som e phYSical direction as to where
to find it. The left side will then be num
bered as F2 BP's. Thi s term inal i s also the
dem arcation poi n t which se parates the
cu stom e r's equipm e n t from the te lcos.
The new terminals often have an RJ -21
co nnector on the service wire side, such
as a 25-pair for PABX or a Bell 1 A2 Key,
etc. There are also "maintenance term i
nating units" ( MTU) which are electronic
u n i ts co n n ected to the l i n e ( s ) at the
entrance protector; these are sometimes
seen in som e telcos. Basically, they pro
vide functions such as party AN i on m ulti
party lines, remote disconnect (for testing
or (click!) non-paym e nt) , or half ringers
(the most com mon -- they prevent ring i n g
continuity fai lures on switches l ike ESS
when there are no phones hooked to the
l i n e when it ring s ) . M T U term i na l s are
often locked.
Single Pair Station Protector
There's really not m uch to say about
this terminal. Basically, it takes the service

or drop wire and connects it to the inside


wire in a s i n g l e line residence (h o uses
with two l i n e s w i l l have two of t h e se ) .
These are at every house o n a n outside
wall or base m ent , and there are two m a i n
type s : the Western E l ectric 1 23 ( w i t h a
" 1 50-type" rubber cover) , and the old WE
305 and new AT&T 200 Network interface
(m etal an d plastic, respective l y ) . These
terminals h ave one binding post pai r and
they will have either gas discharge tubes
or carbon blocks to protect the line from
l ightn i ng or excess curre n t . Obvi o u s l y ,
there i s no BP number (you just have t o
visually trace the d ro p wi re t o fi nd the pro
tector) . This is also the demarcation point
marking the end of the telco's responsibili
ty , as well as the end of our tour.
Usually if a c o l o r code is needed ( such
as in a splice ca se) you can get it from
LAC or the testboard ; if it's really essen
tial , it will be in LMOS as wel l . This color
code is also used a lot on cable ties (usu
ally with wh i t e s t r i pe s a n d ring c o l o r s
only), although these are often u s e d ran
domly.
Test Sets

This is the "right hand" of both the pro-

Bell System Standard Color Code


Use:
-.
Take the #, and find its closest
Pair #
Tip
Ring
multiple of 5. Use that number to find
.
the Tip color, and t h e remainder to find
the Ring color (remainder 0 = Slate).
White
01 05
Blue
(e.g. Pai r #1 = White/Brown, Pair #1 4 =
Red
Orange
061 0
1 1 1 5
Black
Black/Brown, Pair #24 = Violet/ B r o w n) .
G reen
Yellow Brown
1 620
Slate
Violet
21 25

. - - - - - -

_ - _ -.

A utum n 1988

2600 Magazine

Page 3 7

OUTSIDE Loop DISTR IBUTION PLANT


OFFICIAL Agent 04 Generic Test Set Modification (tm)
R

l n g ) - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - --- - --- - - - -- - ) t o
11p

j-- - --- !

- - - - - j ---------- !

SPST

------ - / ! j ! / ! / ' -- !

) f r oll

c ab i e p a H

b S T Swi t c h

K
, -- ! l --- - - - ------ !

( a l l i g a t or s i

fe s s i o n a l and the a m a t e u r l i ne m a n .
Basically, i t is a customized portable tele
phone which is designed to be hooked
onto raw cable termi nals i n the field and
used to monitor the line, talk, or dial out.
The monitor function is usually the main
difference between the "butt-in" test set
and the normal phone. If you don't have a
real test set already, the following circuit
can convert a normal $4 made-in- Taiwan
phone into a working test set. The "all-in
one" handset units without bases are the
best (I tend to like QU IK's and GTE Flip
Phone I I's).
When SPST i s closed, you are in tal k
mode ; when you lift the switchhook on the
"test set" phone, you will get a dial tone as
if you were a standard extension of the
line you are on. You will be able to dial out
and receive cal l s . Whe n the S PST i s
opened, the resistor and capacitor are no
longer shunted, and they become part of
the telephone circuit. When you lift the
switchhook on the test set, you will not
receive dial tone, due to the fact that the
cap blocks DC, and the resistor passe s
less than 4 rnA nom i nally (far below the
amount necessary to saturate the supervi
sory ferrod on ESS or close the line relay
on any other switch). However, you will be
able to silently m onitor all audio on the
Page 38

2600 Magazine

"

! -- - - -- - - >

t e s t set " p h o n e

0 , 22 uF

2uu kC M y l ar

K = lU k U h ll 1 / 2 W
l al k

hon l t or

line. The cap reactance plus the phone's


impedance ensure that you won't cut the
signal too much on the phone line, which
might cause a noticeable change (expe
dite the shock force, someone 's on my
line! . It's also good to have a VOM
handy whe n worki ng outside to rapidly
check for active l i n e s o r s u pervi s i o n
states. Also, you can buy test equipment
from these companies:
Techni Tool, 5 Apollo Road, Box 368 ,
Plymouth Meeting, PA 1 9462 .
Specialized Products Com pany, 2 1 1 7
W. Wal nut Hill Lane, Irving, TX 75229 .
I am not going to include a disclaim er,
because a true com m unications hobbyist
does not abuse nor does he tamper with
something he doesn't under- stand. This
article is intended as a reference guide for
responsible people .
A l s o , thi s a rticle w a s written mai nly
from first-hand experience and information
gained from maintenance technicians, test
boards, as well as technical l iterature, so it
is as accurate as possible. Keep i n mind
that it is mainly cente red u pon the area
served by Pacific Telephone, so there may
be some diffe rences in the loop plant of
your area.

A utumn 1988

ARTWORK BY J.R. " B OB" DOBBS

A utumn 1988

26()()

Magazine

Page 39

Illinois Bell

Dear Employee

We are in the process of launching a ma j or market thru s t to s t imulate


usage revenue in the 4th Quarter 198 7 .
As part o f thi s undertaking we
are p leased to announce a first t ime market ing promot ion .
Through spec i a l arrangements with Graybar Electric Co . Inc . , we are
ab le to offer a se lect group of customers the opportunity to purchase
s tate - o f - the - art telephone answering mach ines at s teep di scounts .
We
have chosen to promote answering machines because they increase c a l l
completions which result in usage revenue .
This offer i s be ing made to a select target marke t in order to max imi ze
sales success .
The success of this experimental offer wi l l determine
our future efforts with promotions of thi s type .
Because this firs t - t ime arrangement includes a sav ings of 4 0 % to 4 6 %
o n telephone answering machines , we want t o offer t h i s opportunity t o
all ou r employees .
You t o o have the option of selec t ing from three
deluxe mode l s at great prices and to enjoy the ease and convenience of
owning a telephone answering machine .
See the enc losed b rochure for deta i l s .
This o ffer is good un t i l
December 31 , 19 8 7 , so b e sure t o ac t soon .
Sincerely .

Ri ta Zaccardelli
Product Management

P.S.

. . . .

remember , answering mach ines al s o make very nice g i ft s .

HERE WE SEE what the phone companies are really


interested in: call completions. Does this surprise you?
Page 40

2600 Magazine

A utumn 1988

2 600 M a r k e t p l a c e

FOR

S A LE :

Various

find a m u s t to q u i c k l y get rid of.

U N IX

m a n u a l s / b o o k s . F o r m o r e i n fo r m a -

P ro d u c t e v a l u a t i o n s a rc w e l c o m ed .

t i o n , write to Seth K., PO Box 245070,

A l so looki n g for Tec h n i c s SL1 200 a n d

Brooklyn, N Y 1 1 224.

any i n fo r m a t i o n rel a ted t o p i ra te r a d i o

I W A N T T O S T A RT a n e w s l e t t e r

( i nclud i n g stories

d e v o t e d t o p e t t y c r i m e s , t e n t a t i ve l y

p i r a t e s , g r o u p s , eq u i p m e n t i n fo r m a

t i t l e d " Fo r I n fo r m a t i o n a l P u r p o s e s

t i o n , FCC ) f o r

Spokane, W A 99206

on h o w to r i p-o ff v e n d i n g m a c h i n e s ,
free p o s tage, free photocopies, sneak-

SELLING

i ng into movie t h ea ters, etc. Tim

F O R S A LE : U l t i m a t e b l u e box, Berry
E l ec t ro n i cs M od e l 3 1 2A

red box s i m i l a r to t h e

plans in Sumbox

at

reasonable cost
f o r t e s t p u rp o s es.

Wnte

to:

Nelson,
North

302
1 5th

Richmond

47374.

'

t ru n k

has

D o y o u have s om e t h i n g t o se l l ? Are y o u
l o o k i ng f o r s o m e t h i ng t o buy ? O r
trade ? T h i s is t he p l ac e ! T h e 2600
M a r k e t p l a c e i s f r e e t o sub s c r i b e r s !
S e n d y o u r a d t o ' ')6 l:1 0 M a r k e t p I a c e ,
P O. B o x 9 9 , M i d d l e I s l a n d , N 'I 1 1 9 5 3 .
I n c l ud e y ou r a d d re s s l a be L O n l y p e o p l e
p l e a s e , no b u s i n e 5 s e s .
.

W I L L T R A D E : M y Tex a s I n s t r u m e n t

S i l e n t 7 0 0 Ser i e s Po r t a b l e I n t e l l i g e n t
Data Ter m i n a l ( l i k e n e w ) w / fu l l d oc u menta t i o n f o r a n y hacker s o ft w are for
I B M c o m patible c o m p u te r s . T e d K . ,

B o x 1 2 1 1 , W e s t erl y , R I 0289 1 .

W A N T E D : So m eo n e w i t h e l e c t ro n i c

blue

Abbie

52 s h i p p i n g & h a n d l i n g . M a rco, P . O.

98145.

m er 2600 or a

of

COPIES

H o ffm a n ' s " St e a l Th i s Boo k " . 5 7 . 9 5

C ri d l a n d , PO Box 85874, Sea t t l e, W A

w r i t e-'u p . D a v i d J o n

Hyams, E 9 1 1 6 Sprague A v ., Apt. 1 1 1 ,

O n l y " . P lease send m e i n fo , c l i p pi n gs,

abi l i t y t o b u i l d

written by ex

t e s t set,
ro t a ry

d i a l / M F key
pad,

m onitor

spea ker . U ses


L-C o s c i l l a to r s .
V E RY

stable.

Ca n be u sed a s
Std
phone
when

h ea d /

h a n d set a d d ed .

5 2 5 ll . W r i t e : T e s t s e t , 6 7 1 5 E b e r l e i n
Ave . , K l a m a t h Fa l l s, OR 97603.

T A P B A C K I S S U E S , co m p l e te set V o L

1 -9 0 of Q U A L I TY c o p i e s fro m o ri g i

n a l s . I nc l ud es s c h e m a t ics a n d i n d ex e s .

P O B o x 5 3 3 , Auburn, NY 1 30 2 1 533 .

$1 0 0 p o s t p a i d v i a U PS or Fi r s t C l a s s

6 4 h a c k / p h r e a k s o ft w a re . A l l t e s t e d

t o P e t e G . , P . O . Box 4 6 3 , M t . L a ur e l , N J

C O M PLETE R A N G E o f Co m m od o re

a n d d ebugged . M a n y a d va nced a p plic a t i o n s . C a l l T H C - I [ B B S a t 6 0 4 -5 9 5 -

0085 a n d l e a v e feed b a c k t o t h e s y sop


for more i n fo r m a t io n .

M a i L C a sh / M O sent s a m e d ay, checks

0805 4 . W e a r e t h e o r i g i n a l ; a l l o t h e r s
a r e co p i e s !

2600 M EETI N G S . Fi rs t F ri d a y o f t h e

m o n t h a t t h e C i t i corp C e n t er--from 6

W A N T E D c o p i e d ( d ea d ) o r a l i v e !

t o 8 p m i n t h e M a rket ( a lso k n o w n a s

t a pe (T A P e x c l u s ive), & fa c t s h e e t s # 1 -

t h e weird o s h a n g o u t) . Loca t ed a t 1 53

T A P ' S " C " & " 0 " elec . cou rses . Ca s sette
4 . H a ve a n y or a ll'? C o n t a c t m e- - w i l l -

t h e lobby wi t h the tables w h ere all o f


E a s t 5 3 r d Street, N e w York C i t y . C o m e

i n g t o p a y good m o n e y for o r i g ' s . B .

by, d rop off a r ticles, a s k quest i o n s .

Batton, 84

C a 1 1 5 1 6 - 7 5 1 -2600 for s t i l l more i n fo .

Daphne Cres.,

Ba r r i e ,

O n t a r i o L 4 M 2Y9 . ( 705-726-66 1 7 )

W A N T E D : A l l n e w e r h a rd w a r e you

D e a d li n e f o r W i n t e r M a r k e t p l a c e :
1 1/30/8 8 .

A utumn 1 988

2 60()

Magazine

Page 4 1

Happenings in Our World


(continuedfrom page 13)

owner can then call the machine


an d give it commands.
Agai n , th ere' s a big problem
h e r e . All someone has to d o i s

i n g for . Fi n a l ly , ordin ary B B S


users are getting something out
of the ECPA, which never really
seemed de sign ed to protect th e

ph one at the other number, call


forward i n g is c a n c e l l e d , which

individual.
Th i s is a first step to w a r d s
assuring privacy from th e snoop
ing eyes of authority. It won't be

may not b e desired.


B o th of th e s e i n v e n ti o n s are

so easy to expect a system opera


tor t o k n o w e v e ry m e s s age on

go o d i d e a s . But without decen t


security, th ey could be real disas

h i s /h e r s y s t e m , m u c h l e s s
assume respon sibility for th em.

ters for the c o n sumer. I m agine


h aving all of your calls forwarded
to some r e m o te p l a c e where a
t a p e r e c o r d i n g c o u l d gi ve o u t
fal s e informatio n a b o u t you o r
y o u r b u s i n e s s . An d t h e r e a l
c l i n ch e r i s th e fac t th at y o u ' d
h ave t o pay for those c all s !

Our o w n bul l etin board s , a s


always, will provi de private mail
features for users. We don't read
or disclose private m e s sage s ; in
fact, our software won't even per

call and hang up, th i s time only


o n c e . If n o b o dy p i ck s u p th e

Sysop Sued Over E mail

mit it. We hope thi s lawsuit will


en courage oth er sysops to adopt
thi s practi ce and di scourage law
enforcement fro m vi o l at i n g our
right to privacy.

An I n d i a n a B B S operator i s
being sued by a u ser who claims
th at h e i n t e n ti on al ly di scl o s e d

Dial-It Info Numbers

h e r p r i v a te el e c tr o n i c m a i l to
oth ers without h er permi ssion .
The l a w suit m ak e s reference
t o th e E l e c tr o n i c C o m m u n i

Teleph o n e h a s c o m e o u t with a
guide to all of th o s e n ew m a s s
announcement numbers.
D i a l i n g 54 0 - I N FO ( t o l l -fr e e )

c a t i o n s P ri v a c y A c t o f 1 9 8 6 ,
wh i ch m ak e s d i s c l o sure of pri
vate electronic m ail without con
s e n t o f th e s e n d e r o r th e

At

long

l a st,

New

York

will get y o u a l i s t o f a l l 540 inter


active servi c e s , as well as al l of
th e 9 7 6 p a s s ive ann o u n c e m e n t
numbers. Dialing 9 70-INFO gets

recipient a federal crime.


Sy sops are not by law required
to offer private electronic mail to

you a list of all of th e a dult s er


vic e s (really funny to h ear) and
550-INFO will gen erate a list of

i t s u s e r s . B ut in c a s e s w h e r e
th ey do, th e E C PA c a n be u s e d
agai n st th em if th ey d o n ' t k e e p
private m ail private .

phy sical list, dial 8 00-942- 1 8 1 8 ,


operator 976.

Thi s is wh at we've been w aitPage 42

2 600 Magazine

th e conferenc e numbers. To get a

I f a n y o n e gets th i s to w o rk
outside of New York , let us know.

A utumn 1 988

LETTE RS
(continued /rom page 2 7)

next t w o years .

Too b ad , y o u l o s e .

I am a

S e e what y o u missed!

telecom tech at a large c e n t rex

B oy . i t e v e n fe e l s b e t t e r now .

cu stomer of Pac Bell ( a c t u ally .

C h a nge th ose B BS ' s !

a m a n a g e m e n t p o s i t i o n) . We

S orry I c a n ' t l e a v e y o u my
I

are such a good c u stomer th at

name .

I can call th e CO and get them

known i n t h e fi e l d and infor

to

d o a n y t h i n g . Th e y

do

it

am

somew h a t well

mation I provide must not have

b e c a u se w e are s u c h a g o o d

my name on it .

c u stomer. N o t becau se I l i e and

We enjoyed your letter very


m u c h . We c a n c e r t a i n l y s e e
h o w y o u managed to become
so well known. And. no doub t.
us ing y o ur name would not be
a good idea. in this or any cir
cums tance. B u t we do want to
t hank y o u for find ing time in
your b usy sched ule /.0 convey
your concerns.
Unfort una tely , no one here
h a s a n y i d e a on w h a t y o u
c o u l d b e t a l k i ng a b o u t . We
operate Jo ur BBS's. each rim
n ing o n c o mp l e t e l y d ([[e re n t
s oft w a re . Yo u s e e m t o have
had a run- in with one of t hem.
Wh!l don' t !IOU tell us exac tly
what happened so we can do
something about it?

tell stories l ike some d o .

I h ad h o p e d t o share some o f
40+

t h i s inform a t i o n a n d m y

years of experience with oth e rs .


b u t I a m not going t o waste my

time to learn you r BBS .


I was a writer for TAP a n d

know t h e w h o l e story o f w h a t
happene d . Woul d l ike to sh are
this also -- but your damn BBS
p isses me om
I also have a patent i n t e l e
p h ony a n d a m a n u fa c t u r i n g
company that makes t e l e p h o ne
stuff under the patent .
Whenever you get a n o mlal
BBS . let me know and mayb e I
will ch ange my min d .
B oy ,

it s u r e fe e l s g o o d t o

write th is letter.
to

Am in San Franc isco t o d ay

tour

P a c ific

Ram o n c o m p l ex .

B e ll ' s

San

I a m t h e ir

guest . They p ick me u p at my


h otel and give me l u nch and a
t o u r . Th is is b e c a u s e I am a
good cu stomer of t h e irs a n d I
am d esign i n g the t e lecommu ni

cations fac ilities for a

$44 m il

lion b u i l d ing g o i ng u p in t h e

Questions

Dear 2 6 00:

For s t a rters I w o u l d l ike to


s ay that t h i s i s the b e st mag a
zine I ever l a i d h ands o n . I l ike
t h e p r o fe s s i o n a l way y o u l o o k

at

e v e ry t h i n g

In

your

N ovemb e r 8 7 i ss u e t h e a d t h a t

C o n s u m e rt r o n i c s p u t i n w a s
gre a t fo r me b e c a u se I fou nd a
fi l e o n g e tt i n g m e s o m e fa ke

A u tum fl 1 988

2 600 Magazine

Page 43

LETTE RS
I D ' s . It says that having them
is not illegal . Can you tell me
wh e r e
this
came
fr o m?
Everyone I spoke to says it is a
lie and j ust there to get you to
buy the product. Can you tell
me if there are any voice sys
t e m s t o p l ay a r o u n d w i t h ?
There was o n e i n P h illy called
Th e P h illy C on n e c t io n . Are
there any more out there? If so ,
can you list the numbers?

You install it . and let them u se


your phone from 9 am to 9 pm.
7 days a week. After 9 pm. you
prepare th e data obtained that
d ay fo r t r a n s m i s s i o n to t h e
c o m p a ny ' s c omp u t e r ( s ) . Th e
company in turn pays you an
hourly rate of $3 . 5 7 per hour.
per day that your system (IBM
PC compatible only) is up and
running . u p to a maximu m of
$300 . 00 per week.
I filled o u t the application
J.D.
The people w ho advertise in and the agre ement. inclu ding .
2600 speak Jor themselves and stupidly enough . the p ersonal
not us. ThereJore, you'll have to fin a n c i a l inform a t i o n . I a l s o
ask them what they mean. Our i n d i c a t e d on t h e a p p l ic a t i o n
policy is to accept advertising that 1 did not want t o pay the
Jrom anyone unless it makes $660 . 00 security deposit . I sent
us violently Ul or we know that the letter back t o the Fl orid a
address on the e nvelop e . and
the people are crooks.
We will be print ing p hone got back a response from a Los
lis ts oj all kinds oj sys tems as Angeles address. They rej ected
me . "having found others more
we get them in.
q u a l ifi e d " . I a m a sy s t e m
a d m i n i s t r a t o r fo r U N I X a n d
Dear 2 600:
M S - D O S syst e m s . a n d h av e
I am writing yo u to p a s s
b e e n involved with compu ters
along some information, and to
for ov er five years . Th e o nly
ask the readers of 2600 about
t h i n g I c o u l d t h i n k of t h a t
any experiences they may have
wou l d d i s q u a l ify m e w a s my
h a d w i t h a c o m p a ny c a ll e d
u nw i l l i n g n e s s t o s h e l l o u t
" M u t u al Telec ommunications
$660 . 00 in a hurry j u st t o sign
Network. I nc .... My first experi
up for this "hot deal" .
e n c e w i t h t h em w a s i n
In Janu ary 1 9 8 8 . the com
N ovemb e r 1 98 7 . Th ey p u t a n
pany mailed me another letter.
a d in my local paper for "com
offering me an opportu nity to
puter syop" . The basic idea was
j oin aga i n . but b a s e d o n t h e
as fo l l ow s : Th e y s e n d y o u
dates i n t h e letter. I h a d less
"$ 1 . 2 0 0 . 0 0 " w o rt h o f c i r c u i t
t h a n 7 d ays t o s e n d in my
boards. modems . software . etc .

Another Scam

Page

44

2600 Magazine

A utumn 1988

LETTE RS
$ 660 . 00 s e c u rity d ep o s i t . All

Bureau ab o u t these p e ople . as

my efforts to contact the com

well as a comp laint le tter to the

p any were for n a u gh t . I kep t

getting into some kind of digi

c omp any itself, all t o no avail.


Th e l e t t e r fro m th e c om p any

tized voice control system that

ignored my questions and con

thre atened to h ave my p h one

c e rns ,

numb er traced and reported to

from the 1A BBB . Please pub

the a u thorities. I also tried the

Better Bu siness Bureau . the

a n d I ' v e n e v e r h e a rd

lish this l e t t e r in y o u r maga

zine . so other p e ople can eith er

if it's a l egitimate

Chamber o f Commerce . a n d all

help find out

the ph one numb ers each one

o p e ration o r no t . N e e dl e ss to

referr e d me to. but I w a s not

s ay. I never sent in any money .

thing. much less find o u t about

w i t h t h e m i n t h e fu t u r e . You

able t o contact a nyone or any

n or w i l l I b e d o ing b u s i n e s s

the c om p a ny . Even d i r e c t o ry

m a y p u b l i s h my n a m e

a s s i s t a n c e gave m e a p h o n e

a d d r e s s i n y o u r magazine . if

numb e r that fed into t h is con

you wish .

trol system .

Doug Porter
(FDP Enterprises)
366 1 N . Campbell Ave .
#342
Tucson , AZ 857 19

Unless you h ave

the p rop er c o d e s . you cannot


contact any h uman employe e s
i n t h i s c o m p a ny .

am c o n

c er n e d t h a t t h i s c o m p a ny is
e ither attempting to c ollect per
sonal information for the wrong
reasons. i . e . . credit c ard frau d .
or t h ey are a s c am o p e ra t ion
that makes its money by selling
t e l e p h o n e n e tw o rking e q u ip
ment t o h ome comp u ter own
ers interested in extra income .
Th e p h one numbers I h ave

( 8 0 0)
553-8003 and (8 1 3) 932 - 1 02 3 .
Th e i r a d dr e s s i s 7 9 3 3 N o rth
fo r t h i s c o m p a ny a r e :

Arm e n i a
Florida

Av e n u e .

Tamp a .

33604 . I don't h ave the

address or phone number any


l o n g e r fo r t h e

L o s An g e l e s

offic e . I also wro t e t o t h e Los


Ang e l e s

B etter

B u s iness

and

Your letter was sent to us in


January and we regret having
waited so long to print it. The
n u m b e rs y o u g a v e u s ha v e
been disconnected. So, Jor one
reason or another, this compa
ny is not thriving , at leas t not
publicly. We call on our readers
to watch o u t Jor this kind oJ
thing and to let us know if they
h e a r oJ a n y t h i ng s i m i l a r .
Thanks Jor passing this along.

Anti-Gay
Offensive
De ar 2 6 00:

Yo u r n o d d i ng a tt e n t i o n to
the gay c o n ference line c o m -

A u tu m ll 1 988

2600

Magazine

Page 4S

LETTE RS
doing just that. The fact of the
ma tter is . that comment w as
already on BBS's all over the
country . Perhaps you misun
derstood. We did not comprise
that l is t o urs elves - - it was
taken off oj a board
IJ a p u b l ic Jig u re made a
r a c is t remark. w o u ld y o u
blame the local newspaper Jor
printing it? Would you expect
them to pretend it didn't hap
pen? Racism and its assorted
relatives thrive when people try
t o deny t he i r exis t e n c e .
C o mp u te r h a c k e r s are n o t
immune Jrom any oj this. We
can only hope that they. along
with most oj the others in the
We do not believe in cover w orld. will look for injus tice
ups. By not printing that bit oj and scream about it when they
ugliness. we would have been find it.

m e nt " ( ki l l ' e m ! ! ) " in 2 6 0 0 .


Volume 5 . Number 2 i s hardly
appropriate . Most publications
reseIVe the right to edit or to
r e fu s e t o p rint m at e ri a l as
obj ectionable as that. So I can't
take your vaguely moral. "face
the-fact" disclaimer very seri
o u s l y . D o y o u r e a l ly t h in k
you've done anybody a seIVice
by reprinting that item. with or
without a disclaimer?
I think you owe apologies not
only to the gay community. but
a l s o to u sers of c o mp ut e rs .
telephones . and 800 numbers
everywhere .
CH
Ohio

" Hacker" 'rei

Das Vorstandsmitglied des Hamburger


Chaos-ComPUter-Clubs. Steffen Wernery.
1st aus der Untersuchungshaft in Paris
entlassen worden. Gestern traf der 26jiihri
ge auf dem Flughafen Hamburg-FuhlsbOt
tel ein. Das Verfahren gegen ihn wurde
jedoch nicht eingestellt. sagte Wernery.
Nach einem Haftpriifungstermin sei ledig
lich die Inhaftierung aufgehoben worden.
Fur weitere Vernehmungen musse er wie
der nach Paris zuruck.

Page

46

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