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Validity and reliability among others as tools for assessing the legitimacy of the outcome of a

research in terms of generalisation, causal relationships and repeatability (Trochim, 2000). Thus,
validity and reliability are the empirical combination of theory and observation to construct a concept
as shown figure 3.2. As part of ensuring a presentation of valid and reliable results in this study;
quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from multiple sources for complimentary and
confirmatory purposes. In addition, statistical software SPSS.19 was also used to mathematically
verify the validity and reliability of the results.
3.7.1 Validity Assessment
Construct validity as generally known in research refers to operational measure between construct
and the degree to which correct measurement for the concepts understudy are established. Thus the
extent to which inferences can be made legitimately out of the operationalization of a study in
relation to the conceptual constructs it seeks to espouse. Yin in his contribution to the discourse of
validity suggested three ways for improving the validity of constructs, which are (i) establishing a
series of connected links of evidence, (ii) using multiple sources of evidence, and (iii) having a draft
case study report reviewed by key informants (Yin, 2008). In this study, multiple sources of data
were utilised. Within the scope of this, data were obtained from students, lecturers, administrative
staff, official documents, official websites and key persons.
3.7.1.1 Internal Validity
The issue of internal validity has to do with the extent to which a causal relationship can be
established, thus to show that certain conditions may cause certain conditions to occur (Cook,
Campbell, & Day, 1979; Stuart, McCutcheon, Handfield, McLachlin, & Samson, 2002). As part of
enhancing the internal validity of the study, a framework was designed based on related theories and
research. Furthermore, pattern matching of existing theories (Grosshans & General, 1990) was
conducted in addition with factor analysis using principal component analysis and varimax rotation.
These methods helped in establishing the internal validity of the study.
3.7.1.2 External validity

External validity assessment refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized
(Trochim, 2000). Thus, the degree to which a pattern from a particular situation in a specific context
can relate to the same situation in a different context. It must be noted that different research
paradigms have different methods for establishing external validity. For Leveraging mobile
computing and communication technologies in education: Validity and reliability among others
as tools for assessing the legitimacy of the outcome of a research in terms of generalisation, causal
relationships and repeatability (Trochim, 2000). Thus, validity and reliability are the empirical
combination of theory and observation to construct a concept as shown figure 3.2. As part of
ensuring a presentation of valid and reliable results in this study; quantitative and qualitative data
were gathered from multiple sources for complimentary and confirmatory purposes. In addition,
statistical software SPSS.19 was also used to mathematically verify the validity and reliability of the
results.
3.7.1 Validity Assessment
Construct validity as generally known in research refers to operational measure between construct
and the degree to which correct measurement for the concepts understudy are established. Thus the
extent to which inferences can be made legitimately out of the operationalization of a study in
relation to the conceptual constructs it seeks to espouse. Yin in his contribution to the discourse of
validity suggested three ways for improving the validity of constructs, which are (i) establishing a
series of connected links of evidence, (ii) using multiple sources of evidence, and (iii) having a draft
case study report reviewed by key informants (Yin, 2008). In this study, multiple sources of data
were utilised. Within the scope of this, data were obtained from students, lecturers, administrative
staff, official documents, official websites and key persons.
3.7.1.1 Internal Validity
The issue of internal validity has to do with the extent to which a causal relationship can be
established, thus to show that certain conditions may cause certain conditions to occur (Cook,
Campbell, & Day, 1979; Stuart, McCutcheon, Handfield, McLachlin, & Samson, 2002). As part of
enhancing the internal validity of the study, a framework was designed based on related theories and
research. Furthermore, pattern matching of existing theories (Grosshans & General, 1990) was
conducted in addition with factor analysis using principal component analysis and varimax rotation.
These methods helped in establishing the internal validity of the study.
3.7.1.2 External validity
External validity assessment refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized
(Trochim, 2000). Thus, the degree to which a pattern from a particular situation in a specific context
can relate to the same situation in a different context. It must be noted that different research
paradigms have different methods for establishing external validity. For Leveraging mobile
computing and communication technologies in education:

Example most qualitative studies aim at analytical generalization whereas quantitative studies seek to
establish generalization through the use of statistics (Yin, 2008). The mixed method approach to this
study offered the flexibility for making use of both analytical and statistical generalization. The
strength of the external validity of this study is founded on that fact the constructs of study were
espoused from existing theories.
Figure 3. 2 the concept of validity

Source: Troachim, W (2000). The Research Method Knowledge Base 2 nd Edition.


3.7.2 Reliability Assessment
Reliability has do with whether a study can be repeated with the same outcome
(Yin, 2002, 2008). It refer to the quality of measurement in producing consistent
or repeated results. Reliability can be achieved statistically with the use of SPSS
to analyse the inter-item correlation and cronbachs alpha of the constructs
being studied. (Stuart et al., 2002) also adds a suggestion that the reliability of a
study can be enhanced by explicitly explaining procedure and making data
sources available, so that other scholars who may conduct similar studies may
obtain the same results following the same procedure. In this case study, both
statistical and non-statistical reliability methods were utilised for establishing
the reliability of the results.

Validity and reliability among others as tools for assessing the legitimacy of the outcome of a
research in terms of generalisation, causal relationships and repeatability (Trochim, 2000). Thus,
validity and reliability are the empirical combination of theory and observation to construct a concept
as shown figure 3.2. As part of ensuring a presentation of valid and reliable results in this study;
quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from multiple sources for complimentary and
confirmatory purposes. In addition, statistical software SPSS.19 was also used to mathematically
verify the validity and reliability of the results.
3.7.1 Validity Assessment
Construct validity as generally known in research refers to operational measure between construct
and the degree to which correct measurement for the concepts understudy are established. Thus the
extent to which inferences can be made legitimately out of the operationalization of a study in
relation to the conceptual constructs it seeks to espouse. Yin in his contribution to the discourse of
validity suggested three ways for improving the validity of constructs, which are (i) establishing a
series of connected links of evidence, (ii) using multiple sources of evidence, and (iii) having a draft
case study report reviewed by key informants (Yin, 2008). In this study, multiple sources of data
were utilised. Within the scope of this, data were obtained from students, lecturers, administrative
staff, official documents, official websites and key persons.
3.7.1.1 Internal Validity
The issue of internal validity has to do with the extent to which a causal relationship can be
established, thus to show that certain conditions may cause certain conditions to occur (Cook,
Campbell, & Day, 1979; Stuart, McCutcheon, Handfield, McLachlin, & Samson, 2002). As part of
enhancing the internal validity of the study, a framework was designed based on related theories and
research. Furthermore, pattern matching of existing theories (Grosshans & General, 1990) was
conducted in addition with factor analysis using principal component analysis and varimax rotation.
These methods helped in establishing the internal validity of the study.
3.7.1.2 External validity
External validity assessment refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized
(Trochim, 2000). Thus, the degree to which a pattern from a particular situation in a specific context
can relate to the same situation in a different context. It must be noted that different research
paradigms have different methods for establishing external validity. For Leveraging mobile
computing and communication technologies in education:

Example most qualitative studies aim at analytical generalization whereas quantitative studies seek to
establish generalization through the use of statistics (Yin, 2008). The mixed method approach to this
study offered the flexibility for making use of both analytical and statistical generalization. The
strength of the external validity of this study is founded on that fact the constructs of study were
espoused from existing theories.
Figure 3. 2 the concept of validity

Source: Troachim, W (2000). The Research Method Knowledge Base 2 nd Edition.


3.7.2 Reliability Assessment
Reliability has do with whether a study can be repeated with the same outcome
(Yin, 2002, 2008). It refer to the quality of measurement in producing consistent
or repeated results. Reliability can be achieved statistically with the use of SPSS
to analyse the inter-item correlation and cronbachs alpha of the constructs
being studied. (Stuart et al., 2002) also adds a suggestion that the reliability of a
study can be enhanced by explicitly explaining procedure and making data
sources available, so that other scholars who may conduct similar studies may
obtain the same results following the same procedure. In this case study, both
statistical and non-statistical reliability methods were utilised for establishing
the reliability of the results.

Validity and reliability among others as tools for assessing the legitimacy of the outcome of a
research in terms of generalisation, causal relationships and repeatability (Trochim, 2000). Thus,
validity and reliability are the empirical combination of theory and observation to construct a concept
as shown figure 3.2. As part of ensuring a presentation of valid and reliable results in this study;
quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from multiple sources for complimentary and
confirmatory purposes. In addition, statistical software SPSS.19 was also used to mathematically
verify the validity and reliability of the results.
3.7.1 Validity Assessment
Construct validity as generally known in research refers to operational measure between construct
and the degree to which correct measurement for the concepts understudy are established. Thus the
extent to which inferences can be made legitimately out of the operationalization of a study in
relation to the conceptual constructs it seeks to espouse. Yin in his contribution to the discourse of
validity suggested three ways for improving the validity of constructs, which are (i) establishing a
series of connected links of evidence, (ii) using multiple sources of evidence, and (iii) having a draft
case study report reviewed by key informants (Yin, 2008). In this study, multiple sources of data
were utilised. Within the scope of this, data were obtained from students, lecturers, administrative
staff, official documents, official websites and key persons.
3.7.1.1 Internal Validity
The issue of internal validity has to do with the extent to which a causal relationship can be
established, thus to show that certain conditions may cause certain conditions to occur (Cook,
Campbell, & Day, 1979; Stuart, McCutcheon, Handfield, McLachlin, & Samson, 2002). As part of
enhancing the internal validity of the study, a framework was designed based on related theories and
research. Furthermore, pattern matching of existing theories (Grosshans & General, 1990) was
conducted in addition with factor analysis using principal component analysis and varimax rotation.
These methods helped in establishing the internal validity of the study.
3.7.1.2 External validity
External validity assessment refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized
(Trochim, 2000). Thus, the degree to which a pattern from a particular situation in a specific context
can relate to the same situation in a different context. It must be noted that different research
paradigms have different methods for establishing external validity. For Leveraging mobile
computing and communication technologies in education:

Example most qualitative studies aim at analytical generalization whereas quantitative studies seek to
establish generalization through the use of statistics (Yin, 2008). The mixed method approach to this
study offered the flexibility for making use of both analytical and statistical generalization. The
strength of the external validity of this study is founded on that fact the constructs of study were
espoused from existing theories.
Figure 3. 2 the concept of validity

Source: Troachim, W (2000). The Research Method Knowledge Base 2 nd Edition.


3.7.2 Reliability Assessment
Reliability has do with whether a study can be repeated with the same outcome
(Yin, 2002, 2008). It refer to the quality of measurement in producing consistent
or repeated results. Reliability can be achieved statistically with the use of SPSS
to analyse the inter-item correlation and cronbachs alpha of the constructs
being studied. (Stuart et al., 2002) also adds a suggestion that the reliability of a
study can be enhanced by explicitly explaining procedure and making data
sources available, so that other scholars who may conduct similar studies may
obtain the same results following the same procedure. In this case study, both
statistical and non-statistical reliability methods were utilised for establishing
the reliability of the results.

Example most qualitative studies aim at analytical generalization whereas quantitative studies seek to
establish generalization through the use of statistics (Yin, 2008). The mixed method approach to this
study offered the flexibility for making use of both analytical and statistical generalization. The
strength of the external validity of this study is founded on that fact the constructs of study were
espoused from existing theories.
Figure 3. 2 the concept of validity

Source: Troachim, W (2000). The Research Method Knowledge Base 2 nd Edition.


3.7.2 Reliability Assessment
Reliability has do with whether a study can be repeated with the same outcome
(Yin, 2002, 2008). It refer to the quality of measurement in producing consistent
or repeated results. Reliability can be achieved statistically with the use of SPSS
to analyse the inter-item correlation and cronbachs alpha of the constructs
being studied. (Stuart et al., 2002) also adds a suggestion that the reliability of a
study can be enhanced by explicitly explaining procedure and making data
sources available, so that other scholars who may conduct similar studies may
obtain the same results following the same procedure. In this case study, both
statistical and non-statistical reliability methods were utilised for establishing
the reliability of the results.