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800 metres

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The 800 metre race (or 800 metres) is a common track running event. It is the shortest
common middle distance track event. The 800 meters is run over two laps of the track (400
meter track) and has always been an Olympic event. During indoor track season the event is
usually run on a 200 meter track, therefore requiring four laps. It was included in the first
women's track program in 1928, but suspended until 1960 because of shock at the exhaustion
it caused the competitors. By contrast, without today's training regimes, male competitors of
the day were expected to run themselves to exhaustion in competition.[citation needed]

The event requires both sprinting speed and physical endurance to last two laps, therefore
combining challenging aspects of both sprinting and middle distance into a single race.


In modern 800 m races, runners start from staggered positions on the track and must remain in
their respective lanes until the end of the first curve (about 115m). After the first curve,
competitors may break for the inside, as long as they do not deliberately obstruct or push
another competitor. Running at full speed for the entire distance is impossible, and a runner's
strategy and tactics are a factor in reaching the finish line first. Running in the lead is often
considered a disadvantage, as trailing runners can choose when to accelerate past the leader,
and wind resistance has a greater effect on those in the front of the pack. Runners in lane one
but not leading the race must also be careful to avoid becoming boxed in by other runners, as
this eliminates the crucial ability to completely control one's own pace. Running in last place
is also not recommended, as there may be too much ground to make up when the final sprint
for the finish starts.

However, it can be sensible for an athlete to remain at the back of the field if the pace at the
front is far too fast, provided that the athlete in question does not leave too much ground to
make up. This was illustrated by Kelly Holmes at the 2004 Summer Olympics, where Holmes
stayed at the rear of the field until the last 300 m before making a decisive move. A more
unorthodox tactical move came from John Woodruff who, in the 1936 Summer Olympics,
was boxed in by runners early in the race. He slowed almost to a complete stop, let the
runners pass, and then took the third lane to come from behind and take the victory. In the
1972 Summer Olympics, Dave Wottle, demonstrated yet another unusual tactic by crossing
the 400m mark in last place, unfazed by the overly fast pace, and passing nearly every racer in
the last 150 meters, taking the gold. Split times showed Wottle actually ran fairly even splits
(within a few tenths of a second), his competitors had not.

In top class races, the lane start usually ensures a brisk pace for the first 200 m. Occasionally,
no one will be happy to lead, and the field will bunch for the remainder of the first lap. This
will lead to a slow first 400 m, leaving the runners extra energy for a hard sprint on the second
lap, favouring the sprint type 800m runner. Alternatively, one runner will ensure a fast first
lap and the winner will be the athlete who slows least on the second lap. This tactic favours
the endurance or distance type 800m runner. Some 800m runners are able to run world-class
times with even laps, or even negative splits (which means the second lap is quicker than the
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/800_metres

1500 metres

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Jump to: navigation, search

The 1,500 metres (or meters) is a premier middle distance track event.

In modern times, it has become more of a prolonged sprint with each lap averaging under 55
seconds for the world record performance by Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco in 1998 at
Rome.[1] The 1500 is three and three-quarter laps around a 400 metre track. Through the
1980s the event was dominated by British runners, but through the 1990s the African runners
began to take over, with runners from Kenya, Morocco and Algeria winning the Olympic

In American high schools, the one mile (which is 1609.344 metres) and 1600 m, also
colloquially referred to as "metric mile," are more frequently run than the 1500 m, since
Imperial units are better-known in the US. Which is used depends on the state the high school
is in, and, for convenience, national rankings are standardized by converting all 1600 m times
to their one mile equivalents.[citation needed]
Middle Distance Running
Middle distance covers the 800 metres and 1500 metres track events. Comparing past and
present world record holders it would appear that 800 metres and 1500 metres male athletes
are most likely to peak around the age of 25 and female athletes at 27 years of age.

Middle Distance Running Technique

Guidance on the running technique of the middle distance runner is provided in the form of a
series of pictures and associated notes that highlight the main technical points.

The foot strikes the ground below the centre of gravity (which is
around the central area of the hips) The strike is slightly on the
outside of the foot and from the ball of the foot to the mid-foot. There
is then a role across and a dropping of the heel. The leg's role is
supporting and driving.

As the foot strikes the ground there is also some flexion in the knee.
This should not be too excessive, so leg strength must be developed to
ensure stability in and around the knee. There is also some movement
around the hip girdle. This can be excessive, so strength exercises
for the whole region, especially abdominal and lower back, are
required. It is very important that this region is kept stable, thus
giving a strong platform from which to drive.

As the torso moves ahead of the foot, the drive is initiated and the
achilles and calf are placed under great stress. It is therefore
important that stretching and strengthening of this area be
incorporated into training. Muscle fibres in the calf respond to a
reflex action as they are placed in near full stretch and contract
quickly, thus apparently straightening the foot, forcing the athlete
back up higher on their fore-foot. (This makes the foot a further lever,
often forgotten by many runners). The foot "grips" the ground as the
torso moves ahead, forcing the leg into full extension. Once again,
strength and flexibility of the hamstrings are important.

After the athlete has reached almost full stretch, a reflex action occurs
in the muscle fibres of the hamstring, quickly shortening it and pulling
the foot up off the ground. This allows the whole of the limb to swing
back a bit further. Hip mobility and the ability to stretch the quads
at the front of the leg arc also vitally important.
The upper part of the leg is drawn forward by the action of the quads
and hip flexors beginning to shorten. The foot continues on an upward
curve, with the help of the contracting hamstring and the hinge effect
of the knee joint. It swings into the gluteus maximus (backside), so
shortening the lever and making it easier to bring forwards.

The thigh continues forward and the swings upwards, the head of the
foot drops from its high point and accelerates downwards and
forwards. The knee reaches its high point, which is not quite as high
as that of a sprinter (i.e. at an angle of around 90 degrees to the rear

The foot ends its swing through at a point just ahead of the knee. The
leg maintains a slight angle at the knee (the leg is not straight).
Having reached its high point the thigh starts a downward swing; this
initiates an acceleration of the foot backwards.

The foot once again strikes the floor in a backward motion, adding to
the athlete's forward motion.

General Notes

• There is a very slight "rolling" of the shoulders as the arms keep the body balanced
with a pumping action
• The shoulder joint should be very supple so that as the arm swings through it do not
pull them up too much
• The shoulder girdle and the hip girdle twist slightly in opposite directions, counter
balancing each other
• The arms do not work to hard and work with the diagonally opposite leg
• The arm should swing loosely by the side and should be bent at around 90 degrees. As
the arm swings back, there is little or no straightening
• Hands are held in a very relaxed "fist" with the thumb resting on the forefinger
• The thumb should be uppermost and the elbows hang close but comfortably into the
side of the body
• The body is held upright with the back relaxed but straight with minimal forward lean

Note the physical requirements (bold text) identified in the Running Action section above and
plan appropriate training sessions into the athlete's training program to develop them.

As you monitor the athlete's technique, look primarily for a Smooth and Relaxed action.

Training Programs

The training program must develop all the energy pathways, muscular system and technique.
The different sessions and their objectives are listed below:

Session Objective
30 to 60 minute easy running aerobic capacity
20 minute run just above steady state aerobic power (AT)
3 to 10 minute repetition runs
aerobic power & lactic capacity
1 to 3 minutes recovery
1 to 2 minute repetition runs
aerobic power & lactic capacity
2 to 4 minutes recovery
45 to 90 second repetition runs
lactic capacity & lactic power
10 to 15 minutes recovery
30 to 45 second repetition runs
lactic power
10 to 15 minutes recovery
30 to 45 second repetition runs
lactic capacity
reducing recover
15 to 30 second repetition runs
CP capacity
10 to 15 minutes recovery
6 to 15 second repetition runs
CP power
1 to 3 minutes recovery
Weight training - 1 to 3 RM muscular strength
Weight training - 12 to 20 RM muscular power
Circuit training muscular endurance
Hill runs of 5 to 10 seconds CP power & muscular endurance
Hill runs of 15 to 30 seconds lactic power & muscular endurance
Hill runs of 30 to 60 seconds lactic capacity & muscular endurance
Technique economy and effectiveness of effort
Rest allows adaptation

A training program has to be developed to meet the individual needs of the athlete and take
into consideration many factors: gender, age, strengths, weaknesses, objectives, training
facilities etc. As all athletes have different needs, a single program suitable for all athletes is
not possible.

The following is a basic annual training program for the 800 metres, 1500 metres, 5km,
10km, walks and steeplechase events.
• Middle Distance Program

The following are event specific annual general training programs:

• 800 metres
• 1500 metres

Evaluation Tests

The following evaluation tests can be used to monitor the Middle Distance athlete's

• 1500 metres test - predict an athlete's potential 1500 metres time

• Balke VO2 max test for endurance sports
• Cooper VO2 max test for endurance sports
• Kosmin test for 800 metres & 1500 metres athletes
• Leg Elastic Strength test
• Quadrathon an excellent all round test.
• Strength test - upper body (Bench Press)
• Strength test - lower body (Leg Press)
• Sit Ups test - abdominal strength
• Sit and Reach test - lower back and hamstring test
• Vertical Jump test
• vVO2max and tlimvVO2max 6 minute test - test to determine distance & time for
vVO2 max sessions

Middle Distance Time Predictors

Based on test results it is possible to predict potential times for a Middle Distance event. The
available Middle Distance time predictors are:

• The 1500 metres test provides a method to predict an athlete's 1500 metres time
• The Kosmin test provides a method to predict an athlete's 800 metres and/or 1500
metres time
( SJ 1162 )


1. SISTEM TENAGA ATP-PC Lactic Acid + Oxygen

2. OTOT UTAMA Gastrocnemius

Kekuatan otot
Daya tahan kardiovaskular

Latihan Jeda
Lat. Bebanan
4. KAEDAH LATIHAN Latihan Fartlek
Latihan LSD
Latihan Litar

40%- Larian biasa di ambang anaerobic 8-12km

20%- Speed endurance : ( 4 – 6 ulangan dengan 300 – 500m )
5. LATIHAN-LATIHAN KHUSUS ( keupayaan 90% )
20%- Latihan Jeda intensif
10%- Larian bukit ( 10-15 ulangan dgn. Jarak 100-300m )
10%- Fartlek ( 6- 8 km )

6. FASA-FASA LATIHAN, TEKNIK & - “On Your Marks” phase
KEMAHIRAN - “ Gun “ phase

Fasa “ Gun”
1. Berat badan ditumpukan ke depan pada bahagian kaki
FASA 2. Peningkatan larian dalam garisan lurus


( SJ 1162 )



2. OTOT UTAMA Gastrocnemius

Kekuatan otot
Daya tahan kardiovaskular

Latihan Jeda
Lat. Bebanan
4. KAEDAH LATIHAN Latihan Fartlek
Latihan LSD
Latihan Litar

40%- Larian biasa di ambang anaerobic 8-12km

20%- Speed endurance : ( 4 – 6 ulangan dengan 300 – 500m )
5. LATIHAN-LATIHAN KHUSUS ( keupayaan 90% )
20%- Latihan Jeda intensif
10%- Larian bukit ( 10-15 ulangan dgn. Jarak 100-300m )
10%- Fartlek ( 6- 8 km )

6. FASA-FASA LATIHAN, TEKNIK & - “On Your Marks” phase
- “ Gun “ phase

Fasa “On Your Marks” phase / “Ke Garisan”

1. Kaki kanan diletakkan belakang garisan mula dan kaki
7. ANSUR MAJU PENGAJARAN SETIAP kiri kira-kira seluas bahu ke belakang. Berat badan pada
FASA kaki kanan. Cuba tukarkan kaki kiri pula ke depan &
tentukan posisi yang paling selesa dan terkuat.
2. Kedudukan tangan dalam keadaan ‘synchronise’ dengan
kedudukan kaki kanan ke depan, tangan kiri ke depan atau

Coaching Resource for Developing Athletes
Training Ideas
800m to Cross Country
for the Developing Athlete.
by Steve Bennett
B.Sc (Physiology) ATFCA Level II

* It is much more important to improve balance, posture and stability of the trunk than it
is to improve leg or arm strength. To generate high levels of acceleration and speed requires a
trunk that can transfer the force. Almost everyone has a standing body alignment that is not
ideal and also have an inadequate ability to maintain good body position ie Trunk stability.

* Distance athletes should aim to develop the ability to relax when running at race pace.
The focus should be on running quietly over the ground and with minimal effort from the
upper body.

* Fingers should be relaxed and elbows should be held close to the body and swing behind the
plane of the body. (This may require improved shoulder flexibility in some athletes)

* The shoulder girdle should be loose and allowed to bounce not be held down in a fixed

* The athlete should not try to lean forward ( a very slight lean in fine.)

* Arms should be held with relaxed and the main focus of effort should be a downward &
backward stroke. They should also not move very far forward from the body (as this causes
athletes to overstride late in the race)

The 800m event needs special training at the 800m race speed. The ability to relax and use
little energy is important at race pace.

Some sessions to improve performance in the 800m are:

A/ 10 x Flying 100m at 400m race pace rests 3min
B/ 2 sets of 4 runs over 200m at slightly quicker than 800m race pace with rests 90s and
4min between sets.
.C/ 3 x 400 at 800m race pace rest 10min

800m athletes should also complete much of the endurance training suggestions that follows
later in this article. They do not need to do as much steady running as the longer distance
athletes but more of the time they spend each week should be on sprinting and race pace

It is important to have good foot function and for this reason it is useful for athletes to spend
as much time as possible barefoot. Walking on sand is very good. (Running on it is not
recommended). Training should be conducted in very light simple shoes. Simple lighter
more flexible shoes called Racing flats from the Runners Shop are much better than joggers
for training in. Some coaches worldwide have reported an increase in the frequency of
injuries in athletes with ultra supportive “high tech” shoes this has been suggested to be
because these shoes gradually allow feet to become less functional.

In Cold weather athletes must warm-up carefully and keep warm. Tights are great for training
in as they maintain warmth during the frequent recoveries. Keeping warm immediately after
training is one of the secrets of avoiding being sick less often in the winter months.

Training for endurance needs to consist of 3 to 10 steady runs during each main training
week. These should be of similar duration and involve starting off slow and gradually running
faster ( the speed depends on how you feel on the day). Start at 20min and buildup slowly as
the athlete matures to 30min and then later 40min. Aim to run on all kinds of surfaces with a
high percentage on trails and grass. Make sure there is some running on harder surfaces as
well as this will prevent problems caused by racing on hard tracks and roads when it happens.
Complete some race pace strides over 60m during or near the end of most steady runs. eg An
800m athlete could do 5 x flying start 60m runs at about 800m race pace with a comfortable
recovery. The focus on these is on relaxation at race pace.

Each week should include about 2-4 sessions that are not steady runs. These sessions can
include any of the following:
-Races (not too often)
-Long bushwalks
-Sprint Training
-Tempo Sessions eg
1/ Race pace practise not high stress eg 6 x 200 at 1500m race pace with comfortable rest in
2/ 4 sets of 5 flying 60m runs at 400-800m pace very relaxed. Rests 2min between and 5min
between sets (activity with medicine ball)

-Aerobic Power Sessions eg.

1/ 2 sets of 6 runs over 200m at Cross Country Race pace rest 30s between each run and
4min between sets.
2/ 2-3 sets of 3 runs over 300m at Cross Country Pace rests 45s walk/jog 100m and 4min
between sets.
3/ 3 x 1000m at about 3km to Cross Country race pace rests 8min
4/ (Advanced) 2 x 1500m at slightly slower than 1500m race pace rests 20min

The Middle Distance Running Training Page

The middle distances for Athletics (Track and

Field in the US) are among the more challenging
to prepare for racing. Unfortunately, information
on how to train for these races is often presented
in bits and pieces. At the most, the information
presented will focus on running and give cursory
mention or even ignore other complementary
areas such as strength training and nutrition.

Often subjects with much relevance to answering

basic questions of training, i.e. exercise
physiology, are ignored. This does not recognize
the holistic and complementary nature of the
training needed to fulfill a runner's potential.

This is frustrating those who wish learn and practice a more comprehensive method of
training. I have created this page for those who wish to gain a basic understanding of what it
take to train for the racing distances of 800m to 5000m. While not intended to be an all
encompassing source, the information in these pages will give you a start and a good
background in understanding what it take to train for these races.

Here you will find the information that I have piece together from my 15 years of
involvement in the sport. The information that is contained in these pages are from my
readings and studying of different written information (books, articles, and web pages)
conversations with coaches, and experience training and racing these distances.

This page is my way of giving back to the sport that has given me so may wonderful
experiences and life lessons. This media provides the most efficient means with sharing my
training philosophies and theories with those who are interested in creating a training program
for improving their performance over these racing distances.

I hope you find this useful in your quest for a faster time.

The following are areas that a runner would need to learn, develop, improve or maintain to be
successful in achieving their goals. They are:
1. Nutrition

Definition of terms; Determining your caloric needs; Weight Gain/Loss;

Supplementation (e.g. vitamins and minerals, creatine monohydrate, HMB, etc.); Diet
theories; Designing a diet;

2. Running Physiology

Definition of terms; Understanding the metabolic energy systems; Understanding

Heart Rate and its training uses; Treadmill test;

3. Training Terms and Strategies

Basic training terms, workouts and their uses;

4. Goal Setting and Periodization

How to set and define proper goals; Basics and terms of periodization; Designing a
comprehensive training schedule

5. Strength and Conditioning Training for Track Athletes

Weight lifting basics;Stretching; Plyometrics

Under these subjects you will find a good bit of the information that you will need to
construct a training paradigm.

Indeed, you will create a new paradigm, a new perspective or way of thinking, for
yourself. Think of it this way. If you apply the information in this page, you will have to
change your lifestyle. Make no mistake, you will need to alter the way that you live you life,
not by much, but you will need to change. But the sacrifice that you give, you will receive in
fulfilling your potential.