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Tile-Stamps of the Ninth Legion Found in Britain

Author(s): R. P. Wright
Source: Britannia, Vol. 9 (1978), pp. 379-382
Published by: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies
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Tile-Stampsof the Ninth Legionfoundin Britain


By R. P. WRIGHT

HIS analysis'of the stampsof LegioIX

(or VIIII) Hispana found at Lincoln,


Templeborough, Old Winteringham
(Lincs), Malton, Aldboroughand mainly York,
or at Carlisleand its legionarytilery at Scales-

ceughformsa sequelto the presentwriter's

articlein Britanniavii (1976), 224-35 on 'TileStampsof the Sixth Legionfoundin Britain'.It


has been basedon rubbingsand squeezesmade
from the originals.Much of the earlierbibliographyhas been omittedbecausestampswhen

publishedmerelyin printedcapitalscannotbe
identifiedwith specificdies. The die used for

knownfromLincoln(Lindum)
the oneexample2
seemsto havebeentakennorthfor use among
othersat oneof thetileries,on sitesnotyetlocated, which suppliedYork(Eboracum).The rare
examplesfromAldborough(IsuriumBrigantum),
the capitalof the cantonfifteenmiles north-west
of York,matchtwo of the dies fromYork.But in
contrastone example,Type i, assigned3with
probabilityto Aldborough,has no parallel.The

hasproduced
outlyingpostatMalton(Derventio)
two dies4unmatchedelsewhere,even at York.
To the west of the Penninestiles of the Ninth
Legionhavebeenfoundin Carlisle(Luguvalium)
and at the legionarytilery at Scalesceugh,five
miles south-eastof Carlislebeside the Roman
roadto Old Penrith(Voreda).The evidencefor
the tilery5andpotterycomesmainlyfromchance
discoveriesin buildinganddrainingoperationsin
1915 and

Stamps of the Twentieth Legion

have beenI92i.
found, one from Scalesceughcited in
1Acknowledgement
is here paid to the museum
officialsand directorsof excavationswho have sent
the writersqueezesandrubbingsor madetheirmaterial
availablein the last three decades.It seems fair to
of I967mentionthe largegroupfromthe excavations
72 underYorkMinster,madeavailablein 1967by Mr

H. G. Ramm and thereafterby Mr A. D. Phillips and


worked on by Miss L. G. Whalley. Secondly by leave
of Mr P. V. Addyman, Mr J. A. Spriggs worked over
the materialfrom York ArchaeologicalTrust. Mr L. P.
Wenhamsent informationand materialfrom his various
excavations.
' Type 6 (below). For the transfer from Exeter to
Caerleonof a mould for antefixesfor use in a legionary
tilery see Bidwell and Boon, Britanniavii (1976), 279.
For debris dumped from tile kilns of LEGIX HISP east

of the north-east angle of the Fortress at York see


Addyman, Antiq. 7ourn. liv (I974), 213, 215, fig. 9.3.
of Leeds in
3 The Philosophicaland Literary Society
Museum.
to
Leeds
collections
its
City
transferred
192I
These included three stampedtiles from Slack and two
Ninth Legion items, namely a brick of Type 1o, already
known at Aldborough, and a tegula, Type I. As the
Accession Books were lost in war-damagein 1941, the
provenanceof the legionary stamps remains uncertain,
but has been assumed by the Museum officials to be
Aldborough as the Leeds Philosophical and Literary
Society 37th Report, 1856-57, 23 records a gift by
James Wardell of 'several fragments of pottery and
other remains from Aldborough'.
' Corder, Defences of the Roman fort at Malton
(Leeds 1929), 37, 39, fig. 7 No. 14. Type 15, with
carefully mitred corners, comes from two fragmentary
bricks which differ from Type 14, despite the connection made in Corder'sfigure.
SHaverfield, Cumb. and Westm. 2nd ser. xvi (1916),
282, Hope ibid., 289, xxii (1922), 456 amending to
Ninth Legion. Presumably the Ninth Legion which
stamped two of the bricks also made the roofing tiles
and water pipes which were found. In addition part of
a brick [LEG]XXVV with the small Vs superimposed,
unmatched at Chester (Deva) or its tilery at Holt, a
definite waster from a kiln, indicates activity, which
need not have been contemporary,by this other legion.
Many sherds of miscellaneous pottery were found
and in 1961 Mr R. L. Bellhouse tested the area by a
series of trial pits from which he secured wasters of
tegulae, imbrices and voussoirs, and also a water pipe
and parts of twelve pottery vessels (Cumb. and Westm.
2nd ser. lxxi (1971), 35). In 1970-71 Mr G. G. S.
Richardson excavated a pottery kiln and from a magnetometer survey estimated that the site has substantial remains of at least twenty-five kilns (ibid. lxiii
(1973), 79 ff.).

379

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R. P. WRIGHT

380

4LE

11

.ECIXHISP

S
12L

II3

ISP)H
14

iI.FI5(,HIU
15

8
FIG.

I. Tile-stamps of Legion IX Hispana. Scale, 2: 5.

the note and two others6 from Carlisle. One of


these seemed to belong to a tile tomb which included six tegulae of the Second Legion with a
stamp unmatchedat Caerleon.But these products
need not be contemporarywith those of the Ninth,
and probably mark the presence of these two
legions for building Hadrian's Wall. Mr B. R.
Hartley7records the drop in the stamped samian
at York from about A.D. I0o and, to account for
legionary tiling at Scalesceugh, suggests that a
substantialportion of the Ninth Legion may have
been stationed in or near Carlisle, perhaps as a
key post when the Trajanic frontier was established along the Stanegate.From the three Types
(3-5) found in the Carlisle area the complete
example, LEG VIIII H, has the numeralexpres-

sed by addition, not subtraction.Its discovery in


1921 enabled Hope8 to assign Types 3 and 4 to
the Ninth and not to the Sixth, thus simplifying
the legions to be accountedfor. On the analogyof
the mortarium stamp from de Holdeurn, to be
oPart of a tegula found in 1953 in the River Eden
opposite Stanwix (Petriana) (JRS xliv (1954), 1o9, No.
32). Tegula (EE x, 1271c) found in 1894 in Brook

Street, Carlisle, forming a tile tomb with six tegulae


stamped LIIG II

VG (EE ix, 1268b; Ferguson PSA

2nd ser. xv (1894), 261, Cumb. and Westm. Ist ser.


xiii (1895), 25I).

'Hartley, in R. M. Butler (ed.), Soldier and civilian

in Roman Yorkshire (Leicester, 1971), 6o-6r.

8L. E. Hope, then Curator of Carlisle Museum

(Cumb. and Westm. 2nd ser. xxii (1922), 457), emended EE ix 1269 (Type 4), and Cumb. and Westm. 2nd
ser. xvi (I916), 282, 290 (Type 3).

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STAMPS

OF THE NINTH

described below, it seems very probable that the


tegula of Type I, probably from Aldborough,
should be restored as the Ninth Legion. A similar restoration should fit the imbrex of Type 2
from York Minster. If this be accepted it seems
that the Scalesceugh practice of expressing the
numeralby addition was also adopted at the tilery
which supplied York and Aldborough.
When Legio VI Victrix was moved to York in,
or shortly before, 122 it seems likely that the
Ninth was transferred to Nijmegen (Noviomagus). Professor J. E. Bogaers9in 1964 at the
Sixth InternationalLimeskongressdescribed two
recent discoverieswhich seem to indicate that the
Ninth Legion was quarteredat Nijmegen in that
decade. Part of a tegula, LEG VIIII[ with some
abbreviationof Hispana],had been found in 1959
on the surface above the level of occupation left
by Legio X Gemina on the legionary site at Nijmegen. Secondly in 1962 his attention was drawn
to the rim of a mortarium, then unpublished,
found in 1938 in only a partial excavation of the
km
industrial site at de Holdeurn, Groesbeek,
4"5
south-east of Nijmegen, stamped L(reversed)G
VIIII HIS. Both discoveries indicate officialproducts for the legion'0 as a whole, or a substantial
proportionof it.
CONSPECTUS OF TYPES
ABBREVIATIONSAND REFERENCES

CIL:

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.

EE:
YRS:

EphemerisEpigraphica.
Journalof RomanStudies,quotedbrieflyby
volume,pageand item number.
RCHM: RoyalCommission
on HistoricalMonuments,
Eburacum(1962), fig. 8o (assigningnumbers I, 2 fromthe left on the too line).
VCH: VictoriaCountyHistory.
Journal.
YAY: YorkshireArchaeological
Y Min.: objects stored by the York Minster Archaeological Unit.

Y Mus.: YorkchireMuseum,York. Seven tile-tombs


on displayin lowerroomof the Hospitium
(herequotedas I-VII fromwest to east as
set out in November,i955).
YT:

objects stored by the York Archaeological


Trust.

Types
I. Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society,
37th Report 1856-7 (1857), 23 (1 tegula, in
Leeds City Mus., see note 3 (above)).

2.

LEGION

381

Y Min. (fragmentof imbrex found in 1967:


H. G. Ramm sent squeeze and rubbing to

R.P.W.).
3. Scalesceugh (brick found in 1915, now in

Carlisle Mus. May and Hope, Cumb. and

Westm. 2nd ser. xvii (1917), 196, pl. XVIII,2).

4. Carlisle (tegula (with letter N, 80 mm high,


traced by a finger above the stamp);found in
1892 on the site of Tullie House) in Carlisle
Mus. EE ix, 1269, amended to Ninth Legion

by Hope, Cumb. and Westm. 2nd. ser. xxii


(1922), 457).
5. (a) Carlisle(fragmentof tegula found in I89o
on the site of the PresbyterianManse, Fisher
Street. Haverfield, Arch. 7ourn. xlix (1892),

I99 with pl.; Cumb. and Westm. Ist ser. xii


(I893), 280; EE ix, 1270).
(b) Scalesceugh(brickfound in 1921. Hope,
Cumb. and Westm. 2nd ser. xxii (1922), 456).
Both items in CarlisleMus.
6. York. Traced from RCHM, fig. 8o,I. No
example seen by R.P.W. (For the legend (i)
tegulae from tomb found in 1768. Burton,
Archaeologia ii (I773),

177,

pl. x, 3. (ii)

tegulae found in 1852 in Fetter Lane, York,


RCHM, 52a). EE iii, p. 142, gives an incomplete reading of Type Io (Hilly Wood,
Northants.).
7. (a) Lincoln (flat tile found c. I85o in Lincoln; bought from StamfordMus. in 19go for
Lincoln Mus.).
(b) Old Winteringham, Lincs. (7RS lix
(I969), 242, No. 35. Wright, in I. M. Stead

(ed.), Excavations...
(1976),

in North Lincolnshire

190, fig. 94,I; now in Department of

the Environment).
(c) York. Tolson Memorial Mus., Huddersfield (i brick; i tegula, though possibly from
Slack).
9Bogaers to R.P.W., 28 July 1962; Numaga xii
(1965), io ff.; Bonner Jahrbiicher,Beiheft 19, Studien
zu den MilitiirgrenzenRoms (K61n, 1967), (for tegula)
63, fig. 5, Taf. 5,3, (for mortarium)64, fig. 6, Taf. 5,4;
Frere, Britannia (1967), 139; Bogaers und Ruger, Die
niedergermanische Limes (K61n, 1974), IS, 78.

10The date at which the Ninth Legion ceased to


occupy Nijmegen has not yet been established.Professor E. Birley in R. M. Butler (ed.), Soldier and civilian
in Roman Yorkshire(Leicester, 1971), 74 ff., discusses
the evidence for furtherstages in this legion's existence.

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R. P. WRIGHT

382

MortimerMus.,Hull(i brick;I tegula(alternativelyfromAldborough),


NewcastleMus. Ant. (I tegula).
SheffieldCityMus. (i brickfoundin 1845in
Railway;i
cuttingthe Yorkto Scarborough
brick,I tegula).
Y Mus (4 bricks.i tegulafromTile-tombI,
i tegulafoundin 1961in Vicaragegardenof
St MaryBishophillJunior,7RS Iii, 197, No.
38, thirdexample.
MailCoachInn, St Sampson'sSquare(i flat
tile, 3 voussoirsfoundin 1931,recordedthere
in 1941by R.P.W.Corder,Yorks.Archit.&
YorkArch.Soc. Proc.i (1933),15, 21, fig. 7,
No. 28; YRSxxiii, 214, No. 9).
Mr L. R, A. Grove(in 1940; in 1976 Curator
of MaidstoneMus.)(brickfragmentfoundin
1938 at Mount Vale, York.YRS xxx, 187,
No. I8. YA7 xxxv, 8i).
HistoryDept. of College of Ripon and St
John,Gray'sCourt,ChapterHouseStreet(2
tegulae found in 1962 near junction of
BishophillJuniorand ProspectTerrace,JRS
liii, 164, No. 31 (b) (c)).
Y Min. (4 tegulae).
YT (6 tegulae).
8. York (Y Mus. I tegula,Y Min. I imbrex,
YT I tegula).
9. York(Y Mus. I tegula; I tegulafound in
1961in Vicaragegardenof St MaryBishophillJunior,YRSlii, I97, No. 38, firstexample.
YT i imbrex,I tegula).
Io. (a) Aldborough(i brick,H. E. Smith,Rel.
Isur., pl. xxvuiI, io, R.P.W. 1952; I brick,
LeedsCity Mus. (see note 3 for assigningit
to this site).
(b) Hilly Wood,Ashton,Northants(i voussoir, PeterboroughMus., Trollope, Assoc.
Archit. Soc. Rep. ix (1867), 156. Watkin,
Arch.7ourn.(1874),356. EE iii,p. 142 (each
with HIS incomplete).VCH Northantsi,
214).

(c) Templeb(o)rough(x brick, Rotherham


Museum, May, Templebrough,123, pl.
M).
XXXVII

(0 York.BritishMus. tegula).
(d)
CambridgeArch.& Ethn.Mus. (Braybrooke
Coll.,2 bricks;RansomColl., I brick).

Cardiff,Nat. Mus. Wales(i tegula).


Chester,GrosvenorMus. (tile, Cat, st ed.

No.213).

SheffieldCityMus. (i imbrexfoundin 1845


in cuttingthe Yorkto Scarborough
Railway).
Y Mus.(i imbrex,I tegula(TombI), I voussoir (matchingHilly Wood)(Tomb IV) with
box at end, foundin 1874 in the
rectangular
Railwayexcavations,I tegula (availablein
i94o). I tegulafound in i96I in Vicarage
gardenof St MaryBishophillJunior,YRS ii,
197,No. 38, secondexample.
Gray'sCourt(see Type 7) (i brickfoundin
1962 nearjunctionof BishophillJuniorand
ProspectTerrace,YRSliii, 164, No. 31 (a)).
Y Min. (I imbrex,12 tegulae).
YT (2 tegulae).
i i. (a)Aldborough
(i imbrex,MayerColl.,Liverpool Mus.)
(b) York(Y Mus. I brick,2 tegulae.Y Min.
I tegula.YT 2 imbrices,2 others).
12. York (Mr L. P. Wenham,4 Abbey Street,
Clifton,York: 2 tegulaefoundin 197i outside FortressIntervalTower N.E.6, Britannia iii, 36I, No. 55 (b) (c)).
13. York(I tegula,J. CookColl., SheffieldCity
Mus.).
14. Malton (I tegula, Malton Mus. Corder, De-

fences of the Roman fort at Malton (Leeds,


1929), 37, 39, fig. 7,14).

I5. Malton(2 bricks,MaltonMus.Corder,ibid.).

For a supposedLEG IX VIC bricksee note.'


5 VictoriaTerrace,Durham

11 Thoresby

stated that a brick reading

LEG-IX.VIC
2195,
had been found in York (Phil. Trans. xxv (1706),
Ducatus Leodiensis (1715), 562), repeated by Drake,
Eboracum(1736), 58, pl. viii, 7, and Stukeley,Memoirs
iii 379 (26 June 174o). But Kenrick, Historical notices
of Ninth & Sixth Legions (York, 1867), Io, questioned
the reading; Huebner, CIL vii, I224e regarded vic as

an error for HISP,and HaverfieldEE vii 1123 rejected


Stukeley. Ramm, Yorks. Archit. & York Arch. Soc.
Report 1953-54, 47, n. 75, suggests that in a stamp
of LEG VI VIC the numeral might have been inverted

andtransposed.

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