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University of Bordeaux

IMSAT option

INTERNSHIP REPORT :

EDISON Electronics,
a design and assembly company of printed
circuit boards
Gemma PRIETO AGUILAR
14 February 2015

Name of university tutor: Christophe Farges


Name of organism tutor: ngel Martnez Cereza

Acknowledgements
All the special thanks goes out to my Edison colleagues, whose courage,
smiles, laughs and advice have been the greatest values and lessons I took
from this company.

Contents
1 Introduction

2 EDISON Electronics...
2.1 ... a family business. . . . . . . . . .
2.2 ... a company focused on SMD. . . .
2.2.1 What is SMD? . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 PCB, the base of an electronic
2.2.3 Design and assembly stages .

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circuit
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3 Apprentice in Edison
3.1 Assembly stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 Welding task . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 Attach task . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Programming stage . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Microcontroller programming task
3.2.2 Recording task . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Test stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Test procedure . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Repairing task . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Programming a microcontroller
4.1 Context . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Whats SCI? . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Project objective . . . .
4.2 Programming with CodeWarrior
4.2.1 Registers . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 Programme created . . .
4.2.3 Hyperterminal . . . . . .
4.3 A Visual Basic Interface . . . .
5 Conclusion

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List of Tables
2.1

A PCB example with n layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

List of Figures
2.1
2.2

Surface-mount components on a USB flash drives circuit board.


A diagram showing how a through-hole mounted component
is inserted into a PCB prior to soldering. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 This electronic circuit contains, mostly, SMD components:
resistors, transistors... but also some THT components: a
(brown) transformer, a (blue) capacitor or the (white) plugs. .
2.4 (a) Soldermask and (b) Silkscreen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 SMD and tru-hole pads. Components IC1 and R1 contains
8 and 2 SMD pads respectively, Q1 and PW 3 tru-hole pads
each one. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 Schema showing a PCB with 2 (left) and 6 internal layers
(right), alternated with the B stage and a non-conductive
material, epoxy glass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Double-sided PCB with and without PTH . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 Current process in PCB design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9 PCB schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10 PCB layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11 One of the two Edisons pick and place machines . . . . . . . .
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

Tin crossing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weldering steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apprentice assembling components . . . .
A Freescale recorder programming a PCB
A PCB passing a test procedure . . . . . .

4.1
4.2
4.3

MC9S08SH32 of freescale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hyperterminal returns 1 when Switch 1 is pressed.
Hyperterminal returns a ASCII value every time the
A/D converter is moved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interface with an open failure of serial port . . . . .

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Chapter 1
Introduction
As part of my formation in GSAT, I have had the opportunity to do an
internship, in a company called Edison Electronics in Barcelona. The
internship duration was of 10 weeks in which the company proposed to me
the following objectives and tasks:
1. Learn the different electronic components used in a printed circuit
board (PCB)
2. Learn to assembly these components
3. Testing and repairing PCBs.
4. Observe and assist in the design of a PCB
5. Visual verification of PCBs
From all these objectives, I expected to consolidate a good base in electronic
circuits and be able to apprehend electronics components unknown to me.
In this report, first, I will present you this company and the context of
a electronic business, then the different activities I have done like apprentice
in Edison, and finally a conclusion.

Chapter 2
EDISON Electronics...
2.1

... a family business.

Edison Electronics is a printed circuit board company set up in 1995 in


Badalona (Barcelona) by an electronic engineer, ngel Martnez Cereza. In
the last 20 years, this Catalan engineer has counted on the help of his wife,
and later on his two new graduate electronic engineer sons. Currently, this
business is composed of 5 family members and 4 operators. Since its foundation, Edison has specialized on design, assembly, start-up and maintenance
of printed circuit boards (PCB).

2.2
2.2.1

... a company focused on SMD.


What is SMD?

Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic


circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the
surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). An electronic device so made
6

Figure 2.1: Surface-mount components on a USB flash drives circuit board.

is called a surface-mount device (SMD).In the industry it has largely


replaced the through-hole technology (THT) construction method of
fitting components with wire leads into holes in the circuit board, as shows
Figure 2.2.
Both technologies can be used on the same board for components not
suited to surface mounting such as large transformers and heat-sinked power
semiconductors.
Although both technologies, SMT and THT, have their own advantages,
the SMT has very interesting advantages compared with THT: Smaller components, lower initial cost and time of setting up for production, simpler and
faster automated assembly, better mechanical performance under shake and
vibration conditions, etc. But also some disadvantages: manual prototypes
and reparations are expensive and difficult, etc.
After presenting the two main types of components used in electronic
companies like EDISON, it is essential to mention the different phases which
are necessary to obtain our electronic circuit.
But first, lets talk about another indispensable component: the printed
circuit board (PCB).

Figure 2.2: A diagram showing how a through-hole mounted component is


inserted into a PCB prior to soldering.

Figure 2.3: This electronic circuit contains, mostly, SMD components: resistors, transistors... but also some THT components: a (brown) transformer,
a (blue) capacitor or the (white) plugs.

Layer Position
1
2
3
4
5
6
...
n
n+1
n+2
n+3

Layer description
Top silkscreen/overlay
Top soldermask
Top paste mask
Layer 1
Substrate
Layer 2
...
Layer n
Bottom paste mask
Bottom solder mask
Bottom silkscreen/overlay

Table 2.1: A PCB example with n layers.

2.2.2

PCB, the base of an electronic circuit

A definition of PCB could be: Non-conductive substrate board which is used


like mechanical support to electrically interconnect electronic components,
through paths and tracks of a conductive material (copper) etched onto this
non-conductive substrate".
Components of a PCB are, so:
1. A board, made of a non-conductive material, and
2. Conductive tracks, pads, and others features etched from copper
sheets laminated onto this board.
Nowadays, PCBs classification is based on number and type of layers
(stuckup), and connexion type between layers.
We could start by listing layers depending if these are conductive or not.
In order to understand this, lets consider the PCB example of the Table 2.1.
The different layers we could find are:
1. Top Silkscreen/overlay : Its the layer printed over the "Soldermask" and which contains information leading to facilitate the assembly
work and subsequent verification, as for example, component position,
9

Figure 2.4: (a) Soldermask and (b) Silkscreen

orientation and reference, or other kind of information like product and


company name (Figure 2.4).
2. Top soldermask : Assembly process require use of welding to fix
components to the board. To prevent welding accidents such as shortcircuits of two different nodes tracks, a soldermask is used. This soldermask is a varnish applied to PCB which, usually, is green, but also
red or blue (Figure 2.4).
3. Top paste mask : This layer is formed by pads and tracks.
(a) A pad is a cooper surface on a PCB allowing welding components
to the board. There are two types of pads: thru-hole and SMD
(surface mount) (Figure 2.5).
i. The thru-hole pads are designed to introduce the pin of the
component and then weld it on the opposite side which was
introduced. This type of pads is very similar to a thru-hole
via.
ii. The smd pads are designed for surface mounting, ie weld component on the same side of the board where it was placed.
(b) A track is a copper conductive path for connecting a pad (where
lies the pin or terminal of a component) to another pad. The
tracks may be of different width depending on the currents flowing
through them (Figure 2.4).
10

Figure 2.5: SMD and tru-hole pads. Components IC1 and R1 contains 8 and
2 SMD pads respectively, Q1 and PW 3 tru-hole pads each one.

Figure 2.6: Schema showing a PCB with 2 (left) and 6 internal layers (right),
alternated with the B stage and a non-conductive material, epoxy glass.

4. Internal layers : Some PCBs contains internal layers (etched cooper)


alternated with finest substrate sheets and layers of insulating material
known as prepreg (or B stage). These sheets are pressed together
to form a kind of PCBs called "multi-layers PCB". Multi-layer PCB
has facilitated downsizing, weight and volume of systems by allowing in
higher packing density and interconnection. Figure 2.6 shows a schema
of two multi-layer PCBs.
Its very important to clarify multi-layers PCB are not always used. PCBs
without internal layers are still used. Actually, we can explain them by
making a PCB classification based on components interconnection.
1. Single-sided Printed Circuit Boards : Interconnection of elements
is done by the solder side, components are placed on the other side of
the substrate.
2. Double-sided Printed Circuit Boards : Interconnection of ele11

Figure 2.7: Double-sided PCB with and without PTH

ments is done by both faces of substrate. Generally, a face is for welding and the other one for components. Double-sided PCB can be with
and without PTH (Figure 2.7).
PTH means plated through-hole connection, and its also used in
multi-layer PCBs. PTH allows interconnect 2 layers by metallizing
the walls of holes in the substrate.

2.2.3

Design and assembly stages

Since a costumer express a bill specifications to a electronic company like


Edison, until this customer receive their electronic circuits, a number of
stages must be completed.
Design stage
Design is one of the most complicated and expensive phases, which requires
the work of engineers. Unfortunately, I didnt get to see design stage in
Edison Electronics, but I will present, succinctly, how this stage develops.
CAD tools (Computer Aided Design) are used in all design stage, and
not just in creation of circuit schemas. CAD tools allow users to simulate

12

Figure 2.8: Current process in PCB design

product functioning without needing to assembly it; with this lowering final
cost.
Figure 2.8 shows all design process, since pattern is not ended until a
prototype works.
1. Library components : Before creating a schematic and PCB layout
its necessary to ensure that all components stored in a library with
their schema and footprint. If not, it would be necessary to create
a library and make symbol and footprint design of each component
missing.
2. Schematic design : It is the process of description in which bill specifications are translated into a schema of electrical components (from
libraries) and their interconnections (Figure 2.9).
3. Layout design : A Layout (Figure 2.10) is a drawing where electronic
components appears with their respective footprints in the positions
they will occupy in the final PCB, and with interconnection between
component pins (routing).
4. Gerbers generation : Information is sent to PCB manufacturer in a
special files named Gerbers. Its a format file which contains geometric
information of different layers of PCB.

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Figure 2.9: PCB schema

Figure 2.10: PCB layout

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CAD tools contains controllers called ERC (Electric Rules Chek) and
DRC (Design Rule Check). These controllers can detect potential design
errors.
After a simulation of our PCB, a prototype is done and tested. If no error
is detected, product manufacturing can start.
Manufacturing stage
In Edison Electronics, PCB manufacturing is subcontracted to another
company. After engineers sent Gerbers files to this company, PCBs arrive
ready to be assembly.
Assembly stage
Once PCBs arrive at Edison, these are ready to be assembled.
1. Through hole assembly : This process can be manual or automatic.
Components assembly is done inserting their pins through PADs, and
then fixing them, electrically and mechanically, to PCBs with welding.
This technique usually requires manual welding components, since it is
difficult to automate process of inserting components. However, a machine called Wave Solder is often used to reduce welding time process.
2. SMD assembly : This technique is used especially in automated process through pick and place systems.
First of all, PCBs must pass by a solder paste printer. This has 2 basic
functions: to facilitate SMD soldering, and to make a interconnection
of holes and tracks of different layers.
After that, PCBs are introduced in a pick and place system, which
automatically take components from their packing and placed in programmed coordinates (Figure 2.11).
Finally, PCBs are introduced in a SMD oven where components are
fixed.

15

Figure 2.11: One of the two Edisons pick and place machines

Generally, PCBs are composed of both components, Through hole and


SMD. The order assembly is as follows: First, a PCB is inserted in a solder
paste printer, after SMD is assembled in a pick and place machine, and
fixed in a SMD oven. At this moment, these are revised to solve frequently
problems like crossing weldings. If the PCB is a Double-sided board, then this
process is repeated twice. Through hole assembly starts here: first inserted,
then fixed by a wave solder, and finally revised.
Programming stage
Some PCBs may contain microcontrollers to reduce the number of logic gates
that a circuit contains. Indeed, these little components are capable to surpass
the number of functions for which hundreds of logic gates would be necessaries. To define these functions, it is needed to programme different registers
with an IDE (integrated development environment), like CodeWarrior.

16

Test stage
Lastly, all PCBs must be tested following a procedure created by engineers.
This allows to verify hardware and software are correctly installed, and ready
to be used by customers.

17

Chapter 3
Apprentice in Edison
After explaining the different stages which are necessaries to make a PCB, I
will present the different activities in which I have participated.

3.1
3.1.1

Assembly stage
Welding task

In the preceding chapter, I have explained how it is carried out this stage:
first components are assembled, then fixed in a oven. Then, a verification
test of components is done.
In the case of verification test of SMD components, operators verify if
components are correctly fixed, if there are missing components, or tin crossings. To re-fix a SMD component it is necessary the use of a soldering heat
gun. Due to difficulty of using this heat gun, apprentices we were not allowed
to use it.
In the case of verification test of trough hole components, apprentices
used to verify if there were any tin crossings, but also if these were correctly
fixed. In some occasions, I could participate in this stage that allowed me to
learn soldering.
This task consisted, basically, to melt tin crossing like shown in Figure
3.1 and fix manually components. For that, a solder and some solder wire (a
mixture of tin/lead) are necessaries. Welding steps are schematized in Figure

18

Figure 3.1: Tin crossing

Figure 3.2: Weldering steps

3.2.

3.1.2

Attach task

Before through hole components are fixed by a wave solder, these must be attached manually into a PCB. Engineers who design a PCB model, also create
a document called "components list" where type and location of components
of PCB are specified. With this list apprentices are capable to place them,
but usually a sample already attached was given to us. This task use to be
long and repetitive as some models of PCBs could be composed of series of
10 000 PCBs.

19

Figure 3.3: Apprentice assembling components

3.2
3.2.1

Programming stage
Microcontroller programming task

See chapter 4.

3.2.2

Recording task

Some PCBs contains microcontrollers. These are programmed by engineers


in a programming language that can be C, C++, java, VB, etc.
My task consisted in record these programmes using a recorder, that must
be of same brand of microcontrollers (for example, freescale). Basically, PCBs
needing to be recorded have a connector in which one the recorder can be
attached. The recorder is automatic, and at the end, a message of success in
recorders screen confirms recording process has finished (Figure 3.4).

20

Figure 3.4: A Freescale recorder programming a PCB

3.3
3.3.1

Test stage
Test procedure

Once PCB has been programmed, a test must be done to verify hardware
and software work. At the end of PCB design, engineers create a procedure
called Test procedure in which a list of tests must be done in order to verify
different sectors of the circuit correctly work.
1. If all the tests are successfully passed, a label is stuck onto the PCB,
and separated to, afterwards, be packed and sent to customer.
2. If one of the tests are not passed, the PCB is separated to, later, identify
the error(s) and to be repaired.
Complexity of these tests depend on the PCB model. Some of these tests
were very repetitive, whereas others, more interesting, needed of the use of a
oscilloscope, since I needed to measure volts and frequency of received signals
(Figure 3.5).

21

Figure 3.5: A PCB passing a test procedure

3.3.2

Repairing task

Depending on the PCB model, error rate may be high. When a PCB must
be repaired, schemas created by engineers are needed (Figure 2.9). With
these schemas and the error generated by PCB, an engineer with enough
experience may detect quickly failing component(s).
A lot of components and their function were unknown for me, so to repair
failing PCB, I used to take a PCB correctly working and measure values I
should, supposedly, obtain.
Most of time, errors were generated because of components placed incorrectly, bad welding or, simply, faulted components.

22

Chapter 4
Programming a microcontroller
After some weeks of work for Edison, I asked my tutor to assign me a
project related with my speciality: ISEE (Engineering of embedded electronic
systems). My tutor proposed me some projects, and at the end, the following
was the only one which lead to some new learnings.

4.1

Context

MC9S08SH32 is a 8-bit microcontroller with multiple peripherals like SPI


(Serial Peripheral Interface), Analog-to Digital converter, or SCI (Serial Communication Interface).

Figure 4.1: MC9S08SH32 of freescale

23

4.1.1

Whats SCI?

A serial communications interface (SCI) is a device that enables the


serial (one bit at a time) exchange of data between a microprocessor and
peripherals such as printers, external drives, scanners, or mice. The term
SCI is sometimes used in reference to a serial port. This is a connector found
on most personal computers, and is intended for use with serial peripheral
devices.

4.1.2

Project objective

The objective were:


1. First to configure registers to enable communication between the serial port of the micro and a PC. Signals sent by the micro would be
generated by some switchers and an Analog-to Digital converter of the
micro. To configure these registers and to do a program (in language
C) which would interpret, for example, the touch of a switch. This
programme would be charged in the micro.
2. Finally, an interface created with Visual Basic would allow to show
these informations, received by the serial port.

4.2

Programming with CodeWarrior

CodeWarrior is an integrated development environment (IDE) for the creation of software that runs on a number of embedded systems.

4.2.1

Registers

CodeWarrior provides an option which creates automatically registers and


functions necessaries to work with any peripheral of any microcontroller of
Freescales family. From a viewpoint, this option can be very useful; but
keeping in mind that one of my objectives of this project was to learn to
configure registers, this has been more a hindrance than a help.
24

Libraries created
For each peripheral activated with this option, two documents were created:
a header file (.h), with prototypes of useful functions, and a code file (.c),
with the code of these functions. In this code file, a function of registers
initialization is included. Lets see an example:
v o i d AD1_Init ( v o i d )
{
OutFlg = FALSE ;
/ No measured v a l u e /
ModeFlg = STOP;
/ Device i s n t running
setReg8 (ADCSC2, 0 x00 ) ; / D i s a b l e HW t r i g g e r
setReg8 (ADCCFG, 0 x00 ) ; / S et p r e s c a l e r b i t s
setReg8 (ADCSC1, 0x1F ) ; / D i s a b l e t he module
}

/
and autocompare /
/
/

The function "setReg8" takes 2 parameters: Addressee and value of the


register.

4.2.2

Programme created

The C code I have created its quite simple and it contains no more than
20 lines of code. For each switch and for the A/D converter, a flag detects
a switch is pressed or the A/D value changed, an infinite boucle send this
value bye the serial port. Lets see an example of a switch:
i f ( (PTAD_PTAD2==0)&(flag_S1 ! = 1 ) ) {
flag_S1 =1;
( v o i d ) AS1_SendChar ( 1 ) ;
}else{
i f (PTAD_PTAD2==1){
flag_S1 =0;
}
}
If PTAD_PTAD2 is pressed (Switch 1 is connected to Port A, bite 3) and
the variable flag is not activated, then the flag is activated and the character
25

Figure 4.2: Hyperterminal returns 1 when Switch 1 is pressed.

1 is sent by the serial port.

4.2.3

Hyperterminal

Hyperterminal is an application of Windows that allows communication between 2 computers, or in my case, between a PC and a microcontroller. In
this phase of the project, I used this application to display the values that
the microcontroller sent me every time i pressed a switch or moved the A/D
converter (Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3).

4.3

A Visual Basic Interface

Visual Basic (VB) is a programming language developed by Microsoft for


their operating system Windows. The BASIC language is said to be easier
to read than other languages.
Unfortunately, I have never used this language and I have not had enough
time to work in this project, so I could not finished this objective of the
project.
The first idea was to create an interface which would simulate a cockpit
in which, for example, the A/D converter values, obtained by the serial port,
would simulate the radio broadcasting.

26

Figure 4.3: Hyperterminal returns a ASCII value every time the wheel of
A/D converter is moved

Figure 4.4: Interface with an open failure of serial port

27

Chapter 5
Conclusion
Throughout 10 weeks of internship in Edison Electronics, I have been
able to observe how this kind of company works. This internship has allowed
me to see the manufacturing process of PCBs.
However, I do not think having reached the goals I had set for myself
at the beginning of this internship ; moreover I acquired only partially the
knowledge that I think I could have obtained from this company.
Edison Electronics is a family business with 20-year experience, still
some problems of structuring and organisation were evident. For instance,
discussions about lost or poorly ordered material were frequent. I dont find
that the company employed my abilities, as an engineer student, but only as
an labourer.
For several reasons, I have not been tutored adequately by the person
who was in charge of me.
From a global point of view, the tasks I did in this company had no
educational interest.
Fortunately, I met wonderful people who gave me the motivation to continue, and also a lot of useful advice.

28

Bibliography
All information shown in Chapter 2, is extracted from the following websites:
Information about SMD and THT : http://goo.gl/DG5G5Z
Information about design stage : http://goo.gl/eXYJUa
Information about different layers of a PCB : http://goo.gl/qnoggN
Information about production stages : http://goo.gl/21DbDi

29

Rsum
Edison Electronics S.L est une organisation fonde en
1995 Badalona (Barcelona) et ddie la conception et lassemblage
de cartes lectroniques. Son travail stend lchelle nationale, la
plupart du temps avec les clients dans la communaut autonome
de Catalogne. Les cartes lectroniques, ou Printed Circuit Boards
(PCBs) en anglais, sont prsentes aujourdhui en tout systme
lectronique, et comprendre les tapes de fabrication et leur utilisation est de vital importance pour tout tudiant spcialis en
l?lectronique embarqu.
Abstract
Edison Electronics S.L is a company set up on 1995 in
Badalona (Barcelona), and dedicated to the design and assembly
of electronic cards. His work extends nationwide, mostly with
clients in the autonomous community of Catalonia. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are present today in any electronic system,
and understand the stages of manufacture and their use is vital
to any student specializing in embedded electronics.