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Department of Mechanical &

Manufacturing
Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, UPM

Course: Strength of Materials 1


Course Code: EMM 3108
Session: Semester 2 (2014/2015)
Report Title: Impact Test

Group Members:
Name
Matric No.
Muhammad Asyraf Bin Muhammad
180732
Rizal
Vinod Raj A/L Senivasagam
Muhammad
Kamaruddin

Redzuan

Signature

180720
Bin

180590

Date: 6/3/2015
Date Submitted: 13/3/2015
Lecturer Name: Dr. Che Nor Aiza Jaafar
Demonstrator Name: Riadatul Akmal Binti Mohamad Rushdi

Introduction
Impact test of metals provides information on failure mode under high velocity loading
conditions leading sudden fracture where a sharp stress raiser, notch is present. The energy
absorbed at fracture is generally related to the area under the stress-strain curve which is
termed as toughness in some references. [2] Brittle materials have a small area under the
stress-strain curve which is due to its limited toughness and as a result, little energy is
absorbed during impact failure. As plastic deformation capability of the materials or ductility
increases, the area under the curve also increases and absorbed energy and respectively
toughness increase. The impact test helps to determine the ductile to brittle transition using
V notch and U notch Charpy impact test.[4]

Objectives

Students are required to study the principle of impact testing using metals which are

susceptible to brittle fracture. (Mild Steel and Carbon Steel)


Students are capable of interpreting the obtained experimental data for the selection
of engineering materials.

Procedures
1) The thickness of the specimen and the dimension of the unnotched is measured
length are measured.
2) A pendulum is raised to left until it is indicated to the maximum energy which is
ranged based on the upper indicator unit.
3) A specimen is placed horizontally across the supports with the notch away from
pendulum.
4) The pendulum is released by pushing up on the hand released.
5) The pendulum is dropped and strike the specimen.
6) The indicator is moved and stopped when peak swing is registered that provided a
direct reading of the energy absorbed.
7) The indicated value is recorded and tabulated.
8) The brake is applied until the pendulum returned to its stable vertical hanging vertical
position.
9) The specimen is removed from the testing area and the failure surface is observed.
10) The test is repeated with other material and notch.

Results
Table 1: Experimental result
Notch
Type
Material
2

S0 [mm ]
ARi
[J]

V- Notch
Mild Steel
0.421
i=1
5.00

U- Notch
Carbon

Steel
0.375
i=2
i=3
4.95
4.9

Mild Steel
0.285
i=1
4.95

Carbon Steel

i=2
5.00

0.300
i=3
4.95

5
ARm [J]
Akabg [J]
Ak [J]
ak
[J/cm2]

4.967
>25.0
20.03
47.58

4.967
5.9
0.933
2.488

>25.0
20.03
70.280

5.25
0.283
0.943

Calculation
n

A Rm= A Ri [J ]
n
i =1

( )

(ARm) u-notch

5+4.95+ 4.95
3

= 4.967 J

(ARm) v-notch

4.95+5+ 4.95
3

= 4.967 J

A k= A kabg A Rm
(Ak) v-notch, mild steel = 25 - 4.967 = 20.033 J
(Ak) u-notch, mild steel = 5.9 - 4.967 = 0.933 J
(Ak) v-notch, carbon steel = 25 - 4.967 = 20.033 J
(Ak) u-notch, carbon steel = 5.25 - 4.967 = 0.283 J

a k =A k / S
(ak) v-notch, mild steel =

20.033
0.421

(ak) u-notch, mild steel =

0.933
0.375

(ak) v-notch, carbon steel =

20.033
0.285

(ak) u-notch, carbon steel =

0.283
0.300

= 47.58 J/cm2

= 2.488 J/cm2

= 70.288 J/cm2

= 0.943 J/cm2

Discussion
1. Compare and discuss on the impact work values for each specimen with the
theory
From the results of the experiment, we can see differently how the specimens fracture. By
comparing all the specimens used, we can conclude that the best specimen that gives
highest impact energy is mild steel (v-notch). We can also conclude that mild steel is tougher
than carbon steel and the v-notch provides better performance against impact. The more
energy absorbed by the specimen, the more toughness the materials that will be. [1]
2. Discuss on the fracture surface of the tested specimens
By observing the surface of specimens, we see that the carbon specimen broke completely
into 2 parts and the broken surfaces looks smoother than the mild steel. This happened due
to the ductileness of carbon is lower than mild steel. A higher toughness material will absorb
more energy upon impact and will therefore result in a low height to which the pendulum arm
will swing to following impact.
The more energy absorbed by the specimen, the more toughness the material will be.
Specimen with lowest absorbed energy means its brittle and has least toughness which can
break easily and cannot withstand the sudden high loads. Specimen with Highest absorbed
energy means its ductile and has highest toughness which can withstand the sudden high
loads. [2]
3. Discuss on the factor that can be affected to the experimental result.
There are two possible factor that can be affected to the experimental result which is;
I.

Specimen
More energy needed in the ductile fracture because it is a tough material.

II.

Equipment
Brittle fracture happens quickly without warning while the ductile fracture took a
longer time before the whole process to happen.

Conclusion
Impact is a high force or shock applied over a short time period. Such a force or acceleration
can sometimes have a greater effect than a lower force applied over a proportionally longer
time period. At normal speeds, during a perfectly inelastic collision, an object struck by a
projectile will deform, and this deformation will absorb most, or even all, of the force of the
collision. Viewed from the conservation of energy perspective, the kinetic energy of the
projectile is changed into heat and sound energy, as a result of the deformations and
vibrations induced in the struck object. However, these deformations and vibrations cannot
occur instantaneously. A high velocity collision which is an impact that does not provide
sufficient time for these deformations and vibrations to occur. [3] Thus, the struck material
behaves as if it were more brittle than it is, and the majority of the applied force goes into
fracturing the material. From the impact test that we have done, carbon steel undergoes
brittle fracture while the mild steel undergoes ductile fracture. More energy is absorbed by
mild steel shows that it is more suitable to be use in the structural construction that expose
to high load for example vehicles body such as car body or bus body.

References
[1] R.C. Hibbler. 2012. Mechanics of Materials. New York: Pearson Education Inc.
[2]

Charpy

Impact

Test

accessed

on

08/03/2015

available

from

08/03/2015

available

from

en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charpy_impact_test
[3]

Impact

on

Mechanics

accessed

on

en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_(mechanics)
[4] The Charpy Test and Drop Weight Method accessed on 07/03/2015 available from
http://www.labtesting.com/services/materials-testing/mechanical-testing/impact-testing/

Appendix

Figure 1: Impact Test Results