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Ministry of Defence

Defence Standard 02-862 (NES 862)


Issue 1 Publication Date 01 April 2000

Fasteners
Part 1
General

Incorporating NES 862 Category 2


Issue 1 Publication Date March 1994

AMENDMENT RECORD
Amd No

Date

Text Affected

REVISION NOTE
This standard is raised to Issue 1 to update its content.
HISTORICAL RECORD
This standard supersedes the following:
Naval Engineering Standard (NES) 862 Part 1 Issue 1 dated March 1994.

Signature and Date

Ministry of Defence

Naval Engineering Standard

NES 862

Part 1

Issue 1 (Reformatted)

FASTENERS
PART 1
GENERAL

March 1994

This NES Supersedes


NES 730 PART 1 ISSUE 1

Record of Amendments
AMDT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

INSERTED BY

DATE

NAVAL ENGINEERING STANDARD 862


FASTENERS
PART 1
ISSUE 1 (REFORMATTED)
GENERAL

The issue and use of this Standard


is authorized for use in MOD contracts
by MOD(PE) Sea Systems and
the Naval Support Command

ECROWN COPYRIGHT
Published by:
Director of Naval Architecture
Procurement Executive, Ministry of Defence
Sea Systems, Foxhill, Bath BA1 5AB
i

ii

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

SCOPE
1.

This NES specifies the general requirements for threaded fasteners used on HM ships and
submarines. It also specifies the standards which define the detailed requirements of
particular types of fasteners.

iii

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

iv

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

FOREWORD
Sponsorship
1.

This Naval Engineering Standard (NES) is sponsored by the Procurement Executive, Ministry
of Defence, Director Naval Architecture, (DNA), Section NA 115.

2.

This NES comprises:


Fasteners
Part 1

General

Part 2

Ferrous

Part 3

Non-Ferrous

Part 4

Ferrous (Submarine First Level Quality Assured)

3.

If it is found to be unsuitable for any particular requirement the Sponsor is to be informed in


writing with a copy to Director Naval Architecture (DNA) NA 145.

4.

Any user of this NES either within MOD or in industry may propose an amendment to it.
Proposals for amendments which are:
a.

not directly applicable to a particular contract are to be made to the Sponsor of the NES;

b.

directly applicable to a particular contract are to be dealt with as specified in the


contract.

5.

No alteration may be made to this NES except by the issue of an authorized amendment.

6.

Unless otherwise stated, reference in this NES to approval, approved, authorized or similar
terms, means by the Ministry of Defence in writing.

7.

Any significant amendments that may be made to this NES at a later date will be indicated
by a vertical side line. Deletions will be indicated by 000 appearing at the end of the line
intervals.

8.

Extracts from British Standards quoted in this NES are included with the permission of the
British Standards Institution.

9.

NES 862, in four Parts, has been compiled from the rationalized and updated information
contained in the eleven Parts of NES 730 and thereby supersedes it.

Conditions of Release
General
10.

This Naval Engineering Standard (NES) has been prepared for the use of the Crown and of
its contractors in the execution of contracts for the Crown. The Crown hereby excludes all
liability (other than liability for death or personal injury) whatsoever and howsoever arising
(including but without limitation, negligence on the part of the Crown, its servants or agents)
for any loss or damage however caused where the NES is used for any other purpose.

11.

This document is Crown Copyright and the information herein may be subject to Crown or
third party rights. It is not to be released, reproduced or published without written permission
of the MOD.

12.

The Crown reserves the right to amend or modify the contents of this NES without consulting
or informing any holder.
v

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

MOD Tender or Contract Process


13.

This NES is the property of the Crown and unless otherwise authorized in writing by the MOD
must be returned on completion of the contract, or submission of the tender, in connection
with which it is issued.

14.

When this NES is used in connection with a MOD tender or contract, the user is to ensure that
he is in possession of the appropriate version of each document, including related documents,
relevant to each particular tender or contract. Enquiries in this connection may be made of
the local MOD(PE) Quality Assurance Representative or the Authority named in the tender
or contract.

15.

When NES are incorporated into MOD contracts, users are responsible for their correct
application and for complying with contracts and any other statutory requirements.
Compliance with an NES does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations.

Related Documents
16.

In the tender and procurement processes the related documents listed in each section and
Annex A can be obtained as follows:
a.

British Standards

British Standards Institution,


389 Chiswick High Road,
London W4 4AL

b.

Defence Standards

Directorate of Standardization and Safety Policy,


Stan 1, Kentigern House, 65 Brown Street,
Glasgow G2 8EX

c.

Naval Engineering Standards

CSE3a, CSE Llangennech, Llanelli,


Dyfed SA14 8YP

d.

Other documents

Tender or Contract Sponsor to advise.

Note: Tender or Contract Sponsor can advise in cases of difficulty.


17.

All applications to Ministry Establishments for related documents are to quote the relevant
MOD Invitation to Tender or Contract Number and date, together with the sponsoring
Directorate and the Tender or Contract Sponsor.

18.

Prime Contractors are responsible for supplying their subcontractors with relevant
documentation, including specifications, standards and drawings.

Health and Safety


Warning
19.

This NES may call for the use of processes, substances and/or procedures that may be injurious
to health if adequate precautions are not taken. It refers only to technical suitability and in
no way absolves either the supplier or the user from statutory obligations relating to health
and safety at any stage of manufacture or use. Where attention is drawn to hazards, those
quoted may not necessarily be exhaustive.

Cadmium Plating
20.

Cadmium and its corrosion products are toxic. See Clause 1.3.6a. to 1.3.6c.
vi

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

CONTENTS
Page No

TITLE PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iii

FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sponsorship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conditions of Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MOD Tender or Contract Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cadmium Plating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v
v
v
v
vi
vi
vi
vi
vi

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii

SECTION

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4

1.11
1.12
1.13

USE OF FASTENERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thread Form and Fastener Dimensions . . . . . . . . . .
Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electro-Chemical Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aluminium Silicon Bronze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zinc Plated Steel Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cadmium Plating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compounds Used with Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fluids Which May Adversely Affect Fasteners . . . .
Service Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locking of Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assembly Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thread Protrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use of Washers on Nickel Aluminium Bronze
Flanges and Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Submarine Pressure Hull Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wire Thread Inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tightening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SECTION

2.

QUALITY ASSURANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1

ANNEX

A.

RELATED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.1

ANNEX

B.

DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . .

B.1

1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5
1.3.6
1.3.7
1.3.8
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10

vii

1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

ANNEX

C.

FASTENER STANDARDS AND


SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.1
TABLE C.1 A SELECTION OF BRITISH
STANDARDS RELATED TO FASTENERS . . . . . .
C.1
TABLE C.2 SPECIFICATIONS FOR STEEL
FASTENERS USED IN NAVAL APPLICATIONS .
C.2
TABLE C.3 SPECIFICATIONS FOR NON-FERROUS
FASTENERS USED IN NAVAL APPLICATIONS .
C.3

ANNEX

D.

TIGHTENING FASTENERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TABLE D.1 ILLUSTRATIVE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN BOLT LENGTH AND THE AMOUNT
OF TURN REQUIRED TO TIGHTEN A
FASTENER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TABLE D.2 ILLUSTRATIVE CORRECTION
FACTORS FOR SURFACE FINISH . . . . . . . . . . . .
TABLE D.3 ILLUSTRATIVE CORRECTION
FACTORS FOR BOLT GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FIGURE D.1 ILLUSTRATIVE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN TIGHTENING TORQUE AND
FASTENER SIZE FOR UNPLATED, DRY,
GRADE 8.8 STEEL FASTENERS TIGHTENED TO
A PRE-LOAD OF 75% OF THE PROOF LOAD .

ALPHABETICAL INDEX

viii

D.1

D.1
D.2
D.2

D.3

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

1.

USE OF FASTENERS

1.1

General
a.

When fasteners are used the aspects listed below are to be considered. These
aspects are expanded in Clauses 1.1b. to 1.13a.:
(1)

thread form and fastener dimensions;

(2)

material;

(3)

service temperature;

(4)

locking of fasteners;

(5)

shock;

(6)

assembly instructions;

(7)

reuse;

(8)

thread protrusion;

(9)

use of washers on nickel aluminium bronze flanges and headers;

(10) submarine pressure hull fasteners;


(11) wire thread inserts;
(12) tightening.
b.

1.2

Further guidance on the selection of fasteners for general purposes is given in


Def Stan 5311.

Thread Form and Fastener Dimensions


a.

To minimize the range of fasteners in service and ensure ease of supply, the
following principles apply when selecting the thread form and dimensions of
fasteners:
(1)

Metric fasteners are to be used in preference to imperial fasteners, and the


Metric Coarse pitch series is to be used in preference to the Metric Fine
pitch series.

(2)

Whitworth and British Standard Fine (BSF) fasteners are not to be used
unless there is no acceptable alternative.

(3)

Fasteners are to be selected from standard or preferred ranges specified


in the appropriate standard, before non-preferred or non-standard sizes
are considered.

(4)

Fasteners available in Naval Stores should be used wherever possible (see


BR 320D for further information).

b.

Care is to be taken to avoid thread mismatch, when an assembly uses fasteners


with more than one thread form. Although a reasonable fit seems apparent,
thread engagement and strength are greatly affected. Advice on avoiding this
problem is given in BS PD 6494.

c.

For information, a selection of fastener specifications relating to metric and


imperial fasteners is listed in Annex C.
1.1

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

1.3

Material

1.3.1

Electro-Chemical Compatibility
a.

1.3.2

1.3.3

Stainless Steel
a.

Precautions are to be taken against crevice corrosion if stainless steel fasteners


are liable to come into contact with sea water. These include not using Type 316
austenitic stainless steel below the water line, although Type 316 and other
grades of stainless steel which contain a minimum of 2% molybdenum may be
used on weather decks. For information, expensive, high performance stainless
steels are available which have a superior resistance to crevice corrosion. They
are regarded as materials for specialist applications requiring individual
assessment.

b.

Austenitic stainless steels are suitable for applications requiring a low magnetic
permeability; however the material can become slightly magnetic when cold
worked.

c.

For information, fasteners in compliance with BS 6105 Grade A480 are


manufactured from Type 316 stainless steel.

Brass
a.

1.3.4

Brass fasteners are not to be used in applications where they will be in contact
with sea water because the material suffers from dezincification which will
reduce strength.

Aluminium Silicon Bronze


a.

1.3.5

When dissimilar materials are used for fasteners and adjacent material in the
presence of an electrolyte, galvanic corrosion may occur. This can be controlled
by insulating the materials from each other, or the assembly can be suitably
protected (eg by a paint system). The electro-chemical compatibility of
materials can be checked by referring to BS PD 6484.

Aluminium silicon bronze is only to be used where a low magnetic permeability


is required and no acceptable alternative is available.

Zinc Plated Steel Fasteners


a.

Zinc plated steel fasteners are not to be used for applications where the
temperature may rise above 60 C because the electro-chemical polarity of zinc
and steel reverses so that the zinc no longer protects the steel sacrificially but
actively promotes rusting.

b.

Since zinc plating is very thin and offers little protection to fasteners immersed
in fresh or salt water, or subjected to sea spray or heavy condensation, additional
protection such as a paint system is required to prevent corrosion.

c.

For information, typically zinc plating is to BS 3382 Part 2, or DEF STAN 0320
for thread diameters up to and including 18 mm (or !) and to BS 1706 Grade
Fe/Zn8 c2 for fasteners with a thread diameter over 18 mm (or !). Washers are
typically zinc plated to BS 1706.

1.2

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

1.3.6

Cadmium Plating
a.

Cadmium and its corrosion products are toxic, therefore cadmium


plating is only to be used where it has been demonstrated that there is
no acceptable alternative.

b.

Where cadmium plated fasteners are used, an appropriate warning tally is to be


fitted in a prominent location. For information, two anodized aluminium
backed tallies with self adhesive aluminium foil labels warning of the presence
of cadmium are available from Naval Stores:

c.

1.3.7

1.5

For information, typically cadmium plating is to BS 3382 Part 1, or DEF STAN


0319 for thread diameters up to and including 18mm (or !) and to BS 1706
Grade Fe/Cd8 c2 for fasteners with a thread diameter over 18mm (or !).
Washers are typically plated to BS 1706.

Compounds are available for corrosion protection, preventing seizure and


locking assembled fasteners in position. Compounds in Naval Stores are listed
in BR 320D.

Fasteners are not to be used where they could come into contact with fluids
which would adversely affect them. In particular prevailing torque-type nuts
with nylon inserts are not to be used in fuel tanks.

a.

Fasteners are not to be used for applications where the temperature goes outside
the temperature range applicable to the particular fastener. Service
temperature ranges for steel fasteners manufactured to other parts of this NES
are given in Annex C., TABLE C.2.

b.

Prevailing-torque type nuts with non-metallic inserts to BS 4929 Part 1 or


Part 2 are not to be used in applications where the service temperature will
exceed 120 C. All metal prevailing-torque type nuts to the same specifications
are only to be used up to 300 C.

c.

The maximum service temperature for zinc plating is given in Clause 1.3.5a.

Locking of Fasteners
A means of locking all fasteners liable to work loose is to be provided.
Def Stan 5332 gives information on a selection of locking techniques.

Shock
a.

1.7

Size: 60mm 17mm, NSN 0617/7690993723734.

Service Temperature

a.

1.6

(2)

Fluids Which May Adversely Affect Fasteners


a.

1.4

Size: 45mm 12mm, NSN 0617/7690990629609;

Compounds Used with Fasteners


a.

1.3.8

(1)

General guidance on the design requirements for fasteners to minimize the risk
of damage due to non-contact underwater explosion is given in BR 8470.

Assembly Instructions
a.

All fasteners are to be assembled in accordance with the relevant design


specification, drawing or manufacturers instructions.
1.3

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

1.8

1.9

1.10

Reuse
a.

Requirements for the reuse of submarine pressure hull fasteners are specified
in NES 136. These First Level Quality Assured fasteners are only to be reused
if the identification marks NS/M, SMM or those specified in NES 862 Part 3,
or NES 862 Part 4 are clearly visible.

b.

Non-First Level fasteners may be reused providing they are in a serviceable


condition.

Thread Protrusion
a.

For general applications the minimum permitted thread protrusion is half a


thread, except for prevailing torque type nuts, in which case the minimum
permitted thread protrusion is one thread. The maximum permitted thread
protrusion is 2 threads.

b.

BR 8472 and BR 8473 are to apply when thread protrusion affects shock
clearances.

c.

NES 136 is to apply for the thread protrusion of submarine pressure hull studs.

Use of Washers on Nickel Aluminium Bronze Flanges and Headers


a.

1.11

Submarine Pressure Hull Fasteners


a.

1.12

Where applicable, the requirements are to be in accordance with NES 136.

Wire Thread Inserts


a.

1.13

On nickel aluminium bronze flanges and headers, there is no requirement to fit


washers under bolts or nuts. However, where the spot facing is inadequate by
casting design, surface texture or area, washers may be used to ensure even
loading.

Information on wire thread inserts is given in DEF STAN 5382.

Tightening
a.

When specified, fasteners are to be tightened by the specified method to achieve


the specified pre-load. Additional information is given in Annex D.

1.4

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

2.

QUALITY ASSURANCE
a.

The Quality Assurance requirements for:


(1)

steel fasteners for use at high temperatures, Class I 0300 C and Class III
0520 C are given in NES 862 Part 2;

(2)

non-ferrous fasteners for non-first level applications are given in NES 862
Part 3;

(3)

Submarine First Level Quality Assured Fasteners as defined in SSCP 25


are given in NES 862 Part 3 for non-ferrous fasteners and NES 862 Part 4
for ferrous fasteners.

2.1

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

2.2

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

ANNEX A.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

A.1

The following documents and publications are referred to in this NES:


See Clause
BS 2TA 3

Specification for Bar and section for


Annex C.
machining of commercially pure titanium
(tensile strength 390540N/mm 2)
(Obsolescent)

BS 57

Specification for BA screws bolts and


nuts (Obsolescent)
Specification for BA screw threads with
tolerances for sizes O BA to 16 BA
(Obsolescent)

BS 93

Annex C.
Annex C.

BS 1470

Specification for wrought aluminium and Annex C.


aluminium alloys for general engineering
purposes: plate, sheet and strip

BS 1473

Specification for wrought aluminium and Annex C.


aluminium alloys for general engineering
purposes: rivet, bolt and screw stock

BS 1474

Specification for wrought aluminium and Annex C.


aluminium alloys for general engineering
purposes: bars, extruded round tubes and
sections

BS 1580

Specification for unified screw threads


Parts 1 & 2: Diameters in and larger

Annex C.

Part 3: Diameters below in

Annex C.

BS 1706

Method for specifying electroplated


coatings of zinc and cadmium on iron
and steel

1.3.5c., 1.3.6c.

BS 1768

Specification for unifed precision


hexagon bolts, screws and nuts (UNC
and UNF threads). Normal series
(Obsolescent)

Annex C.

BS 1769

Specification for unified black hexagon


bolts, screws and nuts (UNC and UNF
threads). Heavy Series (Obsolescent)

Annex C.

BS 1981

Specification for unified machine screws


and machine screw nuts

Annex C.

BS 2470

Specification for hexagon socket screws


and wrench keys. Inch series
Specification for screwed studs

Annex C.

Part 1: General purpose studs

Annex C.

Specification for nickel and nickel alloys:


bar

Annex C.

BS 2693
BS 3076

A.1

ANNEX A.

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

BS 3382

BS 3409

BS 3410

BS 3643

Specification for electroplated coatings


on threaded components
Part 1: Cadmium on steel components

1.3.6c.

Part 2: Zinc on steel components

1.3.5c.

Specification for the tapping of holes to


receive wire thread inserts (UNC and
UNF threads)
Part 1: Diameters in and over
(Obsolescent)
Part 2: Diameters below in
(Obsolescent)
Specification for metal washers for
general engineering purposes
(Obsolescent)

BS 4168
BS 4174

Annex C.

Annex C.

Part 2: Specification for selected limits of Annex C.


size
Specification for ISO metric precision
Annex C.
hexagon bolts, screws and nuts
Hexagon socket screws and wrench keys Annex C.
metric series
Specification for self-tapping screws and
metallic drive screws
Specification for machine screws and
machine screw nuts: metric series
Specification for ISO metric black
hexagon bolts, screws and nuts
Specification for eyebolts for lifting
purposes
Specification for metal washers for
general engineering purposes. Metric
series

Annex C.

BS 4377

Specification for tapping of holes to


receive wire thread inserts (ISO metric
threads)

Annex C.

BS 4439

Specification for screwed studs for


general purposes. Metric series
Specification for crinkle washers for
general engineering purposes (metric
series)

Annex C.

BS 4464

Specification for spring washers for


general engineering and automobile
purposes. Metric series

Annex C.

BS 4882

Specification for bolting for flanges and


pressure containing purposes

Annex C.

BS 4183
BS 4190
BS 4278
BS 4320

BS 4463

ANNEX A.

Annex C.

ISO metric screw threads


Part 1: Principles and basic data

BS 3692

Annex C.

A.2

Annex C.
Annex C.
Annex C.
Annex C.

Annex C.

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

BS 4929

Specification for steel hexagon prevailing


torque type nuts
Part 1: Metric series
1.4b., Annex C.
Part 2: Unified (inch) series (Obsolescent) 1.4b., Annex C.

BS 6105

1.3.2c., Annex C.

BS PD 6494

Specification for corrosion-resistant


stainless steel fasteners
Fasteners. Clearance holes for bolts and
screws
Commentary on corrosion at bimetallic
contacts and its alleviation
Mismatch of screw thread systems

DEF STAN 0319

Electro-deposition of cadmium

1.3.6c.

DEF STAN 0320

Electro-deposition of zinc

1.3.5c.

DEF STAN 5311

Guide to selection bolts, screws and nuts, 1.1b.


general purpose use

DEF STAN 5332

Guide to the methods of locking screwed


fasteners
Inserts, screwed thread, metric, coiled
wire thread

1.5a.

Requirements for the Watertight


Integrity of HM Submarines
Requirements for Nickel Aluminium
Bronze:
Part 1: Sheet, Strip and Plate

1.8a., 1.9c.,
1.11a., Annex B.

BS EN 20273
BS PD 6484

DEF STAN 5382


NES 136
NES 833

NES 834

1.3.1a.
1.2b.

1.12a.

Annex C.

Part 2: Forgings, Forging Stock, Rods and Annex C.


Sections
Requirements for Aluminium Silicon
Bronze:
Part 1: Sheet, Strip and Plate

NES 862

Annex C.

Annex C.

Part 2: Forgings, Forging Stock, Rods and Annex C.


Sections
Fasteners
Part 2: Ferrous

2.a., Annex C.

*NES 862

Part 3: Non-Ferrous

1.8a., 2.a.,
Annex C.

NES 862

Part 4: Ferrous (Submarine First Level


Quality Assured)

1.8a., 2.a.,
Annex C.

NOTE:

*In course of preparation. Until published, guidance is to be sought from


Section NA 115.

A.3

ANNEX A.

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

ANNEX A.

BR 320D

Descriptive Catalogue of Naval Stores

1.2a., 1.3.7a.

BR 8470

Shock and Vibration Manual

1.6a.

BR 8472

Naval Standard Range Mounts for


Equipment Installation (to Attenuate
Mechanical Shock or Vibration)

1.9b.

BR 8473

Miscellaneous Mounts for Equipment


Installation (to Attenuate Mechanical
Shock or Vibration)

1.9b.

SSCP 25

Quality Assurance for Safety in


Submarines

2.a., Annex B.

A.4

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

ANNEX B.
DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
B.1

For the purpose of this NES the following definitions apply:


Bolt

A fastener with the head integral with the shank


and which is threaded at the opposite end.
Typically the full length of the shank is not
threaded.

Fastener

Bolts, screws, studs, studbolts, nuts and washers


for general engineering purposes.
Submarine First Level Quality Assured fasteners,
as defined in SSCP 25, used in the pressure hull
and forming part of the boundary resisting
ambient sea water pressure. (See NES 136 for
further information.)

Hull Fasteners

Nuts

An internally threaded fastener used with bolts


and screws. Typically nuts are either square or
hexagonal and are tightened with a spanner.

Nuts, Prevailing Torque


Type

A nut with a feature which makes it frictionally


resistant to rotation with the intention of
preventing the nut from working loose once
assembled. Examples include nuts with a nylon
ring insert.

Pre-load

The tensile force in an externally threaded fastener


equal to the clamping force applied immediately
after the fastener assembly has been tightened.

Rotabolts

Bolts or studs which have a built-in mechanical


strain gauge to ensure that the design load is
achieved when the fastener is assembled. This is a
headed pin anchored to the base of a hole made
along the axis of the fastener. The headed end
retains a cap which is free to rotate. When the
design load is applied, the cap touches the end of
the fastener so that it can no longer rotate.
Rotabolt is the trademark of the company
Rotabolt Ltd.

Screw

A fastener with the head integral with the shank


and which is threaded at the opposite end.
Typically the full length of the shank is threaded.

Stud

A fastener threaded at both ends, one end of which


(the metal end) is screwed into parent metal and
the other end of which (the nut end) takes a nut.

Studbolts

A fastener threaded at both ends or threaded for


the whole of its length, intended to take a nut at
each end.

Stud Hole

A threaded hole which accommodates the metal


end of a stud.

Washer

A component assembled under nuts and the heads


of bolts and screws which may incorporate a
feature for keeping the adjacent fastener tight.
Typically, washers are annular in shape.

B.1

ANNEX B.

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

ANNEX B.

B.2

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

ANNEX C.
FASTENER STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
C.1

A selection of British Standards which relate to metric and imperial fasteners is given
in TABLE C.1. Procurement Specifications or Standards for steel and non-ferrous
fasteners for naval applications are contained in TABLE C.2 and TABLE C.3
respectively.
Metric

Unified

BA

Precision hexagon bolts, screws and


nuts
Black hexagon bolts, screws and nuts

BS 3692

BS 1768

BS 57

BS 4190

BS 1769

Machine screwscheese, pan,


countersunk raised countersunk head,
countersunk,
head
and machine screw nuts

BS 4183

BS 1981

BS 57

Hexagon socket screws and wrench


keys

BS 4168

BS 2470

Self-tapping screws

BS 4174

Lifting eye bolts

BS 4278

Screwed studs for general purposes

BS 4439

BS 2693 Pt 1

Studs, studbolts and nuts for flanges


and pressure consuming purposes
Prevailing torque type nuts

BS 4882

BS 4882

Description

BS 4929 Pt 1 BS 4929 Pt 2

Washers for general purposes

BS 4320

BS 3410

BS 3410

Spring washers for general purposes

BS 4464

Crinkle washers for general purposes

BS 4463

Tapping of holes to receive wire thread


inserts
Screw threads

BS 4377

BS 3409

BS 3643

BS 1580

BS 93

BS EN 20273

Clearance holes for bolts and screws

TABLE C.1 A SELECTION OF BRITISH STANDARDS RELATED TO FASTENERS

C.1

ANNEX C.

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)
Purpose

Submarine First
Level Quality
Assured steel
fasteners

Pipe systems and


ot
e app
cat o s
other
applications
with
i h hi
high
h service
i
temperature where
steel fasteners are
spec ed
specified

General purpose use


below 60 C where a
High Tensile
Strength of about 50
tonf/in 2 or 800
N/mm 2, is required.
(See Note)

Fastener

Hex Bolts
Hex Screws
Studs
Studbolts
Hex Nuts

Grade or
Class

Temperature
Range

Grade
SM1M or
SM1U

Under 60 C
(See Note)

Grade
SM2M or
SM2U

0300 C

Grade
SM3M
orSM3U

0520 C

Procurement Specification
Metric

Unified

NES 862 Part 4

NES 862 Part 4

Washers

Under 60 C
(See Note)

BS 4320

BS 3410

Washers

0520 C

NES 862 Part 2

NES 862 Part 2

NES 862 Part 2

NES 862 Part 2

Hex Bolts
e Screws
Sc ews
Hex
S d
Studs
Studbolts

Class I

0300 C

Class III

0520 C

Hex Nuts

Class A

0300 C

Class B

0520 C

Washers

0520 C

Hexagon bolts
Hexagon Screws
Studs
Studbolts

Under 60 C

BS 3692 Steel
Grade 8.8
BS 4439
BS 4882

BS 1768 Steel
Grade S
BS 2693
BS 4882

Hexagon nuts

Under 60 C

BS 3692 Steel
Grade 8

BS 1768 Steel
Grade 1

Washers

Under 60 C

BS 4320

BS 3410

NOTE:

Zinc plated to an appropriate Standard. See Clauses 1.3.5a. to 1.3.5c. for


details. For use within the temperature range 50 C to under 60 C.
TABLE C.2 SPECIFICATIONS FOR STEEL FASTENERS USED IN NAVAL
APPLICATIONS

ANNEX C.

C.2

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

Purpose

Material Specification

Fastener

Submarine First
Level Quality
Assured fasteners
where specified to be
high strength nickel
alloy.

Nickel copper alloy to


BS 3076NA13

Hex nut

Nickel copper aluminium alloy to


BS 3076NA18

Stud bolt

In ships and services


where the pparticular
material
i l is
i specified
ifi d

Nickel copper alloy to


BS 3076NA13
Nickel copper aluminium alloy to
BS 3076NA18

Hex nut

Titainum to Aerospace BS 2TA 3


Aluminium Silicon Bronze to
NES 834 Pt 2
Nickel Aluminium Bronze to
NES 833 Pt 2
Aluminium Alloy to
BS 14736082TF or
BS 14746082T6

Hex bolt
Hex screw
Stud
Studbolt
Nut

Titanium to Aerospace BS 2TA 3


Aluminium Silicon Bronze to
NES 834 Pt 1
Nickel Aluminium Bronze to
NES 833 Pt 1
Aluminium Alloy to
BS 14705251H22

Washers

Procurement
Specification
NES 862 Pt 3

NES 862 Pt3

Hex bolt
Hex screw
Stud
Studbolt

TABLE C.3 SPECIFICATIONS FOR NON-FERROUS FASTENERS USED IN NAVAL


APPLICATIONS

C.3

ANNEX C.

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

ANNEX C.

C.4

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

ANNEX D.
TIGHTENING FASTENERS
D.1

This Annex is only intended as a brief guide on tightening fasteners and is not a
mandatory part of the NES. Text books are available if more detailed information is
required.

Pre-load
D.2

Pre-load is often unspecified, but when it is it may be established by measuring;


fastener stretch; the amount of turn applied once the fastener starts to stretch; or the
final tightening torque. However, before any of these techniques may be used it is
necessary to have data relating them to pre-load.

Relaxation
D.3

The pre-load of a fastener assembly cannot be maintained because relaxation of the


fastener causes a reduction in the clamping force. In the short term this is due to
bedding in, while in the longer term factors such as corrosion, vibration, creep and
high temperatures contribute. In some cases relaxation may cause a fastener to work
loose shortly after tightening.

Relating Fastener Stretch to Pre-load


D.4

Measuring fastener stretch is the most direct and therefore the most accurate
method, providing there is a linear relationship between load and extension, and the
yield stress has not been exceeded. Proprietary devices are available for measuring
extension including Rotabolts and computerized ultrasonic equipment. Calibration
is required for these techniques.

Relating Nut Turn to Pre-load


D.5

It is easy to derive formulae relating the amount of turn to stretch or load in linearly
elastic fasteners from the pitch. However, in practice the relationship will be affected
by the points of contact between, and the compressibility of, all components clamped
by the fastener. This approach is very difficult if the components include disk washers,
spring washers, gaskets, or if a component is bent out of shape. In practice a realistic
relationship may only be established by carrying out trials on each type of bolted
assembly considered. The trials may produce the following type of procedure:
a.

Tighten the bolt and nut so that all slackness in the assembly is taken up then
tighten further as in TABLE D.1.

Bolt length between bolt head and nut expressed as a


number of bolt thread diameters
Up to and including 2

Amount of turn
180

Above 2 and up to and including 3

240

Above 3 and up to and including 4

300

Above 4 and up to and including 8

360

Above 8

420

TABLE D.1 ILLUSTRATIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOLT LENGTH AND THE


AMOUNT OF TURN REQUIRED TO TIGHTEN A FASTENER
D.1

ANNEX D.

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

Relating Tightening Torque to Pre-load


D.6

Using final tightening torque to measure pre-load overcomes the problems created by
points of contact between components and the compressibility of components, but it
is affected by coefficients of friction between the surfaces in contact with the
underside of the nut and the thread of the nut, as well as the accuracy of the torque
spanner used. As with measuring the amount of nut turn, formulae can be derived
relating torque to pre-load, but trials are necessary to establish a meaningful
relationship for each fastener assembly.

D.7

FIGURE D.1 illustrates the type of relationship which may be produced by trials for
unplated, dry, grade 8.8 steel fasteners tightened to a pre-load of 75% of the proof load.
TABLE D.2 and TABLE D.3 illustrate how correction factors may be used to adapt
FIGURE D.1 for plated or lubricated fasteners in other grades. A worked example is
given below for an unplated, M16, Grade 10.9 bolt and a phosphated and oiled nut:
Tightening torque from FIGURE D.1 = 24kg m
Correction factor for surface finish from TABLE D.2 = 0.70
Correction factor for bolt grade from TABLE D.3 = 1.41
Therefore, corrected tightening torque = 24 0.70 1.41 = 23.7kg m
Surface Condition of Bolt
Surface Condition of Nut

Unplated
Zinc Plated
and
Unlubricated

Cadmium
Plated

Phosphate
and Oil

Unplated and Unlubricated

1.00

1.00

0.80

0.90

Zinc Plated

1.15

1.20

1.35

1.15

Cadmium Plated

0.85

0.90

1.20

1.00

Phosphate and Oil

0.70

0.65

0.70

0.75

TABLE D.2 ILLUSTRATIVE CORRECTION FACTORS FOR SURFACE FINISH


Bolt Grade

6.6

6.8

8.8

10.9

12.9

Correction Factor

0.56

0.75

1.00

1.41

1.69

TABLE D.3 ILLUSTRATIVE CORRECTION FACTORS FOR BOLT GRADE

ANNEX D.

D.2

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

FIGURE D.1 ILLUSTRATIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TIGHTENING TORQUE AND


FASTENER SIZE FOR UNPLATED, DRY, GRADE 8.8 STEEL FASTENERS TIGHTENED TO A
PRE-LOAD OF 75% OF THE PROOF LOAD

D.3

ANNEX D.

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

ANNEX D.

D.4

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

ALPHABETICAL INDEX

A
Aluminium Silicon Bronze, 1.2
Assembly, 1.3

B
Bolt, B.1
Brass, 1.2
British Standard Fine (BSF), 1.1

C
Cadmium plating, 1.3
Coarse pitch, 1.1
Compounds, 1.3
Corrosion
crevice, 1.2
galvanic, 1.2

D
Definitions, B.1
Dezincification, 1.2
Dimensions, 1.1

E
Electro-chemical compatibility, 1.2
Electrolyte, 1.2

F
Fastener definition, B.1
Fine pitch, 1.1
Fluids, 1.3

H
Health and Safety, 1.2
Hull fasteners, 1.4, B.1

I
Imperial, 1.1

INDEX.1

INDEX

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

L
Locking, 1.3

M
Magnetic permeability, 1.2
Metric, 1.1

N
Nickel Aluminium Bronze, 1.4
Nuts, B.1
Nuts, Prevailing torque, 1.3, B.1

P
Paint system, 1.2

Q
Quality assurance, 2.1

R
Rationalized Ranges, 1.1
Reuse, 1.4
Rotabolts, B.1, D.1

S
Screw, B.1
Seizure, prevention, 1.3
Shock, 1.3
Specifications, 1.1, C.1
Stainless steel, 1.2
Stores, 1.1
Strength, 1.1, 1.2
Stud, B.1
Studbolts, B.1
Studhole, B.1
Submarine First Level Quality Assured, 1.4, 2.1, B.1

INDEX

INDEX.2

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

T
Temperature, 1.3
Thread
form, 1.1
mismatch, 1.1
protrusion, 1.4
Tightening, 1.4, D.1
Tolerances, 1.1

W
Warning, 1.2
Washers, 1.4, B.1
Whitworth, 1.1
Wire thread inserts, 1.4

Z
Zinc plating, 1.2, 1.3

INDEX.3

INDEX

NES 862
Part 1
Issue 1 (Reformatted)

INDEX

INDEX.4

Inside Rear Cover

Crown Copyright 2000


Copying Only as Agreed with DStan

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The DStan file reference relating to work on this standard is D/DStan/69/02/862.
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