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# National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)

## School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Yasir Iqbal
Faculty Member:______________

16/03/2015
Date: _________________

6th
Semester:____________________

4D
Section: ______________

## Department of Electrical Engineering

Instrumentation and Measurements
LAB 04: Voltage and Current Measurements

Student name

Reg. No.

Lab Report
Marks / 10

Viva Marks /
5
Total/15

013

020

00224

Usman Sabir

01182

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## National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
OBJECTIVE
When you have completed this lab, you will be able to measure circuit voltages and
currents.

DISCUSSION
Ohm's Law is often referred to as the foundation of circuit analysis and is expressed
by the formula,

## where E is the potential difference, or voltage, across an electric device, expressed

in volts (V)
I is the current that flows through the electric device, expressed in amperes
(A)
R

## is the resistance of the electric device, expressed in ohms ().

This equation simply states that a current I flows through an electric device having
a resistance R when a voltage E is applied across this device. Two useful
expressions can be derived from Ohm's Law, namely,

## The basic instrument for the measurement of resistance is the ohmmeter. It

generally contains a dc voltage source (usually a battery), a current meter, and a
range switch to select internal calibration resistors. The meter scale is calibrated in
terms of the resistance value that corresponds to a given current. The unknown
resistor is placed across the terminals of the ohmmeter and the resistance value is
read from the meter scale or display. The ohm () is the measurement unit for
resistance.
The volt (V) is the measurement unit for potential difference and voltage is
measured with a voltmeter. Voltmeters are always connected in parallel with the
circuit or component as shown in Figure 1-3. They have a high internal resistance
to minimize the amount of circuit current that will flow into their terminals. Their
effect on circuit operation is then minimal.

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## National University of Sciences and Technology NUST)

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

## Figure 1-3. Measuring Voltage With a Voltmeter.

Note that the polarities marked on standard analog meter terminals must
be observed to obtain a positive (up-scale) reading. If the connections are
reversed, the reading will be negative (the pointer will deflect in the
negative direction).
The ampere ( A) is the unit of measure for electric current flow and
current is measured with an ammeter. Ammeters are always connected in
series with the circuit as shown in Figure 1-4. They have low internal
resistance to minimize the addition of extra resistance to the circuit.
Polarities must also be observed when connecting an analog ammeter to
ensure that the pointer deflects in the proper direction.

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## National University of Sciences and Technology NUST)

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
Refer to the Equipment Utilization Chart in Appendix C to obtain the list
of equipment required for this exercise.
PROCEDURE
CAUTION!
High voltages are present in this laboratory exercise! Do
not make or modify any banana jack connections with the
power on unless otherwise specified!

## 1. Use an ohmmeter to check the resistance of one pair of voltage input

terminals (E1,E2,E3) on the data acquisition module.
R'

3.23M

## 2. Use an ohmmeter to check the resistance of one pair of current input

terminals (I1,I2,I3) on the data acquisition module.
R'

0.7

3. Does the voltmeter input have a much higher resistance than the current
input? Why?
Yes, it is so. Volt meter has high resistance so that, all the voltage drops across it,
and no current flows through it. while Ammeter has low resistance, so all the current
passes through it and No Current is dissipated in ammeter

4. Install the Power Supply, data acquisition module, and Resistive Load
module in the EMS Workstation.
5. Make sure the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to the O
(OFF) position and the voltage control knob is turned fully
counterclockwise (ccw).
Ensure the Power Supply is connected to a three-phase wall receptacle.
6. Ensure the USB port cable from the computer is connected to the data
acquisition module.
7. Set up the circuit shown in Figure 1-5. Connect input E1 of the data

## acquisition module across R1, and connect input I1 to measure

circuit current. Ensure that the correct polarities for voltage and
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## National University of Sciences and Technology NUST)

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
current measurement are respected when connecting the data
acquisition module. Ensure that the POWER INPUT of the data
acquisition module is connected to the main Power Supply.

## 8. Display the Metering application and select setup configuration file

ES11-1.dai. Note that the metering setup configuration files are not
essential for completion of the exercises. They are intended as a starting
point and can be changed at any time during the exercise.
9. Turn on the main Power Supply and set the 24 V - AC power switch to
the I (ON) position.

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## National University of Sciences and Technology NUST)

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
10. Adjust the main output control knob on the Power Supply to obtain a
series of voltages from 0 to 100% of the control knob range. Seven or
eight values will be enough. At each setting, click on the Record Data
button to enter the data in the Data Table. Turn off the Power Supply
after the last data acquisition.
Note: The Data Table window must be opened to allow data to be
recorded.

11. Verify that the measured values have been stored in the Data Table.
12. Click on the Graph button to display the Graph window. Make the
following selections

Y-axis: I1 (IS)

Table of Question 12

X-axis: E1 (ES)

13. In the Graph window, make sure the line graph format and the linear scale
are selected. A graphical plot of the data should be displayed in the
Graph window.
Graph is attached on last page of document

14. Does the graph of this data show that the current doubles, triples, etc. when
the voltage doubles, triples?
Yes

15. Calculate the ratio ES / IS for several of the voltage/current values. Is the
ratio approximately equal to the value of the resistor used in the
circuit?
Yes

16. Calculate the ratio ES / R1 using the data in the last row of the data table
(100 %). Is it equal to the value of IS?
219.8 =0.3494
629

* Yes * No
Yes

17. Change the resistance value to the value given in the following table. Turn
on the Power Supply and adjust the voltage to obtain the current IS given in the

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## National University of Sciences and Technology NUST)

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
following table. Use the Record Data button to store the voltage measurement
in the Data Table, and then turn off the Power Supply.

LINE
VOLTAGE

R1

220

733

0.3

IS

## 18. Is the product IS x R1 equal to the value of ES?

* Yes * No
Yes

19. You will now use voltage and current measurements to determine the
equivalent resistance of a circuit. Using the same circuit setup, turn
on the Power Supply and set the voltage control knob at
approximately 50%.
Select a parallel combination of resistors on the Resistive Load
module that will allow a current approximately equal to the current
given in Table 1-1 to flow in the circuit.
20. Calculate the circuit resistance using ES and IS.
133 =747.19
0.178

21. Turn the voltage control fully ccw, and turn off the Power Supply.
Disconnect the circuit, taking care not to change the position of the
selector switches on the Resistive Load. Use an ohmmeter to
measure the equivalent resistance of the module.
REQ '

744

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## National University of Sciences and Technology NUST)

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
22. Are the results of steps 20 and 21 similar?
* Yes * No
Yes

23. Ensure that the Power Supply is turned off, the voltage control is fully
ccw, and remove all leads and cables.
CONCLUSION
You used voltage and current measurements to demonstrate Ohm's Law,
and you determined unknown voltage, current, and equivalent resistance
values. Also, you saw that Ohm's Law can be used to predict circuit
values for voltage, current, and resistance.

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## National University of Sciences and Technology NUST)

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.

A voltmeter with an internal resistance of 100 000 ohms has less effect
on circuit operation than one with an internal resistance of 1 000 000
ohms?

True.
False.
It depends on the circuit voltage.
There is no difference.
2. An ammeter has an internal resistance equal to the equivalent
resistance of the circuit in which measurements are to be taken. How
will this affect the current?

Yes

yes

3.

a.
b.
c.
d.

a.
b.
c.
d.

## There will be no effect.

The current will decrease by half.
The current will double.
The current will triple.

## The term potential difference refers to the electrical pressure of a

voltage source that causes current flow in a circuit.
True.
b. False.
c. True only in dc circuits.
d. None of the above.

Yes a.

4.

## What is the resistance of a circuit in which 2.5 A flows when a dc

voltage of 120 V is applied?

a.
Yes b.
c.
d.

5.

300
48
0.03
480

flow?

a.
b.
yes c.
d.

5 V
0.2 V
45 V
50 V
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