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- Ib Maths IA Topics
- Daily Life Uses of Differentiation
- Application of Calculus
- Application of Integration in Real Life
- Applications of Differential Equations in Engineering
- ESSAY CALCULUS
- Differentiation and Its Application in Business
- Experiment 18
- Applications of Calculus in Real Life
- 1. report exp6.docx
- Applications of Calculus in Forensic Science
- lab1.3
- Application of Differentiation
- physics-i
- titration
- Core Analysis
- Differentiation and its applications
- C2_Ch09_FS_e
- Demonstrations
- Electric Field and Work

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INTEGRATION

In Isaac Newton's day, one of the biggest problems was poor navigation

at sea.

Before calculus was developed, the stars were vital for navigation.

Shipwrecks occurred because the ship was not where the captain

thought it should be. There was not a good enough understanding of

how the Earth, stars and planets moved with respect to each other.

Calculus (differentiation and integration) was developed to improve this

understanding.

Differentiation and integration can help us solve many types of real-world

problems.

We use the derivative to determine the maximum and minimum values

of particular functions (e.g. cost, strength, amount of material used in a

building, profit, loss, etc.).

Derivatives are met in many engineering and science problems,

especially when modeling the behavior of moving objects.

Our discussion begins with some general applications which we can

then apply to specific problems.

1. It is used ECONOMIC a lot, calculus is also a base of economics

2.it is used in history, for predicting the life of a stone

3.it is used in geography, which is used to study the gases present in the

atmosphere

4. It is mainly used in daily by pilots to measure the pressure n the air.

Shipwrecks occurred because the ship was not where the captain

thought it should be. There was not a good enough understanding of

how the Earth, stars and planets moved with respect to each other.

Calculus (differentiation and integration) was developed to improve this

understanding.

Differentiation and integration can help us solve many types of real-world

problems.

We use the derivative to determine the maximum and minimum values

of particular functions (e.g. cost, strength, amount of material used in a

building, profit, loss, etc.).

Derivatives are met in many engineering and science problems,

especially when modeling the behavior of moving objects.

INTEGRATION:

1. Applications of the Indefinite Integral shows how to find displacement

(from velocity) and velocity (from acceleration) using the indefinite

integral. There are also some electronics applications.

sides (e.g. area of a triangle or rectangle). But how do you find areas

when the sides are curved? e.g.

2. Area under a Curve and

3. Area in between the two curves. Answer is by Integration.

4. Volume of Solid of Revolution explains how to use integration to find

the volume of an object with curved sides, e.g. wine barrels.

5. Centroid of an Area means the cenetr of mass. We see how to use

integration to find the centroid of an area with curved sides.

6. Moments of Inertia explain how to find the resistance of a rotating

body. We use integration when the shape has curved sides.

7. Work by a Variable Force shows how to find the work done on an

object when the force is not constant.

8. Electric Charges have a force between them that varies depending on

the amount of charge and the distance between the charges. We use

integration to calculate the work done when charges are separated.

9. Average Value of a curve can be calculated using integration.

In this section we will show how the definite integral can be used in different

applications. Some of the concepts may sound new to the reader, but we will explain

what you need to comprehend as we go along. We will take three applications: The

concepts of work from physics, fluid statics from engineering, and the normal

probability from statistics.

Work

Work in physics is defined as the product of the force and displacement. Force and

displacement are vector quantities, which means they have a direction and a

magnitude. For example, we say the compressor exerts a force

of

upward. The magnitude here is

and the direction is

upward. Lowering a book from an upper shelf to a lower one by a distance

of

away from its initial position is another example of the vector nature of

the displacement. Here, the magnitude is

and the direction is downward,

usually indicated by a minus sign, i.e., a displacement of

. The product of

those two vector quantities (called the inner product, see Chapter 10) gives the

work done by the force. Mathematically, we say

where is the force and is the displacement. If the force is measured in Newtons

and distance is in meters, then work is measured in the units of energy which is in

joules

Example 1:

You push an empty grocery cart with a force of

How much work is done by you (the force)?

for a distance of

Solution:

Using the formula above,

Example 2:

A librarian displaces a book from an upper shelf to a lower one. If the vertical

distance between the two shelves is

and the weight of the book

is

. How much work is done by the librarian?

Solution:

In order to be able to lift the book and move it to its new position, the librarian must

exert a force that is at least equal to the weight of the book. In addition, since the

displacement is a vector quantity, then the direction must be taken into account. So,

Thus

Here we say that the work is negative since there is a loss of gravitational potential

energy rather than a gain in energy. If the book is lifted to a higher shelf, then the

work is positive, since there will be a gain in the gravitational potential energy.

Example 3:

. It is filled with sand of weight

and

attached to a rope of weight

. Then it is lifted from the floor at a constant

rate to a height

above the floor. While in flight, the bucket leaks sand

grains at a constant rate, and by the time it reaches the top no sand is left in the

bucket. Find the work done:

1.

2.

3.

4.

by the lifting the bucket, the sand, and the rope together.

Solution:

1. The empty bucket. Since the buckets weight is constant, the worker must exert a

force that is equal to the weight of the empty bucket. Thus

2. The sand alone. The weight of the sand is decreasing at a constant rate

from

to

over the

lift. When the bucket is at

above

the floor, the sand weighs

The graph of

represents the variation of the force with height

(Figure 23). The work done corresponds to computing the area under the force

graph.

and the height

is

, the total weight of the rope from the floor to a height of

is

But since the worker is constantly pulling the rope, the ropes length is decreasing at

a constant rate and thus its weight is also decreasing as the bucket being lifted. So

at

, the

there remain to be lifted of

weight

. Thus the work done to lift the weight of the rope is

4. The bucket, the sand, and the rope together. Here we are asked to sum all the

work done on the empty bucket, the sand, and the rope. Thus

You have probably studied that pressure is defined as the force per area

or Newtons per meter squared,

In

the study of fluids, such as water pressure on a dam or water pressure in the ocean

at a depth another equivalent formula can be used. It is called the liquid

pressure at depth :

where is the weight density, which is the weight of the column of water per unit

volume. For example, if you are diving in a pool, the pressure of the water on your

body can be measured by calculating the total weight that the column of water is

exerting on you times your depth. Another way to express this formula, the weight

density

is defined as

where

is

Example 4:

What is the total pressure experienced by a diver in a swimming pool at a depth

of

?

Solution

First we calculate the fluid pressure the water exerts on the diver at a depth

of

:

, thus

The total pressure on the diver is the pressure due to the water plus the atmospheric

pressure. If we assume that the diver is located at sea-level, then the atmospheric

pressure at sea level is about

. Thus the total pressure on the diver is

Example 5:

What is the fluid pressure (excluding the air pressure) and force on the top of a flat

circular plate of radius

that is submerged horizontally at a depth

of

?

Solution:

The density of water is

. Then

then

As you can see, it is easy to calculate the fluid force on a horizontal surface because

each point on the surface is at the same depth. The problem becomes a little

complicated when we want to calculate the fluid force or pressure if the surface is

vertical. In this situation, the pressure is not constant at every point because the

depth is not constant at each point. To find the fluid force or pressure on a vertical

surface we must use calculus.

The Fluid Force on a Vertical Surface

Suppose a flat surface is submerged vertically in a fluid of weight density w and the

submerged portion of the surface extends from

to

along the vertical

axis, whose positive direction is taken as downward. If

is the width of the

surface and

is the depth of point then the fluid force is defined as

Example 6:

A perfect example of a vertical surface is the face of a dam. We can picture it as a

rectangle of a certain height and certain width. Let the height of the dam

be

and of width of

. Find the total fluid force exerted on the

face if the top of the dam is level with the water surface (Figure 24).

Solution:

Let

the depth of the water. At an arbitrary point on the dam, the width of the

dam is

and the depth is

. The weight density of water is

Normal Probabilities

If you were told by the postal service that you will receive the package that you have

been waiting for sometime tomorrow, what is the probability that you will receive it

sometime between 3:00 PM and 5:00 PM if you know that the postal services hours

of operations are between 7:00 AM to 6:00 PM?

If the hours of operations are between 7 AM to 6 PM, this means they operate for a

total of

. The interval between 3 PM and 5 PM is

, and thus the

probability that your package will arrive is

So there is a probability of

that the postal service will deliver your package

sometime between the hours of 3 PM and 5 PM (or during any

interval).

That is easy enough. However, mathematically, the situation is not that simple.

The

interval and the

interval contain an infinite number of times.

So how can one infinity over another infinity produce a probability of

? To

resolve this issue, we represent the total probability of the

interval as a

rectangle of area (Figure 25). Looking at the

interval, we can see that it is

equal to of the total rectangular area This is why it is convenient to represent

probabilities as areas. But since areas can be defined by definite integrals, we can

also define the probability associated with an interval

by the definite integral

where

is called the probability density function (pdf). One of the most useful

probability density functions is the normal curve or the Gaussian curve (and

sometimes the bell curve) (Figure 26). This function enables us to describe an

entire population based on statistical measurements taken from a small sample of

the population. The only measurements needed are the mean

and the standard

deviation

. Once those two numbers are known, we can easily find the normal

curve by using the following formula.

The Gaussian curve for a population with mean

by

is given

is called the normalization constant. It is needed to

make the probability over the entire space equal to That is,

Example 7:

Suppose that boxes containing

each and a standard deviation of

1.

?

2.

3.

Solution:

1. Using the normal probability density function,

and

Substituting for

and

we get

The percentage of all the tea boxes that are expected to weight between

ounces can be calculated as

and

The integral of

does not have an elementary anti-derivative and therefore cannot

be evaluated by standard techniques. However, we can use numerical techniques,

such as The Simpsons Rule or The Trapezoid Rule, to find an approximate (but very

accurate) value. Using the programing feature of a scientific calculator or,

mathematical software, we eventually get

That is,

Technology Note: To make this computation with a graphing calculator of the TI83/84 family, do the following:

From the [DISTR] menu (Figure 27) select option 2, which puts the phrase

"normalcdf" in the home screen. Add lower bound, upper bound, mean, standard

deviation, separated by commas, close the parentheses, and press [ENTER]. The result

is shown in Figure 28.

Figure 27

Figure 28

2. For the probability that a box weighs less than

under the curve to the left of

Since the value of

than a billionth),

numerically, we get

and

is very small (less

integrating from

to

which is zero. However, since all scales have some error

(call it ), practically we would find the probability that the weight falls between

and

.

Example 8:

An Intelligence Quotient or IQ is a score derived from different standardized tests

attempting to measure the level of intelligence of an adult human being. The average

score of the test is

and the standard deviation is

1.

2.

Solution:

and

and substituting

and

and

is

does not have an elementary anti-derivative and therefore

cannot be evaluated. Using the programing feature of a scientific calculator or a

mathematical computer software, we get

That is,

and

2. To measure the probability that a person selected randomly will have an IQ score

above

,

avoid the messy work, we can argue that since it is extremely rare to meet someone

with an IQ score of over

we can approximate the integral from

to

Then

is

. Thats about one person in every

individuals!

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