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INFRARED PLASTIC SOLAR CELL

2014-15

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
The pursuit of nanotechnology comprises a wide variety of disciplines: chemistry, physics,
mechanical engineering, materials science, molecular biology, and computer science. In order to
the miniaturization of integrated circuits well into the present century, it is likely that present
day, nano-scale or nano electronic device designs will be replaced with new designs for devices
that take advantage of the quantum mechanical effects that dominate on the much smaller
nanometer scale .

Nanotechnology is often referred to as general purpose technology. That is because in its mature
form it will have significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. It offers
better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer and smarter products for the home, for ammunition, for
medicine and for industries for ages. These properties of nanotechnology have been made use of
in solar cells. Solar energy is really an abundant source that is renewable and pollution free. This
form of energy has very wide applications ranging from small household items, calculators to
larger things like two wheelers, cars etc. they make use of solar cell that coverts the energy from
the sun into required form.
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It is expected that the global energy demand will double within the next 50 years. Fossil fuels,

however, are running out and are held responsible for the increased concentration of carbon
dioxide in the earths atmosphere. Hence, developing environmentally friendly, renewable
energy is one of the challenges to society in the 21st century. One of the renewable energy
technologies is photovoltaics (PV), the technology that directly converts daylight into electricity.
PV is one of the fastest growing of all the renewable energy technologies, in fact, it is one of the
fastest growing industries at present.
Solar cell manufacturing based on the technology of crystalline, silicon devices is growing by
approximately 40% per year and this growth rate is increasing. This has been realized mainly by
special market implementation programs and other government grants to encourage a substantial
use of the current PV technologies based on silicon. Unfortunately, financial support by
governments is under constant pressure.
At present, the active materials used for the fabrication of solar cells are mainly inorganic
materials, such as silicon (Si), gallium-arsenide (GaAs), cadmium-telluride (CdTe), and
cadmium-indium-selenide (CIS). The power conversion efficiency for these solar cells varies
from 8 to 29% . With regard to the technology used, these solar cells can be divided into two
classes. The crystalline solar cells or silicon solar cells are made of either (mono- or poly-)
crystalline silicon or GaAs. About 85% of the PV market is shared by these crystalline solar
cells. Amorphous silicon, CdTe, and CI(G)S are more recent thin-film technologies.

Current solar power technology has little chance to compete with fossil fuels or large electric
grids. Todays solar cells are simply not efficient enough and are currently too expensive to
manufacture for large-scale electricity generation. However, potential advancements in
nanotechnology may open the door to the production of cheaper and slightly more efficient solar
cells. Scientists have invented a plastic solar cell that can turn the sun's power into electrical
energy, even on a cloudy day. The plastic material uses nanotechnology and contains the first
solar cells able to harness the sun's invisible, infrared rays.

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CHAPTER 2

CONVENTIONAL SOLAR CELL


2.1 What is a solar cell?
A solar cell (photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell) is a solid state electrical device that converts
the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. The energy of light is
electromagnetic fields, which in turn can make a current of electrons flow.
Assemblies of solar cells are used to make solar modules which are used to capture energy from
sunlight. When multiple modules are assembled together (such as prior to installation on a polemounted tracker system), the resulting integrated group of modules all oriented in one plane is
referred as a solar panel. The electrical energy generated from solar modules, is an example of
solar energy. Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the practical
application of photovoltaic cells in producing electricity from light, though it is often used
specifically to refer to the generation of electricity from sunlight. Cells are described as
photovoltaic cells when the light source is not necessarily sunlight. These are used for detecting
light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range, for example infrared detectors, or
measurement of light intensity.

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2.2 HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR CELL


TECHNOLOGY
The development of solar cell technology began with the 1839 research of French physicist
Antoine-Csar Becquerel. Becquerel observed the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with
a solid electrode in an electrolyte solution when he saw a voltage develop when light fell upon
the electrode. The major events are discussed briefly below, and other milestones can be
accessed by clicking on the image shown below.

Charles Fritts - First Solar Cell: The first genuine solar cell was built around 1883 by Charles
Fritts, who used junctions formed by coating selenium (a semiconductor) with an extremely thin
layer of gold. The device was only about 1 percent efficient.

Albert Einstein - Photoelectric Effect: Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect in 1905
for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921.

Russell Ohl - Silicon Solar Cell: Early solar cells, however, had energy conversion efficiencies
of under one percent. In 1941, the silicon solar cell was invented by Russell Ohl.

Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin - Efficient Solar Cells: In 1954, three
American researchers, Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin, designed a silicon solar
cell capable of a six percent energy conversion efficiency with direct sunlight. They created the
first solar panels. Bell Laboratories in New York announced the prototype manufacture of a new
solar battery. Bell had funded the research. The first public service trial of the Bell Solar Battery
began with a telephone carrier system (Americus, Georgia) on October 4 1955.

CHAPTER 3

Generations of Solar Cells


3.1 First Generation: Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Technology
First generation solar cells are the larger, silicon-based photovoltaic cells. Silicon's ability to
remain a semiconductor at higher temperatures has made it a highly attractive raw material for
solar panels. Silicon's abundance, however, does not ease the challenges of harvesting and
processing it into a usable material for microchips and silicon panels. Solar cells, use silicon
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wafers consisting of Silicon or Germanium that are doped with Phosphorus and Boron in a pnjunction. Silicon cells have a quite high efficiency, but very pure silicon is needed, and due to the
energy-requiring process, the price is high compared to the power output. Crystalline Silicon
Solar Cells dominate 80-90% of solar cell market due to their high efficiency, despite their high
manufacturing costs

3.2 Second Generation: Thin Film Solar Cell Technology


Second generation solar cell, also known as thin-film solar cell (TFSC) or thin-film photovoltaic
cell (TFPV), is made by depositing one or more thin layers (thin films) of photovoltaic material
on a substrate. They are significantly cheaper to produce than first generation cells but have
lower efficiencies. The great advantage of thin-film solar cells, along with low cost, is their
flexibility and versatility to be used in varied environments. This has led to aesthetically pleasing
solar innovations such as solar shingles, solar glass and solar panels that can be rolled out onto a
roof or other surface. The most successful second generation materials have been cadmium
telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium selenide(CIGS), amorphous silicon and micro
amorphous silicon. The thickness range of such a layer is wide and varies from a few nanometers
to tens of micrometers. These materials are applied in a thin film to a supporting substrate such
as glass or ceramics reducing material mass and therefore costs. It is predicted that second
generation cells will dominate the residential solar market.

3.3 Third Generation: Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology


The electrochemical dye solar cell was invented in 1988 by Professor Graetzel of Lausanne
Polytechnique, in Switzerland. The "Graetzel" dye cell uses dye molecules adsorbed in
nanocrystalline oxide semiconductors, such as TiO2, to collect sunlight. Dye cells employ
relatively inexpensive materials such as glass, Titania powder, and carbon powder. Graetzel's
cell is composed of a porous layer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, covered with a molecular
dye that absorbs sunlight, like the chlorophyll does in green leaves. Third generation solar cells
are the cutting edge of solar technology. These solar cells can exceed the theoretical solar
conversion efficiency limit for a single energy threshold material. Current research is targeting
conversion efficiencies of 30-60% while retaining low cost materials and manufacturing
techniques.

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Chapter 4

HOW DO SOLAR CELLS WORK?


Solar cells, which largely are made from crystalline silicon work on the principle of
Photoelectric Effect that this semiconductor exhibits. Silicon in its purest form- Intrinsic Siliconis doped with a dopant impurity to yield Extrinsic Silicon of desired characteristic (p-type or ntype Silicon). Working of Solar cells can thus be based on crystalline structure of Intrinsic and
Extrinsic Silicon. When p and n type silicon combine they result in formation of potential
barrier. These and more are discussed below.

4.1 Pure Silicon (Intrinsic) Crystalline Structure


Silicon has some special chemical properties, especially in its crystalline form. An atom of
silicon has 14 electrons, arranged in three different shells. The first two shells- which hold two
and eight electrons respectively- are completely full. The outer shell, however, is only half full
with just four electrons (Valence electrons). A silicon atom will always look for ways to fill up
its last shell, and to do this, it will share electrons with four nearby atoms. It's like each atom
holds hands with its neighbours, except that in this case, each atom has four hands joined to four
neighbours. That's what forms the crystalline structure. The only problem is that pure crystalline
silicon is a poor conductor of electricity because none of its electrons are free to move about,
unlike the electrons in more optimum conductors like copper

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4.2 Impurity Added Silicon (Extrinsic): P-type and N-type Semiconductors


Extrinsic silicon in a solar cell has added impurity atoms purposefully mixed in with the silicon
atoms, maybe one for every million silicon atoms. Phosphorous has five electrons in its outer
shell. It bonds with its silicon neighbour atoms having valence of 4, but in a sense, the
phosphorous has one electron that doesn't have anyone to bond with. It doesn't form part of a
bond, but there is a positive proton in the phosphorous nucleus holding it in place. When energy
is added to pure silicon, in the form of heat, it causes a few electrons to break free of their bonds
and leave their atoms. A hole is left behind in each case. These electrons, called free carriers,
then wander randomly around the crystalline lattice looking for another hole to fall into and carry
an electrical current. In Phosphorous-doped Silicon, it takes a lot less energy to knock loose one
of "extra" phosphorous electrons because they aren't tied up in a bond with any neighbouring
atoms. As a result, most of these electrons break free, and release a lot more free carriers than in
pure silicon. The process of adding impurities on purpose is called doping, and when doped with
phosphorous, the resulting silicon is called N-type ("n" for negative) because of the prevalence of
free electrons. N-type doped silicon is a much better conductor than pure silicon.The other part
of a typical solar cell is doped with the element boron, which has only three electrons in its outer
shell instead of four, to become P-type silicon. Instead of having free electrons, P-type ("p" for
positive) has free openings and carries the opposite (positive) charge

4.3 Formation of Potential Barrier and Photoelectric Effect


The electric field is formed when the N-type and P-type silicon come into contact. Suddenly, the
free electrons on the N side combine the openings on the P side. Right at the junction, they
combine and form something of a barrier, making it harder and harder for electrons on the N side
to cross over to the P side (called POTENTIAL BARRIER). Eventually, equilibrium is reached,
and an electric field separating the two sides is set up. This electric field acts as a diode, allowing
(and even pushing) electrons to flow from the P side to the N side, but not the other way around.
It's like a hill -- electrons can easily go down the hill (to the N side), but can't climb it (to the P
side).

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When light, in the form of photons, hits solar cell, its energy breaks apart electron-hole
pairs(Photoelectric effect). Each photon with enough energy will normally free exactly one
electron, resulting in a free hole as well. If this happens close enough to the electric field, or if
free electron and free hole happen to wander into its range of influence, the field will send the
electron to the N side and the hole to the P side. This causes further disruption of electrical
neutrality, and if an external current path is provided, electrons will flow through the path to the
P side to unite with holes that the electric field sent there, doing work for us along the way. The
electron flow provides the current, and the cell's electric field causes a voltage.
Silicon is very shiny material, which can send photons bouncing away before energizing the
electrons, so an antireflective coating is applied to reduce those losses. The final step is to install
something that will protect the cell from the external elements- often a glass cover plate. PV
modules are generally made by connecting several individual cells together to achieve useful
levels of voltage and current, and putting them in a sturdy frame complete with positive and
negative terminals.

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CHAPTER 5

INFRARED PLASTIC SOLAR CELL


Scientists have invented a plastic solar cell that can turn the suns power into electric

energy

even on a cloudy day.

Plastic solar cells are not new .But existing materials are only able to harness the suns visible
light. While half of the suns power lies in the visible spectrum, the other half lies in the infrared
spectrum. The new material is first plastic compound that is able to harness infrared portion.
Every warm body emits heat. This heat is emitted even by man and by animals, even when it is
dark outside.
The plastic material uses nanotechnology and contains the 1stgeneration solar cells that can
harness the suns invisible infrared rays. This breakthrough made us to believe that plastic solar
cells could one day become more efficient than the current solar cell. The researchers combined
specially designed nano particles called quantum dots with a polymer to make the plastic that can
detect energy in the infrared.

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With further advances the new PLASTIC SOLAR CELL could allow up to 30% of suns
radiant energy to be harnessed completely when compared to only 6% in today plastic best
plastic solar cells.

A large amount of suns energy could be harnessed through solar farms and used to power all our
energy needs. This could potentially displace other source of electrical production that produce
green house gases like coal.
Solar energy reaching the earth is 10000 times than what we consume. If we could cover 0.1% of
the earths surface with the solar farms we could replace all our energy habits with a source of
power which is clear and renewable.
The first crude solar cells have achieved efficiencies of todays standard commercial
photovoltaics the best solar cell, which are very expensive semiconductor laminates convert at
most, 35% of the suns energy into electricity.

5.1 WORKING OF PLASTIC SOLAR CELL


The solar cell created is actually a hybrid, comprised of tiny nanorods dispersed in an organic
polymer or plastic. A layer only 200 nanometers thick is sandwiched between electrodes and can
produce at present about .7 volts. The electrode layers and nanorods /polymer layers could be
applied in separate coats, making production fairly easy. And unlike todays semiconductorbased photovoltaic devices, plastic solar cells can be manufactured in solution in a beaker
without the need for clean rooms or vacuum chambers.

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The technology takes advantage of recent advances in nanotechnology specifically the


production of nanocrystals and nanorods. These are chemically pure clusters of 100 to 100000
atoms with dimensions of the order of a nanometer, or a billionth of a meter. Because of their
small size, they exhibit unusual and interesting properties governed by quantum mechanics, such
as the absorption of different colors of light depending upon their size. Nanorods were made of a
reliable size out of cadmium selenide, a semi conducting material.
Nanorods are manufactured in a beaker containing cadmium selenide, aiming for rods of
diameter-7 nanometers to absorb as much sunlight as possible. The length of the nanorods may
be approximately 60nanometers.Then the nanorods are mixed with a plastic semiconductor
called p3ht-poly-(3-hexylthiophene) a transparent electrode is coated with the mixture. The
thickness, 200 nanometers-a thousandth the thickness of a human hair-is a factor of 10 less than
the micron-thickness of semiconductor solar cells. An aluminium coating acting as the back
electrode completed the device. The nanorods act like wires. When they absorb light of a specific
wavelength, they generate an electron plus an electron hole-a vacancy in the crystal that moves
around just like an electron. The electron travels the length of the rod until it is collected by
aluminium electrode. The hole is transferred to the plastic, which is known as a hole-carrier, and
conveyed to the electrode, creating a current.

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CHAPTER 6

Quantum dots with built-in charge boost solar cell


efficiency by 50%

(Left) A diagram of a quantum dot structure. (Center) A comparison of solar cells with
different levels of doping. (Right) The 3D potential profile in quantum dot structures

For the past few years, researchers have been using quantum dots to increase the light absorption
and overall efficiency of solar cells. Now, researchers have taken a step further, demonstrating
that quantum dots with a built-in electric charge can increase the efficiency of InAs/GaAs
quantum dot solar cells by 50% or more. The researchers, Kimberly Sablon and John W. Little
(US Army Research Laboratory in Adelphi, Maryland), Vladimir Mitin, Andrei Sergeev, and
Nizami Vagidov (University of Buffalo in Buffalo, New York), and Kitt Reinhardt (AFOSR/NE
in Arlington, Virginia) have published their study on the increased solar cell efficiency in a
recent issue of Nano letters. In their study, the researchers studied heterostructure solar cells with
InAs/GaAs quantum dots. As photovoltaic materials, the quantum dots allow for harvesting of
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the infrared radiation to convert it into electric energy. However, the quantum dots also enhance
the recombination of photocarriers and decrease the photocurrent. For this reason, up to now the

improvement of photovoltaic efficiency due to quantum dots has been limited by several percent.
Here, the researchers have proposed to charge quantum dots by using selective interdot doping.
In their experiments, the researchers compared doping levels of 2, 3, and 6 additional electrons
per quantum dot, which resulted in photovoltaic efficiency increases of 4.5%, 30%, and 50%,
respectively, compared to an undoped solar cell. For the 6-electron doping level, that 50%
increase corresponds to an overall efficiency increase from 9.3% (for undoped solar cells) to
14%. The researchers attributed this radical improvement of the photovoltaic efficiency to two
basic effects. First, the built-in-dot charge induces various transitions of the electrons and
enhances harvesting of the infrared radiation. Second, the built-in-dot charge creates potential
barriers around dots and these barriers suppress capture processes for electrons and do not allow
them to return back into the dots. The effect of potential barriers has been previously used by the
researchers to improve the sensitivity of infrared detectors.
In addition, the researchers predict that further increasing the doping level will lead to an even
stronger efficiency enhancement, since there was no evidence of saturation. In the future, the
researchers plan to further investigate how these effects influence each other at higher doping
levels. They predict that further increasing the doping level and radiation intensity will lead to an
even stronger efficiency enhancement, since there was no evidence of saturation.
The methodology and principles developed during this research are applicable to a number of
photovoltaic devices with quantum dots and nanocrystals, such as polymer plastic cells and dyesensitized porous metal oxide Gratzel cells, Dr. Sergeev told PhysOrg.com. Effective
harvesting and conversion of infrared radiation due to optimized electron-hole kinetics in
structures with quantum dots and nanocrystals will lead to potential breakthroughs in the area of
solar energy conversion.

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CHAPTER 7

Quantum dot Photovoltaic


Quantum dots grown using colloidal synthesis can be dried into thin films. The application of the
colloidal solution containing the polymer to a metal nano mask consisting of an array of submicron holes allows near-field detection of any quantum dots that lie directly under a hole. While
the distribution of quantum dots in the film is random, variation of the quantum dot density is
easily achieved by dilution, enabling an optimum density for the mask hole size to be found. If
two or more quantum dots lie under a hole in the mask, they will be detected spectroscopic ally.
The use of a metal nano mask for this near-field detection enables the mask to be charged, which
in turn will apply an electric field to the quantum dots under observation. The application of such
an electric field will provide a means of continuously varying the coupling between quantum
dots, which is effectively the J-gate operation.
The possibility of quantum dots as dye replacements in dye sensitized solar cells has been
theoretically suggested. The size selective growth characteristic of quantum dots allows
absorption tuning. Potentially PbS could span the whole spectrum. Secondly emission at longer
wavelength is observed which could be utilized in a second absorbing layer.

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7.1 Quantum Dot Sentized Titania Solar Cell

We exploit the photovoltaic properties of quantum dots with plans to use them as dye
replacements in dye sensitized cells such as those designed by Gratzel. An advantage of QD`s is
that they are more stable than dyes of their crystalline nature. Also dyes have low efficiency due
to re-absorption whereas qd emission is red shifted away from absorption.

7.2 Cell Operation

Electron transport in the quantum dot sensitised titania solar cell.


A photon excites an electron in QD which is swept away by the in-built electric field into the
TiO2/SnO2 electrode and conducted around the circuit. At the Pt/SnO3 electrode the
electron is transferred into the electrolyte which acts as an electron shuttle to the QD.
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CHAPTER 8

Konarka's Technologies
Konarka is focused on the development and advancement of nano-enabled polymer photovoltaic
materials that are lightweight, flexible and more versatile than traditional solar materials.
Konarkas technology represents a new breed of coatable, plastic, flexible photovoltaic material
that can be used in many applications where traditional photovoltaic cannot compete. Konarka
has provided that breakthrough by developing photovoltaic cells on lower cost, lightweight,
flexible plastic substrates rather than on glass. Konarkas photovoltaic technology can utilize a
wider range of the light spectrum than conventional solar cells, visible and invisible light
sources, not just sunlight, can be used to generate power. Konarkas nanomaterials absorb
sunlight and indoor light. This light energy travels through the electrically active materials and a
series of electrodes and is converted into electrical energy. Konarkas unique photo reactive
materials can be printed or coated inexpensively onto flexible substrates using roll-to-roll
manufacturing, similar to how newspaper is printed on large rolls of paper. Just as newsprint can
include text, images, and a variety of colors, Konarkas photovoltaic materials can include a
range of colors and patterns. In addition, Konarkas materials can be produced with varying
degrees of translucency so they can be customized for use in new products and markets.
Konarkas manufacturing process enables production to scale easily and results in significantly
reduced costs over previous generations of solar cells. The process is environmentfriendly and
does not expose the materials to harmful high temperatures. Another significant advantage is that
it does not require the invention of a new factory to do this instead it can use existing coating
and printing machines and technologies. Finally, solar cells can be produced and used virtually
anywhere, enabling production even in regions where supporting infrastructure is generally
thought to be insufficient. solar power is four to ten times more costly to produce than electricity
from conventional power plants.For decades, solar-cell researchers have tried to develop cheaper
alternatives to silicon. The problem has been efficiency: other materials just dont generate
enough electricity.

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But Siemenss achievement earlier this year of the highest efficiency to date in plastic solar
cells could change that. The Siemens design combined two of the most important advances in
materials science in the past 30 years: electrically conducting polymers and buckyballs. The idea
of combining these materials to capture solar power first gained credence in the early 1990s,
when physicists Sariciftci and Alan Heeger at the University of California, Santa Barbara,
created primitive photovoltaic devices by pouring a solution of conducting plastic and buckyballs
onto a glass plate, spinning the plate to spread the solution into a film, and sandwiching the film
between electrodes. The conducting polymer absorbed photons, kicking off electrons that were
then attracted by the buckyballs and routed to an electrode. In short, the film acted like a solar
cell.Originally, the power output was meager (less than 1 percent of the energy of incoming
sunlight). But the principle of the printable solar cell was proved: you could layer a photovoltaic
material on a surface and make it work without complex preparations.

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CHAPTER 9

IMPROVEMENTS
Some of the obvious improvements include better light collection and concentration, which
already are employed in commercial solar cells. Significant improvements can be made in the
plastic, nanorods mix, too, ideally packing the nanorods closer together, perpendicular to the
electrodes, using minimal polymer, or even none-the nanorods would transfer their electrons
more directly to the electrode. In their first-generation solar cells, the nanorods are jumbled up in
the polymer, leading to losses of current via electron-hole recombination and thus lower
efficiency.
They also hope to tune the nanorods to absorb different colors to span the spectrum of sunlight.
An eventual solar cell has three layers each made of nanorods that absorb at different
wavelength.

CHAPTER 10

APPLICATIONS
1. Silicon possesses some nanoscale properties. This is being exploited in the development
of a super thin disposable solar panel poster which could offer the rural dwellers a
cheap and an alternative source of power. Most people living in remote areas are not
linked to national electricity grid and use batteries or run their own generator to supply
their power needs. Disposal solar panels can be made in thin sheets with about 6-10
sheets stacked together and made into a poster can help them to some extent in this
regard. This poster could be mounted behind a window or attached to a cabinet

2. Like paint the compound can also be sprayed onto other materials and used as portable
electricity.
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3. Any chip coated in the material could power cell phone or other wireless devices.

4. A hydrogen powered car painted with the film could potentially convert energy into
electricity to continually recharge the cars battery.

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5. One day solar farms consisting

of plastic materials could be rolled across deserts to

generate enough clear energy to supply the entire planets power needs

CHAPTER 11

ADVANTAGES
Plastic solar cells are quite a lot useful in the coming future. This is because of the

large

number of advantages it has got. Some of the major advantages are:


1. They are considered to be 30% more efficient when compared to conventional solar
cells.
2. They are more efficient and more practical in application.
3. Traditional solar cells are bulky panels. This is very compact.
4. Conventional solar cells are only used for large applications with big budgets. But the
plastic solar cells are feasible as they can be even sewn into fabric- thus having vast
applications.
5. Flexible, roller processed solar cells have the potential to turn the suns power into a
clean, green, consistent source of energy.

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CHAPTER 12

DISADVANTAGES
1. The biggest problem with this is cost effectiveness. But that could change with new
material. But chemists have found a way to make cheap plastic solar cells flexible enough
to paint onto any surface and potentially able to provide electricity for wearable
electronics or other low power devices.
2. Relatively shorter life span when continuously exposed to sunlight.
3. Could possibly require higher maintenance and constant monitoring.

CHAPTER 13

CONCLUSION
Plastic solar cells help in exploiting the infrared radiation from the suns rays. They are more
effective when compared to the conventional solar cell. The major advantage they enjoy is that
they can even work on cloudy days, which is not possible in the former. They are more compact
and less bulky. Though at present, cost is a major drawback, it is bound be solved in the near
future as scientists are working in that direction. As explained earlier, if the solar farms can
become a reality, it could possibly solve the planets problem of depending too much on the fossil
fuels, without a chance of even polluting the environment.

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REFERENCES
1. Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications: Edelstein, A. S., Cammarata R. C.,
Eds.; Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol and Philadelphia, 1996.
2. The Coming Era of Nanotechnology; 1987. Drexler, K. Eric, Doubleday; New York
3. A gentle introduction to the next big idea-Mark A. Ratner, Daniel Ratner.
4. Introduction to nanotechnology- Charles P Poole, Frank J Owens
5. The clean power revolution- Troy Helming
6. Solar energy-fundamentals, design, modeling, applications- G.N. Tiwari
7. Thin film solar cells next generation photovoltaic and its application- Y Hamakawa

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