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Mrs. Sukhada A. Unde

Miss.Revati Shriram

Department of Instrumentation,

Cummins College of Engineering for

Women,

Karve Nagar,Pune, India.

sukhadak23@gmail.com

Department of Instrumentation,

Cummins College of Engineering for

Women,

Karve Nagar,Pune, India

revatishriram@yahoo.com

EEG rhythms between brain areas. It could not reflect the

dynamic properties changing with time. Coherence analysis is

a method developed on base of classic coherence analysis and

signals joint time-frequency representations in recent years.

It was used to extract transient characteristics of interactions

among brain areas. It describes the temporal, spatial and

frequency relationships of brain activities. This paper discuss

the

frequency-varying

coherence

of

EEG

(Electroencephalogram) to study the coordination mechanism

of brain. The power spectral density is the frequency-varying

method to study the coordination mechanism of brain areas.

The Welch method and the periodogram method are the two

methods to study the power spectral density. The results

showed that appropriate methods were effective tools for EEG

to study the coordination between brain areas.

coherence method has been developed and applied to certain

cognitive task.[7]

In this paper we discuss about the power spectral density

which use to check the synchronization among the brain

areas. PSD describes how the power of a signal or time

series is distributed with the frequency.

II.

as follows,

A. 10-20 Placement Of Electrodes

The 10-20 system or International 1020 placement of

electrodes system is an internationally recognized method to

describe and to apply location of scalp electrodes in the

context of an EEG test or experiment. This method was

developed to ensure standardized reproducibility so,

subject's studies could be compared over time and subjects

could be compared to each other. This system is based on

the relationship between the location of an electrode and the

underlying area of the cerebral cortex. The "10" and "20"

refer to the actual distances between adjacent electrodes are

either 10% or 20% of the total frontback or rightleft

distance of the skull. Here EEG is capture using the 10-20

electrode placement system.[6]

spectral density(PSD), Synchronization.

I.

INTRODUCTION

proved to correspond with the activity of neural network

constructed by numerous neurons under cerebral cortex. It

can help neuroscientists to explore the functional partition

of cerebral cortex and the neuron cooperation mechanism

between different cerebral areas, which had become one of

the

major

concerns

in

neuroscience.

The

electroencephalogram (EEG) is a biological electric activity

generated by a large number of neurons, that is, it is a kind

of brain rhythm produced by numerous brain cells when

they are depolarized simultaneously.[4] This property

indicates the brain rhythms result from cooperation of large

amount of neurons by synchronization. Hence the

researchers can use the synchronization of EEG to study the

co-operation mechanism of neural network and reveal

brains temporal and also, spatial characteristics during the

cognitive task.

The coherence analysis is a kind of

study based on spectrum analysis, which can be describe the

synchronization of the brain electric activities of different

frequencies between brain areas. But the non stationary of

EEG data made the classic coherence analysis not able to

explore the dynamical properties of the brain rhythms.

Hence, on the basis of classic coherence analysis and

978-1-4799-3070-8/14 $31.00 2014 IEEE

DOI 10.1109/CSNT.2014.181

B. EEG File

EEG file (.EEG File) is file in which different channels

waveform are measured using 10-20 electrode placement

system. The EEG files are having either 16 channel

waveform or 32 channel waveform.The .EEG File is

extantion of EEG taken by EEG amplifier NeuroScan

C. Read in Matlab

The .EEG file cannot read directly in matlab for that

purpose Version 4.2.7 software is use in which EEG file is

export to excel file and then excel file is differentiated into

text document. The text document is then read in the matlab.

D. Power Spectral Density

Power spectral density, describes how the power of

signal or time series is distributed with frequency. Power

871

as a function of frequency. [5]That is, it shows that at which

frequencies variations are strong and at which frequencies

variations are weak. The unit of PSD is energy per

frequency and you can obtain energy within a specific

frequency range by integrating PSD within that frequency

range.

H. Coherent / Non-coherent

When the phase difference and amplitude ratio between

two signals remain unchanged, the coefficient equals 1, that

is, two signals are more coherent, otherwise trends to 0, that

is, two signals are non coherent. [3]Means, when two area

of brain are more synchronous to each other the result is

nearer to 1 that is, they are more coherent to each other,

otherwise non coherent means nearer to 0.

III.

A. Subjects

All subjects are right handed according to a self-report,

and free from neurological or psychiatric illness. All had

normal or corrected to normal visual acuity, and normal

color vision. Subjects were seated inside a dimly lit room at

the distance of approximately 100 cm from the screen.

EEG File

Read In Matlab

Welch Method

B. EEG recording

EEG activity was continuously recorded from scalp

using EEG amplifier NeuroScan with a 16-channel

electrode. All electrodes were referenced to linked electrode

placed on the left and right hemispheres. Electro-oculogram

(EOG) activity was recorded from four electrodes and used

as a guide to removal of eye movement artifacts and blinks.

Periodogram Method

Coherence Estimation

Power spectral density (PSD), describes how to the

power of a signal or time series is distributed with

frequency. Since signal with nonzero average power is not

square integrable, the Fourier transforms do not exist in this

case. The PSD is the Fourier transform of the

autocorrelation function of the signal. The power of a signal

in a given frequency band can calculated by integrating over

positive and negative frequencies. The definition of power

spectral density generalizes in a straight manner to finite

time series with 1nN,such as signal sampled at discrete

times xn = x(nt) for a total measurement period T = Nt.

Result-Coherent / Non-coherent

E. Welch Method

The power spectral density of the input signal vector

using Welch's averaged modified method of spectral

estimation. The power spectral density is calculated in units

of power per radians per sample.

F. Periodogram Method

The power spectral density estimate the input signal of

the sequence using a periodogram. The power spectral

density is calculated in units of power per radians per

sample. The corresponding vector of frequencies is

computed in radians per sample, and has the same length as

a input signal.

(1)

Equation (1), gives the equation for both methods.In a

real-world application, one would typically average the

single-measurement PSD on several repetitions of the

measurement to obtain more accurate estimate of

theoretical PSD of physical process underlying the

individual measurements.[5] This computed PSD sometimes

called periodogram. One can prove that the periodogram

converges to the true PSD when averaging time interval T

goes to infinity to approach the Power Spectral Density.

G. Coherence Estimation

The coherence analysis is a kind of study based on

spectrum analysis, which can be describe the

synchronization of brain electric activities of different

frequencies between brain areas.[1] But the non stationary

of EEG data made the classic coherence analysis not able to

explore the dynamical properties of the brain rhythms.

Hence, on the basis of classic coherence analysis and

signals time-frequency representations, time-varying

coherence methods had been developed and applied to

certain cognitive tasks or pathology and healing researches.

872

D. Coherence Analysis

The coherence analysis is a kind of study based on

spectrum analysis, which can be describe the

synchronization of brain electric activities of different

frequencies between brain areas. The coherence analysis is

based on the power spectrum estimation.[2] The coherence

between two signals x(t) and y(t) is a real-valued function

that is defined as, magnitude squared value of the crosspower spectrum divided by the product of power of the

spectra of both signals are completely correlated.

Equation (2) is a equitation for analysis of coherence of

EEG signals.

channel C4-P4 and channel F4-C4 is 0.9478..

B. Using Periodogram Method

The channel C4-P4 and channel F4-C4 are used to check

the feature extraction method, power spectral density using

periodogram method. The average value of PSD by

periodogram method of channel C4-P4 is 178.0053. The

average value of PSD by periodogram method of channel

F4-C4 is 172.4291. Also, the coherence is find out between

PSD using periodogram method of channel C4-P4 and

channel F4-C4. The average value of the coherence

between PSD by periodogram method of channel C4-P4 and

channel F4-C4 is 0.9375. Fig 3 is gives the channel C4-P4

and channel F4-C4, PSD by Welch method of channel C4P4 and channel F4-C4 and Coherence between PSD by

periodogram of channel C4-P4 and F4-C4.

(2)

Where,

Gxy - Cross-spectral density between x and y,

Gxx - Auto spectral density of x,

Gyy - Auto spectral density of y.

IV.

Channel C4-P4

500

0

-500

RESULT

500

0

-500

2

1

0

Channel C4-P4

500

0

-500

500

0

-500

10000

5000

0

10000

5000

0

1

0.5

0

500

500

50

1000

1500

2000

Channel F4 -C4

1000

1500

2000

PSD by pwelch of channel C4-P4

100

150

200

250

PSD by pwelch of channel F4-C4

2500

2500

300

50

100

150

200

250

300

Coherence between PSD by pwelch of channels C4-P4 and F4-C4

20

40

60

80

100

120

10000

5000

0

3000

1

0.5

0

3000

500

0

4

x 10

500

50

1000

1500

2000

Channel F4 -C4

1000

1500

2000

PSD by periodogram of channel C4-P4

100

150

200

250

PSD by periodogram of channel F4-C4

2500

3000

2500

3000

300

350

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Coherence between PSD by periodogram of channels C4-P4 and F4-C4

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

between PSD by periodogram of channel C4-P4 and F4-C4.

350

C. Accuracy

For power spectral density of signal channel C4-P4

using Welchs averaged, the window is deside a bartlett

window with 1000 length with overlapping 300 and nfft

600, the average value of PSD is 169.5701. The PSD

estimate computed using the modified periodogram method,

the window is desided a bartlett window with 2560 length

and nfft as 600. Here signal of channel C4-P4 is used and

the average value of PSD is 178.0053. From which both

methods are gives nearly same result, that is both methods

are more accurate methods for calculating the PSD for

channel C4-P4.

For power spectral density of signal channel F4-C4

using Welchs averaged,the window is deside a Bartlett

window with 1000 length with overlapping 300 and nfft

600. The average value of PSD is 157.7733. The PSD

estimate computed using the modified periodogram method,

the window is desided a bartlett window with 2560 length

and nfft as 600. Here signal of channel F4-C4 is used and

350

140

between PSD by welch of channel C4-P4 and F4-C4.

by welch method of channel C4-P4 and channel F4-C4 and

Coherence between PSD by welch of channel C4-P4 and

F4-C4. The channel C4-P4 and channel F4-C4 are used to

check the feature extraction method, power spectral density

using welch method. The average value of PSD by welch

method of channel C4-P4 is 169.5701. The average value

of PSD by welch method of channel F4-C4 is 157.7733.

Also, the coherence is find out between PSD using welch

method of channel C4-P4 and channel F4-C4. The average

873

sensitivity of instantaneous coherence for considering elementary

comparison processing. Part II: similarities and differences between

EEG and MEG coherences, International Journal of

Psychophysiology, vol. 31, 1999, pp. 241-259.

methods are gives nearly same result, that is both methods

are more accurate methods for calculating the PSD for

channel F4-C4.

V.

CONCLUSION

and are more sincronus to each other. The coherence of

welch between channel C4-P4 and channel F4-C4 and the

coherence of periodogram channel C4-P4 and channel F4C4 are more coherent to each other. The average value of

the coherence between PSD by welch method of channel

C4-P4 and channel F4-C4 is 0.9478 and the average value

of the coherence between PSD by periodogram method of

channel C4-P4 and channel F4-C4 is 0.9375, that is nearer

to 1 means these areas are more synchronous to each other.

EEG coherence analysis, an important tool for studying

high-level

processes, enables us to examine the

intermediate sub-processes of interaction among different

topographic areas and thus gives insights into the

investigation of the functional networks cooperation during

various processes.

Acknowledgment

This work is supported by Prof. A.D.Gaikwad, HOD of

Instrumentation and control Department, CCOEW, Pune

and Dr. Khambete, Principal, CCOEW, Pune. Last but not

the least we would like to express our gratitude

Dr.Shirbhate, Amravati for his full co-operation.

[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

[6].

[7].

``Coherence Analysis Of The Ongoing EEG By Means Of

Microstates Of Synchronous Oscillations'',IEEE(2001).

Xiaotong Wen, Kai Yin, Dongzhi Sun, Li Yao1, Xiaojie

Zhao, ``Application of Time-varying Coherence to

Coordinative Connectivity Based on Event Related

EEG''.{IEEE} 2007.

Xiaofeng Liu, Huan Qi, SupinWang, MingxiWan''Waveletbased estimation of EEG coherence during Chinese Stroop

task''Computers in Biology and Medicine 36 (2006).

References

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

Analysis Of The Ongoing EEG By Means Of Microstates Of

Synchronous Oscillations'',IEEE(2001).

Xiaotong Wen, Kai Yin, Dongzhi Sun, Li Yao1, Xiaojie Zhao,

``Application of Time-varying Coherence to Coordinative

Connectivity Based on Event Related EEG''.{IEEE} 2007.

Xiaofeng Liu, Huan Qi, SupinWang, MingxiWan''Wavelet-based

estimation of EEG coherence during Chinese Stroop task''Computers

in Biology and Medicine 36 (2006).

A book by Steven Pinker''How the Mind Works''.

Bahar Guntekin , Erol BasarA new interpretation of P300 responses

upon analysis of coherences(2010)..

Valer Jurcak, Daisuke Tsuzuki, and Ippeita Dan''10/20, 10/10, and

10/5 systems revisited: Their validity as relative head-surface-based

positioning systems.''(2007)

Robert W. Thatcher, Ph.D., Carl J. Biver, Ph.D. and Duane M. North,

MA.''EEG and Brain Connectivity: A Tutorial''2009.

X. Wen, X. Zhao, and L. Yao, Time-Frequency analysis of EEG

based on event related cognitive task, Lecture Notes in Computer

Science, vol. 3973 , 2006, pp. 579- 585.

C. Andrew, and G. Pfurtscheller, Event-related coherence as a tool

for

studying

dynamic

interaction

of

brain

regions,

Electroencephalography and clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 98, 1996,

pp. 144-148.

Valer Jurcak, Daisuke Tsuzuki, and Ippeita Dan''10/20,

10/10, and 10/5 systems revisited: Their validity as relative

head-surface-based positioning systems.''(2007)

Robert W. Thatcher, Ph.D., Carl J. Biver, Ph.D. and Duane

M. North, MA.''EEG and Brain Connectivity: A

Tutorial''2009.

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