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1

March 4, 2014

Acoustics ACTx

March 4, 2014

Expose 3D acoustic features in Mechanical without the need for APDL

Define acoustics properties

Apply acoustic boundary conditions & loads

Postprocess acoustic results

March 4, 2014

ACT allows customization in the Mechanical application :

Replace command snippets with interactive objects

Create customized Loads / BCs

Create customized Results

Ability to connect a third party solver in a standard Workbench process

ACT Acoustics extension is a customization made with ACT to integrate

ANSYS acoustics capabilities in Mechanical. The extension consists of one

XML file (Configures the UI content) and one python script (Implements

the extension functionality).

If you need more information about ACT please contact your sales

representative.

March 4, 2014

ANSYS Customer Portal

support.ansys.com

A library of helpful ACT extensions

available to any ANSYS customer

Roughly one dozen available

More being added continually

Extensions made available in either

binary format (.wbex file) or binary plus

scripted format (python and XML files)

Scripted extensions are great examples

Links to ACT documentation and training

material

Goals for an ACT developers forum

5

March 4, 2014

The Acoustics ACT Extension for ANSYS 15.0 is available for

download on the ACT Extension Library of the Customer Portal:

https://support.ansys.com/AnsysCustomerPortal/en_us/Downloads/Extens

ion+Library/ACT+Library

SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR ACS EXTENSIONS

regarding TECHNICAL ENHANCEMENTS AND CUSTOMER

SUPPORT (TECS): TECS is not included with the Program(s).

So to report an issue or provide your feedback in regards to

this extension please contact:

David Roche:

6

March 4, 2014

david.roche@ansys.com

Installing from WB Project page:

1. Select the Install Extension option

2. It will open a file dialog to select a *.wbex file

3. The extension is installed

be chosen.

7

March 4, 2014

ACT Acoustics extension can be used to create acoustic boundary

conditions and defining fluid bodies (elements & material

properties):

March 4, 2014

Introduction to

Acoustics

March 4, 2014

Applications

Acoustics is the study of the generation, propagation, absorption, and

reflection of sound pressure waves in a fluid medium. Applications for

acoustics include the following:

10

desired

Underwater acoustics

other similar devices.

Geophysical exploration

March 4, 2014

Acoustic Analysis

An acoustic analysis, available in the ANSYS Multiphysics and ANSYS

Mechanical programs only, usually involves modeling the fluid medium and

the surrounding structure. Typical quantities of interest are the pressure

distribution in the fluid at different frequencies, pressure gradient, particle

velocity, the sound pressure level, as well as, scattering, diffraction,

transmission, radiation, attenuation, and dispersion of acoustic waves.

An uncoupled acoustic analysis models only the fluid and ignores any fluidstructure interaction.

The program assumes that the fluid is compressible, but allows only relatively

small pressure changes with respect to the mean pressure. Also, the fluid is

assumed to be non-flowing.

The pressure solution is the deviation from the mean pressure, not the

absolute pressure.

11

March 4, 2014

Sound

Noise can be defined as " undesired sound or disagreeable.

From the acoustics point of view, sound and noise constitute the

same phenomenon of atmospheric pressure fluctuations about the

mean atmospheric pressure. The differentiation is greatly

subjective.

Sound (or noise) is the result of pressure variations, or oscillations,

in an elastic medium (e.g., air, water, solids), generated by a

vibrating surface, or turbulent fluid flow. Sound propagates in the

form of longitudinal (as opposed to transverse) waves, involving a

succession of compressions and rarefactions in the elastic medium.

When a sound wave propagates in air, the oscillations in pressure

are above and below the mean pressure.

12

March 4, 2014

Acoustics Variables

As sound propagates through air (or any elastic medium), it causes

measurable fluctuations in pressure, velocity, temperature and density. We

can describe the physical state in terms of mean (steady state) values and

small fluctuations about that mean.

For our purposes in acoustics and noise control, all we care about is the

fluctuating portion.

13

Physical

Quantity State

Variable Units

Pressure

Ptotal = P + p(r,t)

Pascals

Velocity

Utotal = U + u(r,t)

meters/second

Temperature

Ttotal = T + (r,t)

Celsius

Density

total = + (r,t)

kg/m3

March 4, 2014

Sound waves

The sound travels in space. There is energy transport but

there is no net transfer of mass. Each particle in the fluid

moves back and forth about one position. In general,

sound waves in any medium can be a mixture of

longitudinal and shear waves, depending primarily on

the boundary conditions.

Longitudinal Wave Simplest type of wave is compressional (or

longitudinal wave) where the particle oscillation is in the same

direction as the energy transport. The disturbance propagates in

the direction of the particle motion. This is the predominant

mechanism in fluids and gases because shear stresses are

negligible.

Shear Wave The particle motion direction is orthogonal

(perpendicular) to direction in which the disturbance (and the

energy) propagates. In solids, you can have transverse shear

and torsional waves. Bending waves (in a beam or plate), and

water waves are a mixture of shear and longitudinal waves.

14

March 4, 2014

Speed of sound

For a longitudinal wave in an unbounded medium, sound travels at a speed of c:

=

E = Youngs modulus for a solid material, or the bulk modulus for a fluid

= density of the material

V=Volume

essentially adiabatic conditions (no heat is transferred between adjacent gas

particles). Speed of sound then becomes:

=

15

March 4, 2014

Wave length

In acoustics we define the wavelength as the distance between

repeating features of the wave:

2

c

Pressure

Wavelength

0.9

-0.1

0

-1.1

10

12

Distance - x

f

Pressure

Period T

0.9

-0.1

0

-1.1

10

12

Time - t

16

March 4, 2014

Human response to sound is roughly proportional to the logarithm of sound

power. A logarithmic level (measured in decibels or dB) is:

=

louder sound.

Other quantities of interest in acoustics are the sound power level and the

sound pressure level.

17

March 4, 2014

The range of audible sound ranges from approximately 1

to 140 dB, although everyday sounds rarely rise above

about 120 dB. The chart below shows typical noise levels

of common noise sources.

Sound Sources

Jet Tackoff, Artillery fire

Qualitative Descriptions

Intolerable

140

Discotheque, Inside subway train

Noisy urban daytime

120

very noisy

100

noisy

80

Conversation at 1 meter

Quiet urban nighttime, whisper

Recording studio

18

March 4, 2014

60

quiet

40

very quiet

20

Frequency Weighting

The human ear responds more to frequencies

between 500 Hz and 8 kHz and is less sensitive

to very low-pitch or high-pitch noises. The

frequency weightings used in sound level

meters are often related to the response of

the human ear, to ensure that the meter is

measuring pretty much what you actually

hear.

The most common weighting that is used in

noise measurement is A-Weighting. Like the

human ear, this effectively cuts off the lower

and higher frequencies that the average

person cannot hear.

19

March 4, 2014

Directivity

Most sources do not radiate equally in all directions. Example a circular

piston in an infinite baffle (which is a good approximation of a loudspeaker).

Piston

where:

P = actual rms sound pressure at angle

PS = rms sound pressure of a uniform point source radiating the same total

power W as the actual source

20

March 4, 2014

All acoustic energy is dissipated into thermal energy.

Dissipation is often very slow and it can be ignored for small

distances or short times.

21

thin ducts, and small rooms)

is large). Here, the losses are associated with:

viscosity

heat conduction

March 4, 2014

A useful quantity in acoustics is impedance. It is a measure of the

amount by which the motion induced by a pressure applied to a surface

is impeded. Or in other words: a measure of the lumpiness of the

surface. Since frictional forces are, by and large, proportional to velocity,

a natural choice for this measure is the ratio between pressure and

velocity:

Z

p

u

p Z 0 c0

R

p

Z 0 c0

Z 0 c0

22

March 4, 2014

Sound Absorption

As sound strikes a wall, some of it is reflected, while some is absorbed by

the wall. A measure of that absorption is the absorption coefficient ,

defined as:

I

I

I

absorbed incident reflected

I incident

I incident

Incident

Transmitted

Reflected

some re-radiates from the other side. The amount of energy that gets into

the next room is quantified by the transmission coefficient:

I

transmited

I incident

porous materials,

panel resonators or

volume resonators

23

March 4, 2014

Quarter wave tubes are commonly used in applications such as air

intake induction system on engines, pump pulsation abatement, and

other narrow band noise mitigation applications. The length of a

quarter wave tube is a quarter of a wavelength of the noise it is tuned

to. The acoustic wave travels down the quarter wave tube and back,

travelling half the wavelength which in turn experiencing 180 degree

phase shift interfering with the incoming acoustic wave, destructively,

abating the target noise.

24

March 4, 2014

Helmholtz Resonator

Helmholtz resonator is a side branch acoustic absorber.

Its make-up consists of a rigid cavity communicating with the

external medium through a port (neck). The fluid in the

resembles a mechanical mass element. The pressure in the

cavity changes by the influx and efflux of fluid through the

neck, making the cavity to act as a spring element. The breakup of vortices created in the shear layer dissipates energy,

acting as a damper.

25

March 4, 2014

There are different ways to determine the impedance or

the absorption coefficient of a material:

26

March 4, 2014

absorbing material and a barrier material?

The two important noise-related quantities of a material are:

Ability to absorb acoustic energy -

Ability to reflect or block sound energy - STL or

Good absorbing materials allow sound pressure fluctuations to enter their

surface and dissipate energy by air friction. The are generally porous and

lightweight, such as fiberglass, open cell foam, or acoustical ceiling tiles. Good

barrier materials reflect sound, and are dense and nonporous (concrete, lead,

steel, brick, glass, gypsum board). In general, a single homogeneous material

will not be both a good absorber and a barrier. Fiberglass insulation makes a

terrible barrier, and a sealed concrete wall has virtually no absorption. To get

the best of both worlds, it is common to see an absorbing layer laminated to a

barrier material, for instance a layer of gypsum board and a layer of fiberglass,

or loaded vinyl laminated to open cell foam.

27

March 4, 2014

Boundary Conditions

There are three different types of boundary conditions in Acoustics:

Dirichlet condition:

Homogeneous (Open tube: Sound Soft Boundary): p 0

Inhomogeneous (Applied pressure): p P

Neumann condition:

Homogeneous (Closed tube: Sound Hard Boundary):

Inhomogeneous (Velocity excitation):

v V

p

0

x

v0

1 p

j x

x

to a rigid wall.

28

March 4, 2014

Sloshing

In fluid dynamics, slosh refers to the movement of liquid inside another

object (which is, typically, also undergoing motion). Strictly speaking,

the liquid must have a free surface to constitute a slosh

dynamics problem, where the dynamics of the liquid can interact with

the container to alter the system dynamics significantly.

Important examples include propellant slosh in spacecraft tanks

and rockets (especially upper stages), and cargo slosh in ships and

trucks transporting liquids (for example oil and gasoline).

29

March 4, 2014

Mode 1

30

Mode 2

Mode 3

Sloshing Modes

Analytical

Numerical

Mode 1

0.88 Hz

0.8819 Hz

Mode 2

1.05 Hz

1.0506 Hz

Mode 3

1.25 Hz

1.2496 Hz

Mode 4

1.32 Hz

1.3213 Hz

March 4, 2014

Mode 4

Terminology

The following common terms are used throughout this guide:

31

infinity in a constrained structure

Exterior problem: The sound wave radiates or is scattered into the infinite open space

Transparent port: An exterior surface on which incident pressure is launched into the

acoustic model and the reflected pressure wave is fully absorbed by a defined matched

impedance that represents the infinity

March 4, 2014

Governing Equations

32

March 4, 2014

Governing Equations

In acoustic fluid-structural interaction (FSI) problems, the structural dynamics

equation must be considered along with the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid

momentum and the flow continuity equation. The discretized structural

dynamics equation can be formulated using the structural elements. The fluid

momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations and continuity equations are simplified

to get the acoustic wave equation using the following assumptions:

33

March 4, 2014

Governing Equations

Since the viscous dissipation has been taken in account using the Stokes

hypothesis, the wave equation is referred to as the lossy wave equation

for propagation of sound in fluids. The discretized structural and the lossy

wave must be considered simultaneously in FSI problems.

The acoustic pressure exerting on the structure at the FSI interface will be

considered in Derivation of Acoustics matrices to form the coupling

stiffness matrix.

Harmonically varying pressure is given by:

pr , t Re pr e jt

equation:

34

March 4, 2014

Governing Equations

The finite element formulation is obtained by testing wave using

the Galerkin procedure. The wave equation is multiplied by

testing function w and integrated over the volume of the with

some manipulation to yield the following:

35

March 4, 2014

Governing Equations

From the equation of momentum conservation, the normal velocity on the

boundary of the acoustic domain is given by:

36

March 4, 2014

Governing Equations

The normal acceleration of the fluid particle can be presented using the

normal displacement of the fluid particle, given by:

37

March 4, 2014

Other terms are defined in Acoustic Fundamentals. The wave equation

can be written in matrix notation to create the following discretized

wave equation:

38

March 4, 2014

Analysis Types

39

March 4, 2014

Analysis Types

In Acoustics we can currently perform three different types

of analysis:

well as vibro-acoustic simulation.

40

March 4, 2014

Modal Analyses

and standing wave patterns within a structure

with structure (FSI)

eigensolvers are available

shows standing

wave patterns in

an acoustic cavity

41

March 4, 2014

42

system as a function of frequency based on volumetric flow

rate or pressure excitation

shown on right.

March 4, 2014

Transient Analyses

43

response of system

phenomenon on left, acoustic waves generated from offshore

pile driving on right (courtesy of MENCK)

March 4, 2014

Acoustic Material

Properties

44

March 4, 2014

The wave equation resolved in acoustic simulation

requires mass density and sound velocity of the fluid

media.

Thus these properties have to be inputted for the

acoustic domains. An acoustic domain is defined with the

Acoustic Body object. Man can then scope the bodies

representing the fluid domain and input the mass density

and the sound velocity:

MP,,DENS & MP,,SONC

45

March 4, 2014

Acoustic Viscosity

Viscosity is the degree to which a fluid resists flow. The acoustic

media can sometimes be viscous (water, oil). In this case the

wave equation must be modified to include the bulk viscosity

term.

Governing equation

Momentum and mass conservation equation

va

4

0

pa ( B )( va )

0 va

t

1 2 pa

4

1 pa

( pa )

(

)] 0

2

2

2

0

0c0 t

30 0c0 t

1

46

March 4, 2014

Acoustic Viscosity

as illustrated below:

Transmission Loss

40

30

20

No Viscosity

10

Viscosity

0

500

1000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

properties of the Acoustics Body:

47

March 4, 2014

It is possible to define temperature varying material properties.

In this goal you can set the Temperature Dependency of the

Acoustics Body to Yes. Thus the material properties will

become tabular data as illustrated below:

48

March 4, 2014

Media

49

March 4, 2014

The speed of sound is variable and depends on the properties of the

substance through which the wave is travelling. In fluids, only the

medium's compressibility and density are the important factors.

Adiabatic compressibility is directly related to

pressure through the heat capacity ratio

(adiabatic index), and pressure and density are

inversely related at a given temperature and

composition, thus making only the latter

independent properties (temperature,

molecular composition, and heat capacity ratio)

important. At a constant temperature, the ideal

gas pressure has no effect on the speed of

sound, because pressure and density (also

proportional to pressure) have equal but

opposite effects on the speed of sound, and the

two contributions cancel out exactly.

50

March 4, 2014

In non-uniform acoustic media the mass density and sound speed vary

with the spatial position.

The wave equation in lossless media is written by:

1

1

2 p

Q

(

(

p)

2

)

0 (r )

0 (r )c (r ) t 2

t 0 (r )

According to the ideal gas law the equation of state and the speed of

sound in an ideal gas are given by:

c 2 (r ) RT (r )

Pstate (r ) (r ) RT (r )

51

March 4, 2014

Assuming the density 0 and sound speed c0 at the reference

temperature T0 (inputted as the Environment Temperature) and the

reference static pressure (inputted in the properties of the Acoustics

Body) casts the density and sound speed in media as follow:

c( x) c0

52

March 4, 2014

T ( x)

T0

pstate ( x) 0T0

; ( x)

T ( x) pstate , 0

Man can see the evolution of the sound speed in the

acoustic media for a spatial variation of the temperature of

the fluid:

53

March 4, 2014

affects propellant properties. Modal analysis

predicts correct results

C.L. Oberg, N.W. Ryan, A.D. Baer, A Study of T-Burner

Behavior, AIAA Journal, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp 1131-1137.

54

March 4, 2014

The thermal condition can be applied on bodies using the Acoustics

Temperature object available in the Loads drop down menu :

The static pressure can be applied on bodies using the Acoustics Static

Pressure object available in the Loads drop down menu :

55

March 4, 2014

Mesh Requirement

56

March 4, 2014

Meshing Guidelines

The mesh should be fine enough to capture the mode shapes of the

structure.

For linear elements, at least 12 elements per wavelength are needed,

while 6 elements per wavelength are needed for quadratic elements.

Wavelength:

c

f

(nonconformed mesh not supported for acoustic domains).

57

March 4, 2014

Solving Fluid-Structure

Interaction (FSI)

58

March 4, 2014

If you want to take into account the fluid-structure interaction (pressure

waves generated by the structure vibration or/and structure deformation

due to fluid pressure) you can use coupled acoustic analysis.

Then the interaction of the fluid and the structure at a mesh interface

causes the acoustic pressure to exert a force applied to the structure and

the structural motions produce an effective "fluid load." The governing

finite element matrix equations then become:

The analyses available with FSI are modal (symmetric & unsymmetric

algorithm), harmonic (symmetric & unsymmetric algorithm) and transient

(unsymmetric algorithm).

59

March 4, 2014

The interaction of the fluid and the structure at a mesh interface causes the

acoustic pressure to exert a force applied to the structure and the structural

motions produce an effective "fluid load." The governing finite element matrix

equations then become:

[R] is a "coupling" matrix that represents the effective surface area associated

with each node on the fluid-structure interface (FSI). The coupling matrix [R]

also takes into account the direction of the normal vector defined for each

pair of coincident fluid and structural element faces that comprises the

interface surface. The positive direction of the normal vector, as the program

uses it, is defined to be outward from the fluid mesh and in towards the

structure. Both the structural and fluid load quantities that are produced at

the fluid-structure interface are functions of unknown nodal degrees of

freedom. Placing these unknown "load" quantities on the left hand side of the

equations and combining the two equations into a single equation produces

the following:

The foregoing equation implies that nodes on a fluid-structure interface have

both displacement and pressure degrees of freedom.

60

March 4, 2014

There are different approaches to define acoustic structure coupling

depending of the vibro-acoustic analysis:

For modal analyses: Uncoupled, Coupled with symmetric algorithm,

Coupled with Unsymmetric algorithm

For harmonic analyses: Uncoupled, Coupled with symmetric algorithm,

Coupled with Unsymmetric algorithm

For transient analyses: Uncoupled, Coupled with Unsymmetric algorithm

The default approach is to use unsymmetric matrices but in V13 we

introduced a more efficient symmetry formulation (for modal and harmonic).

With unsymmetric matrices we required twice of much memory because we

need to store the full matrix and not only the upper triangular half so the

memory required doubled and also the CPU time increases maybe about 1.5

time. So with the symmetric formulation this allow to maintain the symmetric

nature of the matrices so the memory requirement doesnt double and the

CPU time doesnt increase.

61

March 4, 2014

Symmetric formulation:

All the elements in the model must use the symmetric formulation

Unsymmetric formulation:

formulations. The best solution here in terms of number of DOF to

compute is to create a single of layer of elements using unsymmetric

algorithm at the FSI boundary and use uncoupled algorithm for all

other elements.

62

March 4, 2014

The coupling algorithm is chosen in the properties of

the Acoustic Body depending on the analysis type:

63

March 4, 2014

The FSI interfaces correspond to the acoustic domain faces in contact

with structure bodies (where pressure are transferred to the structure).

The acoustic Fluid-Structure interface can be identified using the FSI

Interface object available in the Boundary Conditions drop down

menu.

Its worth noting that if no FSI flags defined, MAPDL solver will try to

automatically detect FSI surfaces. However, its good practice to define

FSI manually.

64

March 4, 2014

The displacements of the structure can be transferred to the

fluid domain using a connected mesh or contact regions.

Please note that when you perform vibroacoustic analyses,

it is strongly recommended to use a multibody part

definition rather than contact.

Also, the acoustic fluid side should generally be the contact

side. MPC contact works better than penalty-based,

although if you have Contact Regions sharing an edge, you

can get overconstraints. That is why using a multibody part

is best to get accurate results.

65

March 4, 2014

Automatic creation of

boundary conditions

66

March 4, 2014

scoped on all faces used by contact regions and belonging to

the defined acoustic bodies (Fluid-Structure interface faces of

the acoustics side when contact is used between acoustic and

structural domains).

67

March 4, 2014

Automatic creation of BC

This tool is used to automatically

create boundary conditions & loads based of the existing named

selections. When the button is pressed its checked for each

named selection if it contains one of the following keyword. If its

the case the corresponding object is created scoped on this named

selection.

Keyword

acousticbody

normalvelocity

normalacceleration

masssource

massrate

surfacevelocity

surfaceacceleration

staticpressure

impsheet

temperature

pressure

impedance

thermovisc

free

fsi

radiation

absorbingelem

attenuation

plot

68

Corresponding Object

Acoustic Body

Normal Surface Velocity

Normal Surface Acceleration

Mass Source

Mass Source Rate

Surface Velocity

Surface Acceleration

Static Pressure

Impedance Sheet

Temperature

Acoustic Pressure

Impedance Boundary

Thermo-viscous BLI Boundary

Free Surface

FSI Interface

Radiation Boundary

Absorbing Elements

Attenuation Surface

Acoustic Time_Frequency Plot

March 4, 2014

Applications

69

March 4, 2014

Underwater Example

70

March 4, 2014

Speaker Example

71

March 4, 2014

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