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Bibliografia anotada de fuentes con interes para la etnologia y ethnohistoria de

los Panos setentrionales (Matses, Matis, Korubo).


por : Philippe Erikson, antroplogo, Universit de Paris X-Nanterre, Francia.
<erikson@u-paris10.fr>

Sommaire:
I. Les Mayoruna dantan
I.1. Sources anciennes (XVII-XVIIIme sicles)
I.2. Voyageurs Scientifiques (XIXme sicle)
I.3. Sources du dbut du XXme sicle
I.4. Recherches ethno-histoiriques
II. Epoque contemporaine : "premiers contacts"
II.1. Histoire du contact (matses)
II.2. Histoire du contact (matis, korubo)
II.3. Indignisme, bilans critiques
II.4. Explorateurs, journalistes
II.5. Romans, Rcits
III. Recherches en linguistique et didactique
III.1. Linguistique matses (travaux du SIL)
III.2. Linguistique matses & matis (travaux universitaires)
III.3. Matriaux didactiques
III.4. Education bilingue
IV. Recherches ethnologiques
IV.1. Ethnologie des Pano septentrionaux (travaux de synthse)
IV.2. Ethnologie matses (travaux universitaires)
IV.3. Ethnologie matses (travaux du SIL)
IV.4. Ethnologie des Mayoruna de Marajai
IV.5. Ethnologie matis
V. Filmographie

Introduction
Les Pano septentrionaux, descendants des peuples quon appelait autrefois Barbudos ou
Mayorunas, vivent aujourdhui des deux cts de la frontire qui spare le Prou et le Brsil, sur
les deux rives du rio Javari et certains de ses affluents, tels les Galvez, le Choba, le Tapiche,
lItui et lItacoai. Les Matses (environ 1000 au Prou, 500 au Brsil) constituent la fraction la
plus nombreuse et la plus reprsentative de cet ensemble qui comprend aussi le groupe connu
comme Matis au Brsil (220 personnes), ainsi que ses voisins Korubo (estims 300
personnes), avec lesquels des contacts pacifiques nont commenc tre tablis qu partir de
1996. Il est probable quune partie des populations qui vivent encore isoles dans le Vale do
1

Javari (Maya, Kapishtos, Flecheiros..) relvent galement de ce conglomrat. Dautres de ses


fractions se sont au contraire plus ou moins fondues dans la population rgionale. Tel est le cas
des Kulina-Pano qui vivent aujourdhui avec les Marubo, ou des Mayorunas du Marajai,
dplacs trs loin de leurs terres dorigine au dbut de sicle, et qui rsident aujourdhui prs de
Tef (au Brsil) o ils ne parlent pratiquement plus que le portugais.
Bien que chacun des groupes prcits soit politiquement indpendant et distinct des
autres, leurs membres nen partagent pas moins le sentiment dappartenir un ensemble
culturellement et linguistiquement homogne. Un de mes compagnons Matis, interrog sur la
question, affirma qu'anciennement, tous ces groupes vivaient sur une seule rivire et ne se sont
que rcemment segments. Ils taient donc tous des kush, des ramifications , dun mme
ensemble. Un Matses qui avait particip aux premiers contacts avec les Korubo, lorsque je
linterviewai sur ce sujet, me tint un discours comparable. Il insista sur la facilit avec laquelle
les Korubo, les Matis et les Matses parviendraient, selon lui, communiquer. Il leur suffirait
demployer le langage cod des signes de piste, qu'il pensait connus de chacun des trois groupes
bien qu'ils soient ignors des autres amrindiens de la rgion tels les Marubo.
Les possibilits de communication entre les Pano septentrionaux prennent aujourdhui
une tournure concrte grce lusage frquent de la radio, qui ne fait videmment que renforcer
les liens entre ces diffrents groupes. Les Matses du Prou communiquent rgulirement avec
ceux du Brsil, et ont mme quelques contacts radiophoniques avec les Matis. Dans ce mme
esprit, la bibliographie qui suit englobera galement toutes les ramifications des Pano
septentrionaux. La plupart des rfrences ont t extraites de la bibliographie pano gnrale
publie sous ma direction en 1994 (Philippe Erikson, Bruno Illius, Kenneth Kensinger & Maria
Sueli de Aguiar : Kirikonbaon Kirika, Gringos books , an annotated Panoan Bibliography,
148 pp., Chantiers Amerindia, supplment 1 au n19 de la revue Amrindia), dont une version
mise jour est dsormais diffuse sur internet: <http://www.u-paris10.fr./bibethno>.
La bibliographie prsente ci-dessous a t classe par thmes, rpartis en trois parties.
La premire concerne les sources anciennes (missionnaires, chroniqueurs, voyageurs) et les
crits consacrs lanalyse de ces sources. La seconde partie concerne la vie politique des
groupes contemporains, des premiers contacts nos jours. La troisime, enfin, prsente les
recherches linguistiques et ethnologiques.
Cette bibliographie ne prtend pas tre exhaustive, par manque de place, et surtout parce
que lexhaustivit, en matire de bibliographe, est souvent illusoire et toujours phmre.
Cependant, sil ne manque pas trop de rfrences lappel, cest grce laide de nombreux
collgues et amis que je remercie pour ce quon pourrait appeler leur altruisme bibliophile.
(Jespre que Jean-Pierre Chaumeil, Eliane Camargo, Edilene Coffaci de Lima, Jean-Pierre
Goulard, Kevin Groark, Jim Matlock, Bruno Illius, Erling Sderstrm, Pilar Valenzuela et
quelques autres se seront reconnus).
** * * *
I. Les Mayoruna dantan
I.1. Sources anciennes (XVII-XVIIIme sicles) :
Bien que lexistence des Barbudos ou Mayorunas ait tout dabord t signale (ds
le XVI sicle) par les chroniqueurs dexpditions de conqute, lessentiel de nos connaissances
relatives au pass lointain de ces populations proviennent des crits des missionnaires. Laire
qui nous intresse ayant surtout t domine par les jsuites, les sources prolifrent surtout aprs
lexpulsion de leur ordre en 1768. Les pres durent alors troquer la machette pour la plume,
pour la plus grande joie des ethno-historiens du futur.

AMICH, Jos (OFM), 1988, Historia de las Misiones del Convento de Santa Rosa de Ocopa, 590pp.,
Monumenta Amaznica, CETA/IIAP, Iquitos. [Best modern edition of this important study,
written in the second half of the XVIIIth century, originally published in 1854, including an
introduction, appendices & index by J. Heras. Mayoruna described pp.124, 298, & 302.]
ARISTIO, 1791, Peregrinacin por los rios Maraon y Ucayali a los pueblos de Manoa, Mercurio
Peruano, III:49-66. [Ucayali tribes; Mayoruna.]
CHANTRE Y HERRERA, Jos, 1901, Historia de las Misiones de la Compaa de Jesus en el Maraon
espanol (1637-1767), 606pp., Imprenta A. Avril, Madrid. [Late XVIIIth century of exiled
missionaries' accounts; important ethno-historical source; includes Father Veigl's map.]
FIGUEROA, Francisco de, 1986, Informe de las Misiones en el Maraon, Gran Para o rio de las
Amazonas, por el P. Francisco de Figueroa, 1661, Informe de Jesuitas en el Amazonas, col.
Monumenta Amaznica, B1, IIAP, CETA, Iquitos. [Essential ethno-historical source; previously
published in 1904; voir en particulier les chapitres 8 et 9 sur San Ignacio de los Barbudos
Mayorunas et San Xavier de los Aguanos (pp.212-225), qui regorgent dinformations
ethnographiques.]
FRITZ, Samuel, 1922, Journal of the Travels and Labours of Father Samuel Fritz in the River of the
Amazonas between 1686 and 1723, The Haklyut Society, Second Series, LI, Londres.
[Published by G. Edmundson; Portuguese translation: Revista do Instituto HistricoGeogrfico, 353-397, 1918.]
FUENTES, Manuel Atanasio, ed., 1861-64, Biblioteca Peruana de historia, ciencias, y literatura.
Coleccin de escritos del anterior y presente siglo de los mas acreditados autores peruanos, 9
vol., Lima. [Compilation of the principal works published in the Mercurio Peruano, 1791-1795;
important ethno-historical source.]
IJURRE, Manuel, 1841-5, Resumen de los viajes a las montaas de Mainas, Chachapoyas y para
presentada y dedicada al Exmo Senor Don Ramon Castilla, Presidente de Peru (1841-45).
[Also in Larrabure y Correa t.VI:276-412, p:362sq.= Mayoruna.]
IZAGUIRRE, Fray Bernardino, 1922-1929, Historia de las misiones franciscanas y narracin de los
progresos de la geografa en el oriente del Peru; relatos originales y producciones en lenguas
indgenas de varios misioneros, 1619-1921, 14 vol., Talleres Grficos de la Penitenciaria, Lima.
[Collection of essays and original documents by various authors; probably the single most
important source for Panoan ethnohistory.]
JIMENEZ DE LA ESPADA, Marcos, 1889, Noticias autnticas del famoso rio Maraon y misin
apostlica de la Compaa de Jesus de la provincia de Quito en los dilatados bosques de dicho
rio. Escribales por los aos de 1738 un misionero de la misma compaa y las publica ahora
por la primera vez Marcos Jimenez de la Espada. [This important work probably written by
Maroni (see under name) has also been published in: Boletn de la Sociedad Geogrfica de
Madrid, XXVI-XXXIII, 1889-92.]
JOUANEN, Jos, 1941, Historia de la Compaia de Jesus en la Antigua Provincia de Quito 1570-1774,
Editorial Ecuatoriana, Quito. [Mayoruna data in tomo I: La Viceprovincia de Quito 1570-1696.]
LA CONDAMINE, Charles de, 1751, Relation abrge d'un voyage dans l'intrieur de l'Amrique
Mridionale, Mmoires de l'Acadmie de Paris. [Excerpts reprinted in 1981: Voyage sur
l'Amazone, 1743-1744, Maspero, Paris.]
LARRABURE Y CORREA, Carlos, 1905-09, Coleccin de Leyes, Decretos, Resolucines y otros
documentos oficiales referentes al Departamento de Loreto, 18 vol., Imprenta La Opinin
Nacional, Lima. [Important collection of texts, totalling above 10.000 pages ; of special
interest : Descripcin de las Misiones del Rio Ucayali, pp.257-265, t.XIV.]
MAGNIN, R.P. Jean, 1993 [1742], Chroniques d'un chasseur d'mes. Description de la Province et des
Missions de Maynas..., Editions de l'Hbe, Fribourg. [Magnin, missionary among the Yameos
for some ten years, had first-hand knowledge of the Upper Amazon, and wrote well. The first
half of this text had been published in Spanish by Bayle in 1940 (Revista de Indias, 1, Madrid).
Th. Henkel now presents it in extenso, with a useful index, notes and comments.]
MARONI, Pablo, 1988, Noticias Autnticas del Famoso Rio Maraon (1738), seguidas de las
Relaciones de los PP A. de Zarate y J. Magnin (1735-1740), 565p., Monumenta Amaznica,
IIAP-CETA, Iquitos. [One of the most important ethno-historical sources on Maynas missions;

introduction by J-P. Chaumeil; reproduces maps of Fritz and Brentano/Torre; useful index;
previously published by Jimenez de la Espada, 1889.]
MAURTUA, Victor M., ed., 1906, Juicio de lmites entre el Peru y Bolivia, prueba peruana presentada
al gobierno de la Republica Argentina por..., 12 vol., Barcelona & Madrid. [Very useful
collection of official chronicles and documents (often previously unpublished), many of which
deal with Panoans; t.8-12, dealing with missions and forest regions, are of special interest. 58
maps.]
MAURTUA, Victor M., ed., 1907, Juicio de lmites entre el Peru y Bolivia; Contestacin al Alegato de
Bolivia, 7 vol., Imprenta Kraft, Buenos Aires.
MEDINA, J.T., 1934, The Discovery of the Amazon according to the account of Friar Gaspar de
Carvajal and other documents, American Geographical Society, Special Publication N17, N.Y.
[Mentions Mayoruna military success against riverine Tupi (p.190) apud Romanoff; also
includes narratives of Maldonado's, Acuna's, and other expeditions; Spanish translation in
Bogota, 1942.]
REQUENA, Francisco, 1900, Lybro de Correspondencia de Officio, Revista de Archivos y Bibliotecas
Nacionales, (Lima), IV:163-382. [XVIIth century source on first contacts with the Barbudos.]
RIVA HERRERA, M. DE LA, 1900, Relacin de los descubrimientos y Conquistas, Revista de Archivos y
Bibliotecas Nacionales, (Lima), IV:35-161. [Probably one of the earliest references to the
Barbudos.]
URIARTE, P.M., 1986, Diario de un misionero de Maynas, Monumenta Amaznica, IIAP, CETA,
Iquitos. [texte de 1771 ; nombreuses donnes sur les Mayoruna, signales aux pp.662 & 663 de
lindex]
VEIGL, Fr.-X, 1785, "Grndliche Nachrichten ber die Verfassung [sic] der Landschaft von Maynas in
Sd-Amerika, bis zum Jahre 1768", in Ch. G. von Murr, ed., Reisen einiger Missionarien der
Gesellschaft Jesu in America, Nremberg. [Ethnographic notes by Jesuit. Mayoruna described
pp.87-88; Veigl's famous map was also published in Chantre y Herrera, 1901.]
VELASCO, Juan de, 1941 [1770], Historia moderna del reyno de Quito y crnica de la provincia de la
Compaa de Jesus del mismo Reyno, Biblioteca Amazonas, Quito. [Mayoruna missions
discussed in t.III.]
*****
I.2. Voyageurs Scientifiques (XIXme sicle) :
Au XIX sicle, les voyageurs (naturalistes, scientifiques, explorateurs et membres de
commissions de limites) prennent le relai des missionnaires comme principales sources
dinformations sur le Haut-Amazone. Bien que leurs connaissances soient gnralement bien
plus superficielles que celles des missionnaires, puisquils ne font que passer, leur uvre nen
demeure pas moins intressante en raison du projet scientifique qui lanime. Certains de ces
auteurs (Martius, Marcoy) ont eu loccasion de recueillir des lexiques, ainsi que quelques
observations ethnographiques.
Les grandes collections de textes (Maurtua, Izaguirre, Larrabure y Correa), bien que
places dans la section prcdente, contiennent galement des documents du plus grand intrt
relatifs au XIX sicle.
BERNARDINO DA SOUZA, Francisco, 1874, Commisso do Madeira, Rio de Janeiro. [Mayoruna source
according to Nimuendaj.]
CASTELNAU, Francis de, 1850-59, Expdition dans les parties centrales de l'Amrique du Sud, de Rio
de Janeiro a Lima, et de Lima au Para; excute par ordre du Gouvernement franais pendant
les annes 1843 a 1847, Paris, 14 vol. [Important traveller; fine iconography.]
ERNST, Adolf, 1872, Menschen und Pflanzen in der peruanischen Provinz Loreto, Globus, XXI. [Data
on the Sakuya-Remo, Mayorunas, Amahuacas, Conibo, Setebos, Sipibos and Cashibos on p.47.]
ESPINAR, E., 1905, Informe sobre el ro Yavari, pp.410-418, in Larrabure y Correa, t.III.

MARCOY, Paul, 1869, Voyage de l'Ocan Pacifique l'Ocan Atlantique travers l'Amrique du Sud,
2 vol., 695pp., Hachette, Paris. [Includes 626 engravings by E. Riou (one depicting a Mayoruna
couple) & 20 maps; English translation in 1875; Spanish translation and scholarly preface by
J.P. Chaumeil, Monumenta Amaznica, IIAP/CETA, Iquitos, 1989; certainly one of the most
enlightening XIXth century travellers.]
MARTIUS, Karl Friedrich Philipp von, 1867, Beitrge zur Ethnographie und Sprachenkunde Amerika's
zumal Brasiliens, 2.vol., 1382pp., Leipzig. [Vol.1: Main concern is identification and location of
tribes (according to own observations and literature), classification in "families" (linguistic and
other criteria mixed). Little ethnographic information. Some on Mayoruna pp.427-431; other
Panoans: p.435-437. Vol.2: pp.236-244: original word lists, all Latin/Panoan, by Spix:
"Maxuruna", 138 entries; Culino, 245 entries. From other sources: "Mayoruna domestica", 54
entries, "Mayoruna fera", 80 entries (both by Castelnau); "Jaunavo or Caripuna", 163 entries (by
Natterer). Also see Spix & Martius.]
MARTIUS, Carl Friedrich Philipp von, 1994, Brasiliansche Reise 1817-1820, Carl Friedrich Philipp
von Martius zum 200. Geburtstag, 282pp., Hirmer Verlag, Mnchen. [Beautifully illustrated
exposition catalogue; p.265: original sketch of a the portrait of a "Maxuruna man" which
inspired several well-known lithographs, one (in color) by Ph. Schmid shown p.59; this sketch
indicates lips were probably tattooed rather than pierced as suggested by the artistic rendering,
probably influenced by Mundurucu mummified heads; pp.264-267: Mayoruna and Culino
artefacts, some quite remarkable (especially engraved spears); pp.131-133: discussion
concerning Mayoruna ethnicity in the XIXth century by K-P. Kstner.]
OSCULATI, Gaetano, 1850, Esplorazione delle regioni equatoriali lungo il Napo ed il fiume delle
Amazzoni. Framento di un viaggio fatto nelle Due Americhe negli anni 1846-7-8, Milan.
[Reprint in 1929 as v.VII/VIII of: Viaggi e Scoperte di Navigatori, Ed. Esporatori Italiani, 1929;
a well-known source on Mayoruna anthropophagy.]
PESSOA, Ruy, 1987, A reexplorao do Rio Javari: Expedico Cunha Gomes de 1897, Senado Federal,
Brasilia.
SPIX, Johann Baptist VON & Carl Friedrich Philipp VON MARTIUS, 1823-31, Reise in Brasilien auf
Befehl Sr. Majestt Maximilian Joseph I. Knigs von Baiern in den Jahren 1817 bis 1820 , 4
vol., Munich. [Scattered remarks on Mayoruna and Culino on pp.1181-1196 of vol.3; vol 4.
(Atlas), holds famous portrait of "Maxuruna" man (plate 13); maps. Reprint in Stuttgart, 1967;
also see Martius.; English translation: 1824; Portuguese translation, Itatiaia/Universidade de So
Paulo, 1981.]
SPRUCE, R., 1908 [1836], Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and the Andes, 2 vol., 1124p., London.
[Brief annotations about the Mayoruna.]
TEFF, Baro de, 1888, Episodios da viagem de exploraco as vertentes do famoso rio javary, affluente
meridional do alto amazonas, realisado pelo B. de Teffe, Janeiro a Maio de 1874 (Commissin
de limites), Revista da Sociedade de Geografia do Rio de Janeiro, IV:169-188. [Describes
hostile encounters on the Javari, in which Mayoruna courage and agressivity are emphasized.
Teffe's text was actually published by de Antonio Paula FREITAS, rather than under his own
name.]
WILKENS DE MATOS, Joo, 1870, Relatrios etc. (sic), Manaus. [Mentions Mayoruna apud
Nimuendaj.]
WILKENS DE MATOS, Joo, 1874, Dicionario Topogrfico do Departamento de Loreto, Tipografia
Comercio do Para. [Reprint IIAP-CEPA, Iquitos, 1984, 143pp.; each entry (among which
Amawaka, Kapanuanas, Kashibo, Marubos, Mayorunas e Kakataibo) followed by short
comments; equates Marubos of Maucallada with Mayoruna.]
*****
I.3. Sources du dbut du XXme sicle
Il existe fort peu dcrits concernant les Mayoruna de la premire moiti du XXme,
poque o on les confondait volontiers avec les Capanahua au Prou et, au Brsil, avec les
Marubo. Le peu quon ait pu rpertorier est numr ci-dessous.

ALVIANO, (Frei) Fidelis de, 1931, [according to a paper in New Scientist, Nov. 11, 1995, signed by
Marcus Chown, Alviano wrote a report in l'Osservatore Romano describing the impact of three
house-sized pieces of space debris fallen in August 1930 on the lower Curua, a right bank
affluent of the Yavari, in the heart of Mayoruna territory. Based on interviews with shocked
locals, Alviano describes the sun turning blood red, sudden darkness, fine white ash raining,
followed by an ear-piercing whistle. Then, three balls of fire streaked across the sky and
exploded, creating earthquake-like shocks, heard hundreds of km away, and causing the forest to
burn for months afterwards.]
ALVIANO, (Frei) Fidelis de, 1957-8, Ensaios da Lingua dos Indios Magironas ou Maiorunas do Rio
Jandiatuba (Pano), Revista do Instituto Histrico e Geogrfico Brasileiro, 237:43-60. [Brief
history and short, messy lexicon of a now extinct Mayoruna sub-group probably closely related
to the Matis and the Korubo.]
CARVALHO, Joo Braulino de, 1931, Breve Noticia sobre os Indgenas que habitam a fronteira do
Brasil com o Peru, Boletim do Museu Nacional de Antropologa, VII:225-256. [Very sketchy
cultural data regarding: Cachinaua (pp.225-230), Poianaua (pp.231-233 + vocabulary
pp.242-245), Coronaua (p.248), Marinaua (p.249), Jaminaua (p.249), Xaranaua (p.249),
Tutxiunaua (p.249 + vocabulary pp.250-252), Maiu (p.252), Capanaua (p.252), Marubiu (sic,
p.252)), & Remo (pp.253 + vocabulary pp.254-256).]
CARVALHO, Jos Cndido de Melo, 1955, Notas de viagem ao Javari-Itacoai-Juru, Publicaes
Avulsas do Museu Nacional, Nl3:1-81. [Essentialy of zoological interest; more about Kanamari
than Panoans.]
COURBOIN, Albert, 1901, Chez les Indiens, notes et souvenirs d'un sjour dans l'Amazonie, Bulletin de
la Socit Royale de Gographie d'Anvers, XXV:83-128. [Essentially Kanamari, but includes
what seems to be the very first data ever published on the Matis.]
DIETSCHY, Hans, 1939, Die Amerikanischen [sic] Keulen und Holzschwerter in ihrer Beziehung zur
Kulturgeschichte der Neuen Welt, Internationales Archiv fr Ethnographie, XXXVII:87-205.
[Exhaustive typology of clubs, including descriptions (partly from literature) of "macanas" of
Cashibo, Amahuaca, Cashinahua (p. 141), Mayoruna (p. 146); and double pointed sword clubs
(pp. 154-155) of "Chama", Amahuaca, Conibo, Cashibo, Shipibo. List of museum objects.]
OPPENHEIM, Victor, 1936a, Notas ethnographicas sobre os Indgenas do Alto Juru (Acre) e Valle do
Ucayali (Peru), Annaes da Academia Brasileira de Sciencias, VIII:145-155. [Discusses :
Amahuaca, Poyanahua, Parawa, Cashibo, Nucuini-Rhemu, Capanahua, Catukina,
Punhamunanaua, Mayu, Shipibo... Oppenheim was an adventurous geologist commissioned by
Dr. Rivet to determine the stratigraphic position of a fossil labeled "Homo primigenius".]
OPPENHEIM, Victor, 1936b, Sobre os restos da cultura neoltica dos indios Panos, Annaes da Academia
Brasileira de Sciencias, VIII:311-314. [Short note on stone axes of the Alto Juru, Acre and
Tapiche rivers ; includes interesting illustration of face tattoos of the Mayu and other northern
Panoans.]
PAWLIK, Jos, 1950-1, El tambor semitico, Revista del Museo Nacional (Lima), XIX/XX:21-36.
[Remo, Mayoruna.]
SAVAGE LANDOR, A. Henry, 1913, Across Unknown South America, 2. vol., Hodden & Stoughton,
London. [Megalomaniac impostor according to Walle in Journal de la Socit des
Amricanistes, XI(1):217-227.]
SILVA, Alfredo Jos da, [1952], Relatrio da excurco feita a tribu dos indios Marubu, setembro de
1952, Ms. [In Darcy Ribeiro's personal archives, apud Loukotka. (Grande serait ma gratitude
envers qui pourrait men fournir une copie !).]
TESSMANN, Gnter, 1930, Die Indianer Nordost-Perus, Hamburg. [Some remarks on Remo and
Marubo (580-582). Anthropological photographs, fine (some colored) drawings of objects
(including mayoruna artefacts), map. Despite authors colonialist ideology, downright racist
attitude, and questionable field methods, his work remains an indispensable source and unique
collection of rare data.]
*****
I.4. Recherches ethno-historiques :

Quelques auteurs contemporains se sont penchs sur labondante littrature ancienne,


lanalysant dans une perspective ethno-historique. Walter Alves Coutinho (qui a aussi fait du
terrain) et Klaus-Peter Kstner (spcialiste de culture matrielle) sont les seuls avoir rdig
des textes spcifiquement consacrs aux Pano Septentrionaux. Les autres ont une vise plus
gnrale et ne mentionnant les Mayoruna quen passant. Les textes du Hanbook of South
American Indians auraient galement pu figurer ici, bien qu'on ait choisi de les placer dans la
section IV.I, consacre aux synthses ethnologiques.
Du ct de larchologie, malgr la proximit des terrains fouills par Donald Lathrap et
son quipe, force est de constater labsence de travaux consacrs laire actuellement occupe
par les Pano septentrionaux. Certains des plus brillants des disciples de Lathrap (Myers,
DeBoer, Roe) mentionnent occasionnellement les Mayoruna dans leurs publications, mais de
faon trop elliptique pour justifier quon les mentionne ici.
ALVES COUTINHO JR., Walter, [1993], Brancos e Barbudos, tese de Mestrado, Universidade de
Brasilia. [Ethno-historical study of the Mayoruna, by a student of J.C. Melatti who did extensive
fieldwork among the Brazilian Matses.]
ANS, Andr-Marcel d', 1982, L'Amazonie Pruvienne Indigne (Anthropologie, Ecologie, EthnoHistoire, Perspectives Contemporaines), 435p., Payot, Paris. [Contre toute vraisemblance,
l'auteur se propose (pp.91-97) d'expliquer la diffrence entre les Pano septentrionaux et le reste
de leur famille linguistique par un mcanisme comparable celui invoqu par les zoologues
pour rendre compte de l'mergence de certaines espces: la thorie des zones refuges. Une
priode de scheresse, il y a environ 2.700 ans, aurait fractionn la fort amazonienne en lots de
forts spars par des zones de savane. Les "Mayoruna" auraient occup un "refuge" diffrent
de celui des autres Pano, d'o leurs spcificits.]
CASTELLO BRANCO, Jos Moreira Brando, 1950a, Caminhos do Acre, Revista do Instituto Histrico
e Geogrfico Brasileiro, N196 (1947):74-225. [Monograph-length review of all then-known
information (name, geography, explorations, population) concerning the rios Madeira (ch.1),
Purus (ch.2), Juru (ch.3), Javari (ch.4), & Ucayali (ch.5).]
CASTELLO BRANCO, Jos Moreira Brando, 1950b, O Gentio Acreano, Revista do Instituto Histrico e
Geogrfico Brasileiro, N207:3-83. [Entirely devoted to the Amerindian population of Acre;
basically a reformulation of all of Tastevin's ethnography, assorted with fascinating comments
inspired by many other (oral and written) sources.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1992, Uma singular pluralidad: a etno-histria Pano, pp.239-252 in M. Carneiro
da Cunha, org., Histria dos Indios no Brasil, Companhia Das Letras, So Paulo. [Brief
presentation of Panoan ethno-history; stress on the need to pay more attention to riverineinterfluvial relationships and similarities rather than differences. Pour une discussion des
sources ethno-historiques plus spcifiquement consacre aux Pano septentrionaux, voir Erikson,
1994 (listed below in IV.1.)]
ESPINOZA PEREZ, R.P. Lucas, 1955, Contribuciones lingsticas y etnogrficas sobre algunos pueblos
indgenas del Amazonas Peruano, t.I, 600pp., Consejo Superior de Investigacin Cientfica,
Instituto Bernardino Sahagun, Madrid. [Essentially devoted to Pioje & Yameo, but includes very
interesting discussion of Mayoruna sources pp.271-288.]
GOLOB, Ann, 1982, The Upper Amazon in Historical Perspective, Ph.D. Dissertation, City University
of New York. [Etude trs solide, qui porte un regard ethno-histoirque sur les jsuites autant que
sur les Indiens.]
GROHS, Waltraud, 1974, Los Indios del Alto Amazonas del siglo XVI al siglo XVIII, Estudios
Amricanistas de Bonn, N2. [Excellent synthesis; many maps and good bibliography.]
KSTNER, Klaus-Peter, 1990, Barbudos und/oder Mayoruna. Eine ethnohistorische Untersuchung zur
ethnischen Identifizierung zweier Stammesbezeichnungen aus dem westlichen Amazonasgebiet,
Abhandlungen und Berichte des Staatlichen Museums fr Vlkerkunde, Dresden, N44:327-341,
Tafel XVII-XVIII. [Shows -well-grounded on ethnohistorical studies- that 17th Century
Mayoruna/Barbudos are not ancestors of recent Panoans with same name on Amazon River
(Matis and Matss of Tapiche and Javari regions). Use of same names for two different Panoan

groups caused confusion in literature. K proposes to call extinct Huallaga tribe "Barbudos" and
existing Panoans "Mayoruna".; for a different story, see Figueroa, 1986:213, & Espioza-Perez,
1955.]
WERLICH, David Patrick, 1968, The Conquest and Settlement of the Peruvian Montaa, Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Minnesota, University microfilms, Ann Arbor. [Extensive review of
historical data including much on Shipibo and other Panoans in Peru.]
*****
II. Epoque contemporaine : "premiers contacts "
Les premiers contacts rguliers avec les Matses ont eu lieu la fin des annes soixante (II.1.),
ceux avec les Matis une dizaine d'annes plus tard (II.2.). Les Korubo, pour leur part, demeurent
encore majoritairement isols, malgr quelques premires tentatives russies en 1996 (II.2.). Ces
contacts, ont le plus souvent entran des consquences dsastreuses (pidmies, morts violentes, perte
d'autonomie, etc.), ce qui ne signifie cependant pas que des tragdies tout aussi funestes n'auraient pas
eu lieu en leur absence. Quoi qu'il en soit, ces contacts ont donn lieu de nombreux dbats --parfois
houleux-- rpertoris dans la section II.3.
II.1. Histoire du contact (Matses) :
C'est essentiellement du ct pruvien de la frontire que se sont effectus les premiers contacts
"pacifiques" des Matses avec la socit nationale, suscitant beaucoup d'intrt mdiatique et donnant
lieu un grand nombre de controverses, lis en particulier l'intervention de l'arme quipe de
matriel nord-amricain. Le rle jou par les missionaires vanglistes ont galement fait l'objet de
nombreuses polmiques.
Les crits portant sur l'histoire du contact au Brsil sont plus rares. En plus de Borja et
Cavuscens mentionns ci-dessous, on peut aussi se reporter aux textes de Melatti et Landi/Siquiera qui
figurent dans la section II.2.
BORJA, Arceu Carvalho, 1981, Indios Mayoruna, sua origem, sua histria, sua vida, Revista de
Atualidade Indgena, FUNAI, Brasilia, N21:48-53. [General data; photos.]
CAVUSCENS, Silvio, 1989-90, Matses, um povo de lingua Pano, Porantim, VI(6):1. [Argues that
Matses=Mayoruna; contact story; location of settlements; conflicts; census; map.]
DELBOY, L., 1970, La ultima tribu...salvaje, El Comercio Dominical, fev.8, p.12-13. [Superfical text
about Mayoruna contact by SIL.]
FIELDS, Harriet, & Eugene LOOS, 1970, Contacto por el ILV con los mayoruna, 10p., Informacin de
Campo, N131-c.
FIELDS, Harriet, 1969, Por primera vez logran contacto con la tribu Mayoruna, El Comercio
Dominical, 10 febrero. [Interview.]
MENDIZABAL LOSACK, Emilio, 1967, La conquista del Peru por los Peruanos, Visin del Peru, Revista
de Cultura, vol.2. [Discusses Mayoruna contact story.]
MERCIER, Juan Marcos, 1975, "Contacto con los Mayoruna", pp. 178-186 in Mercier & G. Villeneuve,
eds., Amazona, Liberacin o Esclavitud, Ediciones Paulinas, Coleccin Iglesia Liberadora N8,
Lima.
SCHUMADER, Charlotte, [1973], Los Mayoruna, Ms. [Contact story, apud Vivar.]
VIVAR, Judith E., 1975, "Los Mayoruna en la frontera Peru-Brasil", Amrica Indgena, XXXV(2):329347. [ce texte est mi-chemin entre journalisme et ethnographie.]
VIVAR, Judith E., [1976], Los Mayoruna, Ms., 58pp. [Unpublished sequel to the latter; sketchy.]
*****
II.2. Histoire du contact (Matis, Maya, Korubo) :
Des sources mentionnes ci-dessous, Cavuscens & Neves (1985) et Melatti (1981) sortent du lot
par la qualit approfondie de leur travail d'enqute et de documentation. Sur le contact Korubo, plutt

que dans les sources imprimes, c'est sur internet qu'il faut aller chercher des informations, sur le site
remarquable tenu par le ralisateur Erling Sderstrm (<http://www.korubo.com>).
CAVUSCENS, Silvio & Lino J. de O. NEVES, [1985], Relatrio do Levantamento dos Grupos Indgenas
do Vale do Javari, 224pp., Ms. [Probably the single best source of information concerning
uncontacted northern Panoan groups in Brazil.]
CAVUSCENS, Silvio & Lino J. de O. N EVES, 1986a, Povos Indgenas do Vale do Javari, Campanha
Javari, CIMI, Manaus. [Contact stories of Marubo, Matses, & Matis; shorter version of
former, in view of publication; many b&w photos.]
CAVUSCENS, Silvio & Lino J. de O. NEVES, 1986b, Javari, pp.177-190, Povos Indgenas No Brasil,
85/86, Aconteceu Especial N17, CEDI. [Abridged version of former; describes indigenist
campaign.]
CEDI, 1982, Matis: gripe reduz populao quase a metade, Povos Indgenas no Brasil, n2, So Paulo.
COELHO, Pedro, [1976], Relatrio referente aos primeiros contatos com os indios arredios s
proximidades do Posto de Frente de Atrao do Rio Itui, ms. [Author of several other FUNAI
reports about Matis and other Javari Panoans, first contacts, etc.; see Melatti (1981) for a
summary.]
COSTA, Sebastio Amncio da, [1974-81], Author of various FUNAI reports (some co-signed with
Francisco Bezerra de Lima & Raimundo Pio Carvalho de Lima) concerning the Maia,
Marubo, Matses and other Javari Panoans.
CRUZ, S. Viera, [1981], Relatrio do Posto Indgena de Atrao Itui, 6pp., ms. [Nothing
revolutionary; some comments on tense relations between Matis & Marubo.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1997, "Last contact" pour les Korubo ?, Nouvelles de Survival, n25:12-13.
[rflexions sur le travail du front de contact de la Funai].

ESPIRITO SANTO, Marco Antonio do, 1980, Relatrio referente aos ndios dos rios Jandiatuba
e Juta, FUNAI, Braslia.
EVANS, Sandy, [1979], Itui Survey, Polytechnic of Central London, Department of Life
Survey, 2 parts, Ms. [Report of an expedition held in October-November 1978.]
F.U.N.A.I., 1975, Seis grupos tribais ja contatados na Perimetral Norte, Informativo FUNAI, N14:56-61.
[Describes Korubo (depicted as bearded), the Matis (labelled "Marubo do Itui"), and other
isolated tribes of Western Brazil.]
F.U.N.A.I., 1978a, Uap; cachorros facilitam atrao, Revista de Atualidade Indgena, VIII(8):16-24.
[Describes the first contacts with the Matis.]
F.U.N.A.I., 1978b, Atrao pelos botes, Revista de Atualidade Indgena, VIII(11):2-8. [Describes one
of the first contacts with the "Maya" on the Itui river.]
MARGOLIS, Mac & Iara VENANZI, 2000, Nosso Quixote das matas, caro Brasil (Varig Inflight
Magazine), n190, pp.76-84. [interview of S. Possuelo; photos of the Korubo]
MELATTI, Julio Cezar, 1981, Povos Indgenas no Brasil, 5, Javari, C.E.D.I., So Paulo. [Vol. 5 of a
partial encyclopedia of Brazil's indigenous peoples. Excellent general introduction, + 8
chapters summarizing information concerning ethnic name, language, location, population
density, contact story, life style, interaction with government, land situation, & written sources
regarding the Marubo, Mayoruna, Matis, Indios da Confluncia do Itui com o Itacoai, Indios
do Rio Quixito, Kulina, Kanamari, & Indios do Alto Jandiatuba. 87 b&w photos, 11 maps.]
MONTAGNER MELATTI, Delvair & Julio Cezar MELATTI, 1975b, Pesquisa indica novos rumos para
contato com os Marubo, Informativo FUNAI, ano IV(14):24-27. [5 photos; contact story of
Matses, Matis, Korubo, then known as "Marubo".]
MONTAGNER MELATTI, Delvair, [1980], Proposta de criao do Parque Indgena do Vale do Javari,
Processo FUNAI/BSB: 1074/80, Ms. [pp.76-137: relatrio sobre a eleio da area dos Matis.]
POSSUELO, Sydney Ferreira, [1977], author of various Relatrios regarding contacted and uncontacted
Mayoruna groups. Possuelo est aussi lhomme-clef du contact korubo
REYNARD, Nicolas & Claudie BARAN, 1996, A la recherche des Korubos, tribu menace d'Amazonie,
VSD, n1008:28-35 [popular account of "first contact", of which authors were witness; 14
photographs.]

REYNARD, Nicolas & Claudie BARAN, 1998, Premier contact avec les Indiens Korubo, Terre Sauvage,
n124 (january):82-96. [22 color plates; ego-centric but interesting text.]
RICH, Paul, 1981, Mayoruna, another unreached tribe, Brown Gold, New Tribes Missions.
[Missionnary among the Marubo, the author briefly depicts sporadic contacts with uncontacted
Mayoruna group living north of the Matis. One drawing.]
SCHEMO, Diana Jean, 1999, "Last Tribal Battle", New York Times Magazine, october
31th, pp.70-77. [concerne le contact Korubo. Bien inform, mais truff de
clichs volutionnistes sur les peuples de l'ge de pierre, etc.]
*****
II.3. Indignisme, Bilans critiques :
Cette section rpertorie les textes consacrs la situation politque des Pano septentrionaux aprs
le contact, ainsi que ceux --censeurs ou laudateurs-- qui cherchent valuer le rle jou par le SIL au
Prou et par la Funai au Brsil.
ANONYMOUS, 1984, De Nuevo los Matses en la Noticia: Una sorpresiva Migracion hacia el Ucayali,
Shupihui, Revista Latinoamericana de Actualidad y Analysis (Iquitos, CETA), pp.135-136.
BORJA, Arceu Carvalho, [1980], Levantamento: situao atual das populaes Indgenas no Brasil,
ficha padro preenchida com informaes referentes aos Mayoruna, FUNAI, Ms. [Information on
the Mayoruna of the Upper Javari and its tributaries and of the settlement of Lameiro by the
chief of the Funai Posto Indgena de Atrao Lobo.]
BRACK, A & C. YAEZ (coord.), 1997, Amazona Peruana. Comunidades Indgenas, Conocimientos y
Tierras Tituladas. Atlas y Bases de Datos, Lima: GEF/PNUD/UNOPS, 351pp.
C.I.P.A., 1984, Crnica Indgena de la Amazona, CIPA, Lima. [Photos: Matses (S. Varese), Shipibo
(C. Heath); etc.]
CAVUSCENS, Silvio, [1984], Matses de Santa Sofia: histricos e situao atual (10pp.), CIMI, Ms.
[Data on the migrations of Santa Sofia villagers, and current invasion of their lands by
seringueiros. Author (and former wife Claire-Lise) also wrote several other reports for CIMI:
Seringalista ameaa sobrevivncia do povo Mayoruna (7pp., 1983); Relao das familias de
seringueiros na area indgena matses (3pp.); Memorial descritivo (81pp.), many of which
were used in court to defend Matses territory.]
CAVUSCENS, Silvio (presumed author), 1987a, Terra indgena, Boletim do Centro de estudos Indgenas
(Universidade Estadual de So Paulo, Campus de Araraquara), V(46):4-6.
CAVUSCENS, Silvio, 1987b, Brazil: The Indigenous Peoples of the Valley of the Javari: an Unknown
Reality, IWGIA Newsletter, N50:57-68.
CHIRIF, Alberto, & Carlos MORA, 1977, Atlas de Comunidades Nativas, 252pp., Sinamos, Lima.
[Census of all Peruvian tribes, with brief annotations concerning each one's present location,
ethnonym, and degree of acculturation.]
HEFLEY, J. & M. HEFLEY, 1972, Dawn Over Amazonia, the story of Wycliffe Bible Translators in Peru,
Word Book, Texas.
LANDI Omar, & Edmilson SIQUIERA, 1985, Coisas de Indio, Icone Editora, So Paulo. [Co-authored
by a journalist and a dismissed base chief of FUNAI; pp.41-98 on Marubo, Mayoruna, Korubo,
Matis; very controversial.]
LINDHOLM, D., 1973, Plan de ayuda y desarollo para los Mayorunas del Yaquerana, S.I.L., mf.
MELATTI, Julio Cezar, 1983b, Javari. Os Indios Esquecidos e Abandonados, Povos Indgenas no
Brasil/83:78-86. [Bilan de la situation tragique des Matis, des Matses et desgroupes isols de
la rgion].
MONTAGNER, Delvair, 1989, Funai no Javari: Afinal, existe ou no existe, Aconteceu Especial, 18:270276.
STOLL, D., 1982, Fishers of Men or Founders of Empire: The Wycliffe Bible Translators in Latin
America, Cultural Survival, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. [Critical assessment of Protestant
missionary work, largly among Panoans; Spanish translation: Pescadores de Hombres o
Fundadores de Imperio?, DESCO, Lima, 1985.]

10

SURVIVAL INTERNATIONAL (France), Bulletins d'Action Urgente. [Newsletter devoted to worrisome


information regarding tribal peoples such as the Yora/Nawa and the Korubo.]
VARESE, Stefano, 1972a, "Relaciones intertnicas en la selva del Peru", pp.157-192 in G. Grnberg,
org., Aportes al estudio de la friccin intertnica en los indios no-andinos, Tierra Nueva,
Montevideo. [Focus on the Matses.]
VARESE, Stefano, 1972b, The Forest Indians in the Present Political Situation of Peru, 22p., IWGIA
Documents N9.
VARESE, Stefano, n.d., Plan de Ayuda y Desarollo para los Mayoruna del Yaquirana, ms.
WISE, Mary Ruth; Eugene LOOS & Patricia DAVIS, 1977, "Filosofia y Mtodos del ILV", pp.499-525,
Acts of the 42nd International Congress of Americanists, Paris. [Somewhat self-indulgent, but
contains interesting statistics on Capanahua, Shipibo, Cashinahua, & Mayoruna mortality
rates.]
*****
II.4. Explorateurs /Journalistes (Matses, Matis):
La section qui suit numre des textes qui valent plus pour la beaut plastique des photos qui les
illustrent que pour leur prose, gnralement raccoleuse et si peu imaginative quelle se limite le plus
souvent dire jtais l et jai vu des hommes qui ressemblent des jaguars et/ou possdent de
mystrieux pouvoirs tlpathiques . Leigheb (1996), en dpit de son titre raccoleur, l'emporte sur les
autres en qualit et en srieux. Notons galement que l'Instituto Socio-ambiental, au Brsil, dispose
d'importantes archives photographiques (<http://www.socioambiental.org/>).
BASSAN, Oscar, [1990?], Mayorunas Mats 89 Spedizione in Amazzonia. [Article from unidentified
Italian magazine; 5 pages, 5 photos, nothing new.]
COUSTEAU, Jacques-Yves & M. RICHARDS, 1984, Cousteau's Amazon Journey, H.N.
Abrahams, Inc.: N.Y. [P.126-132 about the Matis; editors of the text and
legends (3 photos) were victim of facetious and ill-informed interpreters...]
GORMAN, Peter, 1986a, The Dream of Hunters, High Times (December), N136:37-44. [Tourism and
altered states of consciousness among the Matses; photos by S. Flores; advertises other piece by
same author in June issue.]
GORMAN, Peter, 1986b, Ayahuasca Tripping in Amazonia, High Times, June, pp.39-43, 87.
GORMAN, Peter, 1987, Mein trip mit dem Jger Tumi, halluzination von P. Gorman, Penthouse
(german edition), N7:26-33. [Photos by Jeff Rotman.]
GORMAN, Peter, 1988, Sous le signe du jaguar, Newlook, N56 (april):94-103. ["Nowadays, cannibals
must do with anaconda meat" is but one of the "humourous" legends illustrating this piece.]
GORMAN, Peter, 1989, Visions of the Matses, Americas, 41(1):32-37. [Visions of the author might
have been a more suitable title.]
GORMAN, Peter, 1990, People of the Jaguar: Shamanic Hunting Practices of the Matses, Shaman's
Drum, N21:40-49. [New-age apology of indigenous drugs; photos by S. Flores.]
KRGER, Henrik, 1986, "Junglens Skraek Forte Mig Til Det Usynlige Folk". [A guided tour among the
Mayoruna-kvinder, described in a popular Danish magazine.]
LEIGHEB, Maurizio & Antonio Z ECCA, 1988, Gli Uomini Giaguaro, Natura Oggi, 7 (aprile):69-82.
[Magazine stories about the Matis, sequel to a cinematographic expedition; many interesting
photos; information largely derived from Erikson, 1987]
LEIGHEB, Maurizio & Carlo GIORDANI, 1993, Brsil: Sur les pas des hommes-jaguars, Terre Sauvage,
N75 (July-August):81-92. [Same as above; nicely illustrated plagiarism of my work.]
LEIGHEB, Maurizio, 1996, Matis, gli uomini-giaguaro, Ligabue Magazine, XV(29) :48-80. [illustrated
by 31 beautiful photographs].

MONTAGNER MELATTI, Delvair, 1992, La vie quotidienne des Indiens de la valle du Javari,
Brsil, Les Dossiers d'Archologie, pp.56-59. [bon texte, belles photos.]
MONNIER, Franoise, 1999, Brsil: les hommes-jaguars du Serto, LExpress (16-22
Dcembre). [Banalits sur les Matis, illustr de photos de N. Reinard]

11

ROTMAN, Joffrey, 1987, Avec les Matss j'ai appris parler aux plantes, aux
jaguars et aux esprits, Le Nouveau VSD, N530:154-159. [Author pretends to
have learnt to speak with jaguars, plants and spirits, and claims to have
spent a year with the Matses, which seems equally improbable, considering
the 200 dollar daily fee charged by his guide from Iquitos (Moises Torres
Viena), who appears on one photo also published by his partner, Peter
Gorman.]
VITEBSKY, Piers, 1995, The Shaman, Duncan Baird Publishers, Ltd. [Quite simple text, but richly
illustrated, including colored pictures of the Matses and reproductions of paintings by Pablo
Amarigo representing Shipibo shamans and vegetalistas. French translation: Les Chamanes,
Albin Michel, Paris, 1995.]
*****
II.5. Romans, Rcits :
Belliqueux (donc effrayants), isols (donc mystrieux), porteurs de spectaculaires ornements
corporels (donc exotiques), et rputs pour le grand nombre de captives (y compris blanches )
incorpors dans leur socit, les Mayoruna ont tout pour sduire les auteurs de fictions romanesques.
Et de fait, depuis 1871, pas moins de cinq romans daventure mettant en scne des Mayoruna
doprette sont parus. lexception de celui de Matthiessen (une pure merveille), tous sont truffs de
prjugs racistes et de clichs faciles. Quant aux rcits, dfaut dtre trs instructifs, du moins
certains (Bock en particulier) sont-ils attachants.
BOCK, Jacques, 1983, Voyage dans la nuit verte, Flammarion, Paris. [Book-length narrative of a
cinematographic expedition organized by an "ordinary" policeman, including two months
sojourn with the Matses; many pictures and misunderstandings, yet, better than most of its
genre; Author gave numerous interviews to French press.]
HERNNDEZ, A.D., 1952, Selva Trgica, Lima : Editora Atlantida. [This novel fantasizes a women's
ordeal as captive of the "Capanahua salvajes", alias Mayoruna. The basely racist and unrealistic
aspects of this book have been commented by Andr-Marcel d'Ans, 1972, Les Indiens
d'Amazonie et la Fort Tragique. Un cas de littrature ethnocidaire, p.193-211 in R. Jaulin, ed.,
De l'Ethnocide, U.G.E. 10/18, Paris.]
KINGSTON, W.H.G., 1884, On the banks of the Amazon, or a boy's journal of his adventures in the
tropical wilds of South America, with one hundred illustrations, T. Nelson and Sons, Edinburgh,
London & New York. [Pedagogical fiction, originally written in 1871, in which the hero must
deliver captives from the fierce Majeronas (sic)! A script which seems to have since lost more
novelty than appeal.]
LANGE, Algot, 1912, In the Amazon Jungle: adventures in remote parts of the Upper Amazon River,
including a sojourn among cannibal indians, G.P. Putnam's Sons, the Knickerbocker Press, N.Y.
& London. [Partly apocryphal; pretends to have explored the middle Itui and witnessed
Mangeroma exo-cannibalism, and furnishes (unreliable) data on their drummed messages.
Interesting description of life in small cities in the Javari bassin during the rubber boom.]
MATTHIESSEN, Peter, 1965, At Play in the Fields of the Lord, Random House, NY & Toronto. [Vintage
Book edition: 1987; a thought-provoking novel very freely inspired by South American Indian
Mission's first attempts to contact the Mayoruna, here labeled Niaruna.]
POPESCU, Petru, 1991, Amazon Beaming, 445pp., Viking Press, New York. [Ludicrous new-age story
of renowned National Geographic Photographer Loren MacIntyre, allegedly kidnapped by the
Mayoruna "cat-people" with whose shaman he entered in non-verbal communication. A dozen
beautiful pictures make one long for more telephoto and less telepathy.]
SAUNDERS, Philip (with Robert Paul Lamb), 1984, Into His Harvest, Lighthouse Ministries,
Manchester, CT. [The biography of a missionary who made several trips to Matses
communities on the Galvez, beginning in 1981. See pp.183-186.]
SCHOUMATOFF, Alexander, 1978, The River Amazon, Sierra Club Book, San Francisco. [A zoologist's
travelogue; alludes to Amahuaca & Mayoruna.]

12

VERNES, Henri, 1988 [1958], Le Tigre des Lagunes, Collection Bob Morane, Fleuve Noir, Paris.
[Fiction for the youth, in which the Mayorunos figure among the bad guys ; quite boring.]
*****
III. Recherches en linguistique et didactique
III.1. Linguistique matses (travaux du SIL)
La majorit des textes numrs ci-dessous ne sont disponibles que sous forme de micro-fiche,
dans la srie Informacin de Campo. Pour des raisons mcaniques, beaucoup sont peine
dchiffrables, et dautant moins utilisables quil sagit bien souvent de notes de terrain brutes , pas
encore labores en vue dune publication. Les parties les plus lisibles contiennent cependant parfois
des choses passionnantes. Les textes publis dans des livres imprims (comme Estudios Panos) sont
videmment plus accessibles et plus intressants.
FIELDS, Harriet, 1966, Examples of various Mayoruna affixes, Informacin de Campo, N125-b (2mf).
FIELDS, Harriet, 1970, Panoan Comparative Vocabulary, Informacin de Campo, N224a. [Various
lexicons recorded from Mayoruna captives.]
FIELDS, Harriet, 1970-1, Mayoruna vocabulary, Informacin de Campo, N128b.
FIELDS, Harriet, 1970-4, Mayoruna Texts I, Informacin de Campo, N131b.
FIELDS, Harriet, 1970-2, Mayoruna Texts II, Informacin de Campo, N343.
FIELDS, Harriet, 1973, Una identificacin preliminar de los sufijos indicadores de referencia en
mayoruna, pp.283-306 in E. Loos, ed., Estudios Pano II.
FIELDS, Harriet, 1974, Notes on Matses Grammar, 197p., Informacin de Campo, N126 (4mf). [With
observations by Loos & Kneeland.]
FIELDS, Harriet, 1975, Pronoun Morphology, Informacin de Campo, N125a.
FIELDS, Harriet & Mary Ruth WISE, 1976, Bosquejo de la fonologa matss (mayoruna), Datos Etnolingsticos, N31. [1 mf, 42pp.]
GIRARD, Victor, 1971, Proto-Takanan Phonology, University of California
Publications in Linguistics, 70, Berkeley. [Reviews: American Anthropologist,
76(2):458-9, 1974; General Linguistics, XIV(1):55-65, 1974; ch.8 devoted to
Mayoruna; annotated bibliography.]
JAKWAY, Martha, 1975, Listas comparativas de palavras usuales en idiomas
vernculos de la Selva, Datos Ethno-lingsticos, N4. [4 mf, 332 pp.; Panoan
section holds data on Capanahua, 5 different Mayoruna dialects, Marubo,
Sharanahua, & Yaminahua.]
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1970-3, Mayoruna texts III, 468p., Informacin de Campo, N129.
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1970-4, Mayoruna texts IV, 279p., Informacin de Campo, N342.
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1970-5, Mayoruna texts V, 117p., Informacin de Campo, N232. [Some of the
texts are typed, and a few translated, but most are illegible.]
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1972?, A generative semantic analysis of indirect objects in Mayoruna,
Informacin de Campo, N127a.
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1973, La frase nominal relativa en mayoruna y la ambigedad, pp.53-105 in
Loos, ed., Estudios Panos II.
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1973-5, Data and tentative conclusions on Mayoruna morphophonemics, 505p.,
Informacin de Campo, N124b [Handwritten.]
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1974, Data on propositional relations, 204p., Informacin de Campo, N127b.
[Very sketchy.]
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1975a, Algunos datos sobre entonacin (matses), 10p., Informacin de Campo,
N124a.
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1975b, Data on negation, 34p., Informacin de Campo, N128a.
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1979, Preliminary Notes on Various Discourse Types in Matses, Informacin de
Campo, N409. [4 mf, 190pp.]

13

KNEELAND, Harriet, 1981, Augmentative: Effect on Speaker and Theme in Matses, 39p., Trabajos en
Preparacin, N25.
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1982, El 'ser como' y 'no ser como' de la comparacin en Matses pp.77-126 in
Wise & Boonstra, eds., Conjunciones y otros nexos en tres idiomas amaznicos, Serie
Lingstica Peruana N19, ILV Ministerio de Educacin. [English version, 1975: Trabajos en
Preparacin, N10.]
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1996, "El aumentativo -pa: su efecto sobre el narrador y el tema en Matses",
pp.129-155 in Agot Bergli, ed., Estudios Lingisticos de textos de la Amazonia Peruana,
Pucallpa: ILV. [This paper, based on Longacre & Grimes' theories, discusses why the
"intensifier" -pa frequently appears in some types of texts, but barely ever occurs in others.]
KNEELAND, Harriet, & Luisa FIELDS, 1976, Mayoruna, Materiales para estudios fonolgicos,
t.I:181-213, E. Loos, ed.
*****
III.2. Linguistique matses et matis (travaux universitaires)
Bien que les matriaux mayoruna aient t utiliss ds la toute premire tude mettant jour
le concept de famille ethno-linguistique Pano (de la Grasserie), il a fallu attendre la dernire dcennie du
XX sicle pour que des tudes menes par des linguistes forms lunversit viennent complter les
recherches entames par les missionnaires de lILV (Fields, Harrifield). Carmen Carvalho, qui a
travaill sous la direction de Marilia Faco Suarez lUniversit Fdrale de Rio de Janeiro, sest
intresse essentiellement la phonologie du Matses. David Fleck, qui a dj pass prs de trois ans sur
le rio Galvez dans le cadre de sa formation en zoologie, a eu par ce biais loccasion dapprendre le
matses, et envisage de consacrer la grammaire de cette langue la thse de doctorat quil prpare
actuellement luniversit de Rice, au Texas.
Les tudes concernant le Matis sont moins nombreuses et moins avances. Wallace de Garcia,
linguiste de la Funai, na eu les moyens de faire plus qu'une vague bauche, et Rogrio Ferreira,
doctorant lUniversit Fdrale de Campinas nen est encore quaux phases prliminaires de ses
recherches.
CARVALHO, Carmen Teresa Dorigo de, [1992], A Decodificao da Estrutura Frasal em Matss
(Pano), 187pp., Dissertao de Mestrado em Lingustica, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro. [See Faco
Suares.]
CARVALHO, Carmen Teresa Dorigo de, 1995, Las marcas de tiempo y aspecto en la lengua Matss
(Pano), Actas II JLA: 235-249.
FACO SOARES, Marilia; Raquel G.R. COSTA, & Carmen T.D. CARVALHO, [1991], Towards a rhythmic
classification of Panoan languages, paper presented at the 47th ICA, New Orleans. [Marubo
and Matses data; "para uma classificao rtmica das lnguas Pano" in Revista del Instituto de
Lingstica, Facultad de Filosofa y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires. S & S, 3: 95-116]
FERREIRA, Rogrio Vicente, [1999], Uma descrio do comportamento adjetival na lngua matis,
10pp., paper presented at the II Seminrio Nacional de Lingstica e Lngua Portuguesa,
Universidade Federal de Gois, ms.
FERREIRA, Rogrio Vicente, [1999], Ergatividade na Lngua Matis, 7pp.,
Universidade de Campinas, ms.
FERREIRA, Rogrio Vicente & V.R.F. SPANGHERO, [1996], Anlise fonologica preliminar da lngua
Matis, ms.
FLECK, David W., 2000, Causer nominalizations in Matses (Panoan ; Amazonian Peru), paper
presented at the 8th Biennial Rice University Symposium on Linguistics.
GRASSERIE, Raoul de la, 1888, De la famille linguistique Pano, pp.438-449, in:
Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, VII, Berlin. ["Official" birth of the
concept of a Panoan ethnolinguistic family (including Karipuna, Mayoruna,
and Culino.]

14

WALLACE DE GARCIA PAULA, Ruth, [1979], Relatrio da viagem realizada area do


PIA do rio Itui...fev./marco 1979, 137pp., FUNAI archives, Museu do Indio, Rio
de Janeiro, Ms. [Includes a brief (unreliable) Matis lexicon compared with
Marubo and Matses, based on few days' fieldwork; believes men's and
women's speech to be different ! (the truth is women speak faster); some
interesting data about first contacts & cultural practices which have since
then disappeared.]
*****
III.3. Matriaux didactiques
A lexception des deux petites brochures de Wise et des Lecciones par el aprendizaje del
idioma Mayoruna manuel fort utile destin aux hispano-hablantes, les ouvrages numrs cidessous sont avant tout destins aux coliers matses. La plupart ont commenc paratre dans les
annes 80. Pour une liste plus dtaille, on peut se reporter au site web ou aux bibliographies
spcialises publies par lILV [Mary Ruth Wise, 1986, Bibliografa del ILV en el Peru, 1946-1986 ;
Alan C. Wares, 1992, Bibliography of the Summer Institute of Linguistics].
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1979, Lecciones para el aprendizaje del idioma Mayoruna, 250pp. ILV /
Ministerio de Educacin, Documento de Trabajo N14, Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Peru. [10
lessons, each including a dialogue, vocabulary, cultural notes, review of pertinent grammar, and
exercizes. Includes Matss-Spanish lexicon (some 800 entries), short list of medical
expressions, and a text (contact story) with literal translation.]
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1988, Matsesen chiampid, 100pp., Educacin Bilinge Matss, Yarinacocha.
[Reader.]
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIN (Peru)/ILV,1973, Declaracin universal de los derechos humanos, Lima.
[In various Panoan languages, including matses.]
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIN (Peru)/ILV, 1980, Capuec Nidaid, libro experimental de Lectura y
Escritura, 110pp.
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIN (Peru)/ILV, 1981-3, Matsesn Naid, I y II (194pp. & 115pp.), Libro de
lectura y Escritura.
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIN (Peru)/ILV, 1983, Matematica (matses).
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIN (Peru)/ILV, 1982, Matsesn Dada (el cuerpo humano), libro para las
Ciencias Naturales, 42pp.
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIN (Peru)/ILV, 1982, Manua (las moscas), libro para las Ciencias Naturales,
47pp..
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIN (Peru)/ILV,1985, Nidaidn capuquid uicchumbidi, aves y animales, Libro
de Lectura y Escritura, 164pp., ILV.
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIN/ILV (Peru), 1986, Mariquita. Libro de Ciencias Naturales,
Lima/Yarinacocha. [10 lessons on health and hygiene in native languages (including matses),
with Spanish translation.]
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIN/ILV (Peru), 1987, El cuerpo humano, Libro de Ciencias Naturales 2,
Lima/Yarinacocha. [Comes in various Panoan languages, matses included.]
WISE, Mary Ruth, 1973, Vocablos y Expresiones mdicas ms usuales en veinte idimas vernculos
peruanos, Documento de Trabajo n2, Yarinacocha. [55 questions with answers; Matses
included.]
WISE, Mary Ruth, 1979, Palabras y frases utiles en algunos idiomas de la selva peruana,
Yarinacocha, Documento de Trabajo n4, Yarinacocha. [I.L.V./Ministerio de Educacin del
Peru.
III.4. Education bilingue :
Outre les textes didactiques, un certain nombre de rflexions sur la pdagogie interculturelle en
milieu indigne a galement t produite, dont une partie spcifiquement consacre aux Matses.

15

DAGGETT, James, & Mary Ruth WISE, 1990, The Social Consequences of Literacy in Some Ethnic
Groups of the Peruvian Amazon, Las consecuencias sociales de la alfabetizacin en algunos
grupos tnicos de la Amazona Peruana, Comunidades y Culturas Peruanas, XXIII:67-82.
[galement publi en 1992 dans Notes on Literacy, XVIII(4):1-14.]
FIELDS, Harriet, 1983, The Matses Literary Program, Notes on Literacy, XXXVII:8-15.
FIELDS, Harriet, 1990, Literacy Program among the Matses People: the Initial Steps, Programa de
alfabetizacin entre los Matses: los pasos iniciales, Comunidades y Culturas Peruanas,
23:221-232.
KNEELAND, Harriet, & Norma FAUST, 1981, La educacin informal entre los matss, shipibo y
yaminahua, 6p., Informacin de Campo, N468b.
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1979a, El programa espontneo de alfabetizacin entre los Matss, 4p.,
Informacin de Campo, N381g. [illegible.]
WISE, Mary Ruth & Ed RIGGLE, 1979, Terminologa matemtica y la enseanza de conocimientos
bsicos entre los grupos tnicos de la Amazona Peruana, Lenguaje y Ciencias (University of
Trujillo), v.XIX(3):85-102. [English version in: Revista Peruana de Lenguas Indoamericanas,
1(1):21-38, 1981.]
IV. Recherches ethnologiques
IV.1. Ethnologie des Pano septentrionaux (travaux de synthse)
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1994, Los Matses/Matis, pp.1-127 in F. Santos-Granero & F. Barclay, eds., Gua
Etnogrfica de la Alta Amazona, vol.2, Flacso/IFEA, Quito. [Monographic study of the historic
Mayoruna and modern northern Panoans.]
FLOWERS, Nancy, 1994, Mayoruna, pp. 233-235, in J. Wilbert, org., Encyclopedia of World
Cultures, vol.7, G.K. Hall & C, Boston.
OLSON, James S., 1991, The Indians of Central and South America, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary,
Greenwood Press, New York. [Entries, about half a page long, describe individual tribes and
give a few references. Useful, although founded on quite antiquated data-base and often
imprecise. For instance: includes the Matis among the Matses, themselves distinguished from
the Mayoruna.]
SANTOS-GRANERO, Fernando & FREDERICA BARCLAY, 1994, "introduccin" pp.xix-xli in Gua
Etnogrfica de la Alta Amazona, vol. II, Flacso/IFEA, Quito. [general introduction to three
monographs on the Mayoruna, Uni, & Yaminahua. Includes an interesting discussion of Panoan
"ethnicity".]
STEWARD, Julian H. & Alfred MTRAUX, 1948, "Tribes of the Peruvian and Ecuadorian Montaa",
pp.535-656 in J. Steward, ed., vol.III, Handbook of South American Indians, Bulletin of the
Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
*****
IV.2. Ethnologie matses (travaux universitaires)
Si les tudes linguistiques consacres aux Pano septentrionaux nont t
engages quassez tardivement, les ethnologues se sont en revanche attels la
tche trs peu de temps aprs les premiers contacts. Les pruviens R. Moscoso et
L. Calixto Mendez ont t pionniers en la matire, bientt rejoints par l'amricain
S. Romanoff. La relve semble en passe dtre assure par deux jeunes
chercheurs, D. Fleck (cf. III.2.) et J. Matlock, qui viennent chacun de passer
plusieurs annes sur le terrain. Ct brsilien, hormis celles d'Alves Coutinho
(I.4.), les seules recherches universitaires dont nous ayons eu connaissance sont

16

celles de K. Milton, qui a par ailleurs inspir une importante littrature sur les
venins de rainette (Daly et al.; Erspamer et al.).
CALIXTO MENDEZ, Luis G., [1981], Informe Sobre los Avances de Las Investigaciones y Programas
de Apoyo Preliminares en la Reserva Nativa Matses, ms. [Typescript, obtained by Jim Matlock
from IIAP library].
CALIXTO MENDEZ, Luis, [1985], Las prcticas de subsistencia, regimen alimenticio y tcnicas de
transformacin culinaria, Aspectos Socio-Culturales del uso de la tierra en el grupo tnico
matses, Manuscript at the IIAP, Iquitos.
CALIXTO MENDEZ, Luis, [1986], Implicancias de los desplazamientos en la explotacin del medio,
Aspectos Socio-Culturales del uso de la tierra en el grupo tnico matses, Manuscript at the IIAP,
Iquitos.
CALIXTO MENDEZ, Luis, [1987], La organizacin social matses y su sistema de valores y creencias,
Aspectos socio-culturales del uso de la tierra en el grupo tnico Matses, Manuscript at the IIAP,
Iquitos. [This and the former two texts, based on extensive fieldwork (various years), provide
extremely detailed first hand data. Especially interesting on land usage.]
CALIXTO MENDEZ, Luis, 1986, Implicancias de la sedentarizacin de los Matses de ribera entre
cazadores y agricultores, Extracta, V:27-32.
DALY, J.W., J. CACERES, R.W. MONI, F. GUSOVSKY, M. MOOS, K.B. SEAMON, K. MILTON AND CH.H.
MEYERS, 1992, Frog Secretion and Hunting Magic in the Upper Amazon: Identification of a
Peptide that Interacts with an Adenosine Receptor, Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences USA, 89:10,960-10,963. [Identification and toxicological analysis of frog poison used
in Matses hunting magic.]
ERSPAMER, Vittorio et al., 1993, Pharmacological Studies of 'Sapo' from the Frog Phyllomedusa
bicolor Skin: A Drug Used by the Peruvian Matses Indians in Shamanic Hunting Practices,
Toxicon, 31:1099-1111. [Ethnographic overview of the use of "hallucinogenic" frogs by Matses
(largely from Gorman 1990) with proposed mechanism of action.]
FLECK, D.W. & J.D. Harder, 2000, Matses Indian rainforest habitat classification and mammalian
diversity in Amazonian Peru, Journal of Ethnobiology, 20(1) :x-x (in press).
FLECK, David W. ; R.S. Voss & J.L. Patton, 1999, Biological basis of saki monkey (Pithecia) species
recognized by Matses Indians in Amazonian Peru, International Journal of Primatology,
20(6) :1005-1028.
FLECK, David W., 1997, Mammalian diversity in rainforest habitats recognized by the Matses Indians
in the Peruvian Amazon, M.S. thesis in zoology, Ohio State University.
HORNBORG, Alf, 1988, Dualism and Hierarchy in Lowland South America, Trajectories of Indigenous
Social Organization, Uppsala Studies in Cultural Anthropology, N9. [P.161-171 about
Panoans.]
HORNBORG, Alf, 1993, Panoan marriage sections: a comparative perspective, Ethnology,
XXXII/1:101-108. [Formal analysis of second hand data.]
MATLOCK, James G., 1998, "Dispersed, Nucleated, Dispersed: Changing Matses Settlement Patterns",
1968-1995, pp.33-45 in Debra Picchi, edit., Unsettled Communities: Changing Perspectives on
South American Indigenous Settlements, South American Indian Studies, n5, Bennington
College. [paper originally presented at the 1995 AAA annual meeting, Washington, D.C..; based
on fieldwork ; author preparing a Ph.D.]
MILTON, Katherine, 1991, Comparative aspects of diet in Amazonian Forest-dwellers, Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, vol. 334:93-103 [discusses dietary
differences among the Arara, Parakan, Arawet and Mayoruna, based on fieldwork with a
group of 117 Matses on the rio Lobo.]
MILTON, Katherine, 1994, No pain, no game, Natural History, IX:44-51. [Describes use of kampo, i.e.
injections of the poisonous secretion from the tree frog Phyllomedusa bicolor, as a hunting
charm among the Mayoruna. 10 photos, many by Jeff Rotman, and previously published in
Penthouse, High Times, etc. (see Gorman, Rotman, in II.4.).]
MOSCOSO, R., 1977, Los Mayoruna (Matses), Unpublished B.A. thesis, Pontifica Universidad Catlica
del Peru, Lima.

17

REDFORD, K.H. & J.G. ROBINSON, 1987, The Game of Choice: Patterns of Indian and Colonist
Hunting in the Neotropics, American Anthropologist, 89(3):650-667. [Comparative hunting
techniques of mestizos and Amerinds, among which Matses ; ce travail, qui ne repose pas sur un
travail de terrain original peut tre considr comme une sorte de prolongement de celui de
Romaoff.]
ROMANOFF, Steve, 1976, Informe sobre el uso de la tierra entre los MATSES en la Selva baja peruana,
Amazona Peruana, I(1):97-130.
ROMANOFF, Steve, 1984a, Matses Adaptations in the Peruvian Amazon, Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia
University, New York. [General monograph of the Matses, with highlights on hunting patterns
and ethnohistory; limited data on kinship and ritual.]
ROMANOFF, Steve, 1984b, Women as hunters among the matses of the Peruvian Amazon, Human
Ecology XI(3):339-342.
ROMANOFF, Steve, n.d., Responses to Scarcities of Game Animals by Matses Indians, Western Amazon
River Basin, Ms.
*****
IV.3. Ethnologie matses (travaux du SIL)
Bien que les missionnaires du SIL, dans leurs uvres sculires, se soient essentiellement
concentrs sur la linguistique descriptive, une partie de leur production scientifique intresse
galement l'ethnologie. Les donnes sur la parent ont fait l'objet de discussions thoriques proposes
par Hornborg (voir section IV.2.). Il semblerait que des matriaux "bruts", en attente d'analyse, soient
galement disponibles dans les archives sonores du SIL, inventories dans Kneeland & Fields (1976).
FIELDS, Harriet [alias Luisa], 1963, Informe sobre los 'mayorunas' o capanahuas salvajes del rio
Yaquerana, Informacin de Campo, N131-b. [Information gathered from interviews with a
fugitive from the then uncontacted Matses.]
FIELDS, Harriet, 1972, Ataques de jaguares a los mayoruna, Informacin de Campo, N131a.
FIELDS, Harriet, 1973b, Notes on the 'Singing People' Ceremony, Informacin de Campo, N131-d.
[Short description of initiation ritual.]
FIELDS, Harriet, 1974?, Datos miscelaneos sobre la cultura mayoruna, Informacin de Campo, N344.
FIELDS, Harriet, 1975b, Cultural Notes on the Matses, Informacin de Campo, N453b. [Spanish
translation: Datos Etno-lingsticos, N47, 1979 (1 mf, 22pp.).]
FIELDS, Harriet & William R. MERRIFIELD, 1976, Parentesco Mayoruna, 37pp., Srie Comunidades y
culturas peruanas, N9., ILV, Peru.
FIELDS, Harriet & William R. M ERRIFIELD , 1980, Mayoruna (Panoan) Kinship, Ethnology, XIX(1):128. [Cumbersome attempt to formalise kinship data; yet, provides much data.]
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1975, Notes on Mayoruna Beliefs, Informacin de Campo, N132.
KNEELAND, Harriet & Luisa FIELDS, 1976, Indice de grabaciones del mayoruna, 16pp., Informacin
de Campo, N130b. [Lists 35 tapes of myths, music, ritual wailing; etc.]
*****
IV.4. Ethnologie des Mayoruna de Marajai
This section includes data on a group of Mayoruna settled near Tef (on the Amazon), hundreds
of kilometers from their original homeland. Paradoxalement, bien qu'il ait perdu l'usage de la langue et
le contact avec le reste de la famille ethno-linguistique pano, ce groupe est probablement le dernier
revendiquer le nom de "Mayoruna", comme pour mieux rappler ses origines.
FAULHABER BARBOSA, Priscila, 1986, Tradition et changements dans le moyen Solimes, Cahiers des
Sciences Humaines, ORSTOM, XXII(3-4):389-400.
FAULHABER BARBOSA, Priscila, 1987a, O Navio Encantado. Etnia e alianas em Tef, Belem, Museu
Paraense E. Goeldi [Published version of a 1985 Mestrado Tesis of Brasilia University: Indios e
Civilizados. Etnia e alianas em Tef.]

18

FAULHABER BARBOSA, Priscila, 1987b, ENTROSANDO. Questes Indgenas em Tefe, Belem, Museu
Paraense Emilio Goeldi. [Also see "tentando uma antropologia operativa", in Anuario
Antropologico/85:79-106.]
FAULHABER BARBOSA, Priscila, [1994], Paternalismo e territorialidade entre os Mayorunas do
Marajai, presented at the 48th International Congress of Americanists, Uppsala.
REZENDE, Viviani Guimaraes & Sandra Mara SCHMIDT, [1987], Relatrio da viagem ao rio Bia de
13/08 07/09/87, 5pp., Tf, CIMI/Norte. [Mainly concerns Katukina of Katukina linguistic
family, but provides some information on the Marajai Mayoruna acculturation.]
*****
IV.5. Ethnologie des Matis
Pour ce qui concerne les Matis, lauteur de ces lignes reste dsesprment isol dans sa
tche dethnographe, bien quil ait eu la satisfaction de voir ses matriaux de terrain discuts par
lanthropologue brsilien J.-C. Melatti, spcialiste des Marubo. Les donnes concernant la
parent matis ont galement t utilises dans quelques tudes concernant les systmes de
parent amazoniens (Viveiros de Castro, Kensinger).
Katherine Milton (cf. IV.1.) a sjourn dans ce groupe, mais trop brivement pour quil en
rsulte des publications. Enfin, signalons que Bertha Ribeiro a inclus bon nombre d'lments de
la culture matrielle matis dans son monumental Dicionario do artesanato indgena.
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1986, Altrit, tatouage, et anthropophagie chez les Pano: la belliqueuse qute du
soi, Journal de la Socit des Amricanistes de Paris, LXXII:185-210. [Comparative study of
the image of others among Panoans, and the roles of tattoos, war, and cannibalism in the
definition of self. Includes first-hand data on the Matis.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1987, Bats-moi mais tout doucement, L'Univers du Vivant, N20:99-115. [Popular
account of a ritual in which ancestor spirits whip children despite, or because of, the gentleness
of day-to-day interaction between parents and children; many color photos.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1988a, Choix des proies, choix des armes, et gestion du gibier chez les Matis et
d'autres Amrindiens d'Amazonie, pp.211-220 in L. Bodson, ed., L'animal dans l'alimentation
humaine, les critres de choix, Anthropozoologica, second numero special, Lige. [Analysis of a
ritual in which the Matis successfully predict (with palm-leaf figurines) the amount of game
they will bag on expeditions. Unedited English translation by Diane Barraclough.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1988b, Apprivoisement et Habitat chez les Amerindiens Matis (Langue Pano,
Amazonas, Brsil), Anthropozoologica, N9:25-35. [If humans strive to keep the space they
inhabit strictly separated from the realm of the forest beings, how and where can they keep
pets ?]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1989, Les Matis de la tte aux pieds et du nez aux fesses, pp. 287-295 in M-L.
Beffa & R. Hamayon, eds., Les Figures du Corps, Publications du Laboratoire d'Ethnologie et
de Sociologie Comparative de l'Universit de Paris X-Nanterre. [Describes use of the human
body as a source of deictics for inanimate objects, and how this relates to the orientation of
houses, hammocks, and bathers.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1990a, Les Matis d'Amazonie, Parure du Corps, Identit Ethnique et Organisation
Sociale, doctoral dissertation, Universit de Paris X-Nanterre. [Study of Matis body ornaments
as a key to social organisation, ethnicity, and cosmology]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1990b, Near Beer of the Amazon, Natural History, 8/90:52-61. [Describes the
parallel between life-cyle rituals and the different stages of maize production and brewing
among the Matis. Many photographs.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1990c, How Crude is Mayoruna Pottery ?, Journal of Latin American Lore,
XVI(1):47-68. [Description of Matis clayware, meant as a rejoinder to the oversimplistic and
navely evolutionist depiction of Mayoruna pottery in Lathrap et al.s : The Roots of the
Shipibo Art Style, Three waves on Imiriacocha or there were "Incas" before the Incas , Journal
of Latin American Lore, XI(1):31-120, 1985.]

19

ERIKSON, Philippe, 1991a, Amaznia, O Ritual dos Indios Matis, Horizonte Geogrfico, IV(16):12-24.
[Translation of 1990b.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1991b, Cycles vgtatifs et vitaux dans le rituel matis (amazonie brsilienne),
p.138-149 in D. Meiller & P. Vannier, eds., Le Grand Livre des Fruits et Lgumes, Editions de la
Manufacture, Paris. [Similar in theme to 1990b, but focusses on the plant itself rather than on
the actors of Matis initiation rituals.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1991c, Uma esperana para os Matis, pp.268-9 in Povos Indgenas no Brasil,
1987-1990, Aconteceu Especial 18, CEDI, So Paulo, 1991. [Indigenist note, explaining the
revival of the tattooing ritual after 10 post-contact purgatorial years.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1992a, Qu'importe donc l'ivresse, tant qu'on a la boisson. Fermentation,
temprence et rituel chez les Matis d'Amazonie brsilienne, Cahiers de Sociologie Economique
et Culturelle, N18:89-97. [Typology and complementarity of plantain, manioc, maize, and
palm-fruit beers, each being associated with a different stage of life-cycle rituals, and drunk
according to this sequencing.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1992b, Poils et barbes en Amazonie indigne: lgendes et ralites, Annales de la
Fondation Fyssen, N7:83-91. [Focusses on the status of facial hair in Western iconography and
Matis symbolism. Unlike most Amazonians, the Matis are proud of their beards, and this has
some striking repercussions on their teratology and their cosmology.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1993a, Une nbuleuse compacte: le macro-ensemble Pano, L'Homme,
XXXIII(2-4):45-58. [How to account for the striking contrast between cultural and territorial
homogeneity of Panoans, on the one hand, and their ethnic atomization on the other? Review of
some of the cementing factors which hold the Panoan mosaic together.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1993b, A onomastica matis amaznica? pp.323-338 in E. Viveiros de Castro &
M. Carneiro da Cunha, eds., Amaznia: Etnologia e Histria indgena, Nucleo de Histria
Indgena e do Indigenismo, USP/FAPESP, So Paulo. [Naming practices among the Matis and
other Panoans, and their relationship with Kariera-type marriage sections.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1996, La Griffe des Aeux. Marquage du corps et dmarquage ethnique chez les
Matis d'Amazonie, Editions Peeters : Paris. [In addition to its monographic and comparative
ambition, this study aims at deciphering Matis body ornements and associated rituals, perceived
as a key to their social organisation, ethnic identity, and cosmology. The text is illustrated with
68 figures and 43 photographs meant to help instill the sociological, political and symbolical
dimensions of the Matis' enduring passion for body-lore.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 1999, El sello de los antepasados. Marcado del cuerpo y demarcacin tnica entre
los Matis de la Amazona, Abya Yala, Quito / IFEA, Lima. [traduction de Erikson 1996]
ERIKSON, Philippe, 2000, "Dialogues vif... Note sur les salutations en Amazonie", pp.113-136 in AM. Becquelin et Ph. Erikson, dit., Les Rituels du Dialogue, Nanterre: Socit d'Ethnologie.
ERIKSON, Philippe, (sous presse), Le masque matis: matire rflexion, rflexion sur la matire,
accepted for publication by LHomme. [description des masques matis et du symbolisme
inhrent l'argile dont ils sont constitus.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, (sous presse), Reflexos de si, ecos de outrem. Efeitos do contato sobre a auto
representao Matis ch.9 in B. Albert & A. Ramos, eds., Pacificando o Branco. Cosmologia e
poltica do contato no Norte Amaznico, So Paulo: Editora da Universidade de So Paulo.
[Along with death and the loss of many cultural traits associated with shamanism, recent postcontact diseases have brought along a severe modification of Matis self-image.]
ERIKSON, Philippe, (sous presse), "I, uuu, shhh. Cris, sexes et mtamorphoses chez les Matis
(Amazonie Brsilienne)", in Alain Babadzan, dit., Hommage Henri Lavonds, Nanterre:
Socit d'Ethnologie. [Une version portugaise de ce texte doit prochainement paratre dans la
revue Mana (Rio de Janeiro)].
ERIKSON, Philippe, (sous presse), "Several fathers in one's capPolyandrous conception among the
Panoan Matis (Amazonas, Brazil)", in Stephen Beckermann & Paul Valentine, edits., Partible
Paternity: The Theory and Practice of Multiple Fatherhood in South America, Gainesville :
University of Florida Press.
ERIKSON, Philippe, (sous presse), "Myth and Material culture: blowguns, palm trees, and ancestor
spirits among the Matis", in Laura Rival & Neil Whitehead, edit., Festschrift for Peter Rivire,

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Oxford University Press. [Traite des facteurs idologiques qui influent sur les choix
technologiques (arc ou sarbacane) effectus par les chasseurs matis.]
KENSINGER, Kenneth, 1985, "Panoan Kinship Terminology and Social Organization", pp. 157-174 in
K. Kensinger, How Real People Ought to Live, The Cashinahua of Eastern Peru, Prospect
Hights : Waveland Press.
MELATTI, Julio Cezar, 1989, Dos Alicerces Somticos das Culturas Panos Considerados por elas
proprias, Trabalhos de Cincias Sociais, Serie Antropologia N78. [Compares Matis, Marubo,
& Caxinawa origin myths; discusses mariwin spirits.]
MELATTI, Julio Cezar, 1992, "Enigmas do Corpo e Solues dos Panos", pp.143-166 in Mariza Corra
& Roque Laraia, edits., Roberto Cardoso de Oliveira, Homenagem, UNICAMP, Campinas.
[version dfinitive du texte prcdent.]
RIBEIRO, Bertha G., 1988, Dicionario do artesanato indgena, Itatiaia, Universidade de So Paulo,
348pp. [This thorough and richly illustrated encyclopedia of indigenous material culture
describes and depicts every conceivable item traditionally used by Brazilian Indians; a
reasonable amount of the hundreds of artefacts illustrated come from Panoan tribes: Marubo,
Kaxinawa, Matis, Karipuna, Conibo.]
VIVEIROS DE CASTRO, Eduardo, 1996, Ambos os trs: sobre algumas distines tipolgicas e seu
significado estrutural na teoria do parentesco, Anurio Antropolgico/95:9-91. [discusses
Panoan systems pp.76-78]
*****
FILMOGRAPHIE:
Pour conclure, quelques films dans lesquels des Pano septentrionaux tiennent la vedette:
-- J. Bodanski & W. Gauer (dir.): TERCEIRO MILENIO, 90mn, 16mm, color, STOP FILMS,
1981. [a masterpiece, showing a politician's aquatic campaign in the Javari region,
including some Matses villages]
-- Jacques Bock, EXPDITION SELVA, "Carnets de l'Aventure", France, 1982 [hunting scenes
(including post-kill singing) and misunderstandings in the jungle...]
-- J.J. Cousteau's: L'EXPDITION COUSTEAU EN AMAZONIE, 1984. [some sequences on the
Matis]
-- FUJI televison produced a film (in Japanese, for the general public) about the Matis. Video,
60mn, 1985.
-- Maurizio Leigheb, MATIS: ILLUSION DE UN EDEN, Italy. Video, 26mn, 1986 [entirely devoted
to the Matis, "undressed" for the circumstances; interesting sequence on pet sacrifice,
presented as a hunting scene!]
-- Silvio Cavuscens, Lino J. de O. Neves & I. Amorim Filho, "KUMUTIRO: CAMPANHA
JAVARI", Vido, 1987. [interviews with various indigenist leaders of the Javari ethnic
groups; available via Survival International, France and CEDI, Brazil].
-- Erling Sderstrm. Jungle Club, 52 mn, Image Dimension/Les Films du Village, 1997. [first
contact of the Korubo; fascinating document]
-- Steffi Moritz & Roland Garve : Auf der suche nach den Korubo Indianer, 1997. [diffus par la
tlvison allemande; Korubo contact].
-- Andy Jillings, Return of the Ancestors, Essential Television/Discovery Channel, 52 mn, 1998.
[Matis; ethnographic consultant: Erikson.]
-- Nick Gordon, Hunt of the Jaguar, National Geographic Television, 1999 [Matis]
-- Richard Wawman. Korubo. First contact, Essential Television/Discovery Channel, 52 mn,
2000. [Location director: Erling Sderstrm.]
-- Gonzalo Arijon, Les hommes-jaguar, 52 mn, Canal Plus/Dans la nature, 2001 [Matis;
ethnographic consultant: Erikson.]

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Oubli:
KNEELAND, Harriet, 1994, Cultural crisis and ideal values in cultural change among the
Mayoruna of Eastern Peru, Notes on anthropology and Intercultural Community Work,
16:23-48.

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