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CHAPTER 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Individual and Significant Structured Interviews of HRM Graduates

Every time he teaches and the students learn cookery, baking and pastry
production, the students as well as other faculty members would always request for
additional products so that they would bring some of their baked pastries and products
home to the delight of their parents.
Student Competencies
Looking at his grades in his folder in passing, he graduated school year 20102011. The Dean of the college at that time just assumed her position , just decided to
come in to witness the graduates commencement ceremony at the PICC Summit Hall.
Sat was awarded certificate of Excellence Award. It seemed he made every grade a
challenge and opportunity to prove to himself to the saying If there is no pain, no gain

Observation/ Narrative report of HRM Faculty and reflections


As an Instructor and ColleagueWhile in college he demonstrated competence, love of work and compassion,
which he said he has continuously carried out these skills and values

He would

advised students to continue reaching for their goals while in school, more focused on
skills needed in hospitality management and have the work-related values by heart. He
always remind his students of Sta Cecilia

the core values of a CECILIAN-

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Competence, Excellence, Compassionate Integrity, LEADERSHIP, Initiative, Attitude,


Nobility, and Service to Others.
Work Competency in the Industry and Government Agency like TESDA

The faculty did their job in the delivery of the learning tasks employing practical
strategies to make students learn and understand by translating the theories to
practical activities.
However, there are some equipments that are lacking. Example, the
Coffee Expresso machine to develop better Baristas so they can easily qualify
when they seek employment in Starbucks, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf and other
well known coffee shops in the Metro.

Customer Service: Communication is key to service in the industry.. One will need
to listen to the customer's order, answer customer's questions, and more. Also , one
needs great listening and speaking skills, a friendly, relaxing demeanor, courteousness
and quick service create a great dining experience for customers.
Stamina: Busy days on your feet, moving fast and carrying large trays of food are
the trademark of a good employee in the food hospitality Industry.

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Teamwork: Hospitality employees work as part of a team. One will be working with
other servers and the cooking staff to make a great dining experience. Being a team
player is essential.
Cleanliness: Nobody wants their food delivered by a slob. Being clean and neat
when serving food and drinks will help create a great first impression to the customers.
Mr. Canta was a significant person in my college life as he honed my skills to be
always alert and creative in the ultimate cooking experience of typical Filipino food from
the main dish to side dishes. He also taught the students how to do marketing and be
able to budget expenses as an essential thing to do in EVENTS Management.
All the skills developed in SCC

and school related values emulated by teachers

through the life of the PATRON Saint of the school greatly helped me in the career
path as a successful HRM graduate of Sta. Cecilia.
Were there subjects that have been neglected to sustain curiosity and interet
among HRM Graduates.?
I feel that Casino/ Gaming Management and Tour Guiding have not been given
equal attention in class due to lack of faculty members who have not been immensely
exposed during their OJT or familiarization of the business in the Industry.
Academic Year 2011-2012
Respondent 2

When she had her OJT at Pizza Hut SM North Edza Annex, one time when Ms
de Leon had her rounds to monitor their performance in the industry, she was able to
talk to her supervisor and she was so proud of her dedication for work, her adaptability

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and flexibility on some aspects of work schedules, and they were planning to absorb
her after her graduation because she was so devoted to her work and always pleasant
in dealing with customers, Pizza Hut immediately absorbed her as their employee right
after her graduation. However, she has to overcome her shyness to be more customer
oriented so that customers loyalty will be more manifested.
But I am happy that I learned to do research a very challenging work we the
graduating class has experienced!!
Another major subject as well is Bar Management wherein you will encounter
tasting and drinking all kinds of liquor and liqueur from wine, beers, vodka, gin etc. And
at the end, we will be making our own concoction or our own recipe of a unique ladies
drink or an innovative mix while dancing and performing our own flair-tending routines
together with a techno- music. That made us sway to our delight! It was really exciting!!

To all students who wants to pursue a degree in HRM. Enjoy the moment and
learn from it. Do not be afraid of mistakes as it will teach us a lot in the future. I once
planned to be an accountant but then my exam result was not up to their standard I
have to choose another course then my brother told me to get HRM as it's in demand
nowadays. And I never regret taking up this course and now almost 5 years working in
the industry . Thanks to Sta Cecilia for the memorable experience!

Work Culture at Pizza Hut


Besides being a team player working in a fast-paced environment, other
things are needed to be a successful member of Pizza Hut.

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1. Take pride in your appearance, have loads of energy, be on time, be organized


and willing to help keep tidy the Pizza Hut stores , clean and tidy.
2. Keep in mind the work standards around cleanliness, hospitality, product and
speed of service
3. Customers are important to Pizza Hut and well give you all the trainings needed
that Sta Cecilia College to provide the customers with great service and
products theyve come to expect from the team thats famous for a reason.
As an employee in the Food Industry, I would like to recommend that Food Fair during
Nutrition Week in the month of July be held to showcase different Filipino and
International cuisine for competition purposes by all HRM students per year level. The
HRM should continue to have a mini-food store near the covered walk for students and
parents get interested in the HRM course.
Respondent 3
Valler, Jayson R., 2012 a soft-spoken student, graduated with an Academic
Excellence Award. He has been a Room Attendant of New World Hotel in Makati as
his initial employment and now at Diamond Hotel located in Manila from 2014 to
present date as room attendant both in his initial and second employment.

Dr. Macatulad who handled their research was happy that the class was able to
defend their research as scheduled in the month of February due to weekly
consultation with her regarding previous comments and correction on their statistical
interpretation and format of their manuscript.

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The schoolyear 2012-2013 was the first year that Dr. Macatulad handled
research in the five colleges, Education, Business Administration, Hotel and restaurant
Management and Information Technology.
Initially, research was painstakingly developed to students and took a lot of
effort, strategies and techniques to make the students easily understand what is true
research. Their research skills need to be developed and strengthened. Every student
really found it difficult but there are always the easy way to thresh out the problem.
Research was taught for two(2) semesters. Chapter 1 The Problem and review of
Related Literature and Chapter 2 Method together with the title and the tool for the
research questionnaire included.
Chapter 3 Results and Discussion and Chapter 4 Summary, Conclusion and
recommendation plus Oral defense for the 2nd semester.
During the first semester, the students were made to do research in the
Computer Laboratory 1 scheduled by the I.T technician. All the students were excited to
do good research for the first time. During the semestral break sometime in November ,
2013, a Ph.D student of De La Salle Araneta University and part-time instructor from
a public school, a teacher in Mathematics was invited to discuss with all 4 research
classes in the four departments in college the statistical treatment of data applicable
to the statement of the problem formulated by the group congruent to their research
title.
Jaysons group exercised punctuality in coming to his research class, a good
natured man who works well with his classmates particularly the ladies. He speaks
softly, does not raise his voice when angry and he practiced good time management

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which often requires him to prioritize and re-prioritize as things come up unexpectedly.
Having good time management skills also means that he is able to deal with the
problem of revisions/changes in their group research. instead of suddenly finding
oneself in a crisis.
He has also NCII Tesda Certificate.
TESDA NCII
NCII Food and Beverage 2011 ; 2012
After graduation, he was taken in first at New World Hotel as room attendant.
After his graduation in March, he applied and was employed in a matter of two months.
His second employment is in the Diamond Hotel where he handles the same position
as room attendant. He makes sure that cleanliness of the rooms in the hotel is
maintained and performs the following tasks:
Checks that rooms have been vacated before cleaning
Make beds daily and change bed linens
Vacuum carpets and upholstery
Clean bathrooms and supply with fresh towels and toiletries
Check and restock tea, coffee, sugar, milk, and minibar supplies
Make sure that television, radios, lights , and airconditioning equipment are
working
Report to a supervisor, if articles are left behind by guests , If there is damage
to rooms or if any items appear to have been stolen.
Take laundry and dry cleaning orders from guests.

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Working conditions and hours vary greatly, depending on where the room
attendant work. The work is not usually physically demanding, but lifting,
carrying and bending are involved.
Personal Requirements:

Enjoy practical work

Neat personal appearance

Good personal hygiene

Honest and reliable

Able to cope with tne physical demands of the job

Able to stay calm in difficult situations

Their subject in Housekeeping and a Mock Hotel in college made them


developed better their housekeeping skills and front-office receptionist skills. Thus, his
trainings and practical application of these skills had been extensively used that made
his good performance when he became a room attendant to two hotels in Metro
Manila.
Respondent 4
Pamat, Alexandra Jane a.k.a Alex was born March 28, 1994, 20 years old. Started
working as a part-time food attendants of Balanlay Catering, Ramelyns Catering, and
2go Travel during her undergraduate days to sustain her educational expenses as a
working student at Sta. Cecilia College
As to her personal qualification as assessed by her course adviser Ms. Jinky
Macatulad and the Tesda Assessor in NCR , Ms Pamat has good time management,

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very flexible, willing to work under pressure. She is hardworking, eager to learn new
things, creative and innovative when it comes to honing her culinary and baking skills.
Her subject in International Cookery obtained the highest grade point average of
Outstanding. She earned for herself the following TESDA certificates
Bread & Pastry Production NCII
Bartending NCII
Food & Beverage Service = NCII
Housekeeping NCII
When you were a student, you were active in leading events in school with the class
in the events management like the celebration of Teachers Day which the school
annually celebrates. Were you happy and satisfied with the outcome of events?
She said Sometimes immaterial labour is bundled with the notion of affective
labour, which is often unacknowledged but is fundamentally important in our school
community cause I believe that Sta. Cecilia College and its people have high
community spirit.
What do you mean?
When work is accompanied with love for the work , feeling of satisfaction
surpassed the effort extended for the work.
I think what we were specifically interested in as students is the kind of work
that takes place in the planning of events which is extremely necessary, but is not
valued by some and always falls through cracks. For example, a couple of years ago,
the HRM department volunteered to help for the Teachers Day celebration. Involved
here are the core leaders of the different year level officersof HRM. A consensus has

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to be decided on who is to help in the event. They chose Ms. Alexandra Jane Pamat
as she had extensive experience with the Balanlay , Ramielyn, and Sta Cecilia College
Catering Event . Moreover her experience in OJT at Elan Hotel Modern in the
Purchasing Department and Kitchen department greatly helped to make the event
organized, systematic and fast as time constraint became a problem. This is in
connection with the Teachers Day celebration Dec. 5, 2013. HRM department together
with assigned heads in the Basic department

joined the work. This

shows the

community spirit was on process..Nevertheless this sort of work that we in the school
community often perform for one another is really important. Time/Support creates the
possibility for this type of help to be compensated in terms of appreciation and
camaraderie, not necessarily by the actual person who requested the help, and
certainly not in money, but through the system of Community spirit itself. This is
important . Everybody was on the move so cooperation, collaboration and heads were
turning to make the preparation finally approved. The venue was the space infront of
the canteen . It has simplified the occasion eat together or what they refer to the
Boodle fight The Food served were typical Filipino food, fried tilapia, bagoong, green
mangoes cut into small pieces and adobong baboy with inihaw na talong. Serving the
teachers were done by the HRM students. A short program was prepared to give tribute
to the teachers with a short message from the Chief Operation Officer, Engr. Erwinson
B. Atanacio. Annually, the student and the administration give importance to the
teachers of Sta Cecilia. Most often than not the HRM Department usually houlder the
responsibility in the preparation and the service done while teachers partake of the
food.

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Competency in Career Employment


Ms Pamat is currently employed as a Gourmet Specialist of Coffee Bean and
Tea Leaf almost a year now. Her experiences comes from different companies she had
been working as a Team Member of Classic Savory Resta 21 years old . Way back
year 2011 when she was still a working student at SCC. She finished her Restaurant
Practicum at Pizza Hut and her Hotel Practicum at Greenhills lan Hotel Modern. Alex
has also earned government certifications such as National Certificate II (NC II) in
Housekeeping, Food and Beverage NCII, Bartending NCII and Bread and Pastry
Production NCII given by the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
(TESDA).
Respondent 5
Ms. Guardacasa, Princess Erika, 2013 2014 graduate, 21 years old.
To be successful in this HRM course, one must be very observant and attentive
in the practical teachings and demonstrations of catering, food & cooking preparation,
table preparation, bed and room cleaning, as well as in customer relations.
One must be patient and courteous to all customers, as they are considered to be the
boss.
I enjoyed going around 3 Five Star Hotels when we went on familiarization tour
in 2011, 2012 and 2013 namely H2O Hotel, Resort World and Sofitel Hotel. Hotel
personnel oriented
department.

us about the operation and hotel personnel of the different

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The mock Hotel of the school serves as a simulation of housekeeping


procedures, bathroom cleaning, bed make-up and laundry, familiarization to cleaning
chemicals, help us HRM students to practice all housekeeping duties in the school .
The students act as the front office receptionist taking note of the usual
courtesies to the guest taking note of what vacant rooms are available in the De Luxe,
Standard and the Suite rooms.
The Bar where the glass wares and different wines and liquor are displayed
familiarizes students on their different colors, aroma and tastes. Adjacent to the bar is
the spacious kitchen where 5 stainless tables are situated for cooking and baking. Two
industry based oven are always ready for baking. A big chest freezer is used to
contain frozen foods and a big refrigerator for cooling beverages. Adjacent to the
kitchen is the stockroom for casserole, laddles and cooking utensils. Two big lavatory
are situated near the cooking area.
Does your course influence your plans for work in the near future? What core
skills imparted to you in school has been transferred to the skills you used in your
work?
This

course is for people like me who are in love with food, good places, and

yearn for a fulfilling and interesting career, whether locally or internationally. This is for
the people who dream high, work hard and want to explore the world in all it's
goodness as you also have a chance to travel if you are assigned to a cruise ship.
Experience with the Industry
What subject in your course fascinates you to explore further the work skills you
have practiced in school?

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My experience as a tourist guide in Intramuros, made me realized that tourist


guides are responsible for helping people when they visit unfamiliar places. They
usually make special trips with a group of tourists in order to show them important
places of cities. Their work is very important to first timers in the area. They may work
in travel agencies and museums.
What are the skills you used in tour guiding?

Being able to interact with people from different backgrounds

Good presentation skills

Have good verbal communication skills

Good time management skills

Having excellent knowledge about points of interest of specific cities

Having multiple language skills

Enthusiastic and friendly

Able to retain historical facts

Being able to work with a team

flexible and proactive

Trainings, seminars to hone skills learned in theories and translated to practical


skills. In terms of On- The Job Training Experience

Castillian Carriage and Tour Services- Sta. Clara St. Intramuros, Manila

Tourist Guide

Makati Palace Hotel Housekeeping Department

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Pizza Hut Restaurant- New Farmers Plaza

Bar Attendant and Food Server

Fusion Haven Bistro Timog Avenue corner Tomas Morato, Quezon City

Preparation of Sushi, Salad dressing, and cocktail mixing Jan. 13,2013

CATFABS, Pasay City = Fruit and Vegetable Carving Jan. 27, 2012

First Bar Service Management Event Sept.30 2011

Heavy Salad and Dressing Preparation Auguat 2011

Special Awards
Academic Excellence Award March 25, 2011
Academic Excellence Award March 31, Deans Lister June 28, 2013
Outstanding in Academic Excellence Awards March 31, 2014
Respondent 6
Dianne Bizares Zabala 21 years old
Shift Supervisor of Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf- June 2014
1st position Full time Barista
Patience, perseverance, dedication and commitment in your chosen field plays
vital role in succeeding HRM. Most of all, I learned that it is not what you get in the four
cornered classroom but it is how you apply the knowledge you learned in your daily
existence as stated to her course coordinator when she was interviewed-

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Tell me your school experiences in the classroom and in the industry that left a
mark to you as an HRM graduate of Sta Cecilia College just after a month after
graduation, May 2014.
The most difficult subject for me was thesis or research, from thesis title approval up to
the defense is tough and one lacks sleep that often results to have big eyebags, In my
batch I believe there are no students who failed, all of our batch passed. Our professor
who happens to be our college Dean was really strict and serious about the output of
our research.
Another difficult subject in HRM were accounting and math --- both involve
numbers which reflect that I am not really a fan of anything that pertains to calculations.
As for the enjoyable parts, I really loved the subjects that are related to mixing coffee
and cooking.
There are usually numerous clubs/ organization where we join on campus,
where I find one and offer ones services and take part in meetings that will help me to
develop additional transferable skills that will make me a valuable asset in the job
market. Taking on leadership roles on campus is something employers love to see on a
resume.
Work and Ethical Values Needed to Perform well -Get to Know Your Staff
Assisting staff in work or participating in some collaborative research will help one
develop professional working relationships with them. Not only one learns a whole lot
about what they do, one

will also create the potential of getting some strong

recommendations for future jobs or graduate programs one may be applying to.
Certification Passed

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NCII Food & Beverage


NCII - Bartending
NCII Housekeeping
Skills acquired as a Supervisor/Barista at Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf
Responsible to the supervision of the Baristas in maintaining the quality service
and product. This position enforces all procedures in the absence of the Store
Manager. The Shift supervisor will fulfill any other duties the Store Manager or District
Manager assigns and will represent The coffee Bean and Tea Leaf in a professional
manner.The Barista is responsible for serving all products with friendly, individualized
attention towards each customer. He or she is also responsible for educating
customers about the premium coffee or tea.
Job Requirements

Experience in retail/ specialty store or food establishment preferred

Excellent verbal and written skills

Well organized and detail oriented

Register and cash handling experience

Bachelors Degree in Hotel and restaurant management or any four year


business course
There are equipment and needed materials which the school lacks like the

Espresso Machine in the mixing of Coffee thus the skills of graduates inclined to
be Barista are not fully skillful.
How traits and competency skills and other related employment

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based factors be integrated into Sta. Cecilias HRM curriculum


Since the HRM curriculum does have a subject on values formation except
Business ethics , needed behavioral skills such as interpersonal skills,
teamwork, personal skills such as principles, attitudes, values and motives.are
to be integrated in the curriculum since these are considered related to
employability skills needed by future graduates of HRM in Sta Cecilia College.
CURRICULUM VARIABLES, SKILL AREAS COURSES AND DESCRIPTIONS.
Factor
Dimension
Courses
Variables
Descriptions
Generic Skill Sets
Communication
Skills
Listening Skills
Speaking Skills
Writing Skills
Presentation
Skills
Conceptual Skills Hospitality &
Demonstrate
Law as applied
Tourism Law
knowledge of
to
law
hotel, food
service
establishments,
and the
travel industry;
bailment,
contracts,
torts,
regulations,
insurance, and
sanitation.
Convention
Knowledge of
The use of
Sales
sales
personnel
Management,
technique and
selling in the
Hotel
concepts
hospitality and
Convention
tourism
Sales
context.

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Management

Introduction to
Hospitality
&Tourism
Management

Analytical Skills

Interpersonal

Hospitality &

Understanding
operational and
marketing
concepts
and enhancing
interpersonal
communication
and
sales skills.
Demonstrate a
Scope,
clear
components,
understanding of development
the Hospitality
and
Industry
future of the
hospitality
industry.
Background
on industry
structure;
overview of
specialized areas
relating to the
management of
food
service, lodging,
and
travel
operations.
Using numerical
ideas and
techniques
Forecasting &
Budgeting
Problem-Solving
skills
Critical
Reflective
thinking
Ethical Behavior

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Tourism Ethics
Hospitality Specific skills
Fundamental curriculum related
Fundamental
Case Studies,
Curriculum
lab
related skills
work, research,
field trips,
feasibility
studies,
economic
impact
studies,
SeminarPortfolio
Assessments
Internships,
Practicum, Work
Experience,
Seminar
industry
experience
Guest Lectures

Functional area skills


Marketing
Hospitality
Marketing
Management;
Service
Marketing
in Hospitality
and
Tourism;

skills
Experimental
learning &
application

Experience
based
learning
&application

Understand
current
issues and
practices
in the hospitality
industry
Understand
marketing
concepts &
apply hospitality
marketing
fundamentals.
Understand and
apply
Hospitality
Promotion, sales,
and

Using the
marketing
mix,
communication
principles and
objectives,
selling and
merchandising,
advertising and
promotion,
analyzing

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advertising
techniques

Finance

Hospitality
Managerial
Accounting

Understand and
apply
accounting data

Information
Technology

Hospitality
Computer
Applications

Demonstrate
skillful
use of IT for
processing and
communicating
information in
the
hospitality
industry.

Concentration area skills


Food &
Food and
Beverage Service
Restaurants
Meal Management
Food Selection
and Nutrition
International
Cookery

Demonstrate a
clear
understanding of
the
principles of
food
fabrication,

the
communication
process,
developing an
integrated
marketing
communications
program.
Use of
accounting data
for decision
making in
hospitality
industries,
including ratio
analysis, costing,
profit analysis,
and seasonal
forecasting
Basics of
hardware and
software
technology,
computer
networks and
the Internet, and
learn
how to use
Microsoft
office suite
applications.
Problems
procedures,
maintenance,
safety
training,
regulatory
requirements,

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production,
nutrition,
safety, quality,
services,
purchasing,
cost controls,
and
critical issues.

Beverage
Management

Identify types of
beverages and
demonstrate
knowledge of
beverage
management

food
service
sanitation
certification,
food
quality, service,
food
products,
commercial
equipment,
operation of food
marketing,
selection of
foods to meet
the food service
needs,
knowledge of
food
service
nutrition
relating to
customer
and operator
needs and
requirements in
food service
operations, and
knowledge of
commercial &
contract
food service.
Identification,
origin,
production, and
availability of
beverages.
Emphasis
on the buying,
pricing,
control, storage,

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Events

Event
Management;
Meeting,
Convention &
Event
Management;
Special Events
and conference
planning

Develop event,
meetings,
convention
& conference
management
skills

Catering and
banqueting
management

Learn and
demonstrate
catering
and banqueting
functions and
skills

promotion, and
selling
of beverages in
the
hospitality
industry.
Project
scheduling and
planning and
programming an
actual
event including
its
inception, site
selection,
contract
negotiations,
selecting
suppliers,
obtaining
sponsorships,
and
budgeting,
developing
goals, objectives,
and
evaluation
techniques
related to these
events
Analysis and
evaluation of
food and
beverage
systems in
catering
operations.
Emphasis on
planning,

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Lodging

Rooms Division
Management;
Hotel
Management;
Advanced Hotel
Management
Hotel
Supervision;
Hotel
Operations;
Seminar: Resort
Management.

Tourism & Travel

Introduction to
Travel &
Tourism;
Tourism Policy &

coordinating and
improving
operations.
Plan and
organize large
on-and-offcampus
activities.
Understand the
skills
different
development in
functional
employee
areas of hotels,
selection,
&
room sales
resorts such as
forecasting,
front
labor production,
desk,
employee
housekeeping,
staffing,
rooms division,
employee
guest
scheduling,
services and
and
develop
departmental
managerial and
budgeting and
supervisory skills diagnosing,
analyzing
and providing
resolution of
complex
hotel business
situations,
emphasizing
practical
problem
solving skills and
strategic
management.
Understand the
Social,
overall tourism
economic, and
phenomenon
environmental
and
dimensions of

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Planning;
Travel Agency
and Tour
Operation; Tour
Operations
Management;
Seminar: World
Wide
Destinations

develop
management
competencies in
travel & tourism

tourism,
trends, operation
and
management
practices
of travel
agencies and
tour operators,
and
knowledge of
computerized
reservation
systems
and tour
development,
geography of
tourist
demand, supply
and
transportation,
and
destinations.

The reasons why traits and competency skills should integrated into the curriculum
are that:

It focuses on broad learning outcomes for students rather than on the

narrower management activities or competencies (Raybould& Wilkins, 2006)


Its broad focus enables workers to hold and continually upgrade sets of traits
and competency skills that can be transferred across different dynamic
employment settings in the new millennium (Curtis & McKenzie, 2001).

It acknowledges the role of higher education in preparing students for life and
learning rather than simply for employment (Raybould& Wilkins, 2006). Most

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competency related studies in hospitality have focused on examining specific


components of hospitality and tourism management careers. Mayo (2003) identified
and ranked relevant competencies needed by graduates of hospitality and tourism
programs.
TOURISM/HOSPITALITY GRADUATES: ITS PERCEIVED IMPACT IN MANPOWER
STAFFING IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
The swift growth in hospitality industry has resulted into the generation of
employment worldwide. UNWTO has also confirmed that Hospitality Catering and
Tourism (HCT) is among the worlds top creators of jobs. There is huge manpower
requirement in hospitality and tourism sector. But a huge gap is perceived between the
demand and supply of manpower for Hospitality & Tourism industry. This huge gap is
due to the negative perception conceived by the people about the industry like long
working hours, low salary package, low profile jobs etc. This gap can be absolved by
improving their perception positively.
Long trading hours is a key characteristic of industries such as retailing, hotels
and catering. These industries are labour-intensive and highly variable in terms of the
demand cycle within which they operate. Employers demand

for part time labour

corresponds with students needs to seek part time employment


Using college/university students on a part time basis as an on the job trainee
seems a flexible option for the hotel industry to ease labour shortage problems. The
findings suggest that employers perceive student workers as a high quality workforce.
Employers benefit in employing student workers on a part-time basis and most
employers are willing to use student workers, especially full-time college/university

115

students, to work in the hotel industry. Employers benefit from cost savings and using
manpower flexibly. It seems almost certain that employers will continue using student
workers in the hotel industry.
Part-timers are generally known as part of the flexible workforce in the
employment market. Flexible working provides cost savings and other benefits that
encourage employers to reduce their full-time head count by using a variety of
outsourced, subcontracted and part-time options which are available ( Lai and Baum,
2005). Fluctuating demand is one of features of the hotel labour market. Since there is
variation in demand in hotel operations, employing part-timers allows employers utilize
their manpower flexibly.
Managers in the industry during visits to the industry agree that part-timers are
very important to hotels, and they also think hotels need part-timers who can save
costs. All managers think that part timers, as a human resource, are very important to
hotels, especially for banquets and catering, which have fluctuating demand
characteristics.
Therefore, the researcher needs to consider impact of this on labor markets in
hospitality. Both students and school educators need to pay more attention on the
impact of education in terms of academic performance.
Another recent major development that affects the tourism and hospitality
program offering is the implementation of the K-12 program. This is an opportunity for
the priority being given to tourism, with it being viewed as the engine to economic
growth and job creation, to find its way in the elementary and high school education
system. Tourism and hospitality orientation can be injected in various subjects, as well

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as inclusion of skills that would develop students aptitude in tourism and hospitality
education. These high schools which are able to develop their curriculum as such can
serve as feeder schools of tourism and hospitality management colleges and
universities. In order to fill the gaps between supply and demand especially for critical
skills in tourism manpower as per the projections for the Philippine tourism industry in
the forthcoming years, undergraduate higher education tourism programs in the country
should be one that is geared toward occupational preparation. This would imply a
vocational focus where sector specific technical skills are honed in the students.
However, more than tourism career development where students are prepared
primarily for employment, higher education in tourism should likewise provide
knowledge and skills that would make one a well rounded graduate.
Aside from honing craft based skills that shall enable graduates to perform job
requirements efficiently, the tourism program must provide the necessary preparation
for graduates to take responsibility for stewardship of the industry.
This position is consistent with that of other authors who believe that tourism
education must prepare the student for more than just employment noting that there is
a need to balance the liberal and vocational aspects of tourism education to eventually
have students who are broadly educated, knowledgeable about and responsible in
tourism development as well as occupationally functional in tourism (Inui, Wheeler and
Lankford, 2006; Lewis, 2005;Stuart-Hoyle, 2003).