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Polar head group with two nonpolar tails

Chracteristics
Second largest class

Carbon 1: OH
Composition

Sphingosine

Long chain amino alcohol

Carbon 2: NH2

Binding site for variable head groups


Ceramide: when a fatty acid is attached

Analagous to diacylglycerol

Carbon 3: OH

Head group: Phosphocholine


Head group: Phosphoethanolamine

Sphingomyelin

Myelin sheath in PNS


Examples

White matter of CNS


Lipid rafts

Sugar molecule linked to ceramide

Sphingolipids
Cerebrosides

Neural tissue: galatose


Examples
Non-neural tissue: glucose

Subdivisions

Make up 50% of the total biological


membrane

2-6 sugar molecules linked to ceramide


Occur in exoplasmic (outer face) of
membrane

Glycerol backbone

14 to 24 carbons

Type A: NAG sugar


Glycolipids

Two fatty acid chains


One tail normally is saturated, while other has
one or more cis bonds

Type B: galactose terminal sugar


Examples
Type AB: NAG and galatctose

Composition

Phosphate group

Type O: neither
Neutral
Positive

Head group

Complex, branched sugar head groups


Ganglisodes

Negative

Found in gray matter of CNS (6% of


membrane)

Increase membrane curvature


Vesicle formation

Phospholipids
Phosphatidiic acid: phosphate group, glycerol
backone and FA tail
Examples

Signaling molecule

Diacylglycerol: only glycerol and two fatty


acids:

Four hydrocarbon rings

Lipid
Composition

Hydrocarbon tail
Hydroxyl group

Increases with increase chain length

Gives it an amphiphatic quality

Melting Point
Decrease with increase in double bonds

Cholesterol
Saturated: tightly packed

Found

Properties

Cis = sharp bend

Too hydrophobic to make own sheets


Inserts between phospholipids
Makes 30-40% of plasma membrane

Saturation
Unsatrurated: double bond

Trans = straight

Stabilizes the liquid state by creating an


organized liquid, lipid phase

Function

Shorter fatty acid chains


More fluid (less surface area --> more fluid and
random
Neutral
Neutral

Cholesterol

Cholesterol at low temperatures

Phsophatidylcholine
Less fluid

Neutral

Cis fatty acids

Phosphatidylethanolamine

Lipid Fluidity

Major lipids in membranes


Neutral

Cholesterol at high temperatures

Occurs by membrane carriers

Sphingomyelin
Flip-flop

Negative

Stuff made in cytsol musts make it out to


outer membrane

Phosphatidylserine
Types of movement

Negative

Phosphatidylinositol
Lateral

Primary form of movement

Rotation

Gel (solid, organized = So)


Phases
Sol (liquid, disorganized = Ld)

Sphingolipids

Fluid Mosaic Model

Outer edge of raft


Composition
Cholesterol

Facilitates flux in and out of raft


Lowers surface tension between Lo and Ld
areas

Lipid rafts

Anchor for membrane proteins in a sea of


moving lipids
Function
Due to higher transitional temperature of
lipids, sphingolipids

Proteins can restrict diffusion of lipids

Anchored
Protein diffusion

Diffuse easily
Diffusion
Much slower than lipids (duh)
Limited by associations

Prevents fatty acids from "geling"