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Anthropology of Education

INTRODUCTION
Antrpologi education began to present himself as a discipline in the mid-20th century. At that
time many of the questions posed to education leaders about how far education can change a
society. As known at that time developed countries raising the large program of creating
development in the newly independent states. Anthropology education seeks to find patterns
of community learning culture that can create social change. Similarly, the embodiment of the
culture of education policy makers oriented to socio-cultural changes get attention. Therefore,
this paper will discuss the relationship between anthropology and education.
DISCUSSION
LINKAGES BETWEEN THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF EDUCATION
Meaning of Anthropology
Anthropology is the study of human beings and the ways of human life. Anthropology has
two main branches, namely physical anthropological study of human evolution and
adaptation to different environments and cultural anthropology that examines both cultures
extant or extinct culture. Anthropology, cultural anthropology include language that examines
the forms of language, cultural-archaeological study an extinct culture, ecology examines
extant culture or cultures that life can still be observed directly. So antropolgi is a deep study
about the specific cultures.
Originally known as the anthropological concept of culture is the totality (Ruth). Meanwhile,
Boas consider certain aspects of the different cultures, the culture as a whole to function in
certain patterns. There is much disagreement about anthropology, but since it was a major
innovation that happens is the study of culture and personality that is about the process of
how a culture internalized and transformed by individuals. So anthropology examines certain
aspects of the culture. If other social means talking about a certain range, the overall
undergraduate anthropology examines human history as a field of study. By studying
anthropology, we can realize the diversity of human cultures and influences in education.
The Meaning of Culture
Culture means all the ways of life that have be developed by members of a society. In
particular culture is meant the totality of the way of life lived by a certain community
consisting of how to think, how to act, and the way was manifested as religion, law, language,
arts and customs. The simplest cultures including how to sleep, how to eat or how to dress. To
distinguish between culture and society is that society is a local resident who worked together
in a long time to achieve certain goals. While culture is the way of life of the community, or
the things they think, feel, and do.
Cultural meaning, it simply means all the ways of life (ways of life) that has been developed
by members of the public. From another perspective we can look at a culture as a behavior
that is learned and experienced with (thoughts, actions, feelings) of a given society, including
artifact-artifact, studied in the sense that the behavior is submitted (transmitted) socially, not
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genetically inherited and experienced together in the sense of good practice by all members of
society or groups within a society.
Contents Culture
Basically, the symptoms can be classified as cultural activities / events, ideas / ideas and
artifacts acquired, learned and experienced. Culture can be classified as the advanced
electronic tools are used, the social organization of the activities of cultural institutions and
ideology and knowledge of the culture. According to R. Linton, cultures can be classified
into:
1. Universals: thoughts, actions, feelings and artifacts known to all adults in the
community. Ex, language, kinship, clothing and beliefs.
2. Specialisties: symptoms are internalized only by members of a particular social group.
Ex, the professional class.
3. Alternatives: symptoms are internalized by certain individuals such as pastors,
scholars, painters and philosophers.
Culture is a combination of the overall unity that exists and is uniquely structured so that it
can be understood and given its constituent communities. Every culture has a configuration
that matches the attitudes and beliefs of the community foundation, which in turn form an
interdependent system, where coherence can be felt more than thought constituent. Culture
can be systematic so that it can be selective, create and adjust according to the principles of a
particular configuration. Culture will evolve smoothly and if the creation of an interconnected
integration.
In the culture of the most important subsystems are the foci of the collection of patterns of
behavior that absorbs a lot of time and effort. If a culture increasingly integrated, the focus
will be more powerful and more towards patterns of behavior are related to the focus of each
other and vice versa. Culture can be damaged and even destroyed if the changes are too
forced, so it does not correspond with the state of society where culture develops. The
changes are driven by the high level of integration in the culture. If not then the culture will
be integrated easily absorb a series of innovations that could destroy the culture itself.
Nature of Culture
Culture that developed in the community have properties such as:
1. Superorganik because it is organic and rooted in human organs as well as the culture
continues to live beyond a certain generation.
2. Are visible (overt) and hidden (covert) is seen in action and objects, as well as a
hidden character in the aspect that must be integrated by each member.
3. Explicit and implicit form of action which is reflected directly by the people who
carry it out and the things that are considered known and these things can not be
explained.
4. Is ideal and manifest in the form of actions to be done and the actual action.

5. Is stable and changes are measured by the elements of a relatively stable and the
stability of the cultural elements.
Anthropology and Education
Education can be defined as a process of learning, the provision of knowledge, skills and
attitudes through the mind, character and physical capacity to use the institutions so that
objectives can be met. Education can be obtained through formal and informal institutions.
Submission culture through informal institutions are made through enculturation since early
childhood in the family environment. In a society that is very complex, specialized and
rapidly changing, education has a very large function in understanding the culture as a whole.
With the increasingly rapid changes in culture, the more it takes time to understand his own
culture. This makes the culture in the future can not be predicted with certainty, so that in
learning a new culture needed a new method to study it. In this case, educator and
anthropologist must work together, where they both have an important role and
interconnected. Conservative education that aims to perpetuate cultural achievement results,
carried out by young people so that it can adjust to the events that can be anticipated on the
inside and outside of culture and paved the way to change the culture.
GD Spindler holds that the major contribution that can be given to the education of
anthropology is to collect a number of empirical knowledge that has been verified by
analyzing the aspects of the educational process in different social and cultural environments.
Special theory and experiment will not result in separate disciplinary educational
anthropology. Basically, the anthropology of education must necessarily constitute a
systematic study, not only on the practice of education in cultural perspective, but also about
the assumptions used for educational anthropologist and assumptions reflected in educational
practices.
By studying the methods of cultural anthropology education beneficial to education. Where
educators must melakkan carefully. This is because the culture prevailing in the community is
unique, it is difficult to compare so there should be a new comparison is tentative. Each probe
conducted by scientists will provide a valuable contribution and influence education.
Anthropological theory produced through special education and a separate experiment with
the systematic study of the practice of education in cultural perspective, so that
anthropologists conclude that the school is a cultural property into the scheme of values in
guiding society. But there are times when a number of teaching methods are less effective
than media education so strongly opposed to the data obtained in the field by anthropologists.
The task of the educator is not only exploit cultural values, but set it and connect it to
the thought and practice of education as a whole.
Anthropology of education began to reveal itself as a discipline in the mid abab to-20. Since
then, educational anthropology tries to find patterns of a culture of learning communities
(rural and urban) to change social change. Similarly, the embodiment of cultural experts take
education policy-oriented socio-cultural changes get attention. Anthropology of educationoriented conference on social change in the new countries in particular through education
schooling were held. The results of the study of education in schooling through anthropology
published in 1954 under the editorial GD Spindler (1963).
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Conference to make recommendations on a series of anthropological studies of education in


schools, given the path of social change in one culture can be done through formal education.
Many studies have shown that the system of education in new countries are oriented to
strengthen the ruling social groups.
Anthropology of Education as a discipline is now being developed by experts who recognize
the importance of cultural studies in a society. Anthropology in developed countries look at
any development issues in developing countries is due to the culture of learning. Studying
cultural studies has become an increasingly attractive attention, especially for educational
thinkers college. Caution is done by looking at the reality of poor quality of human resources
has led to the vulnerability of socio-culture community resilience in the face of crisis in life.
Orientation of the development of a culture of learning must be done thoroughly study linking
the cultural patterns that exist within the community and formal education institutions. Van
Kemenade (1969) in Imran Manan has warned: "the question of education should not only be
considered purely didactic pedagogical issues methodically and social kebikakan matter, so
that education is no longer a common need. For that we need an empirical analysis of the task
of education in the context of people's lives. "
Approach and anthropological theory of education can be seen from the two categories. First,
education antopologi theory approach derived from cultural anthropology aimed at social
change culture. Second, educational theory approach derived from philosophy.
Anthropological theory of education oriented toward social change culture categorized into
four orientations:
1. Theoretical orientation that focuses attention on the static equilibrium. This theory is
part of the theories of evolution and history.
2. Theoretical orientation that sees the balance dynamically culture. The theory is that a
complement previous theories, namely orientation and techno-economic adaptation
that became andalanya
3. Orientation theory which saw the opposition static culture, where the source comes
from the theory of structural family theory.
4. Orientation theory-laden culture of a global conflict on interdependency between
countries, which includes multicultural theory.