A brief note of FMIPM lecture for petroleum engineering.

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A brief note of FMIPM lecture for petroleum engineering.

© All Rights Reserved

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porous media

Giovanni Benvegna

Sommario

State of matter........................................................................................................... 1

PVT properties:......................................................................................................... 11

Gas........................................................................................................................ 12

Oil.......................................................................................................................... 18

Water..................................................................................................................... 22

Experimental test..................................................................................................... 23

Rock petrophysical properties..................................................................................27

Darcy law.............................................................................................................. 28

Darcy law for gas................................................................................................... 32

Production parameters............................................................................................. 34

Rock fluid interaction properties............................................................................... 35

Mobility ratio......................................................................................................... 38

The GOR................................................................................................................ 38

Surface tension and interfacial tension.................................................................39

Imbibition and drainage........................................................................................ 46

Production drive mechanism.................................................................................... 48

Pressure gradient..................................................................................................... 50

Diffusivity equation.................................................................................................. 52

Steady state solution............................................................................................. 58

Skin effect.......................................................................................................... 59

Productivity index and completion factor...........................................................60

Pseudo steady state solution.................................................................................61

Pressure behavior with different flow rate.............................................................62

Transient state solution......................................................................................... 64

Skin effect in transient....................................................................................... 67

Diffusivity equation for gasses.................................................................................68

Depletion.................................................................................................................. 74

State of matter

We define these state:

Liquid

Vapour

Gasses

Dew point

Bubble point

Vapour pressure

When we say standard point we mean: P = 1 atm and T = 15C. using m 3sc we are

talking standard condition if we use m3st we refer to stock condition.

In a single component system:

We define the line AO as the vapour pressure; OB as the sublimation pressure and

the line OC as the melting pressure, the slope of this last line is negative for water

and positive for hydrocarbons.

Pc represent the minimum pressure necessary for liquefaction of vapor at the

critical temperature. Tc is the critical temperature, above which a vapor cannot be

liquefied, regardless of the applied pressure. So at the end A represent the critical

point.

Suppose that the reservoir condition initial is in the terms of P and V at red dot.

During the production the pressure decrease and the volume increase until it reach

the bubble point. From bubble point until the complete vaporization at the dew point

the pressure remain constant and volume continue to increase. From the dew point

oil is in gasses phase, continuing the production pressure slightly decrease and

volume increase as well.

curve which pass among all the bubble point and the dew point. Which represent

the region of the different states.

The fluid in a reservoir is not composed only by HC, we have also CO 2, N2, H2S and

so on. The composition of fluid oil define the fluid category.

The value of the bubble point pressure is different form dew point:

If we increase the temperature, B will be higher, C as well and the distance between

B and C decrease. So if we perform the experiment at different temperature and we

plot all the result and so we connect all dew and bubble point we obtain the phase

envelop.

In the phase envelop we find a point named Critical point, in which the phase

property of a fluid is the same, vapor, liquid and solid.

The general phase diagram for a multicomponent system we have this kind of

shape defined by own critical point, and line:

Bubble point line; Dew point line; Critical point; Cricondetherm: the higher

temperature in which liquid can exist; So the fluid at the right side of this line is Dry

Gas; above the bubble point and to the left of critical vertical we have

unsaturated fluid: liquid. Among cricondetherm and vertical critical temperature

we have Gas condensate.

Into a real reservoir we can image that initial pressure is Pi (300 bar) and

temperature is Tr (100C). we assume that temperature in a reservoir doesnt

change due to the lower dimension respect the earth; so it is possible only to reduce

the pressure. Anyway, during the rising of the fluid the pressure decrease and

temperature as well. If the P-T transformation of the fluid during the rising, remain

at the right side of cricondetherm we talk about the Dry gas cos remain gas.

If we fall inside the envelop curve we talk about wet gas because there is gas in

the reservoir and liquid gas at surface:

Production will give me only liquid and gas at surface and into the reservoir I will

have liquid in the reservoir if the pressure is lower dew point, I have at the end gas

condensate not strictly connected to the path

We prefer to produce oil, so it is better to maintain the pressure above the dew

point, because if the condition is inside the envelop line we have a lower volume of

oil compared to the gas condensate.

The shape of the envelop curves depends on the composition of HC. In the picture

below is shown 2 different condition of two reservoir: 1 is heavier compared to 2.

the reservoir (A) to the surface (B) we have different composition:

Volatile oil: release a large amount of gas at pressure reference, we dont know if we

have gas with saturated oil or oil with saturated gas.

In case of a gas-condensate reservoir (A) the production path cross the dew line in

B, we can see that liquid start to increase and continuing the production after a

while it will return in a low level of liquid. This phenomena is called Retrograde

condensation.

This phenomena depends to the difference energy of attraction and repulsion of the

molecular gasses.

We make another differentiation of fluid inside the reservoir: volatile oil (to the left)

and black oil (to the right)

Lets consider:

P initial = 300 bar in the reservoir

T reference = 15C

After the starting production Pi is in reduction direction. When it reach the Pb the

composition is still oil, but after this level oil start to release gas:

10

PVT properties:

PVT properties are the properties of a fluid which depend to the pressure volume

and temperature value. The reference condition at which the value of the properties

are define are 2:

Standard condition (sc for gas or stock tank condition st for oil): P = 1 atm =

14.69 psi; T = 15C

Reservoir condition (r): P = 300 bar ; T = 100C

and temperature as a PVT, for example Viscosity.

Viscosity as an intensive propriety, not related to PVT property but it is function of

pressure and temperature, so in the reservoir engineering is considered in this way.

Viscosity is friction within a fluid that results from the strength of molecule to

molecule attractions. In other words it is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which

is being deformed by either shear stress or extensional stress.

The unit of measure is Pa s or cP. We refer to Newtonian viscosity, dynamic

viscosity, coefficient of viscosity as Viscosity

reservoir condition is 0.5 0.9 cP. For an oil we have at reference condition more or

less ??, instead at reservoir condition is 0,5-50 cP (250 for very heavy oils).

The conversion factor among the different unit are:

(stokes).

= /

Which the conversion factor is:

Lets consider the different fluid in physic: Gas, Oil, Volatile Oil and Water.

11

Gas

The PVT properties for a gas are:

Viscosity

Density or gas gravity

Compressibility factor

Gas formation volume factor

Compressibility

The real gas are considered when we have higher pressure and low temperature. In

order to consider the real behavior of a gas instead of a perfect gas we introduce

the compressibility factor z:

PV =nRT PV =z n RT

The compressibility factor born by the non-negligible molecular volume and the nonnegligible attractive force among the molecule.

We have to consider the unit used:

R=10.73 psia ft3 lbmol-1 R-1.

The z coefficient is not known previous, so we have to determine it (z = 1 at

standard condition because the ratio is 1 at standard condition for each gas), in a

purely theoretical way:

pn V n=n z n R T r

12

psc V sc=n z sc R T sc

z n=

p n V n T sc

p sc V sc T r

All natural gasses, in the same pseudo reduced pressure and pseudo reduced

temperature condition shown the same volumetric behavior and so the same value

of z.

Lets consider two different gas C1 and C2.

temperature.

The reduce pressure and temperature are determined as:

P r=

Pmeasured

T

; T r = measured

P criticalc

T criticalc

i

curves overlapping together due to the same behavior.

For a given gas with different component inside we have to consider the different

behavior defining a pseudo-reduced pressure and temperature:

P pr=

Pmeasured

P pseudocritical

; T pr =

T measured

T pseudocritical

n

P pc = Pc r y i ; T pc = T c r y i

i=1

ci

i=1

ci

13

y i=

Molei

Mole

P pc = y C Pcrc + yC Pcr c

1

In this graph the part below the white line is reported to the bottom where it was in

the upper part.

corrections; we use this graph:

14

The formation volume factor (FVF of Bg) is the ratio between the volume of free

gas, at reservoir condition. and the volume of the same gas at standard condition:

B g=

V ( p ,T )

V sc

Consider that: (sc is standard condition and r reservoir condition)

psc V sc=nRT sc

pr V r=z r nR T r

B g=z r

Where

Psc T r

Pr T sc

Psc , T r ,T sc

15

The compressibility in a real gas is

C g=

1 V 1

=

V P P

increasing of density.

The compressibility of a gas could be determined approximately as:

1 1 z 1

C g=

P z P P

Just to remind some value

Coil = 10-5 psi-1.

Cwater = 10-6 psi-1.

Csoil = 10-6 psi-1.

The gas density is

g =

MP

zRT

gasres con=

gasSC

Bg

16

G=

g

M

= g

air M air

ga s =

rc

airSC

is 1.225 kg/m3.

G airSC

Bg

Viscosity in gas change the behavior according to pressure and temperature in this

way

Exercise 1 to 4

17

Oil

Compressibility is the slope of the lines obtained in liquid phase by a CCE

experiment (see the next chapter).

c o=

1 V

V p

c o=

2 V 1V 2

V 1 +V 2 p 1p 2

Formation volume factor for oil is defined as: the volume of oil and dissolved gas

at reservoir condition that must be produced to obtain 1 cubic meter of stable oil at

stock tank conditions (standard condition)

B g=

V oi l

V oi l

st

18

According to our experience it has the range of 1 - 2.2 m 3/Sm3, maximum 2.8.

The initial increasing of the Bo in a reducing pressure until reach the bubble point is

increasing due to the slightly compressibility of the oil. Of course at left of the

bubble point a reduction of pressure cause a reduction of the Bo due to the

liberation of gas and the volume of oil at reservoir condition is reduced.

Volume of gas dissolved (Rs) is the volume of gas which is dissolved in the oil at

reservoir pressure and temperature, but it is measured at surface condition, referred

to 1 m3 of stable oil (which means no release of gas at stock tank condition).

Rs =

V g ( P r ,T r ) sc

V oilst

Assuming we have a unsaturated reservoir, up to the bubble curve and we start the

production, the pressure decrease and temperature remain the same, until to reach

the bubble curve the gas dissolved in the oil is still the same. After the bubble point

it start to be delivered into the reservoir, according to a non-necessarily linear law:

V o =V b S o

r

OOIP=N=

Vo

Bg

19

The volume of residual oil is the volume of oil at stock tank condition at the end of

DLE experiment, corrected from the reservoir condition to the stock tank condition.

We use the API gravity

API =

141.5

131.5

o , rel @ st

Where

API

10

<20

25<API<30

30<API<40

40<API<50

oil ( p , T ) =

Description

Water

Heavy oil

Medium oil

Light oil

Volatile oil

oil, st + gas , sc R s ( p , T )

Bo ( p , T )

If I have the Gas Gravity (GG) and Bg, which is a curve function of pressure

ga s

rescond

ga s

Bg

stcon

To oil we have

Bo

mo

V ostock cond

V g ( Pr , T r ) @ sc

V g ,stand cond V o , stock cond

m + mg

= o

V o, r

V o, r

V o ,st

mg

20

Viscosity is determined as

Decreasing the pressure the density decrease (?) So the viscosity decrease as well.

When the pressure reach the bubble point the oil start to liberate the gas and the

density of oil increase and the viscosity increase.

From the first graph we can see that the first behavior is due to the liquid phase, so

it is the viscosity of the oil versus the pressure. Up to the bubble point the behavior

is due to gas viscosity.

Exercise 5-6

21

Water

Salinity: It affect to: density, compressibility, resistivity and so on.

Water formation volume factor: it is the volume of water and its dissolved gas

at reservoir conditions that must be produced to obtain 1 m 3 of water at stock tank

condition.

B w=

V ( p ,T )

1

V st

22

Compressibility: Cw = 2 4 10-6 psi-1.

23

Experimental test

The constant composition oil expansion (CCE) experiment is used to determine

bubble point pressure, undersaturated oil density, isothermal oil compressibility for

oil it is a non-destructive test:

Procedure:

condition

isothermal fluid expansion by reducing pressure in steps

measurement of mixture volume @ equilibrium

We determine the bubble point pressure as the intersection of the 2 behavior of the

point fitting.

The differential liberation experiment (DLE) experiment is designed to

approximate the depletion process of an oil reservoir and thereby provide suitable

PVT data to calculate reservoir performance in terms of gas liberation. It is a

destructive test on a sample fluid (200 250 cm 3)

Procedure:

PVT cell are the reservoir condition

isothermal fluid expansion by reducing pressure in steps

measurement of mixture volume @ equilibrium

removal of the liberated gas at each pressure step, maintaining the same oil

volume

Reach the atmospheric pressure

last step: flash expansion to reach atmospheric temperature (stock tank

conditions)

24

Rsd and Bod are relative to residual oil volume, Residual oil volume: is the oil

volume at the end of the DLE experiment, corrected from reservoir to standard

temperature

We start with a PVT cell at bubble point which P 2 is equal to Psat. So we reduce the

pressure down to the saturation and we wait for the equilibrium. Maintaining the

same pressure we remove the gas until have only oil in the cell.

We can measure only the removed gas.

The final condition change if it is followed a different path. DLE is not the

transformation which oil do in the plant. DLE follow this transformation path.

25

At stock condition we want avoid the release of gas, this is the reason of the last

step.

Multistage separator test (MST) is performed on an oil sample primarily to

provide a basis for converting differential liberation data from a residual oil to a

stock tank oil basis. It is a destructive test on a sample fluid of 250 cm 3.

B od=

Vo

Vo

res

sSC

B o=

Vo

Vo

res

sto .con .

volume)

The sample is then brought to the pressure and temperature of the first stage

separator. All the gas is removed. (Measured parameters: oil volume, volume

and number of moles of removed gas are measured)

Oil remaining after gas removal is brought to the conditions of the next

separator stageetc

Last step: stock tank conditions are reached

We do it in order to: design the level of pressure and temperature which obtain the

maximum gas extraction from the oil and evaluate the real stable oil volume, which

is higher than residual oil obtained by DLE. The green line represent the Bo during

the MST experiment.

26

In the real life, when we are on the field, the volume of the oil that we have at

surface is the stock tank oil. Residual is obtained only in laboratory.

Converting from differential to stock tank basis is done using these relationship:

B o=Bod

B of

Bod

( )

pb

Rs =( Rsf ) p (( R sd ) p Rsd )

b

Bof

B od

( )

pb

because, per each step we have a new composition of the oil so we changing the

envelop line. We can imagine that the thermodynamic path of the MST is a multy

DLE path which reach the same end point with a different composition with more oil.

27

The rock analysis is done in order to obtain the permeability, porosity and water

saturation; they enter to the routine core analysis (RCAL). The properties which

define the interaction between fluid and rock is the special core analysis (SCAL) and

measure the wettability, capillary pressure and relative permeability.

The plug from the core is more little in order to reduce the time used to analyze.

The shape factor (length/diameter) must be higher than 1.

For reservoir engineering the porosity used is always the effective porosity, which is

the ratio of the interconnected void space in the rock to the bulk volume of the rock.

The fluid saturation, which is defined as the ratio of the volume of a fluid and the

volume of the pore.

Sf =

Vf

; S i=1

Vp

V f =V b S f =V b

V p Vo

Vb Vp

Rock compressibility which is about 4 10-6 psi-1, is higher in shallow and slightly in

consolidated formations.

Cr =

+1 V

V P

We have + because we considering the system from the pore point of view which is

trying to compress the rock from inside.

28

Darcy law

Applied only if:

uncompressible fluid

single fluid

laminar flow

No interaction between rock and fluid

permeability.

h h

q

v = =K 2 1

A

L

Where L is the length of the sample porous medium, h is the height of above

standard datum and K is the hydraulic conductivity [m/s].

If we want to change the fluid we move from

k=

K

w g

v=

k

( pg z )

29

Using k as the absolute permeability (even if we are using small k for intrinsic

permeability), which is the permeability of the rock fully saturated by fluid.

In mono-direction (x) horizontal we can neglect gravity, and considering a

constant cross section, we obtain (L is the length of the sampling):

v=

k p

k P

=

x

L

Pinlet =Poutlet

v=

k

( g 1 )

In a three dimension Cartesian system:

Reservoir

Well

30

and

z =1

in

constant producing thickness

well perforate across the entire producing thickness

The flow is positive when we produce and negative if we inject. Darcy law is:

q k dp

=

A dr

Integrating this equation we obtain the Muskat equation:

q=

2 hk

p

re

ln

rw

( )

So

pu= pe

r

q

ln e

2 hk r w

So the pressure outlet is function of geometrical terms and property of fluid, not

function of time. If we plot p versus radius we have a square scratch.

31

Pi

Pe

Rw

Re

This graph means that we have reach the steady state, where the pressure at the

external boundary give us a pressure constant equal to P e.

The true scratch is

P

Pi

Pe

Pw

Rw

Re

Pw change according to the flow rate and the slope of the depletion line change as

well.

If we plot in a semi-logarithmic scale we have a straight line where slope is

q

2 hk

Permeability k has a tensor behavior, so the component of velocity has to take into

account the different value of k function of the direction. In most case we consider

that kx = ky and kz is lower.

We can consider different kind of material according to the value of K in different

direction:

32

Anisotropy: the prop. Are not independent by direction

Heterogeneous: value of k change with space

Homogeneous: value of k dont depend to the location

All the properties which are scalar (mass, density, etcetera) are homogeneous.

33

Assuming that we have this porous element (plug) where we inject gas:

q q out compressible gas

So for gas we know that is compressible, so we have to correct the Darcy law. The

assumption are:

Constant cross section

Compressible fluid

Z=1

Laminar flow

p V =p out V out

If we divide by time:

p q = pout q out

Remember that

q=A

k dp

dx

k dp

dx

L

pout

k

pout qout dx= A p dp

p

0

So

34

2

2

k p p out

q out = A

2 p out L

According to the lower viscosity of gas compared to water or fluid, the laboratory

test are done with gas in order to have a little waste time used for transient

depleted.

The main difference between water and gas are:

Turbulences

Slip flow: permeability measured with gas is higher than liquids, so

permeability change with fluid, and permeability change also with different

inlet pressure: is higher when pressure is lower.

Assuming we have a flow injection in the pore: the molecule of the flow collide each

other in elastic way at the boundaries statistically more often compared to the

center of the flow, where they collide in an anaelastic way, this phenomena reduce

the friction inside the gas molecule and it is traduced in an increase of velocity.

Higher is the pressure lower it is this effect.

k g=k L 1+

b

pm

Where p is the pore pressure and b is a coefficient named Klinkemberg slip factor

which is function of temperature, mean free path and porous radius. If pressure

tends to infinity the permeability tends to k L. this is the reason to perform laboratory

analysis with gas.

Where

pm=

p + p out

2

35

36

Production parameters

The production parameter for oil reservoir are (measured):

Flow rate

Gas oil ratio

GOR=

Q gsc

Qost

Water cut

WCT =

Qw

Qw

=

QL Qw +Qo

We measure pressure:

WBHP: well bottom hole pressure

SWBHP: static well bottom hole pressure (stop production)

FWBHP: flowing well bottom hole pressure (during production)

THP: Tubing head pressure

WHP: well head pressure

The minimum THP depend to the facilities of the plant, chosen to transport the oil to

all separators and reach the stock condition.

In case of gas reservoir we have

Qg

Qw

Qo

WGR=Qw/Qg

Gravity

37

The rock fluid interaction properties are estimated with SCAR test, we would like to

maintain the Darcy law but we some assumption are not so performable, so we

must correct the formula with phenomena which are not considered in Darcy

kingdom.

The effective permeability keff which is the permeability for each phase at a specific

saturation. It provide to take the presence of movement of more than a single fluid

phase within the pore space.

0< S 1

||

0 k eff k

( k o , k g , k w ) ( k o +k g +k w ) <k

According to Darcy law applied for each phase

q oil= A

k oil dp

oil dr

q water= A

q gas =A

k water dp

water dr

k gas dp

gas dr

We call the ratio between the effective permeability and the viscosity of the fluid,

the mobility

w=

kw

k

; g= g

w

g

The mobility of a gas is ten time faster than water, this is the reason to start

production in oil phase.

38

k rw

k||

kw

k rw =

We have

( k ro , k rg , k rw )( k ro + k rg + k rw ) < 1

Lets consider an oil-water system in the reservoir.

The Saturation of oil on oil zone is

1S w

ir

where

Sw

ir

irreducible water, which is the irreducible water due to: unmovable due to the

electrostatic forces; water in the isolated pore and water in the shale. This

saturation is related to a permeability value of 0.

If he ask to draw the relative permeability curve we must to write the limit, 0 to 1;

the name of the axis; the vertical limit Swi and Sor (the residual oil saturation for a

water-oil displacement due to capillary forces); Kro which start below 1 due to

irreducible water present in the oil layer (kro,iw) [think to the analogy between area

and permeability (m2 is the unit of measure)]; the oil is reducing during production

and water replace the void freedom, so ko reduce and kw increase. Relative

permeability of oil goes to 0 and water goes to the value below 1 due to the

irreducible oil which remain in the layer.

Sor is more or less 20-30%. In gas-water system we have the same effect:

39

Sgr is more or less 40-50%. Statistically the krw,gr is lower than krg,iw but it is not

compulsory.

A reservoir with gas cap shown below is a saturated oil reservoir in less word we

have a under-saturated oil reservoir.

Pb

gas

oil

Water

z

At GOC we have the bubble point at pressure of saturation.

If this reservoir is closed and we have in the oil layer the production line. The initial

saturation is

So=1S wir

pressure reduction goes below the bubble point and the oil start to liberate gas so

we have a three phase system. The Sgc is the critical gas saturation which means

the minimum saturation needed to the gas to start moving. From Sgc gas

permeability start to increase and oil continue to reduce. The limit is the oil

40

irreducible saturation plus the irreducible water saturation. Plotting this problem in

gas saturation vs relative permeability we have:

In case of a reservoir with gas which fall to dew point and start to condensate I have

the same behavior but different name (change the g with o).

41

Mobility ratio

It is

M=

w k w o k k r ,w o

=

=

o k o w k k r ,o w

The GOR

It is an indicator of the reservoir condition.

GOR=

Qg

Qo

sc

st

Value

0-50

50-200

200-350

350-600

700-800

>35000

GOR=

Qo , st

Qg , sc, free

Qg , sc, dissolved

GOR=

Detail

Heavy

Medium

Light

Volatile

Gas condensate

Dry or wet gas

Q g ,sc ,free

Q

+ Rs o , st

Qo , st

Qo , st

GOR=Rs+

Q g ,rc Bo

Q o ,rc Bg

GOR=R s +

k rg o B o

k ro g B g

42

Where Np is cumulative oil production, N is the original oil in place, the ratio of

these two element give us the recovery factor RF.

At the beginning of life of unsaturated reservoir (only oil) we have gas only at

surface so initially GOR is equal to Rs. When we touch the bubble point (remember

the Rs function of P) we start to liberate gas and Rs decrease but we have to wait

the Sgcritical so GOR decrease too. After the overpass the Sgc, Rs continue to

decrease, but GOR increase due to second term of the equation. At the end of the

life of the reservoir we must remember the behavior of the Bg (the gas density

change slowly and Bg remain almost constant) so GOR decrease again.

We have a fluid, the molecular at surface is not surrounded to all boundary by other

liquid molecular, so the sum of all force applied is named interfacial tension

[ ]

F

N

= =

L m

43

The Interfacial tension (IFT) is the tension between two different liquids in a solid.

The fluid can be:

Immiscible

Miscible

Well talk ever about immiscible fluid. If in the interface between oil and water exist

a difference in density or pressure these fluid are miscible.

Wetting phase: when two immiscible fluids are placed in contact with a solid surface

one phase usually is attracted to the solid more strongly than the other.

If a drop of water fall to a surface, it is possible to have two shape of the drop on

this surface: the first to the left means that the plane is water wet, the last to the

right in case of non-water wet.

44

ws =IFT solidwater

os=IFT solid oil

ow =IFT oilwater

=contact angle

os ws = ow cos

When

0 70 water wet

= 70 110 Neutral

110 180 Oil wet

The contact angle in a mixture is measured from the fluid with higher density.

Looking to a pipe the distribution of the fluid is:

Which distribution is governed by gravity. If we reduce the size of the pipe the fluid

will forget about the gravity and will be distributed according to the capillary force

Water wet

Oil wet

opposite

45

If we put pressure sensor at the two boundary I measure the pressure of the oil at

the left and the pressure of the water at the right. If the system is in static

equilibrium the difference of these two pressure is 0.

So also the contact interface among the two fluid is to equilibrium:

F=0

po ( r 2 ) pw ( r 2 ) + ws ( 2 r ) os ( 2 r )=0

po p w =

2 ( os ws )

r

po p w =

2 ( ow cos )

r

( pc ,ow )

of the non-wetting phase and the pressure of the wetting phase. As shown in the

equation above. The cosine is the absolute value.

If

os

and

ws

ow

the interface is a straight line. The capillary pressure cant be negative because the

definition (it is given by the difference among fluid wetting and non-wetting

pressure, and non-wetting push the wetting). Some company fix the pressure of the

water as a reference value in oil industries and so they can have negative pressure.

The capillary pressure influence the:

The fluid contact

If two fluids are miscible the capillary force tends to have a gradual changing on the

composition from one to the other in a certain area.

Lets consider a system in which we have a glass of water and oil, I put a capillary

tube in the middle. If the system is water wet will happens:

46

Red line in the capillary tube

In water rise:

p A p D =g w ( z A z B ) + g o (z Bz D )

p A p D =g w ( z A z C ) + g o ( z C z D )

2 r ow cos

r2

We have obtained the same formulation of the capillary pressure. Now we are

interested to calculate the capillary rise or capillary fringe:

g w ( z Bz C )g o ( z B z C )=

gh ( w o )=

h=

2 ow cos

r

2 ow cos

=p c ,ow

r

pc , ow

g ( w o )

Analyzing the capillary pressure and the capillary rise we can see that if we reduce

the dimension the pressure increase and so the height increase.

The behavior of the water saturation versus the capillary fringe is represented in the

graph below:

47

The capillary fringe give us the depth at which is better to work (up and far from the

fringe).

Lighter is the HC smaller will be the capillary fringe, cos smaller is the capillary

pressure. On other hand we can say that smaller is the radius of the medium higher

will be the capillary rise.

We can see also the variation of the irreducible water changing the medium, due to

the specific surface of the pore.

We can define as well a relations between capillary pressure and saturation of

water:

48

We use an interpolation from the reservoir close to the new field in order to forecast

the reservoir behavior:

J ( S w )=

pc

k

L cos L

49

Imbibition is a process in which a wetting fluid displaces the non-wetting fluid (water

displace oil). Drainage is a process in which a non-wetting fluid displace a wetting

fluid (oil displace water).

In a reservoir we have drainage during the migration. We have imbibition when we

have a strong aquifer or in water injection.

In the system we have two capillary tubes with different radius, fully saturated with

water (1). We inject the oil from the top, we denote that the system is water wet,

the oil distribution is this (2) and at the end (3).

If we inject water the oil will be displaced by water and we can see that the water

from the tube with smaller radius rise the tube and fall to the tube with larger

radius. Oil remain traps and make a bubble in the water.

The bubble of oil will be part of the residue oil in the medium.

The behavior of the saturation in the medium during the imbibition and drainage

curve is this:

50

Usually when we start the production the water table raise (not always).

51

The drive mechanisms refer to primary production.

Improved oil recovery: it is the secondary recovery

Enhanced oil recovery: it is the tertiary recovery.

Drive mechanisms are: Depletion drive oil and gas, Gas Cap, and water drive

mechanism into primary production drive.

to the itself energy. In a CPVR (constant pore volume reservoir) pressure

decrease and volume is constant, Bg increase (this is the effect changing in

the equation of state) the difference in pressure give us a flow and we

produce. The recovery factor expected from literature from 80 to 90 % of

GOIP in case of gas reservoir.

Depletion drive in oil undersaturated: In case of an oil reservoir we denote

the depletion drive only for the production until the bubble point, the source

of energy is the compressibility of the gas dissolved into the oil, it is from 2 to

5 % of OIP.

chose to do something:

o

bubble point or slightly up to the bubble point because we have the

lower viscosity value and the highest mobility

Dissolved gas drive: we go down the to bubble point so the gas is

starting to liberate and the expansion until reach the movable quantity

become a driver mechanism (GOR decreases, we are producing

slowly). The recovery factor is from 15 to 20 %.

52

Gas cap drive: when the under-pressure sync, near to the well, touch the gas

layer due to production, the gas will start to push the oil due to expansion.

This phenomena is controlled in horizontal well. Instead, if I use the vertical

well the under-pressure near to the well doesnt be sufficiently large in order

to have a drive gas cap mechanism. The energy source is the expansion of

the gas cap and solution gas. The rate of oil recovery is from 25 to 30% of

OOIP.

Water drive mechanism: water is connected with an aquifer which is huge;

due to production water table rise (1 bar per 10 meter in 10 years it is

nothing :D ). The behavior of GOR is constant and horizontal. The oil recovery

is 40% the best value. We have also depletion.

high and if we have a gas reservoir with water table we can recover from 50 to 60%.

It is bad compared . The solution in this case is to produce faster than water rising

(the propagation of the pressure sync is function of the rocks and fluid) it mean

before the activation of the aquifer.

53

Pressure gradient

This is the pressure versus depth on a reservoir field

Geostatic gradient is 17 kPa/m; for water is 10,2 kPa/m. For gas we have 1,8 kPa/m

and oil is 7,5 kPa/m. We can consider different situations:

Hydraulic communication

54

Regional aquifer

Lenticular reservoir

Multilayer reservoir

55

Diffusivity equation

In fluid mechanics of porous media we use the mono-phase flow in order to solve

the diffusion and diffusivity equation, gas it is not movable in order to solve the

problem analytically.

From the real life I apply a theoretical model (make some hypothesis assumption

and simplifying behavior) than I apply the mathematical model combining the

system to some mathematical equation. The solution of a mathematical model

could be determined analytically or numerically, depending if the equation are

implicit or explicit.

The characteristic of the problem could be organized in this status:

Number of phase:

o Single phase

o Multiphase

Nature of fluids

o Compressible (liquid)

o Very compressible (gas)

Geometry

o Mono-dimensional

o Bi-dimensional (radial flow)

o Three-dimensional

Hydraulic regime:

o Steady state flow

o Pseudo-steady state flow

o Transient flow

( v )=

v=

( )

t

Flow equation

k

p

56

State equation

x=

m

m / A x kg

2

t

sm

Where

[ ]

A x = y z .

m= mxx A t

mout =m xx+x A t

So the balance of the mass is: mass in less mass out equal to accumulation term.

( mx x mxx + x ) A t= t ( V ) t

Where V is the bulk volume of the control volume.

consider only the pore volume. The terms

( V )

mono-phase flow. In case of multiple phase I must to use a single equation per

each phase.

If we dividing by

V t

where

V=A x

mxx m xx+ x ( )

=

x

t

m

x ( )

=

x

t

57

we obtain:

geo-mechanical problem is separated to the fluid addressing problem. Crushproof

solid. The minus because is the opposite of the incremental ratio.

Knowing that

m

x= vx

v x ( )

=

x

t

Which in 3D form is

( v ) =

( )

t

( )

1

r v r ) =

(

r r

t

vr =

k p

r

diffusion equation.

( )

1

k p

r

=

r r

r

t

((

))

low gradient pressure, so Permeability constant, Viscosity in case of small

pressure gradient doesnt vary, so viscosity constant and it can leave the derivate.

1

p

( )

r

=

r r

r

k t

( ( ))

1

p ( )

r

=

r r

r

k t

( )

The density is function of pressure and porosity change as well. So in order to solve

it we have to linearize this function:

58

p

p

( ) +

+

t

t

t

p t

p t

Remember the compressibility factor:

c r=

1 Vp

1 ( V b)

1

=

undeformable

V p p V p p

p

So

=c

p r

Considering the hypothesis of a slightly compressible fluid, given the definition

of compressibility of a fluid we have:

=c

p f

Hence the linearization of diffusion equation will be.

p

p

( )= c r + c f

t

t

t

p

( )= ( c r + c f )

t

t

We also go ahead saying that the sum of the two compressibility is the total

compressibility:

CT =c f +c r

That in case of more than one phase

CT =c w S w +c o S o +c r

Substituting linearization to the equation we obtain:

1

p C T p

r

=

r r

r

k

t

59

Focusing on the first member of the equation, on the derivate, we can write

p

p

p

r

=r

+

r

r

r

r r

r r

( )

p

2

p

r

=r c f

+

r

r

r

r

r r

( )

( )

p

p

r

=

r

r

r

r r

( )

At the end we can move the density out of the derivative and obtain:

p C T p

r

=

r r r

k

t

( )

1 p C T p

r

=

r r r

k t

( )

In Cartesian coordinate we have only x and we have a second derivative, where the

( grad ( p ) ) = p

2 p=

C T p

k t

Another way to write the equation is using the diffusivity constant or coefficient:

2 p=

1 p

t

k

Ct

homogenous and isotropic porous medium and under the Darcy assumption, so the

other hypothesis of the diffusivity equation are:

60

Laminar flow

Negligible gravitational force

Constant producing layer thickness

Well perforated across the entire production layer

The diffusivity equation describe how the pressure disturbance evolves within the

reservoir.

If the system is homogeneous and isotropic, consider now a cylinder reservoir, the

pressure sync will move gradually to the boundaries and it will touch all the

boundaries of the system at the same time.

We enter in the topic of the Infinite acting radial flow (IARF) if these hypothesis are

satisfied:

Fluid flow horizontal

All the hypothesis done before to reach this point

We can define an average radial pressure which will give us the reference value to

evaluate the parameter of the reservoir:

p=

1

pdV

V V

Steady state: when we have an aquifer

Pseudo steady state: when we havent no aquifer

61

Starting from the point of view of production we have a initially a transient flow and

it will remain until reach the boundaries (red line):

The initial conditions is (blue line)

p

Pe

rw

re

r

p

Pe

When I touch the boundary of the reservoir my flow change, we can have two

situation:

1. Something pushing and pressure remain constant (steady state phase);

2. No flow boundary where pressure decrease in all reservoir zone (pseudosteady state).

62

The initial and continue condition are the end condition of the transient regime,

so we have:

p= pe at r=r e

p

=0 t

t

2 p 1 p

+

=0

r 2 r r

Fixed this boundaries (re external radius and rw the internal radius) condition we

have this solution:

p ( r )= pw +

pw = pi

q

r

ln

2 kh r w

r

q

ln e

2 kh r w

63

Transient period

Pe

Pi

re

the reserv

Pi

Constant flow is given by the effect of the aquifer which maintain a constant delta pressure eve

Start of ste

Skin effect

One of the problem which effect the pressure is the skin effect: some fine particles

of the mud remain in the pore of the invaded zone creating a damaged zone which

lead a loss of pressure near the wellbore environment.

64

k ' <k

We have

pw = p ( r ' )

'

'

pw = p ( r )

pw

to

'

pw . this

ps .

q

r'

ln

2 kh r w

q

r'

ln

'

2 k h rw

So

ps = pw p w '

ps =

q 1 1

r'

q k

r'

ln

1

ln

2 h k ' k

r w 2 kh k '

rw

( )

k

r'

1 ln

r w , it is called S as the

k'

( )

parameter could be positive (means damaged zone), negative (improving of the

wellbore properties due to fracturing, acidification), null (when nothing affected the

formation).

ps =

q

S

2 h

p'w = pe

r

q

ln e +s

2 kh

rw

The normal value goes from 1 to 10, if we have 15 there is something strange and

not only damaged zone. When it is from -1 to -5 means we have a fracture

Productivity index and completion factor

This is the rate of oil at stock tank condition divided by the difference of pressure

from the reservoir infinite pressure (Pi) and the pressure at borehole (Pw).

PI =

qo

p

st

65

p= p i pw

pw = pi

p=

re

q

ln + S

2 kh

rw

r

q

ln e + S

2 kh

rw

So

PI =

q o , st 2 kh

q

1

re

ln +S

rw

PI =

2 kh

Bo

1

r

ln e +S

rw

The productivity index is one of the main parameter because it give us the

information about the magnitude of the amount of oil that we can produce from a

given delta pressure.

The tubing head pressure (THP, pressure at the surface in the well) has a minimum

which is defined by the pressure of the facilities applied. The difference between

this and the bottom hole pressure (BHP) is related by losses and other factor (ideally

the minimum THP is the same of BHP). If we have for example 300 bar into reservoir

and 220 bar of BHP we can impose 80 bar maximum.

Never use the PI for gas reservoir because it is valid only for oil. We use the gas well

liberability.

Completion factor is a ratio between thee real PI and the theoretical PI.

CF=

P I real

P I theoretical

CF=

ps

=

=1

p real

p real

preal

66

PI is estimated with well test, in order to improve the PI is performed a skin cleaning

or other kind of operation like reduce viscosity of the oil, but anyway it is a

parameter (characteristic) of the system not a variable.

We consider a pseudo steady state when we have not an aquifer which sustain the

pressure in the reservoir, so the pressure is decreasing during this flow regime.

In PSS pseudo steady state, initial condition are the same of the end of the

transient period, so we have that:

t=0 pi =p r at r =r e

The boundary condition in this case is a no flow from the boundaries and a

constant flow rate, so:

p

=0 at r =r e

r

t> 0

p

=c r

t

67

Transient period

Pe

Pw

t

re

r

Pw

PSS regime:

Production after 1 h of steady state

Pi

SS

PSS

Flow rate remain constant because the delta pressure remain the same

t

Boundaries touched

In order to express the pressure variation, we have to consider the non linear

compressibility factor of the oil:

C o=

1 V

1 V

=

V p S o V b p

V =q t , than:

p=

q

t

So V b C o

is a linear function of time, so in PSS we have a line. For a given rate the

68

p .

2 p 1 p CT p

+

=

2

k

t

r r r

Lets consider a period of time characterized by a constant rate (called flow period)

in transient regime, if the rate is positive and constant the pressure behavior is

called draw down. Lets suppose to close the well valve until reach the steady

state or pseudo steady state. The effect on the pressure at well is an increasing of

itself due to re-equilibrium of the pressure in the reservoir; the pressure rise is

called build up.

q

t

Draw down

pw

Build up

t

Grow down is only when flow rate is positive. Build up only if the flow rate is null.

When we have injection we have a negative flow rate, in this case the pressure at

well wall is increasing, this profile is called Injection; when I close the injection

phase the pressure at well wall start to reduce and stabilized at initial reservoir

pressure, this profile is called Fall off.

69

pw

Injection

Fall off

t

Lets consider a different flow rate by step; the effect on the well wall pressure is

represented below:

pw

pw

70

The initial condition of this state is the initial condition of the reservoir, so:

t=0 p= pi r

The boundaries condition are: pressure at external radius equal to external

pressure (initial pressure); constant flow rate at well wall:

p= pi at r =r e

t> 0 p

=c at r =r w

r

p

=c means q=const

r

This is called constant terminal rate (Noiman condition)

P

Pi

t

rw

re

2 p 1 p CT p

+

=

k

t

r 2 r r

The solution of the equation is

p ( r , t ) = pi

q

r

P

,t

2 kh r w D

Where P is a function which convert the solution given for dimensionless radius and

time and apply to our case, where

tD

71

t

kt

t D= =

t c C T r 2w

Where tc is the characteristic time.

In some case

Ei=

r t

,

rw tc

e

dx

x

2

( )

r t

1

r

, =

Ei

rw tc

2

4 t

pw (t )= pi

q

ln(2.25 t D )

4 kh

q

Pi

r

rw

re

Pw

Pi

Rd: drainage radius at a certain time, is the radius in which the pressure is still the initial (or i

72

A transient phenomena can be approximated to a sequence of steady state

phenomena that are characterized by an external radius which change in time.

This means that, if we take a picture of the system at 1 h (just to put number) this

depletion point can be calculated by using the steady state equation using a radius

which is the proper to have a steady state condition:

pw = pi

r

q

ln d

2 kh r w

Comparing the two equation at a specific time we have to impose this condition to

have an equity:

ln

rd 1

= ln ( 2.25 t D )

rw 2

rd

=2.25 t D

rw

r d =1.5 r w

kt

kt

1.5

2

C T

C T r w

Drainage radius doesnt depend to the dimension of the reservoir, and neither to

the flow rate, is a characteristic of the fluid and medium permeability and

compressibility. Assuming that rate of oil is 100 barrel per day and the flow rate

period is 10 h and the permeability of the formation is 100 mD.

73

Pw

100 bbl/day

200 bbl/day

rd

t

Drainage radius doesnt depends to flow rate!

If I have 2 different level of permeability

Pw

P

k

Can I calculate the permeability from the pressure in transient?

pw (t )= pi

q

ln(2.25 t D )

4 hk

74

Pw

Pi

ln t

t

Can we take into account the skin effect on transient?

pw (t )= pi

q

ln ( 2.25 t D ) +2 S )

4 hk (

pw ( t ) = pi

re

q

ln +S

2 hk

rw

pw =cost+ m( x +2 S )

The pressure sync change in space and time so we make steady state changing the

domain of the reservoir using

r d =1,5

kt

Ct

In terms of two fluid (oil and water) we use the relative permeability using the value

at infinite and:

CT =C o S o +C w Sw +C r

To summarize we determine:

Productivity index

Skin effect

Drainage radius

Permeability

75

In case of gas we have:

High compressibility

These two consideration are in contrast with the previous assumption done to

obtain the diffusivity equation. So we need to correct the equation considering new

phenomena

The velocity is the ratio of flow rate and area, so when area is lower velocity is

higher, so we have the maximum velocity at borehole wall. High velocity means

turbulence which means pressure drop. We have to correct the darcy law. We use

the Forchheimer equation.

p

2

= v+ v

r k

Where v is the velocity which is determined by darcy law using the same

assumption.

dP/dr

Forchheimer behavior

Darcy behavior

different correlation to the physical parameters which lead a really different range of

magnitude.

Turbulence occurs only in gas reservoir with high probability close to the well, where

the area is little.

If I increase porosity velocity decrease and pressure drop decrease and the

turbulence.

76

To obtain the solution of the diffusivity equation for liquid we used the mass balance

equation, where we change the velocity on it with Darcy velocity. Now I cant do the

same cos the Forchheimer quadratic equation.

From literature we use this number to understand the velocity regime:

Sm

laminar

d

Qg

S m3

100000

Turbolent

d

50000

1. Neglect Forchheimer equation and use only Darcy and use density of the fluid

as gas

We going to underestimate the delta-pressure so the method is not valid close to

the wellbore:

Mp

zRT

1 Mp k p

Mp

r

=

r r zRT r

t zRT

) (

1 p p CT p p

r

=

r r z r

k z t

77

p

1

p CT P

=const i f p>3000 psi

r

=

z

r r r

k

t

1

p CT P 1 p2 1 p2

z=const if p<2000 psi

rp

=

p

r

=

r r

r

k

t

r r

t

m( p) 1 m ( p )

1

m ( p ) always valid

r

=

r r

r

t

( )

( )

The first solution is the same of the fluid. The second solution is obtained remember

that

2

p

p

=2 p

r

r

And the final step represent the Darcy equation for gas.

q out = A

2

2

k p p out

2 p out L

achieved using the pseudo pressure function, in this case become

p

m ( p ) =2

p0

p

dp

z

We can take into account the variability of the compressibility and viscosity of the

gas variation (which were constant for fluid). It is a function of pressure temperature

and has composition.

Considering that

m ( p )

P P

=2

r

z r

78

M(p)

2. Forchheimer equation solving

We integrate the Forchheimer equation using a steady state condition. As done

previously, we solve the steady state regime of Darcy (result the Muskat equation)

and using the same approach we will obtain an equation in radial flow. A transient

phenomena can be approximate, again, to a series of steady state, using the

drainage radius.

Because gas is a very compressible fluid, the volumetric rate q changes as a

function of pressure (q increase when the pressure decreases). On the opposite, the

mass rate

is constant.

Permeability and turbulence factor are constant in all the reservoir environment and

not close to wellbore. As we did previously, I can take into account the skin effect,

so for gas I apply the skin effect which take into account the turbulence phenomena

as well.

79

80

m ( p w )=m ( p i )

pw = pi

re

T P sc

qsc ln + S+ D qsc

kh T sc

rw

r

q

ln e + S '

2 kh

rw

D is called the non-Darcy flow coefficient, which describe the difference on the

behavior from Darcy law.

S ' =S+ D q sc

skin effect plus the turbulence skin. S is the only parameter that I can measure

during well test, but I cannot divide the two terms.

In transient condition the solution become:

m ( p w ( t ) )=m ( pi )

T P sc

q ( ln 2,25t D +2 S+ 2 D q sc )

2 kh T sc sc

81

qsc

Gas well liberability is the index used in gas reservoir

t

Pwf

m(pw)

t D=

Ln t

kt

=carat . time t

C T r 2w

I cannot separate the 2 terms in the appearance skin effect. So what I can do?

S

D

Qsc

And than

82

qsc

We try to have the same flow period in order to have the same radius of investigation we call it

t

Pwf

t

If we perform a stimulation on the formation we will have: (increasing of k -> beta

decrease) (increasing phi -> decrease the beta) (what is change is the velocity at

microscale)

S

D

Dnew

S

Snew

qsc

83

Depletion

Some time we can have the expression of PI as

PI =p pw

Reservoir

Reservoir

Pressure sync

Pressure sync

Pwf

Close well

ss

Pbar

Depletion effect

Pss

Build up

t

T stabilization

When I start the production pressure decrease, when I reach the boundary I can

have steady state (horizontal line blue) when I close the production pressure will

increase and tends to the initial pressure. If I fall in PSS the pressure will drop

linearly during time. When I close the production the pressure will increase to a

value which is not the same of the initial pressure (due to the pressure drop that we

have seen on the graph pressure versus radius in pss) so to determine the final

pressure I draw a line having the same inclination starting from stable time of pss

and when I reach the time of closing well I have the horizontal pressure which

represent the pressure

p .

84

This phenomena is called depletion effect. And the effect on the productivity index

is constant in steady state and pseudo steady state.

PI

transient

PSS or SS

T stabilization

Considering now this kind of structure

Early transient

boundaries

Late transient

Pressure sync

Time = t1

Pwf

PSS

ET

LT

PSS

t

85

SS

86

SS directly

PSS only

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