Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

Blooms Revised Taxonomy on 21st Century Lesson Planning

Sandip Ratna,
Department of Mathematics,
State College of Teacher Education, Kohima::Nagaland,
e-mail: sandipncte@yahoo.in

Abstract: 21st century classroom is all about skill development, lateral thinking, creativity, judgement,
higher-order skills like reasoning and analysis and teaching needs to serve discouragement for rote
memorization. Education, as a planned endeavor, at a personal level on a small scale or institutional
level on a large scale, aims at making children capable of becoming active, responsible, productive, and
caring members of society. Hence, we need to change the pattern of instructional strategies so that
educational aim can be achieved. The updated version of Blooms Taxonomy with respect to cognitive
domain under scholastic aspect in formal education system with implication of continuous and
comprehensive evaluation can be used for the purpose of 21st century formal classroom.
Keywords: Lesson Planning, Content analysis, Learning Objectives, Student Learning Outcomes,
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)
1. INTRODUCTION:
In the Teacher Training Institutes for BEd course, the lesson plan which are in use either derived from
Madeline Hunter or John Fredric Herbart Model of Lesson planning. All these years with little change and
modification made by respective Institutions cause of their own reasons, the lesson plans of different Institutes
have lost authenticity.
In formal education system at school, responsibility of teachers became more prominent to facilitate the
learner to accommodate skill development, lateral thinking, creativity, judgement, higher-order skills like
reasoning and analysis and teaching needs to serve discouragement for rote memorization [1].
In this paper a relationship established among three basic components( i.e. Content analysis, Learning
Objectives & Students Learning Outcomes ) of lesson plans forwarded by popular lesson planner, Madeline
Hunter and John Fredric Herbartwith incorporating Loran Andersons revised Blooms taxonomy(1999) of 21 st
century under cognitive domain and required changes made in the nomenclature of the components as
suggested by different scholars.
Here, it is broadly discussed how to derive Students Learning Outcomes based on Learning Objectives
and Content Analysis which will help teachers to take care of Instructional Strategies and evaluation as it
reflects in Teachers Manual for Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation, 2009, NCERT in formal
education system under scholastic areas.
2. PURPOSE:
The purpose of this paper is to provide a analytical foundation for preparing a well planned lesson plan
in writing Content Analysis, learning objectives and students learning outcome, so that teachers can choose
right instructional strategies based on Lorin Anderson (1999) revised Bloom taxonomy of standard protocol
which is useful for Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation with respect of cognitive domain under
scholastic areas in formal education. Hence for:
Bring uniformity among various formats of lesson plan been used by different Teacher Education
Institutes.
1

Incorporate 21st century learners requirements as stated by Loren Andersons revised Blooms
taxonomy(1999).
Integrate criteria been laid down in Teachers Manual, NCERT, 2009; UNESCO,2004 for the purpose
of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation under cognitive domain.
Help teacher to use right nomenclature in lesson planning and select proper Instructional Strategies in
the process of teaching-learning.

3. IMPORTANCE OF LESSON PLANNING:


Lesson plan is solely based on the content in hand and expected learning outcome of the student after
execution of the class. Through evaluation and assessment, attainment of terminal behavior needs to be
ascertained [1].

It allows teachers to manage time, effort and resources efficiently [4].

Teachers able to determine when to insert icebreakers and interesting facts and lessons to keep students
and pupils glued to their lessons [2].

Variations in the activities are easily whipped up which benefit students. As a class is of diverse
students with multiple intelligence, different activities cater to all types of students and pupils [2].

Lesson plans helps teachers to get rid of problems or avoid them [2].

It improves the habit, attitude, skill, critical thinking of students or pupils [5].

It definitely help teachers to adopt accurate instructional Strategies [2].


A good lesson plan must accompanies all the possible details of the content like class, subject, class
duration, name of text book with publisher, number of students, teachers name, instructional methods,
instructional material, assment etc with clearly stated Content Analysis, Learning Objectives and Students
Learning Outcomes[6]. The relation among Content, Objectives and Assessment termed as magic triangle in
Education or Bermuda Triangle in Education in New Mexico Higher Education Assessment & Retention
Conference,2006 [7].
4. CURRENTLY USED LESSON PLANNING:
At present maximum Teacher Training Institutes for BEd course follows components of lesson plan close
to either Hunter or Herbartian lesson planning.
4.1. Components of Hunter lesson planning
The research conducted by Madeline Hunter showed that effective teachers use a methodology when
they are planning and presenting a lesson. She discovered that no matter what the teachers style, grade level of
students, the subject matter being taught, or economic background of the students, an organized lesson consists
of seven elements that enhances and maximizes student learning. The elements of her lesson plan
design/template have withstood the test of time and are still being used today[8].
4.2. Components of Herbartian lesson planning
John Fredric Herbart was a great European educationist and philosopher of 19 th century he advocated
that teaching should be planned actively if we intend to make it efficient. He applied the knowledge of
psychology regarding the Learning process.
If new knowledge is imparted by linking with old knowledge of the student it is acquired easily and is retained
for a longer period. The contents should be presented into units and those units should be arranged in a
logical sequence [9].
2

4.3. Commonly used Components of lesson plans:


Different Teacher Education Institutes, Educational Institutes, Universities adopted close model of
either Madeline Hunter or John Fredric Herbart Model Lesson plan. All these years with little change and
modification made by respective Institutions cause of their own reasons, the lesson plan of different Institutes
lost homogeneity.
At this moment, Components of lesson plan used by different institutions remained as in Table:1
Lesson Plan
Teachers Name:
Date:
Time:
No of Student:
Average Age:

Supervisor:
Class/Room:
Period:
Subject/Topic:

1.Teaching Point/Content Analysis:


2.General Objectives/Lesson Objectives/ Objectives Of The Lesson/ Objectives:
3.Performance Objectives/Instructional Objectives/Specific Objectives:
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Teaching Aids.
Previous Knowledge.
Statement Of Aim.
Introduction
Presentation.
Explanation.
Review
Home Assignments
Black Board Summary.

Table:1 Components of a common lesson planning


[Sources: SCTE-Kohima ;SCERT-Kohima; IGNOU; Lesson Plan Format, School of Education, New Jersey ;
various Institution for Teacher Educations of India]
Note: Not all steps are present in every lesson plan. In some cases, some of these steps can occur
more than once or none. It is not a rigid formula.
5. RELATIONSHIP AND NOMENCLATURE OF THE THREE COMPONENTS:
Below in the Fig:1, Left side indicates synonymously used common terms and right hand side
indicates recommended terms which are learner-centric in nature .
Synonymously Used Terms
Recommended

# Teaching Point
# Content Analysis
#
#
#
#

General Objectives
Lesson Objectives
Objectives Of The Lesson
Objectives

# Performance Objectives
# Instructional Objectives
# Specific Objectives

CONTENT ANALYSIS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES


3

Fig:1 Nomenclature of the three components


5.1. Content Analysis: This is the first step towards the lesson planning. It helps teacher to arrange the content
that needs to concentrate upon, in the process of teaching-learning maintaining logical order of the concept and
psychological order of the target group [10]. It is an organized framework which will helps teacher to structure
the content, helps teacher to strengthen understanding of the content and ensures that teacher is including all
the necessary information, carry out related activities, selection of proper Instructional strategies and set
Learning Objectives for the lesson [1] [11][12].
5.2. Learning Objectives: Second step for the teacher is to go through the content and lay down the general
learning outcome expected from the learner after the execution of the topic. An advantage of clearly defined
Learning objectives is that the teacher is provided the means to prepare the master plan for his/her successful
participation in teaching-learning and evaluation activities[13]. A meaningfully stated objective is one that
succeeds in communicating to the learner, to intent upon all possible experiences with suitable instructional
strategies and use appropriate teaching-learning material/aids with the greatest number of possible alternatives
to arrive at[11].
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives based on Cognitive Domain and its six-level description of
thinking has been widely adapted and used in countless contexts ever since[17]. Dr. Lorin Anderson, a former
student of Bloom's, and his colleagues published an updated version of Blooms Taxonomy[14][15]. They are,
from simplest to most complex: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. A
short description of the entities represented in Table:2 [13].
Learning
Definition
Example Action Words
Objectives
Remembering
Recalling information
Recognize, name, retrieve, describe, list, define,
identify, outline, reproduce
Understanding
Explaining ideas or Explain, summarize, paraphrase, classify, interpret,
concepts
distinguish, defend, discuss
Applying
Using information in Use, execute, carry out, implement, classify, solve,
another situation
demonstrate, compute
Analyzing
Breaking
information Analyze, organize, compare, deconstruct, dissect,
into parts to explore differentiate, diagram, combine
understandings
and
relationships
Evaluating
Justifying a decision or Judge, critique, experiment, hypothesize, appraise,
course of action
assess, justify
Creating
Generating new ideas, Produce, design, construct, plan, invent, generate,
products, or ways of transform, integrate
viewing things
Table:2 Lorin Andersons version of Blooms Taxonomy
5.3. Student Learning Outcomes: Student learning outcomes are defined in terms of the knowledge, skills,
and abilities that students have attained as a result of their involvement in a particular set of educational
experiences [16][17]. Learning outcomes are statements of what students will learn in a class or in a class
session. The statements are focused on student learning (What will students learn today?) rather than instructor
4

teaching (What am I going to teach today?). These statements should include a verb phrase and an impact
phrase -- what students will do and how they will apply that skill or knowledge [17].
Hence, Students Learning Outcomes specify an action by the student that must be[6][10]:
Observable: Able to see the action performed e.g. Writing, spoken, performed.
Measurable: Able to evaluate, check and recheck e.g. rating, grading, marking etc.
Able to be Demonstrated: Able to demonstrate, reflects through action e.g. creating, judging, valuing
etc.
6. Table:3, Showing an example of Relationship among Content Analysis, Learning Objectives and
Students Learning Outcomes of class-VII for a period, on Subject: Science ; Topic: States of Matter

Table:3 Relationship among Content Analysis, Learning Objectives and Students Learning Outcomes
7. TEACHING-LEARNING MODEL: In the process of teaching-learning, teacher follows the chronology
of Students Learning Outcomes and through proper evaluation/ assessment on attainment of Cognitive
objectives, only moves to the next Students Learning Outcome. Therefore, class is expected to be more
appropriate and purposeful as learning outcomes are based on the hierarchy from simplest, Remembering to
most complex, creating. Relation among Students Learning Outcome, Teaching-Learning Strategies and
Evaluation represented in Fig: 2 (which is close to Magers Model and Popham-Baker Model).

Fig: 2 Teaching-Learning Model based on Students Learning Outcomes


5

Note: All the entities shown under content objectives, may not have relative Students Learning Outcomes or a
particular entity of content objectives may have more than one relative Students Learning Outcomes, that all
depends on the content (Content Analysis) under consideration.
8. RULES IN WRITING STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES[18]:
Outcomes must:
Contain an active verb that describes an observable or identifiable action
Focus on the student as the performer
What is the student expected to be able to know?
What is a student expected to be able to do?
How is a student expected to be able to think?
Include a timeframe in which the outcomes can be measured.
8.1. To write a Students Learning Outcome, three methods been discussed below [17]:
Method 1: SW (Student Will) + Active verb (from Lorins taxonomy) + Condition (as a result of) +
Measurement (as measured by or as demonstrated by ) + When (at what timeline).
Example : Student will draw diagram showing the domestic animals food chain in 10 minutes.
Method 2: Students Learning Outcomes =Time Frame + Student focus +Action Verb +
Product/process/ outcome
Example: Students Learning Outcome = At the end of the mathematics class the student will identify relevant
formulae for solving exercise problems.
Here:
1 Time frame: At the end of the mathematics class Student focus: students will Action
verb (Lorins taxonomy): identify Product/process: .for solving exercise problems
[source: Gail Short Hanson, American University]
9. SOME EXAMPLES OF WRITING STUDENTS LEARNING OUTCOMES:
Categories-I Too General and very hard to measure: (Poor)
1 Student will develop problem-solving skills on Simple Interest problems.
2. Student will develop understanding of writing an application to the school principal asking leave.
3. Students will acquire knowledge of precautionary measures need to be taken during an earth quake.
4. Pupil will acquire skill of regular eating habit of green vegetables in their prime meal.
Categories-II Specific and Measurable but week form of sentences : (Poor)
1. Student will be able to develop and apply effective problem solving skills that would enable to solve
Simple Interest problems in mathematics class.
2 Student will be able to write an application to the school principal asking leave for the absent days in
10 minutes.
3. Students will be able to list correctly five precautionary measures need to be taken during an earth
quake.
4. Enable Pupil to justify regular eating habit of green vegetables in their prime meal.
Categories-III Specific and Measurable: (Good)
6

1 Student will solve Simple Interest problems correctly from text book exercise in the mathematics
class.
2 Student will write an application to the school principal asking leave for the absent days in 10
minutes.
3. Students will list correctly five precautionary measures need to be taken during an earth quake.
4. Pupil will justify regular eating habit of green vegetables in their prime meal.
10. CONCLUSION:
Lorin Andersons revised Bloom's Taxonomy is a wonderful reference model for all involved in
teaching-learning, training, delivery and evaluation for 21 st century classroom. It helps to open up possibilities
for all aspects of the subject or need concerned. It suggests a variety of instructional methods available for
delivery and continuous and comprehensive evaluation of teaching-learning. The more detailed elements
within each domain provide additional reference points for learning design and evaluation, whether for a single
lesson, session or activity, or training need, or for an entire course, programme or syllabus, across a large group
of trainees or students, or a whole organisation.
REFERENCES:
[1]Parashar ,Sadhana., Sharma,R.P., CBSE,2009, Teachers' Manual on Continuous and
Comprehensive Evaluation, The Secretary, Central Board of Secondary Education, Shiksha
Kendra,2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi - 110092 ; 5-19
[3]http://www.kean.edu/~tpc/ Classroom%20Management/
[4]Sidhu, Kulbir Singh,2009, The Teaching of Mathematics, Sterling Publishers Private
Limited,New Delhi-110020; 116-177
[5]http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm
[6]Smith, P. L.,Ragan, T. J.,2005, Instructional design (3rd ed.), John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
[7] New Mexico Higher Education Assessment & Retention Conference, Las Cruces, New Mexico,
February 2006
[8] http://www.svsu.edu/~mcmanus/edl622/hunter.htm
[9] Maheshwari, V.K. Lesson Planning, K.L.D.A.V(P.G) College, Roorkee, India
[10]University of Rhode Island, Students Learning Outcomes, Retrieved from:
http://www.uri.edu/assessment/media/public/page_files/uri
[11]http://farm1.static.flickr.com/147/361710524_68e85655015.jpg
[12] Teacher & Educational Development, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2005
[13]Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. R. 2001, A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing.
New-York: Longman
[14]Bloom, B.S., (Ed.). 1956. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of
educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York: Longman
[15]Developing Learning Outcomes and Objectives; The Learning Management Corporation;
Retrieved from: http://www.the learning manager.com
[16]Atherton,J.S., 2009, Learning and Teaching; Bloom's taxonomy [On-line] UK: Retrieved
from: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm
[17]Bresciani, M.J., Zelna, C.L., Anderson, J.A. 2004 Assessing Student Learning and
Development: A handbook for practitioners. NASPA
[18]Mager, R. F.,1984,. Preparing Instructional Objectives, 2nd edition. Lake Publishing
7

Company: Belmont, California.