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Q 1. describe types of counceling and also

tell which type is used most n why?
Q 2. "without understanding commulative
record effective counselling is not possible"
elaborate with example.
Q 3. define any 2 counseling services
Q.4 write down characteristics ogf a good
counselor or teacher as a counselor


The personal and professional qualities of counsellors are very important in facilitating any helping
relationship. A counsellor must be well equipped to assist individuals to make adjustments and live a happy and
harmonious life. The adjustment can be with regard to the school and curriculum, vocation and personality.
As a counselor you need to have patience with your clients as they process the discussion. It may take them
time to accept certain things and to move towards positive changes. Some people need to discuss something
many times before they are prepared to make a move in any particular direction. Also, you are not likely to see
large changes in an individual client; therefore, you must be okay with incremental progress in their lives and
rejoice over small victories.
Good Listener
Counselors spend a significant amount of time listening to their clients. You will do more listening than talking.
You must be content to give the client time to express their story and their feelings. You will need to be intuitive
in discerning what the client is really saying and read between the lines.
It is very important that your clients feel your compassion for their problems and that they sense you truly care

about them. You may not be able to relate to every issue that is shared with you, but you need to be able to
have compassion for how it feels to be in their shoes. Genuine concern yields positive results.
Counselors hear all kinds of private information and encounter all types of people. You may hear dark secrets
from someones past involving such things as sexual or criminal behavior. You must do you best to refrain from
judgment and instead communicate positive regard. There are times when it may be necessary to judge a
particular behavior, but the client must not feel that you are judging them. Likewise, you may encounter clients
of different races and/or cultures. You must not push your cultural or religious views upon them. Multicultural
competency is a necessary skill. The counseling environment needs to be a safe place for a client to share
their most intimate concerns.
Being a counselor involves a significant amount of time spent researching. You will need to stay current on the
research in order to help your clients. This involves reading books and journal articles on a regular basis. You
do not learn everything you need to know while in college. Much of your knowledge will come from personal
research after you have begun to see clients.
Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of others. You need to be able to put yourself in the
shoes of your client and understand the situation from their point of view. Even if you dont agree with their
perspective, you still need the ability to understand how it feels to them in order to address their issue
effectively. However, its important that you are not too empathetic. Some people struggle as counselors
because they are unable to maintain objectivity and therefore carry home the emotional stress of the job. The
level of empathy necessary can be a fine line between helpful to client and harmful to counselor.
Confidentiality is of upmost importance when you are a counselor. You must be able to maintain confidentiality
so the client can trust you with their most intimate concerns.
The ability to encourage is important for a counselor. Many clients are struggling to find hope in their situation.
One of the primary jobs of a counselor often involves instilling hope in a hopeless individual.
A counselor who is aware of their own fears, insecurities, and weaknesses will be effective in the therapeutic
relationship. It is important that you do not react defensively to what a client shares. You must be able to keep
your own feelings out of the session. You will be better able to do this if you are self-aware. In addition, selfaware individuals are more intuitive with regards to solving their own problems and can use that knowledge to
help clients through similar situations.
Authenticity is vital when working with clients. Clients will know if you are being fake or not showing genuine

concern. They will not open up to you or trust your advice unless they feel you are genuine. This is even more
critically important when working with teens.

An important quality of a counesllor is that he like and respects himself, but he does
not use the counsellee to satisfy his own needs. Every normal human being has a
desire to be respected, recognized and accepted. Then the counselor must qualities
of good personality, good character and wholesome philosophy, health, emotional
stability, approachability, sympathic understanding of youth, intelligence, social
culture, broad knowledge and interest in guidance and personal working conditions
and understanding of social economic conditions. They above given qualities must
be possessed by a counsellor.


1. Sensitivity
2. Ethical behaviour
3. Flexibility
4. Intellectual competence
5. Acceptance
6. Understanding
7. Professional dedication
8. Whole some philosophy of life
9. Leadership
10. Health and personal appearance
11. Intellectual potentialities
12. Adjusted personality
13. Happy interpersonal relationship
1. Psychology testing
2. Organising dissemination of information
3. Conducting interviews
4. Providing educational and vocational guidamce
5. Conducting placement
6. Conducting research
7. Conducting group guidance
8. Undergoing training
9. Utilising experience
Professional ethics:
In the, The counselor E.C Roeber had enlisted some ethical principles which govern counselor s
activities and they are:

1. The counselor must be loyal to the school as he mainly responsible to the school.
2. A counselor is responsible to the counselee in variety of ways since his main function is to help
the counselee in achieving adjustment.
3. The counselor should be use his discretion and good judgement while giving information about his
counselee to other professional workers and keep the information secret.
4. With their parents consent, the client can be referred to any other fully qualified persons or
agencies by the counselor, if necessary.
5. No counselor is expected to criticize any other counselor, institution or organizations engaged in
counseling work.
Counselor and Teacher:
1. Teacher needs to know the pupil in terms of attainment of educational objectives and normal
growth. Counselor needs to know the pupil in terms of specific problems, frustration and plans for
the future.

2. Subject matter-are known by the teacher. The subject matter is unknown to the counselor and
sometimes unknown to the counselee.
3. Teacher has the responsibility for the welfare of the culture. Counselor has the responsibility for
the welfare of the counselee.
4. Teaching starts with a group relationship. Counseling starts with an individual relationship
5. Interview skill is one of the techniques. Interview is the basic technique.
6. Teacher is concerned with day to day growth. Counselor is concerned with counselees
immediate problems and choices.

Q 6. what do u mean by interveiw... its imp ..

need.. n how its done
Q 7 which criterion u keep in mind while
taking interveiw of an individual
Q 8. principles of counselling and methods
Q 9. imp of vocational guidance in
underdeveloped countries especially in
Educational and Career counseling in Pakistan
Education and career plays a pivotal role in coarse of ones professional as well as social life. If
students education comunsurates with his aspirations and abilities, he/she face lesser degree of
frustrations and anxieties and exhibit greater degree of performance and achievement.
In most of the developing countries like Pakistan the literacy rate is low and the available
educational and career options are limited. The most obvious focus of education is the well
paying job so parents forces their children to choose the field they decide for them.
Educational and career counseling is a widely used concept in many of the developed countries,
they have counseling facilities to guide students and professionals but unfortunately it is not very
well recognized concept in Pakistan, one of the reason is many prevailing factors in Pakistan like
political unrest , inflation and law and order situation doesnt allow people to focus of these
kinds of issues and also lack of awareness, but still there are few universities who offers
counseling to their students, but it should be available as facility for all.

In Pakistan, percentage of school going children is alarmingly very low and this number keeps
on decreasing as we move on to the higher classes. Only 26% of students make their way to the
higher education. So, 74% of the students drop out due to many reasons. Lack of timely guidance
is a major reason in this regard. In addition to this, out of those who pursue their higher learning,
a large number of students make wrong choices.
Due to lack of guidance and information, 250, 000+ students are suffering annually
41, 000 students appear in entry test of medical colleges and only 5,000 of them get
70,000+ students appear in entry test of engineering institutions and only 7,200 get
admission (in PEC accredited programs)
150,000+ students of other groups are confused to choose any discipline
Educational counseling is a new concept in Pakistan that is essential for better allocation of the
human resources, thorough education counseling, the student is guided to the institution that
suits him best according to his qualification. Pakistani public is becoming increasingly aware
of the importance of higher education for their career and future well being. But due to a limited
number of universities in the country and fewer seats available in them, and lot many young
people fail to achieve their goals with the result that lot of precious talent is wasted every year.

Current Situation in Pakistan

Rapid advancement in technology has created awareness about higher education, but the
students find alomost no professional guidance for adpotation of available careers. So the
need for career guidance and counseling in Pakistan has grown significantly during last few
years especially for schools and colleges students.
Career guidance and counseling services need could only be satiated if schools educate and train
their teachers in the use of career guidance and counseling tools and techniques.

Q 10. factors effecting vocational guidance