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# CHEM Reviewer

MEASUREMENT
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## MATTER: Anything that occupies space and has mass

MASS: the amount of matter present in an object
o Units of measurement: grams, kilograms, pounds
VOLUME: the amount of space that an object occupies
o Units of measurement: liters, ounces, gallons, cubic centimeters
TEMPERATURE: the amount of heat present in an object
o Units of measurement: celcius, fahrenheit, kelvin, rankine

MEASUREMENT
o Finding how many measuring units there are in something
o Provides quantitative information
o Involves comparison to standards
o Is always subject to error
ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT
o Environmental/Static Error: errors due to environmental influences such as
temperature, pressure, humidity, and others
o Instrument Errors: usually due to its age, formation of rust or damage as well as noncalibration
o Human Error: how we handle and read the intsruments influences our gathered data.

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
o Digits or numbers that are either certain or good estimates of a measurement
o Represents the decimal place which determines the extend of rounding off to be done.
Usually based on the degree of accuracy in measurement.
RULES OF SIGNIFICANT FIGURES:
1. All non-zero digits are significant.
2. Zeros in between non-zero digits are significant.
3. Zeroes before the first non-zero digit are insignificant (leading zeros).
4. Zeros after the last nonzero digit may or may not be significant (trailing zeros).
a. If there is a decimal point in the number, all trailing zeros are significant.
b. If there is no decimal point in the number, all trailing zeros are NOT
significant.
ACCURACY: measurements that are close to the correct value
PRECISE: measurements which are closeb to each other.
RULES IN ROUNDING OFF
1. If the digit to the right of the number to be rounded off is 5 or greater, round up.

2. If the digit to the right of the number to be rounded off is less than 5, retain the
number.
Addition or subtraction: follow the least amount of decimals
Multiplication or division: follow the least amount of significant figures
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SCIENTIFIC NOTATION: is a way of writing numbers that are too big or too small to be
conveniently written in decimal form.
o M x 10n
M = coefficient \\ x 10 = base \\ n = exponent
FORMULAS

FROM
O
F
O
C
O
C

TO
O
C
O
F
K

FORMULA
C = (F-32)/1.8
O
F = 1.8(C)+32
C = OC+273.15

ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT:
o ERROR: defined as the difference between the experimental value and the accepted
value
PERCENTAGE ERROR
Difference between the data and accepted value
Accepted value or true value
Can be group data error or individual data error.

X 100

ENGLISH SYSTEM
UNITS TO BE
CONVERTED
Pounds to Kg
Kilometers to Feet
Miles to Kilometer
Meters to Yards
Inches to Feet
Gallons to Liters
Inches to Cm
Miles to Feet
Quarts to Liters
Ounce to Liters

VALUES
1lb = 0.4536 kg
1ft = 0.0003048 km
1 mi = 1.609 km
1m = 1.094 yd
1 in = 0.08333 ft
1 gal = 3.785 L
1 in = 2.54 cm
1 mi = 5280 ft
1 qt = 0.946 L
1 oz = 0.02957 L

## BASE UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS

PHYSICAL
QUANTITY
Length
Mass
Time
Temperature
Amt. of substance
Electric current
Luminous intensity

UNIT

ABBREVIATION

Meter
Kilogram
second
kelvin
Mole
ampere
Candela

m
kg
s
k
mol
A
cd

## LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS

DIMENSION ANALYSIS: one method can be used in converting one unit to another. The main purpose
- process
Total weight
of theout
product
of thethan the desired units through the use of fixed relationships.
of this
is to cancel
units other
reaction equals exactly the combined
weight of the reactions from which
PREFIX
FACTOR
Tera
1012
they were formed.
Giga
109
-

## Matter/mass can neither be created nor

destroyed, it can only be transformed
from one form to another.

Mega
Kilo
Hecto
Deka
Deci
Centi
Milli
Micro
Nano
pico

106
103
102
101
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12

MATTER
PROPERTY

SOLID

LIQUID

GAS

DENSITY
SHAPE AND VOLUME

high
definite shape & volume

low
indefinite shape & volume

DIFFUSION
MOTION

## does not flow easily

limited. vibrates but
generally does not move
from one place to another
compact and close, tightly
packed, usually in a
regular pattern
very difficult to compress

high
indefinite shape definite
volume
flows easily
particles vibrate and move
about, can slide past each
other
close together, with no
regular arrangement
difficult to compress

easily compressible

PARTICLE ARRANGEMENT

COMPRESSIBILITY

flows easily
fast motion and vibrates
freely
far from each other, no
regular arrangement

## COMPRESSIBILITY: the ability to be pressed or squeezed together

o SOLIDS: particles will resist further compression because solid particles are already
tightly packed.
o LIQUIDS: particles of the liquid will be compressed further because they are slightly
distant from one another
o GASES: Particles will obviously be compressed, and as a whole, occupy much smaller
space due to large distances being minimized.
PRESSURE: force applied per unit area

SOLIDS: molecules that make it up are arranged in regular, repeating patterns that are held firmly
in place but can vibrate within a limited area.

LIQUIDS: the molecules that make up a liquid flow easily around one another. They are kept
from flying apart by attractive forces between them. They assume the shape of their containers.
GASES: molecules fly in all directions at great speed. They are so far apart that the attractive
forces between them are insignificant.
PLASMA: at very high temperatures of stars, atoms lose their electrons. The mixture of electrons
and nuclei that results is plasma.
BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE
o Satyendra Bose and Albert Einstein predicted it in the 1920s, and Cornell and Weiman
finally created the condensate.
o BEC is super cold and unexcited, in contrast to plasma being super hot and excited.
o Their atomic parts cant move at all, and lose almost all of their energy.
o Since there is no more energy to transfer, all of the atoms have exactly the same levels,
like twins.
o The group of rubidium atoms sits in the same place, creating a super atom.

Gas Plasma

Ionization

Plasma Gas

Recombinatio
n
Vaporization
Evaporation
Melting
Freezing
Sublimation

Gas Liquid
Liquid Gas
SolidLiquid
LiquidSolid
SolidGas
GasSolid

PROPERTIES OF MATTER
PHYSICAL: those characteristics of a substance that can be
observed or measured without changing the identity or composition
of the substance
1. Extensive Properties: depends on the amount of substance
present

Deposition
2. Intensive Properties: an innate characteristic of any matter and is not affected by the
amount of substance

CHEMICAL: refers to the ability of a substance to react with other substances usch as air, water, or an
acid and change its identity or composition afterwards.
CHANGES IN MATTER
-

PHYSICAL CHANGE: change in the form of appearance but no changes in its composition and
atomic nucleus.
CHEMICAL CHANGE: change in form and appearance, as well as its composition but there is
no change in its atomic nucleus.
NUCLEAR CHANGE: change in the nucleus of an atom thereby creating a new substance or
element together iwth the production of a high amount of energy.
o NUCLEAR FUSION: combining of two substances producing a large amount of energy
and produces a new substance. Happens in the sun and in other stars.
o NUCLEAR FISSION: the splitting of hte nucleus of an atom to produce a large amount
of energy. This is use in nuclear power plants to produce nuclear energy.
CLASSIFICATIONS OF MATTER

MIXTURES: a combination of two or more substances that can be separated by physical methods
o HOMOGENOUS MIXTURES

## SOLUTION is a type of homogenous mixture that has one phase

Solute the substance that is to be dissolved
Solvent the substance it will dissolve in
o HETEROGENOUS MIXTURES
COLLOIDS particle is smaller than a suspension but greater than in a solution.
Particles will break down but remain as a clump of molecules that will not settle
down.
Mayonnaise, blood, milk
SUSPENSION particles will not dissolve, but will instead settle at the bottom
Muddy water, medicine suspensions
COARSE MIXTURES substances that are mixed together and yet can still be
seen. Solid to solid mixtures are under this type.
Salad, halo-halo, sand and water
PURE SUBSTANCES: made up of a single type of element or a combination of two or more by
chemical means and can only be separated through chemical reactions and processes
o ELEMENTS the basic unit of matter and cannot be broken down to simpler substances
by chemical change.
Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sodium
TYPES
Metals sodium, potassium
Metalloids silicon, arsenic
Non-metals oxygen, chlorine
o COMPOUNDS made up of tow or more elements combined chemically
carbohydrates, table salt, water, carbon dioxide
TYPES
ACIDS
o From the Latin word acere meaning sour
o Any substances that produces H+ ions when dissolved in water
o Acidic solutions have a pH lower than 7
o An acid cannot be an acid unless it is in a solution
o Often, and correctly so, acids are named with the symbol (aq)
(aqueous) because acids are more commonly dissolved in water
o They have a sour taste
o The react with metal oxides and hydroxides to form salts and
water
o Acidic aqueous solutions conduct electricity
o Turn blue litmus paper red
o Turn bromothymol blue, blue yellow
o Donate protons (hydrogen ions, H+) to bases

BASES
o Produces OH- ions when dissolved in water
o pH of basic solution is greater than 7
o they have a bitter taste
o they have a slippery feeling

## o turn red litmus paper blue

o turn bromthymol blue from yellow blue
o react with acids to form salts and water
o aqueous basic solutions conduct electricity
o Accept protons from acids
SALTS
NEUTRALIZATION: a reaction between an acid and a base. The product of this reaction
is neither acidic nor basic. (usually water and salt).
HC1 + NaOH H2O + NaCl
Acid + Base Water + Salt
Antacid tablets contain the base calcium carbonaate (CaCO 3). The base reacts iwth
hydrochloric acid (HCI) in the stomach. The reaction neutralizes the acid to relieve acid
ingiestion.