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# Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Nonparametric Tests
Chapter 15
Revised by Jeffrey B. Henriques, Ph.D.

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Nonparametric Statistics

## A special class of hypothesis tests

Used when assumptions for parametric
tests are not met
Like?!

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

nominal
Examples?

Examples?

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Why?

normal

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Cannot easily use confidence intervals

or effect sizes
Have less statistical power than
parametric tests
More likely to commit type II error
Meaning?

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## When we have one nominal variable

The six steps of hypothesis testing
1. Identify the populations, distribution, and
assumptions
2. State the null and research hypotheses
3. Determine the characteristics of the
comparison distribution
4. Determine the critical value, or cutoff
5. Calculate the test statistic
6. Make a decision

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Formulae
2

(O - E)
2
c =

df row k row 1
df column kcolumn 1

## df X 2 (df row )(df column )

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Step 5: Calculate the Test Statistic

(O
E)
c 2 =
= (20.571+ 20.571= 41.142
E

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

41.14

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

VEGAS BABY!!!

## Rolling dice at the Mirage

Lots of Snake Eyes coming up
Are the dice fixed?
Test with goodness of fit
Does our distribution FIT the expected
distribution

VEGAS BABY!!!
Susan A. Nolan

## Each die(dice) has 1/6 chance

1/6 X 120 = 20 of each type
Expected Distribution =
[20,20,20,20,20,20]

Thomas E. Heinzen

VEGAS BABY!!!
Susan A. Nolan

## Actual distribution for 120 rolls is:

[28,16,23,23,17,13]

## Are these dice fair?

Use Goodness of fit 2

Thomas E. Heinzen

VEGAS BABY!!!
Susan A. Nolan

## Determine critical 2 value:

df = number of categories 1
= 6-1 = 5
2 critical for df=5 is
11.07 from table

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## The six steps of hypothesis testing

1. Identify the populations, distribution, and
assumptions
2. State the null and research hypotheses
3. Determine the characteristics of the
comparison distribution
4. Determine the critical value, or cutoff
5. Calculate the test statistic
6. Make a decision

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

(O
E)
c 2 =
= (2.218 + 0.837 + 2.197 + 0.829 = 6.081
E

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Cramers V (phi)

independence
X2

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

An Alternative Graph

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Relative Risk

## with chi square through relative risk,

also called relative likelihood
By making a ratio of two conditional
proportions, we can say, for example,
that one group is three times as likely
to show some outcome or, conversely,
that the other group is one-third as
likely to show that outcome

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

HUH?!?!?

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Coefficient

## Quantifies the association between two

ordinal variables
Calculating Spearmans correlation

6( D )
2

rs = 1-

N (N -1)
2

Susan A. Nolan

A little example

## Is there a relationship between

Level of national competitiveness
Level of national pride
?

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

## Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

rs = 1-

6( D2 )
N (N 2 -1)

= 1-

Thomas E. Heinzen

6(98.5)
591
591
=
1=
1= 1- 0.597 = 0.403
2
10(99)
990
10(10 -1)