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Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Nonparametric Tests
Chapter 15
Revised by Jeffrey B. Henriques, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Nonparametric Statistics

A special class of hypothesis tests


Used when assumptions for parametric
tests are not met
Like?!

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

When to Use Nonparametric Tests

When the dependent variable is


nominal
Examples?

When the dependent variable is ordinal


Examples?

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

When to Use Nonparametric Tests

When the sample size is small


Why?

When underlying population is not


normal

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Limitations of Nonparametric Tests

Cannot easily use confidence intervals

or effect sizes
Have less statistical power than
parametric tests
More likely to commit type II error
Meaning?

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit

When we have one nominal variable


The six steps of hypothesis testing
1. Identify the populations, distribution, and
assumptions
2. State the null and research hypotheses
3. Determine the characteristics of the
comparison distribution
4. Determine the critical value, or cutoff
5. Calculate the test statistic
6. Make a decision

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Formulae
2

(O - E)
2
c =

df row k row 1
df column kcolumn 1

df X 2 (df row )(df column )

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Step 4: Determine the Critical Value

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Step 5: Calculate the Test Statistic

(O
E)
c 2 =
= (20.571+ 20.571= 41.142
E

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Step 6: Make a Decision

41.14

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

VEGAS BABY!!!

Rolling dice at the Mirage


Lots of Snake Eyes coming up
Are the dice fixed?
Test with goodness of fit
Does our distribution FIT the expected
distribution

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

VEGAS BABY!!!
Susan A. Nolan

Expected distribution for 120 rolls if fair:

Each die(dice) has 1/6 chance


1/6 X 120 = 20 of each type
Expected Distribution =
[20,20,20,20,20,20]

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

VEGAS BABY!!!
Susan A. Nolan

Actual distribution for 120 rolls is:


[28,16,23,23,17,13]

Are these dice fair?


Use Goodness of fit 2

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition

VEGAS BABY!!!
Susan A. Nolan

Determine critical 2 value:

df = number of categories 1
= 6-1 = 5
2 critical for df=5 is
11.07 from table

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Chi-Square Test for Independence

The six steps of hypothesis testing


1. Identify the populations, distribution, and
assumptions
2. State the null and research hypotheses
3. Determine the characteristics of the
comparison distribution
4. Determine the critical value, or cutoff
5. Calculate the test statistic
6. Make a decision

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

(O
E)
c 2 =
= (2.218 + 0.837 + 2.197 + 0.829 = 6.081
E

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Step 6: Make a Decision

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Cramers V (phi)

The effect size for chi-square test for


independence
X2

( N )(df row / column )

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Graphing Chi-Square Percentages

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

An Alternative Graph

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Relative Risk

We can quantify the size of an effect

with chi square through relative risk,


also called relative likelihood
By making a ratio of two conditional
proportions, we can say, for example,
that one group is three times as likely
to show some outcome or, conversely,
that the other group is one-third as
likely to show that outcome

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

HUH?!?!?

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Other Nonparametric Tests

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Spearman Rank-Order Correlation


Coefficient

Quantifies the association between two

ordinal variables
Calculating Spearmans correlation

6( D )
2

rs = 1-

N (N -1)
2

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

A little example

Is there a relationship between


Level of national competitiveness
Level of national pride
?

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

Thomas E. Heinzen

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition


Susan A. Nolan

rs = 1-

6( D2 )
N (N 2 -1)

= 1-

Thomas E. Heinzen

6(98.5)
591
591
=
1=
1= 1- 0.597 = 0.403
2
10(99)
990
10(10 -1)