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A

RESEARCH DISSERTATION
ON

MODELLING THE COSTS OF FINAL SUB-CIRCUITS IN


RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

BY

OLAWUMI TIMOTHY OLUWATOSIN


QSV/08/4275

SUBMITTED TO:

THE DEPARTMENT OF QUANTITY SURVEYING


SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE
ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF


BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY DEGREE (B.TECH) IN QUANTITY SURVEYING

FEBRUARY, 2014

CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this research work was carried out by OLAWUMI, TIMOTHY
OLUWATOSIN, matriculation number QSV/08/4275, of the department of Quantity
Surveying, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure,
Ondo state.

Professor D.R. Ogunsemi

Dr. I.O. Aje

Supervisor

Head of Department

DEDICATION
This research work is dedicated to GOD Almighty, the giver of all knowledge and the
embodiment of all wisdom for his showers of blessing, love, mercy and protection over me in
particular and my family in general.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
All glory, honour, adoration in heaven and on earth goes to Almighty God, the creator of
heaven and earth who has made it possible for me to start this research work in good health
and finish strong.
I specially thank my project supervisor, Professor D.R. Ogunsemi for his unflinching support.
The guidance, suggestions and kind disposition of Mr O. Ogunsina towards the success of
this research work is highly commendable.
Also to other lecturers in the department of Quantity Surveying for imparting in me the basic
rudiments of Quantity Surveying profession, I confess that you all are the best set one could
ever wish to have as lecturers and on that note I say thank you sirs - Dr. I.O. Aje, Dr.
Awodele, Dr. Ayeitan, Mr. Makanjuola, Mr. Akinola, Mr. Ibironke, Mr. A.E. Oke, Mr I.O.
Famakin, Mr. Adeniyi Onaopepo and Mr. T.O. Oladirin, Sirs, I am extremely grateful.
Also, to my wonderful family, I sincerely take a perfect but humble bow to you all in total
respect, greetings, submission, acknowledgement and appreciation for your support, love,
encouragement and prayers thus far. Dad and Mum; Dr. & Mrs. S.O Olawumi, you are
inestimable, and my wonderful siblings; Isaac and Stephen Olawumi for their love, care and
support throughout this project and majorly throughout my five (5) year career pursuit in
FUTA
My warmest regards also goes to Mr. Awosika Seyi for his unflinching assistance in the
course of this research, also to Prof. J.O. Afolayan, Prof. M. Arogunjo, Pastor Ogundele
Kayode, and their wives for their love, prayers, interest and support. Also to all the members
of the Deeper Life Campus Fellowship for their prayers and words of encouragement
during my research and my friends; Akinnagbe Femi, Ojo Stephen, Adebusoye Busayo,
Babatunde Olufemi, Oladejo John, Adebanjo Damilola, Akpan Glory and other colleagues
for contributing to the success of this research work. I appreciate you all. God bless you all.
4

ABSTRACT
Previous researchers have developed models for determining building durations in Nigeria
and Hong Kong respectively; however little forage has been made in the area of electrical
services, a recent research work deals with the measurement of electrical services in
buildings; but there is yet not a model to determine the probable cost of electrical services in
residential buildings. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a cost model for
predicting the costs of final sub-circuits in residential electrical installations using multiple
regression techniques and linear regression techniques, based on data generated from 33 sets
of drawings- Architectural and Electrical drawings of Bungalows (17 bungalows) and
Duplexes (16 drawings) from which also, priced bill of quantities were generated. Also the
current market prices of electrical items as well as site-observation of electrical technicians
productivity were also carried out with interviews which were used in calculation of unit
rates. In achieving the aim of this research work, six (6) cost models were developed; of
which 5 of the 6 models will fit in real life cost prediction works. The first two (2) models
was developed using multiple regression analysis to determine the final sub-circuit cost of
electrical installation with Coefficient of Determination, R2 of 0.968 and 0.980 respectively.
The other models were developed using linear regression analysis technique. The third
model assesses the influence of GFA on final circuit cost with R 2 of 0.172. The fourth model
uses the number of lighting points to determine the length of cable with R2 of 0.823. The
fifth and sixth models use the length of cable to determine the length of conduits with R 2 of
0.559 and 0.947 respectively. In assessing the predictive power of the cost models, model
validation was carried out using seven (7) floors of 3 bungalows and 2 duplexes. The model
validations/comparison further confirmed the validity of the models earlier generated as
valid enough to be used as a basis in cost prediction of residential electrical installation.
5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page

Certification

ii

Dedication

iii

Acknowledgement

iv

Abstract

Table of Contents

vi

List of Tables

List of Figures

xii

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1.1

Background of the Study

1.2

Statement of Research Problem

1.3

Research Questions

1.4

Aim and Objectives of the Study

1.5

Justification of the Study

1.6

Scope and Limitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review
2.1

Building Services

2.1.1 The Construction Industry

10

2.1.2 The Nigerian Construction Industry

10

2.2

The Building Team

11

2.3

Requirements for Electrical Installations

14

2.3.1 Notifiable Electrical Work

16

2.3.2 Non-notifiable Electrical work.

16

Electrical Accessories Installations

17

2.4.1 PVC Insulated and sheathed cables

17

2.4.2 Conduit Installations

18

2.4.3 Trunking Installations

21

2.5

Wiring

21

2.6

Electrical switches

23

2.6.1 Types of electrical switches

24

2.7

Essentials Tools for electrical institutions

26

2.8

Principles of Electrical Installation

30

2.8.1 Internal Distribution

31

2.8.2 Wiring Circuits for lighting

31

2.8.3

Water Heating Circuits

32

2.8.4

Cooker Circuits

32

2.8.5

Wiring Systems

33

2.8.6

Fixing the Conduits

35

2.8.7

Wiring Accessories

35

2.8.8

Earthing Systems

36

2.8.9

Choice of Wiring Systems

37

2.4

2.8.10 Circuits and Sub-Circuits


7

38

2.9

Measurement of Electrical Services

41

2.9.1 Information required for effective measurement of Electrical

2.9.2

2.10

Installations

42

Electrical Installation Items for measurement

44

2.9.3 Concise Measurement Procedure

44

Cost Significant Models

45

2.10.1 Cost Estimation for Electrical Services

46

2.10.2 Applying Cost-estimating methods

47

CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology
3.1

Introduction

51

3.2

Research Design

51

3.3

Study Population

51

3.4

Sampling Frame

51

3.5

Sampling Size

52

3.6

Sampling Techniques

52

3.7

Data Collection Instrument

52

3.4

Data Collection Procedure

52

3.5

Method of Data Analysis

53

CHAPTER FOUR
Data Presentation and Analysis of Results
4.1

Introduction

55

4.2

Data Analysis

55

4.2.1 Identification of the Cost Significant Items


4.2.2

Model of Final Sub-Circuit Cost as a Function of The Cost Significant

Items.

59

4.2.3

Multiple Correlation and Determination

4.2.4

Model of Final Sub-circuit cost as a function of Gross Floor Area 64

4.2.5 Model of the Length of Cables as a function of the Number of


Luminaries

4.3

63

66

4.2.6

Model of the Length of Conduits as a function of the Length of Cables

4.2.7

67
69

Productivity Constant of Electrical Technicians

Model Validation
4.3.1

70

Model Validation of the Final Sub-circuit Cost as a Function of the

Cost Significant Items


4.3.2

70

Model Validation of the Length of Cables as a Function of the Number

of Luminaries.
4.3.3

73

Model Validation of the Length of Conduits as a Function of the

Length of Cables.
4.4

56

74

Discussion of Result

76

CHAPTER FIVE
Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1

Conclusion

79

5.2

Recommendations

82

5.3

Areas of Further Research

82

REFERENCES

83

APPENDIX

86
9

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1

Electrical Accessories in main groups

Table 2.1

Comparison between various systems of Wiring

39

Table 4.1

Based on Building Type

55

Table 4.2

Based on Floor Classification

56

Table 4.3

Cross-Tabulation: Building Type to Number of Bedrooms

56

Table 4.4:

Table Showing the Cost Significant Items for the Forty-Nine Floors

57

Table 4.5

Multiple Regression Results among the Final Sub-Circuit Costs & Cost
Significant Items

Table 4.6

60

Multiple Regression Results among the Final Sub-Circuit Costs & Cost
Significant Items

Table 4.7

61

Determination Coefficients among Items of Work and Final Sub-Circuit Cost


63

Table 4.8

Determination Coefficients among Items of Work and Final Sub-Circuit Cost


64

Table 4.9

Linear Regression Model f = c + b4x4

65

Table 4.10

Linear Regression Model cl = c + b5x

66

Table 4.11

Linear Regression Model dc= c + b6x6

67

Table 4.12

Linear Regression Model dc= c + b6x6

68

Table 4.13

Productivity Constant of Electrical Technicians`

69

Table 4.14

Cost Significant Items to Test Model Validity (CT)

70

Table 4.15

Final Sub-Circuit Costs Derived from Model (CM)

71

Table 4.16

Showing the Comparison between CT and CM

71

Table 4.17

Cost Significant Items to Test Model Validity (CT)

72

Table 4.18

Final Sub-Circuit Costs Derived from Model (CM)

72

10

Table 4.19

Showing the Comparison between CT and CM

72

Table 4.20

Data needed to Test Model Validity (CT)

73

Table 4.21

Lengths of Cables Costs derived from Model (CM)

73

Table 4.22

Showing the Comparison between CT and CM

74

Table 4.23

Data needed to Test Model Validity (CT)

74

Table 4.24

Lengths of Conduits derived from Model (CM)

75

Table 4.25

Showing the Comparison between CT and CM

75

Table 4.26

Data needed to Test Model Validity (CT)

75

Table 4.27

Lengths of Conduits derived from Model (CM)

76

Table 4.28

Showing the Comparison between CT and CM

76

11

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: A twin and earth PVC insulated and sheathed cable.

17

Figure 2: Conduit fittings and saddles

19

Figure 3: Loop-in wiring

22

Figure 4: Radial (or junction box) wiring

22

Figure 5: A Switch

24

Figure 6: Single pole switch

24

Figure 7: Double pole switch

25

Figure 8: Three-way Electrical Switch Wiring

25

Figure 9: Four-way Electrical Switch Wiring

26

Figure 10: Electrical Distribution

30

12

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Electricity was a luxury for houses in the past, but it is a necessity for each and every house,
irrespective of the scale or the category of the household. Within the Nigerian construction
industry, the installation cost of an electrical system in a building is significant.
Building services installations typically account for 20-30% of the total value of a project and sometimes a great deal more, (Simon and Andy, 2012). The complexity of building
services installations has increased in recent years as demand has grown for intelligently
operated environments, driving innovation to improve occupier comfort and extend building
performance.
Meanwhile, building services contracting is distinct from most other trades in terms of the
role of direct labour, the relevance of the job undertaken by sub-contractors, the extent of coordination required between trades and the extent of design work that can be shared between
consultants and specialists.
Electrical installation in a general term means any fixed appliances, wires, fittings, apparatus
or other electrical equipment used for (or for purposes incidental to) the conveyance, control
and use of electricity in a particular place, but does not include any of the following; subject
to any regulation made under Electricity (Consumer Safety) Act 2004 subsection (4) any
electrical equipment used, or intended for use, in the generation, transmission or distribution
of electricity that is: (owned or used by an electricity supply authority, or located in a place
that is owned or occupied by such an authority); Any electrical article connected to, and
extending or situated beyond, any electrical outlet socket; Any electrical equipment in or
about a mine; Any electrical equipment operating at not more than 50 volts alternating
current or 120 volts ripple-free direct current; Any other electrical equipment, or class of
electrical equipment, prescribed by the regulations.
Electrical wiring work means the actual physical work of installing, repairing, altering,
removing or adding to an electrical installation or the supervising of that work. Also,
Electrical wiring needs to be made of two main materials: a good conductor of electricity,

13

usually copper, and; to prevent the wires inside a cable from connecting to one another - a
very good insulator, usually PVC (poly-vinyl-chloride) or special rubber.
Electrical wiring composes of electrical equipment such as cables, switch boards, main
switches, and miniature circuit breakers (MCB) or fuses, residual current devices (RCD),
lighting points, power points, lightning arrestors, etc.
The electrical work in residential houses must be made, taking into account the particular
interior design. In some cases, cables can be laid under the ceilings, while in others you will
need to drill walls and floor. That is why execution of electrical works here requires an
integrated professional approach that takes into account the requirements of operation, safety
and aesthetic perfection as well.
Part P of the building regulations limit what electrical work may be carried out by anyone
other than a professional electrician who is a competent person registered with an electrical
self-certification scheme. An electrical licence is required before any electrical wiring work
can be undertaken, regardless of the cost of the work and regardless of whether the work is
residential, commercial or industrial. When work is carried out by a professional electrician,
they will deal with the necessary paperwork to comply with the Regulations.
Electrical symbols are used to show the lighting arrangement desired in the home. This
includes all switches, fixtures, and outlets while the electrical plans display all of the circuits
and systems to be used by the electrical contractor during installation.
Electrical installation for new construction occurs in these three phases: Temporary, that this,
the installation of a temporary underground or overhead electrical service nears the
construction site and close to the final meter location, to provides electricity during
construction; Rough-in electrical- also known as simply rough-in or pre-wiring, this is
when the electrical boxes and wiring are installed. Rough-in happens after the structure is
framed and covered with roofing. The electrical meter and permanent service can also be
installed at this time; Finish electrical, this is when the light fixtures, outlets and covers, and
appliances are installed prior to occupancy. Finish electrical is one of the last construction
phases.
The building regulations set out overall criteria and requirements to ensure electrical safety in
and around the home. Approved document P (Electrical Safety) from the planning portal
14

provides practical guidelines for validating this type of work. It should be bear in mind that
any electrical work carried out within the home, garden, garage, shed and other storage
buildings may need to comply with the requirements of the Building Regulations.
Essentially, electrical works falls into two categories: Non-notifiable and Notifiable. Nonnotifiable electrical work, some work is classed as 'non-notifiable', and this work can be
carried out by a non-certified individual without notification although, obviously, the
individual does need to be competent.
Non-notifiable electrical work covers: Replacement of fittings such as sockets, switches and
light fittings; Replacement of the cable for a single circuit where it has been damaged; Work
that is not in the bathroom or kitchen and consists of: (Adding additional lighting, light
fittings and switches, to an existing circuit; Adding additional sockets and fused spurs to an
existing ring or radial main; Installing additional earth bonding).
All this 'non-notifiable electrical work' is conditional upon the use of suitable cable and
fittings for the application for which they are intended, that the circuit protective measures
are unaffected and suitable for protecting the new circuit, and that all work complies with all
other appropriate regulations.
Notifiable electrical work, these are work which must either be carried out by certified
individuals/companies or notified to the local Building Control before work begins, this
includes: All new or modifications to the electrical wiring within bathrooms or shower
rooms; Installation or modification of electric under-floor or ceiling heating; Garden lighting
or power installation; Other specialist electrical installation, examples being, Photovoltaic
Solar and micro CHP (Combined Heat and Power) power systems.
Electrical installation in general is basically subdivided into Electrical Supply/Power/Light
systems and Communication/Security/Controls systems (Appendix B of Building
Engineering Standard Method of Measurement, BESMM 3). The classification was based on
functions of the installations which could be likened to elements in the case of building. Thus
to measure installation that performs a particular function, requires a combination of trades.
The trades covered in BESMM3 are in Work Group Y and includes among others; Conduit
and Cable trunking (Y60), HV/LV Cables and Wiring (Y61), Earthing and Bonding
components (Y80), switchgear and Distribution boards (Y71), Luminaries and Lamps (Y73)
etc.
15

Lawrence listed five main categories of electrical accessories (as cited in Keraminiyage,
Amaratunga, Haigh and Perera, 2009) which are accessories in power circuits, accessories in
lighting circuits, protective devices, accessories in other circuits, cables and other sundry
items. Each of these categories comprise of several key accessories.
Table 1-Electrical Accessories in main groups - Lawrence, (1993)
Group

Accessories

Power circuits Accessories

Socket outlets, Shaver Sockets, Cooker


Controllers

Lighting circuits Accessories

Switches, Light Dimmers, Lamp Holders,


Ceiling Roses, Light fittings

Protective Devices

Miniature Circuit Breakers, Residual Current


Circuit Breakers, Earth Terminals

Accessories in other circuits

Telephone

Sockets,

Television

Antenna

Sockets, Bell, Switches, Electrical Bell Units,


Ceiling Fans
Cables and other sundry items

Wiring

Cables,

Accessories,

Conduits,

Enclosures,

Cable

Conduit
Trunks,

Junction Boxes, Sunk Boxes, Wiring Clips,


Distribution boards

However, the priority of the list of these features varies with the situation and the
characteristics of the person with the need.
Due to the diversification of availability of different types of accessories, a systematic
approach should be adopted in the process of building the model. Several procedures can be
adapted to this effect and the following three steps will be followed in building this particular
cost model:
1. Identification of the Cost Variables
2. Collection and analysis of cost data
3. Representation of analysed data in the model in a way that it reflects the cost
variables of the system, while catering to the need of ease of use of the model
and ability of simulating various combinations
16

1.2

STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

Adeniyi, (2004) and Chan, (1999) developed a models for determining building durations in
Nigeria and Hong Kong respectively; also, Temitope, (2001) has also developed a predictive
model for the determination of the final cost of construction project; Onwe (2012), also wrote
a research work that deals with the measurement of electrical services in buildings; but there
is yet not a research work or study carried out to determine the probable cost of electrical
services in residential buildings, nor a model for the costs of final sub-circuits in residential
electrical installations.
Moreover, most architectural drawings for residential buildings such as those of bungalows
and duplexes are not usually accompanied with its corresponding detailed electrical drawings
which have led cost engineers such as quantity surveyors/estimators to find a way of
determining the cost of electrical services through the use of provisional sums which is more
of a guess work.
Also, the non-availability of electrical drawings for residential buildings could lead to
variations and loads of claims by the contractors in situations in which the estimated
allowances for such electrical installations is found to have been underestimated; therefore,
the desire and requirements by the clients to get accurate estimate in order to enable them to
take a right decision regarding the feasibility of proposed building services such as electrical
works in residential buildings becomes unrealisable.
Therefore, a cost model will provide an acceptable solution within this scenario. As identified
by Beeston (1987), A cost models task is to estimate the cost of a whole design or of an
element of it, or to calculate the cost of effect of a design change. Authors have used this
approach to solve the similar problems.
1.3

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following are the research questions.


1. What are the productivity constants of electrical installation technicians?
2. What are the influences of floor area on final sub-circuit costs?
3. What is the predictive power of the cost model?

17

1.4

AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study is aimed at developing cost models for predicting the costs of final sub-circuits in
residential electrical installations. The following objectives are proposed in achieving this
aim.
1. To assess the productivity of electrical installation technicians.
2. To assess the influence of floor area on final sub-circuit costs.
3. To assess the predictive power of the cost model.
1.5

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

Developing an accurate cost estimate is the first step in a successful electrical job. A
contractor who estimates poorly will ultimately fail, no matter how well his technical skills. If
he underestimates his costs, he will find himself either using his own funds to complete a job,
returning to his client to ask for more money or leaving the job incomplete or completed
poorly. Overestimating will put him at a competitive disadvantage and cause him to lose
work to better estimators, Robert (2012)
The study findings will therefore be of use to both clients and contractors alike in the
determination of preliminary cost estimate for electrical installation works thereby helping in
setting budget in client organization.
More so, the determination of a cost model for final sub-circuits in residential buildings will
be of great use and help to cost engineers/quantity surveyors/estimators in getting accurate
estimates of electrical installation works in the absence of electrical drawings for residential
buildings thereby the use of provisional sum which has been found to be inaccurate and
inconsistent as it is considered as a matter of individual intuition.
Also, the study will help the clients and electrical services contractors in the aspect of cost
planning and budgeting for the electrical installation works by ensuring that the cost of
building services does not varies uncontrollably for this aspect of building services work,
through the determination of cost significance and cost distribution of electrical items for
electrical installation works.
The cost model so derived will be of great to the client organizations, consultants and
contractors respectively.

18

1.6

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of this research is limited to residential buildings. Such residential buildings to be
considered include bungalows and duplexes. Such residential buildings were categorized on
floor basis.
The study is limited to electrical services installation in residential buildings and covered
only the lighting circuits aspect of the final sub-circuits of the residential electrical
installations.

19

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 BUILDING SERVICES
Managing building costs is a challenging task for the design team as well as for construction
managers, contractors, and consultants. Owners demand that their design and construction
teams respect the owners financial and economic objectives and that they control costs
during project delivery. This expectation is found in both the public and the private sectors in
all client industries, locations, and financial situations.
Owners also have in expectation that a budget prepared early in a project will be accurate and
that the project will be completed to the required scope, quality, and performance within that
budget (in terms of cost and time factors). Owners invariably place a high priority on cost
issues, regardless of the quality or other attributes of the project. They may even judge
success or failure exclusively in terms of cost.
During the past decade, professional organizations, educational institutions, government and
private entities have supported the development of building cost models and provided
seminars and other educational programs on this subject. The success of these efforts has
varied, but one issue has become clear: Achieving high-quality design and implementing
effective cost analysis and management are not contradictory objectives.
Nearly every decision an architect makes during the design stages and construction affects
project costs. Some decisions have direct effect on project costs and as such, straight forward
because they affect building quality or performance. Others are more subtle or have indirect
influence on project costs; affecting ease of construction, complexity of building elements, or
availability of materials. Michael (2013) was of the opinion that some decisions made by the
Architect can profoundly affect other disciplines, such as plenum depths that may confine
mechanical/electrical services or a building module that influences a structural grid. Unless
decisions are managed and expectations kept in check, costs may rise beyond budget limits.
Residential buildings (Wikipedia) are called houses or homes, though buildings containing
large numbers of separate dwelling units are often called apartment buildings or apartment
blocks to differentiate them from 'individual' houses. Houses may also be built in pairs (semi20

detached), in terraces where all but two of the houses have others either side. Houses which
were built as a single dwelling may later be divided into apartments; they may also be
converted to another use e.g. an office or a shop.
Building types may range from one-room wood-framed, masonry, dwellings to multi-million
naira high-rise buildings able to house thousands of people. Increasing settlement density in
buildings (and smaller distances between buildings) is usually a response to high ground
prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other
common building materials are brick, concrete or combinations of either of these with stone.
Wikipedia (2013) defines building services engineering as the engineering of the internal
environment and environmental impact of a building. It essentially brings buildings and
structures to life. Building services engineers are responsible for the design, installation,
operations and monitoring of the mechanical, electrical and public health systems required
for the safe, comfortable and environmentally friendly operation of modern buildings.
Building services engineering comprises mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and
plumbing or public health engineering. Building services engineers work closely with other
construction professionals such as architects, structural engineers and quantity surveyors.
They influence the architecture of a building and play a significant role on the sustainability
and energy demand of a building.
As such, a typical building services engineer has a wide-ranging duties and responsibilities:

Design: designing layouts and requirements for building services for residential or
commercial developments.

Construction: supervising the construction of the building services, commissioning


systems and ongoing maintenance and operation of services.

Environmental: developing new energy saving methods for construction, designing


new and improved energy conservation systems for buildings.

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC): specialising in the design,


development, construction and operation of HVAC systems.

Electrical technology: specialising in the design and development of electrical


systems required for safe and energy sustaining operation of buildings.

21

2.1.1 THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY


The construction industry is one of the UKs biggest employers, and carries out contracts to
the value of about 10% of the UKs gross national product. Although a major employer, the
construction industry is also very fragmented. Firms vary widely in size, from the local
builder employing two or three people to the big national companies employing thousands.
Of the total workforce of the construction industry, 92% are employed in small firms of less
than 25 people. The yearly turnover of the construction industry is about 35 billion. Of this
total sum, about 60% is spent on new building projects and the remaining 40% on
maintenance, renovation or restoration of mostly housing. In all these various construction
projects the electro-technical industries play an important role, supplying essential electrical
services to meet the needs of those who will use the completed building, Revor (2006).
Electrical contracting company is as a part of the broader construction industry. The
construction industry carries out all types of building work, from basic residential housing to
hotels, factories, schools, shops, offices and airports while the electrical contracting
companies are concerned with the electrical services installation activities which according to
Simon and Andy (2012) typically account for 20-30% of the total value of a project - and
sometimes a great deal more.
Electrical services works involves the actual physical work of installing, repairing, altering,
removing or adding to an electrical installation/accessories or the supervising of that work.
However, Lawrence (1993) listed five main categories of electrical accessories (as cited in
Keraminiyage, Amaratunga, Haigh and Perera, 2009) which are accessories in power circuits,
accessories in lighting circuits, protective devices, accessories in other circuits, cables and
other sundry items. Each of these categories comprise of several key accessories.
2.1.2 THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
The Nigerian construction industry comprises the clients/employers, main contractors, subcontractors, nominated suppliers, and key professional actors responsible for design and
supervision of projects. The professionals includes the architects, builders, engineers
(structural and services), and Quantity Surveyors. The services engineers also include the
mechanical and electrical services engineers. There are professional bodies that regulate the
activities of these professionals; these professional bodies include- The Nigerian Institute of
Quantity Surveyors (NIQS), Nigerian Institute of Architects (NIA), Nigerian Institute of
22

Building (NIOB), The Nigerian Institute of Town Planners (NITP), Nigerian Institution of
Estate Surveyors and Valuers (NIESV), Nigerian Institution of Surveyors (NIS), Nigerian
Society of Engineers (NSE).
Contractors organizations in Nigeria are comprised of small, medium and large sized firms;
however, small and medium size firms are dominant which seems to in agreement with the
assertion of Revor (2006) as regards the predominant of small sized firms in the UK.

2.2

THE BUILDING TEAM

The construction of a new building is a complex process which requires a team of


professionals working together to produce the desired results.
The Client
The Client is the person or group of people with the actual need for the building and its
services (electrical services inclusive), such as a new house, office or factory. The client is
responsible for financing all the work and, therefore, in effect, employs the entire building
team. The building work starts with them and ends with them, this makes them a very
important part of the building them.
The Architect
This is the clients agent and is considered to be the leader of the building/design team. The
architect must interpret the clients requirements and produce working drawings and
sketches. During the building process the architect will issue out instructions as at when due,
approves payment to the contractor, supervise all aspects of the work until the building is
handed over to the client.
The Quantity Surveyors
The quantity surveyor measures the quantities of labour and material necessary to complete
the building services installation from drawings supplied by the architect
Quantity Surveyors are not electricians, and are not trained as such but are trained to
indentify basic faults. They cannot provide specific technical advice in relation to electrical
installations, for example, they cannot advise you how to rewire a property. The role of the
Building Control Surveyor is to provide a visual check during the installation to identify

23

obvious signs of incompetence. They are not there to test, but more to ensure that the installer
has tested to ensure the work meets reasonable standards.
This clearly places the responsibility on the person carrying out the work to ensure that
inspection and testing of electrical installations is carried out. The Surveyors will also ensure
that during the course of the electrical installation work, other aspects of the Building
Regulations will have been complied with, for instance, they will consider the effect that the
electrical wiring will have on the structure, fire resistance, accessibility etc.
An inspection should be requested at pre-plaster stage, and once again upon completion.
The following professionals are also involved in electrical services wiring and installation
activities (Building Regulations Part P 2006);
Specialist engineers advise the architect during the design stage. They will prepare drawings
and calculations on specialist areas of work.
The clerk of works is the architects on-site representative. He or she will make sure that
the contractors carry out the work in accordance with the drawings and other contract
documents. They also ensure that materials delivered to site for the purpose of incorporation
into the building are of the required quality standard and are only delivered to site when
needed; they can also agree general matters directly with the building contractor as the
architects representative.
The local authority ensures that the proposed building and its services components conforms
to the relevant planning and building legislation.
The health and safety inspectors ensure that the governments legislation concerning health
and safety is fully implemented by the building contractor.
The building contractor enters into a contract with the client to carry out the construction
work in accordance with contract documents. The building contractor is usually the main
contractor and he or she, in turn, may engage sub-contractors to carry out specialist services
such as electrical installation, mechanical services, plastering, plumbing and painting etc.
The electrical team
The electrical contractor is the sub-contractor responsible for the installation of electrical
equipment within the building.
24

Electrical installation activities include:

installing electrical equipment and systems into new sites or locations;

installing electrical equipment and systems into buildings that are being refurbished
because of change of use;

installing electrical equipment and systems into buildings that are being extended or
updated;

replacement, repairs and maintenance of existing electrical equipment and systems

The building team


Client
Quantity
Surveyors

Architect

Local Authority

Specialist
Engineers

Clerk of works

Building Contractor
(main contractor)

Electrical, mechanical services,


plastering, painting (subcontractors

Health and Safety


Inspector

Suppliers of material,
equipment and plant

Source: Building Regulations Part P 2006


The electrical team
An electrical contracting firm is made up of a group of individuals with varying duties and
responsibilities. There is often no clear distinction between the duties of the individuals, and
the responsibilities carried by an employee will vary from one employer to another. If the
firm is to be successful, the individuals must work together to meet the requirements of their

25

customers. Good customer relationships are important for the success of the firm and the
continuing employment of the employee.

ELECTRICAL
COMPANY

Source: Revor (2006)


2.3

REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

The Institution of Electrical Engineers Requirements for Electrical Installations (the IEE
Regulations) is non-statutory regulations. They relate principally to the design, selection,
erection, inspection and testing of electrical installations, whether permanent or temporary, in
and about buildings generally and to agricultural and horticultural premises, construction sites
and caravans and their sites. Paragraph 7 of the introduction to the EWR says: the IEE
Wiring Regulations is a code of practice which is widely recognized and accepted in the
United Kingdom and compliance with them is likely to achieve compliance with all relevant
aspects of the EWR. The IEE Regulations confirm this relationship at Regulation 114 which
states that compliance with the IEE Regulations may be used in a Court of Law to claim
compliance with a statutory requirement such as the EWR. The IEE Wiring Regulations only
apply to installations operating at a voltage up to 1000 V a.c. They do not apply to electrical
installations in mines and quarries, where special regulations apply because of the adverse
conditions experienced there.

26

The current edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations is the 17th edition. The main reason for
incorporating the IEE Wiring Regulations into British Standard BS 7671: 2008 was to create
harmonization with European standards.
Building Regulations Part P 2006
The Building Regulations lay down the design and build standards for construction work in
buildings in a series of Approved Documents. The scope of each Approved Document is
given below:

Part A structure

Part B fire safety

Part C site preparation and resistance to moisture

Part D toxic substances

Part E resistance to the passage of sound

Part F ventilation

Part G hygiene

Part H drainage and waste disposal

Part J combustion appliances and fuel storage systems

Part K protection from falling, collision and impact

Part L conservation of fuel and power

Part M access and facilities for disabled people

Part N glazing safety in relation to impact, opening and cleaning

Part P electrical safety

Part P of the Building Regulations was published on 22 July 2004, bringing domestic
electrical installations in England and Wales under building regulations control. This means
that anyone carrying out domestic electrical installation work from 1 January 2005 must
comply with Part P of the Building Regulations. An amended document was published in an
attempt at greater clarity and this came into effect on 6 April 2006.
If the electrical installation meets the requirements of the IEE Regulations BS 7671, then it
will also meet the requirements of Part P of the Building Regulations, which implies that
there is no difference or change, what is going to change under Part P is this new concept of
notification to carry out electrical work.

27

2.3.1 NOTIFIABLE ELECTRICAL WORK


Any work to be undertaken by a firm or individual who is not registered under an approved
competent person scheme must be notified to the Local Authority Building Control Body
before work commences. That is, work that involves:

the provision of at least one new circuit,

work carried out in kitchens,

work carried out in bathrooms,

Work carried out in special locations such as swimming pools and hot air saunas.

Upon completion of the work, the Local Authority Building Control Body will test and
inspect the electrical work for compliance with Part P of the Building Regulations.
2.3.2 NON-NOTIFIABLE ELECTRICAL WORK
Work carried out by a person or firm registered under an authorized Competent Persons SelfCertification Scheme or electrical installation work that does not include the provision of a
new circuit. This includes work such as:

replacing accessories such as socket outlets, control switches and ceiling roses;

replacing a like for like cable for a single circuit which has become damaged by, for
example, impact, fire or rodent;

re-fixing or replacing the enclosure of an existing installation component provided the


circuits protective measures are unaffected;

providing mechanical protection to existing fixed installations;

adding lighting points (light fittings and switches) to an existing circuit, provided that
the work is not in a kitchen, bathroom or special location;

Installing or upgrading the main or supplementary equi-potential bonding provided


that the work is not in a kitchen, bathroom or special location. All replacement work
is non-notifiable even when carried out in kitchens, bathrooms and special locations,
but certain work carried out in kitchens, bathrooms and special locations may be
notifiable, even when carried out by an authorized competent person.

The IEE have published a guide called the Electricians Guide to the Building Regulations
which brings clarity to this subject. In specific cases the Local Authority Building Control
Officer or an approved Inspector will be able to confirm whether Building Regulations apply.
28

Failure to comply with the Building Regulations is a criminal offence and Local Authorities
have the power to require the removal or alteration of work that does not comply with these
requirements.

2.4

ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES INSTALLATION

2.4.1 PVC INSULATED AND SHEATHED CABLES


Domestic and commercial installations use this cable, which may be clipped direct to a
surface, sunk in plaster or installed in conduit or trunking. It is the simplest and least
expensive cable. The figure shows a sketch of a twin and earth cable.
The conductors are covered with a colour-coded PVC insulation and then contained singly or
with others in a PVC outer sheath.

Fig 1: A twin and earth PVC insulated and sheathed cable. (Source- Revor 2006)

Installing cables

The final choice of a wiring system must rest with those designing the installation and those
ordering the work, but whatever system is employed, good workmanship by competent
persons and the use of proper materials is essential for compliance with the IEE Regulation
134.1.1. The necessary skills can be acquired by an electrical trainee/worker who has the
correct attitude and dedication to his craft.
PVC insulated and sheathed wiring systems are used extensively for lighting and socket
installations in domestic dwellings. Mechanical damage to the cable caused by impact,
abrasion, penetration, compression or tension must be minimized during installation
(Regulation 522.6.1). The cables are generally fixed using plastic clips incorporating a
masonry nail, which means the cables can be fixed to wood, plaster or brick with almost
29

equal ease. Cables should be run horizontally or vertically, not diagonally, down a wall. All
kinks should be removed so that the cable is run straight and neatly between clips fixed at
equal distances providing adequate support for the cable so that it does not become damaged
by its own weight (Regulation 522.8.4 and Table 4A of the On Site Guide). Where cables are
bent, the radius of the bend should not cause the conductors to be damaged (Regulation
522.8.3 and Table 4E of the On Site Guide).
Terminations or joints in the cable may be made in ceiling roses, junction boxes, or behind
sockets or switches, provided that they are enclosed in a non-ignitable material, are properly
insulated and are mechanically and electrically secure (IEE Regulation 526). All joints must
be accessible for inspection testing and maintenance when the installation is completed (IEE
Regulation 526.3). Where PVC insulated and sheathed cables are concealed in walls, floors
or partitions, they must be provided with a box incorporating an earth terminal at each outlet
position. PVC cables do not react chemically with plaster, as do some cables, and
consequently PVC cables may be buried under plaster.
Where cables and wiring systems pass through walls, floors and ceilings the hole should be
made good with incombustible material such as mortar or plaster to prevent the spread of fire
(Regulation 527.2.1). Cables passing through metal boxes should be bushed with a rubber
grommet to prevent abrasion of the cable. Holes drilled in floor joists through which cables
are run should be 50 mm below the top or 50 mm above the bottom of the joist to prevent
damage to the cable by nail penetration (Regulation 522.6.5). PVC cables should not be
installed when the surrounding temperature is below 0C or when the cable temperature has
been below 0C for the previous 24 hours because the insulation becomes brittle at low
temperatures and may be damaged during installation (Regulation 522.1.2).
2.4.2 CONDUIT INSTALLATIONS
A conduit is a tube, channel or pipe in which insulated conductors are contained. The conduit,
in effect, replaces the PVC outer sheath of a cable, providing mechanical protection for the
insulated conductors.
A conduit installation can be rewired easily or altered at any time, and this flexibility,
coupled with mechanical protection, makes conduit installations popular for commercial and
industrial applications.

30

There are three types of conduit used in electrical installation work: steel, PVC and
flexible (Revor, 2006).
1. Steel conduit
Steel conduits are made to a specification defined by BS 4568 and are either heavy gauge
welded or solid drawn. Heavy gauge is made from a sheet of steel welded along the seam to
form a tube and is used for most electrical installation work. Solid drawn conduit is a
seamless tube which is much more expensive and only used for special gas-tight, explosionproof or flame-proof installations.
Conduit is supplied in 3.75 m lengths and typical sizes are 16, 20, 25 and 32 mm. Conduit
tubing and fittings are supplied in a black enamel finish for internal use or hot galvanized
finish for use on external or damp installations. A wide range of fittings is available and the
conduit is fixed using saddles or pipe hooks, as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig 2: Conduit fittings and saddles


Source: Revor (2006).
2.

Metal conduits

Metal conduits are threaded with stocks and die and bent using special bending machines.
The metal conduit is also utilized as the CPC and, therefore, all connections must be screwed
up tightly and all burrs removed so that cables will not be damaged as they are drawn into the
conduit. Metal conduits containing a.c. circuits must contain phase and neutral conductors in
the same conduit to prevent eddy currents flowing, which would result in the metal conduit

31

becoming hot (Regulations 521.5.2, 522.8.1 and 522.8.11). PVC conduit PVC conduit used
on typical electrical installations is heavy gauge standard impact tube manufactured to BS
4607. The conduit size and range of fittings are the same as those available for metal conduit.
3. PVC conduit
PVC conduits are most often joined by placing the end of the conduit into the appropriate
fitting and fixing with a PVC solvent adhesive. PVC conduit can be bent by hand using a
bending spring of the same diameter as the inside of the conduit. The spring is pushed into
the conduit to the point of the intended bend and the conduit then bent over the knee. The
spring ensures that the conduit keeps its circular shape. In cold weather, a little warmth
applied to the point of the intended bend often helps to achieve a more successful bend.
The advantages of a PVC conduit system are that it may be installed much more quickly than
steel conduit and is non-corrosive, but it does not have the mechanical strength of steel
conduit.
Since PVC conduit is an insulator it cannot be used as the CPC and a separate earth
conductor must be run to every outlet. It is not suitable for installations subjected to
temperatures below 25C or above 60C. Where luminaries are suspended from PVC conduit
boxes, precautions must be taken to ensure that the lamp does not raise the box temperature
or that the mass of the luminaries supported by each box does not exceed the maximum
recommended by the manufacturer (IEE Regulations 522.1 and 522.2). PVC conduit also
expands much more than metal conduit and so long runs require an expansion coupling to
allow for conduit movement and help to prevent distortion during temperature changes.
All conduit installations must be erected first before any wiring is installed (IEE Regulation
522.8.2). The radius of all bends in conduit must not cause the cables to suffer damage, and
therefore the minimum radius of bends given in Table 4E of the On Site Guide applies (IEE
Regulation 522.8.3). All conduits should terminate in a box or fitting and meet the boxes or
fit-tings at right angles. Any unused conduit box entries should be blanked off and all boxes
covered with a box lid, fitting or accessory to provide complete enclosure of the conduit
system. Conduit runs should be separate from other services, unless intentionally bonded, to
Cables should be fed into the conduit in a manner which prevents any cable crossing over and
becoming twisted inside the conduit. The cable insulation must not be damaged on the metal
edges of the draw-in box.
32

Cables can be pulled in on a draw wire if the run is a long one. The draw wire itself may be
drawn in on a fish tape, which is a thin spring steel or plastic tape. A limit must be placed on
the number of bends between boxes in a conduit run and the number of cables which may be
drawn into a conduit to prevent the cables being strained during wiring.
Other modules
4. Flexible conduit
Flexible conduit is made of interlinked metal spirals often covered with a PVC sleeving. The
tubing must not be relied upon to provide a continuous earth path and, consequently, a
separate CPC must be run either inside or outside the flexible tube (Regulation 543.2.1).
Flexible conduit is used for the final connection to motors so that the vibrations of the motor
are not transmitted throughout the electrical installation and to allow for modifications to be
made to the final motor position and drive belt adjustments.
2.4.3 TRUNKING INSTALLATIONS
A trunking is an enclosure provided for the protection of cables which is normally square or
rectangular in cross-section, having one removable side. Trunking may be thought of as a
more accessible conduit system and for industrial and commercial installations it is replacing
the larger conduit sizes. A trunking system can have great flexibility when used in conjunction with conduit; the trunking forms the background or framework for the installation,
with conduits running from the trunking to the point controlling the current using apparatus.
When an alteration or extension is required it is easy to drill a hole in the side of the trunking
and run a conduit to the new point. The new wiring can then be drawn through the new
conduit and the existing trunking to the supply point. Trunking is supplied in 3m length. Most
trunking is avail-able in either steel or plastic.
2.5

WIRING

Every lighting system needs a cable from the mains to supply power to all the lighting points
and a switch that can interrupt the supply to each individual point. Here is the outline the two
most common ways to meet that requirement - the loop-in wiring and the radial wiring (also
referred to as 'junction box) installations (Revor, 2006).

33

Loop-in wiring

The Figure below shows the basic principle of wiring a loop-in lighting system (the most
modern/common). The power from the mains consumer unit runs into each ceiling rose and
out again, then on to the next ceiling rose. The switch cable and the flex to the lighting fitting
are connected at the ceiling rose.

Fig 3: Loop-in wiring

Radial (or junction box) wiring

The figure below shows a typical radial (or junction box) lighting system, a two-core and
earth cable runs from the consumer unit to a series of junction boxes - one for each lighting
point (ceiling rose). From each junction box a separate cable runs to the light and another
runs to the switch. Whilst this system is rarely used now, it is much less complicated for the
consumer to connect new light fittings.

Fig 4: Radial (or junction box) wiring

34

Replacing a light fitting is sometimes a simple task but other times it can be quite tricky.
Under modern Part P Building Regulations, a householder can carry out a 'like for like'
replacement or extend an existing lighting circuit providing that it is not within a kitchen or
special area (defined as a room with a bath, shower basin, pool or sauna). Any addition or
change within a kitchen or special area is notifiable or should be carried out by a suitably
qualified person.
If the client does intend to install the light fitting by himself, before touching the wiring, he
must switch off the lighting circuit at the consumer unit. It would also be wise to let the
people in the building know that he/she is working on the electrics and to hang something on
the consumer unit to remind them that the circuit is switched off for a reason.
Electrical wiring needs to be made of two main materials: a good conductor of electricity,
usually copper, and - to prevent the wires inside a cable from connecting to one another - a
very good insulator, usually PVC (poly-vinyl-chloride) or special rubber.
Cables used for special scientific or military uses may use silver or gold for their wires even
though they are very expensive compared to copper. Aluminium is a cheaper alternative to
copper, silver or gold. Aluminium is a much lighter and cheaper material to use as a
conductor but you must give up some amperage versus a cable that is the same size, but made
from copper, because aluminium is not such a good conductor.

2.6

ELECTRICAL SWITCHES

According Andrew (2013), a switch is an electronic device which stops the circuit and
transmits the current to conducts. It is a binary device which means that it has two states; the
on state or closed condition or off state or open condition.
The simplest type of switch is one where two electrical conductors are taken into contact with
each other by a current. Other switches are more complex which contain electronic circuits
which turn on or off depending on electric and magnetic field. Type includes electrical
switches, electronic switches and networking switches.

35

Fig 5: A Switch
2.6.1 TYPES OF ELECTRICAL SWITCHES
1. Single Pole Switch
The single pole switch is the general purpose pillar of switches. It turns a light and device on
and off from a specific location. A typical single pole switch has two terminals for incoming
wire and the other is for outgoing wire to the device. This type of switch is ideal for
applications that require a lighting fitting to be turn on from a single location.

Fig 6: Single Pole Switch


2. Double Pole Switch
The double pole switch also has also an on and off markings and the purpose is similar to
a single pole switch. But, because it has four brass terminals instead of two terminals it is
capable of switching two wires which permits to switch a 240 volt circuit.
This type of switch is also very useful for corridors of buildings like schools, or hotels.

36

Fig 7: Double Pole Switch


3. Three-Way Electrical Switches
The three way switch comes always in pairs and lets to turn a light or device on and off from
two different location. Three way switches each have three connections and are used
together. Instead of stopping the flow of electricity within them, they passed the electricity to
one connector or the other. So, whether one switch is up or down on one side of the room,
reversing the switch on the other side will turn the light on or off.
For example, a light in a hallway that can be controlled from the first floor and second floor,
or a light in a garage that can be turned on/off from the garage and the kitchen or pantry, etc.

Fig 8: Three-Way Electrical Switch Wiring

4. Four-Way Electrical Switches


The four way switch has four terminals and used relays to connect from three different
locations. It is normally used in combination with three-way switches. Each set of terminals
is one of the changed positions. When the switch is in the up position, the current can flow
through two terminals, when the switch is in the down position, the current flows through the
other two terminals.

37

The four way switch appears as the same as a double pole switch but a four-way switch have
no on or off markings. The four-way switch has four terminals and there is no common
or ground wire like a three-way switch. The four-way switch simply functions as a switching
device for the traveler wires between the three-way switches. Four way switches can be used
in big ballrooms in hotels wherein it needs dozens of entrances and exits lights.

Fig 9: Four-Way Electrical Switch Wiring

2.7

ESSENTIAL TOOLS FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

Residential electricians work with electrical systems in and around the home. Industrial
electricians work with electrical systems on a larger scale, usually for office buildings, or the
wiring for a whole floor. However, nearly all electricians require the same tools, which may
be hand-held or electrically powered. These tools allow the electrician to complete his work
with ease, precision and security.
Electrical work or installation will require a few tools to accomplish the job. This is a partial
list of needed tools to take care of most electrical jobs. These tools are readily available at
most building material outlet stores or electrical wholesalers.
These tools are listed below with the descriptions which will help in selecting the proper tools
for the type of electrical projects encountered.

38

1.

Blueprints

Blueprints show the placement of electrical components. The most important tool for every
electrician--and the tool used firs--is the blueprint. Electricians use blueprints as a guide to
where wiring and electrical systems are located or should be located. These diagrams show
circuits, outlets, panel boards, switches and other components. Using this, an electrician will
then connect all the components using wires to create an electrical system.
2.

Hand Tools

Screwdrivers are an important hand-held tool. Hand tools include common work tools such as
pliers, screwdrivers and wire strippers. The two most common pliers are the side-cutting
pliers and needle-nose pliers. These are used to grip, hold or bend wires. Screwdrivers are
used to tighten or loosen screws, which fasten components like outlets to the wall. Wire
strippers are used to remove the insulation from the end of a cut wire.
3.

Measuring

A tape measure has both imperial and metric units. Measuring devices allow electricians to
measure walls, wire, lengths and widths in order to accurately work. They are made of a thin,
bendable metal with units in feet and inches, and centimetres and millimetres. Laser
measuring devices allow electricians to point at their intended target and then press a key that
gives a distance reading. They are more convenient for measuring very long distances.
4.

Power Tools

A power drill has attachments for drill bits and screw bits. Power tools perform just like
hand-held tools, but are faster and more convenient. A power drill can screw and unscrew
without the repetitive hand motions. They can also bore holes into a wooden wall. To bore
through concrete, a heavy-duty power tool is needed.
5.

Saws

Powered saws cut faster and easier than hand held saws. There are hand held and powered
saws available to electricians. Hand held saws can be used for quick cutting like a

39

reciprocating saw, but for more intense jobs an electrician might need a portable band saw or
a circular saw.
6.

Meters

Electricians can use voltmeters to check their work. In order to make sure electrical
installation complies with electrical regulations, testing equipment is used. Ammeters
measure electrical current in amperes and voltmeters measure the electrical difference of two
points. The ohmmeter measures electrical resistance in ohms
Timothy (2013) also outlined some electrical tools which are essentials for electrical services
installation.
1. Fish Tape
A fish tape is used to pull stranded or solid wire through metal or PVC conduit. Cable lube is
also made use of in pulling the wires through the pipe.
2. Tape Measure
A tape measure is used to measure heights for switches and outlets. You will also need it to
centre lighting fixture boxes.
3. Voltmeter
A voltmeter is used to check voltages and verify that circuits are indeed live.
4. Hammer
A hammer is used to secure boxes equipped with nail-on brackets to studs in a home.
5. Channel Lock Pliers
Channel lock pliers are used to take knockouts out of the boxes, tighten down connectors in
the boxes, and adjust expansion-type ceiling-fan boxes.
6. Wire Strippers
Wire strippers are used to cut the insulation off of the wire. They are equipped with different
sized cutting teeth for various sized wires. They also have a cut-off portion in order to cut the
wire.
40

7. Non-contact Voltage Detector


A voltage detector is used for a quick safety check to see if there is voltage or current flow
present. Some of these devices are automatic and some must be turned on via a switch.
8. Side Cutter Diagonal Pliers
These cutting pliers, sometimes called side snips, are used to cut wire. They are specially
designed with a cutting edge that goes down to the tip of the pliers. It has the advantage of
being able to trim wires in tight areas. There are some that are equipped with live wire
detection capabilities.
9. Linesman Pliers
These pliers are the do-it-all pliers. They cut, twist wires together, and grip wires for pulling.
They have a squared off end that is great for twisting wires together, a center cutting blade for
cutting wire, and a grip area between the handles to pull wire.
10. Torpedo Level
A level is used to make sure the electrical work is level and plumb. A great installation starts
with straight switch and outlet covers.
11. Flashlight
A light comes in handy in those places where lighting is limited. Never try to reach into a
panel without proper lighting.
12. Allen Wrench Set (Hex Set)
Allen wrenches are used to tighten Allen-headed screws in the electrical panel.
13. Razor Blade Knife (Utility Knife)
This knife is needed to cut the insulation off of wiring. There may be need to open boxes
when doing installation and this tool will come in handy.
14. Screwdriver
A screwdriver has four blades used to install head screws. The tip looks like a plus sign.

41

15. Straight-Blade Screwdriver


This screwdriver is used for straight slot screws.
16. Wire Crimpers
This tool strips the wire and also crimps lugs onto the wire.

2.8

PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

Fig 10: Electrical distribution


Source: Mohammed (2012)

Distribution Board

This is where distribution of electrical energy to various connected load take place inside the
consumer premises. It also distributes the path for the earthing and neutral wire, and acts as
means of flowing leakage and return current respectively. It is situated inside building and
includes equipment such as circuit breaker and fuse

42

Trunking

A rectangular metal made system that either horizontally or vertically fixed to wall. Has a
good mechanical protection. Available size: 50mm x 50mm; 70mm x 100mm; 150mm x
75mm; 150mm x 150mm and equipped with bend, tee, and junction.
2.8.1 Internal Distribution
It may be taken as a general statement that all types of load in a 2-wire installation, lights,
heaters, etc., are connected in parallel at the same voltage. Francis (1996) observes that an
internal distribution system consists in the connection in parallel of a group of loads in a final
circuit and the connection of this final circuit to local distributing busbars in a distribution
board. Each individual load may be separately controlled by a switch in its own circuit. The
separate groups are controlled by fuses or circuit-breakers. Thus, any individual load, or any
group, or the whole is controlled by circuit-breaker, switch, or fuse. The above principle
general system applies to all types of installation, large or small.
2.8.2 Wiring circuits for Lighting
The method for wiring final lighting circuits may be the loop-in, three-plate or the joint-box
methods, Francis (1996).
A) The loop-in method
This enables all joints or terminations to be made at ceiling roses, luminaries, switches or
other accessories. Hence all such joints remain accessible for the purpose of alterations,
additions or for testing. The loop-in method is used with conduit or trunking installations and
although more cable is used, the avoidance of jointed conductors in boxes is seen as a big
advantage.
B) The 3-plate method
This avoids the greater use of cable, as joints are made in the ceiling roses which have
shrouded terminals (to BS 67). The phase conductors are joined here rather than looping in
at the switch positions. The 3-plate method is widely used on domestic lighting installations
employing wiring systems such as p.v.c sheathed, p.v.c. insulated twin, or 3-core with c.p.c.

43

C) Ring final circuits


Each circuit conductor for a ring final circuit commences from a fuseway (30A) at the
distribution board, looping into each socket outlet or fused spur unit and return to the same
fuseway to form a closed ring. This allows for the load current at a particular socket outlet to
be shared between both conductors supplying that socket outlet.
If a separate circuit protective conductor is run, either within a sheathed cable or as a single
insulated (green/yellow) conductor, then this conductor must also commence at the earthing
terminal within the distribution board, looping into all socket outlets and fused spur units
before returning to the same earthing terminal, in exactly the same way as the wire
conductors. The socket outlets used for domestic ring and radial circuits will comply with BS
1363 and are shuttered to prevent accidental contact with live parts.
Two-way intermediate switching: When it is necessary to control a lighting outlet from two
positions, then a 2-way lighting switching circuit may be utilized. When three or more control
positions are necessary then a 2-way intermediate circuit will be required.
2.8.3 Water heating circuits
In a domestic electric water-heating installation, it is normal to install a 3kW immersion
heater, which is screwed into a boss fitted directly into the hot-water cylinder or tank. Such
cylinders or tanks will have a capacity exceeding 15litres. The immersion heater circuit must
be separate from any other circuit. Such a circuit will be protected by a 15A fuse or MCB and
controlled by a 20A double-pole switch having a neon indicator. Final connection to the
heater from the DP switch is normally by 85C rubber insulated HOFR (heat, oil and flame
retardant) sheathed 3-core flexible cord.
2.8.4 Cooker circuit
There are various types and arrangements for electric cookers in modern kitchens, ranging
from a free-standing cooker to one built into the kitchen units. Latterly, it has become
fashionable to have split level cookers whereby a hob unit is built into the worktop, and the
oven/grill unit is housed in the kitchen units. Every fixed or stationary domestic cooking
appliance must be controlled by a double-pole switch separate from the appliance, and has to
be within 2m of the appliance. Such a switch may control both a hub unit and the oven unit
provided that both appliances are not more than 2m from the switch. It is becoming common
44

practice to use a 45A double pole switch incorporating a neon indicator lamp to control
cooking appliances, rather than use cooker control units having a built-in 13A socket outlet.
2.8.5 WIRING SYSTEMS
Francis (1996) defines a wiring system as that which consists of the conductor, its insulation,
its mechanical protection and the various accessories, such as joint boxes etc. the systems are
named mainly in terms of the mechanical protection used. In considering the use of any
particular wiring system, it should be realised that no system can be the ideal one under all
conditions.
Also, Gupta (2009) defines a wiring system as a network of wires connecting various
accessories for distribution of electrical energy from the supplier meter board to the
numerous electrical energy consuming devices such as lamps, fans and other domestic
appliances through controlling and safety devices.
A number of points must be considered e.g. neatness of the finished job; the durability of the
installation; future extensions and alterations; the time required to do the work; damage to the
fabric of the building by cutting away; special conditions to be withstood, such as fumes,
dampness etc.; and the total cost of the job. A surface system will normally necessitate much
less cutting away than a hidden system.
The various systems used for lighting and small power are (Francis, 1996):
1. Bare conductor wiring
2. Steel conduit:
a. Slip-joint conduit with grip fittings
b. Screwed conduit
3. Non-metallic conduit
4. Rubber-sheathed (t.r.s.)
5. P.V.C. sheathed
6. Earthed-concentric
7. Mineral-insulated metal-sheathed
8. Special systems for different conditions
Bare conductors

45

Light insulated or bare conductors may be used for such purposes as earthing connections,
rising mains and busbar systems, collector wires for cranes etc. they should not be used
where flammable or explosive dust, vapour, or gas is present or where explosive materials are
handled or stored. Bare conductors used for rising mains or bus-bars should be installed only
in places inaccessible to unauthorized persons and be supported by insulators so as to be free
to expand and contract with changes of temperature. Conductors passing through walls,
floors, partitions or ceiling shall pass through directly and be protected by incombustible
insulating material, or earthed metal trunking.
Mineral-insulated metal-sheathed system
This type of cable is now extensively used because of its special qualities and advantages.
The cable may be used at much higher temperatures than rubber-insulated or p.v.c. cable, and
is thus suitable for installations in boiler houses, heat treatment shops and the like, Francis
(1996). The cable may also be used successfully under conditions of humidity and moisture.
Steel conduit systems
Annealed mild steel tubing is very widely used for enclosing v.i.r. or p.v.c. - insulated cable
or any other insulated cable. The conduit is specially annealed so that it may readily be bent
or set to any angle without breaking, splitting, or kinking. B.S. specifications govern the
manufacture of the classes of conduit given. Common standard sizes of conduits are 16mm,
20mm, 25mm and 32mm external diameters

Wire and Cable

Gupta (2009) observed that the terms wire and cable are used more or less synonymous in
house wiring. Strictly speaking, single wire may be bare or covered with insulation, is known
as a wire and several wires stranded together is known as a cable. But in practice bare
conductors, single or stranded together are termed as wires and conductors covered with
insulation are referred to as cables.
The necessary requirements of a cable are that it should conduct electricity efficiently,
cheaply and safely. This should neither be so small as to have a large internal voltage drop
nor be too large so as to cost too much. Its insulation should be such as to prevent leakage of
current in unwanted direction and thus to minimize risk of fire and shock.

46

The cable consists of three parts:


1. The conductor or core, that is, the metal wire or strand of wires carrying the current
2. The insulation or dielectric, that is, a covering of insulating material to avoid leakage
of current from the conductors and
3. The protective covering for protection of insulation from mechanical damage.
2.8.6 FIXING THE CONDUITS
Conduits is fixed to bare brick walls by means of crampets, but on finished surfaces such as
plastered walls, enamelled saddles or clips are preferred as making a neater job. The saddles
and clips are screwed to plugs fitted into drilled holes in the wall surfaces. Large wooden
plugs made on the job are unsuitable, as they dry out and become loose later. Conduit fitting
should be screwed together very tightly, as a loose connection involves loss of electrical
continuity. All screwed should be painted after erection, with a good lead or aluminium paint,
which should also be applied to any part of the conduit where the enamel has been damaged.
Conduit fittings: Different kinds of conduit fittings are available, the full range can be found
in the manufacturers catalogues. They include screwed elbows, bends and tees, noninspection, inspection and split types, junction boxes, circular, oblong, or square. A square
adaptable box is most useful when a number of conduits running together change direction.
Drawing in the wires: The conduits of each circuit should be erected complete before the
cables are drawn in. One important advantage of drawing in wires after the fixing of the
conduit is the fact that this may be done after all plastering is completed and the walls are
dried out.
2.8.7 WIRING ACCESSORIES
The following are the variety of the wiring accessories available for electrical installation
work (Francis, 1996).

Lampholders: These are designed for quick removal and replacement of the lamp,
and yet they must hold the lamp in firm metallic contact to prevent overheating. There
are three main sizes of Lampholders according to Francis (1996): the Bayonet-cap
(B.C.), the medium Edison screw (E.S.) and the Goliath screw (G.E.S.). There are
other variations such as the three-slot B.C. for the smallest discharge lamps.
Lampholders may be either the insulated type of Bakelite or the brass type with
47

porcelain interior. In wiring lampholders, care must be taken in baring the flexible
wire. The stranded wires must be well twisted together and should not be allowed to
splay, as a loose single strand may touch either the metal frame of the holder or the
opposite terminal.

Plugs and socket-outlets: These are required to enable portable apparatus to be


connected to the final circuits. The socket-outlet is the fixed position connected to the
fixed wiring, and comprises two or three contact tubes and terminals. The plug is the
movable part connected to the apparatus by flexible wire, and comprises two or three
contact pins to fit into the contact tubes. Plugs and socket-outlets are made to British
standard specifications.

Distribution boards: By definition, the distribution board is an assemblage of parts,


including one or more fuses or circuit breakers, arranged for the distribution of
electrical energy to final circuits or to other distribution boards. The regulations
require that the neutral conductors for the different circuits shall be connected in the
same order as the live conductors to the fuses. This is to ensure that no mistakes arise
when disconnecting a circuit. Some distribution board are designed to contain circuit
breakers instead of fuses.

2.8.8 EARTHING SYSTEMS


An earth can be defined as a connection to the general mass of earth. A conductor or other is
earthed when it is effectually connected to the general mass of the earth by means of a
metal rod or a system of metal water-pipes or other conducting object, and solidly earthed
when it is earthed without the intervention of a fuse, switch, circuit breaker, resistor, reactor
or solenoid. Obviously, then for safety reasons, any metal liable to become charged should be
earthed, and every part of the earthing circuit should be properly installed (Francis, 1996).
Earthing means connections of the neutral point of a supply system or the non-current
carrying parts of electrical apparatus, such as metallic frame work, metallic covering of
cables, earth terminal of socket outlet, stay wires etc., to the general mass of earth in such a
manner that all times an immediate discharge of electrical energy takes place without danger
(Gupta, 2009).

48

Earthing is provided (Gupta, 2009);


1. To ensure that no current carrying conductor rises to a potential with respect to
general mass of earth than its designed insulation.
2. To avoid electric shock to the human beings, and
3. To avoid risk of fire due to earth leakage current through unwanted path.
2.8.9 CHOICE OF WIRING SYSTEMS
Gupta (2009) observed that the success or failure of a wiring installation depends very largely
on the proper selection of the type of wiring, size and position of light/fan points. Gupta
(2009) also believed that the choice of any wiring system for a particular installation should
be based on technical and economic considerations, both in the context of the wiring system
itself and the installation for which it is proposed. In general, Gupta (2009) outlined the
following factors as it affects the choice of wiring systems;
1. Safety
It is one of the most important factors to be considered. Sometimes poor workmanship may
lead to dangerous results. The first and foremost consideration is safety to the person using
electricity against leakage or shock. For instance, in factory where lot of fumes are produced,
cleat or casing-capping wiring cannot be employed. Where there is possibility of fire hazard,
conduit wiring must be used.
2. Durability
The type of wiring to be selected must be durable and it must be of proper specifications and
also in accordance with accessed life and type of building. For example, cleat wiring suitable
for temporary buildings will definitely be unsuitable for a permanent building. The wiring
should be able to withstand wear and tear due to weather and it must be capable of carrying
the maximum current without overheating.
3. Appearance
The wiring must provide a good look after its installation. In case cleat or casing-capping
wiring is used in a modern beautiful house, it will spoil the outlook of the building. From
aesthetic point of view, concealed conduit wiring system provides beautiful and good

49

appearance but is costly. PVC wiring system also provide good appearance, and is very
popular nowadays.
4. Mechanical Protection
The wiring must be protected from mechanical damage during its use.
5. Permanency: The wiring must not deteriorate unduly by action of weather, fumes,
dampness etc.
6. Accessibility: In a selected wiring system, there should be facilities for extension,
renewal or alterations.
7. Initial Cost: The initial cost of the wiring system to be selected is one of the main
points to be considered. The wiring system selected should be safe as well as economical.
8. Maintenance Cost: The wiring system selected should have, as far as possible, low
maintenance cost.
The other factors, in addition to above, to be kept in view while making the choice of wiring
system are load, voltage to be employed, type of building etc.
2.8.10 CIRCUITS AND SUB-CIRCUITS
Electrical apparatus are connected by cables, to the supply main and to the associated
protecting and controlling devices (usually fuses and switches). This arrangement of cables is
known as a circuit.
A Circuit that feeds apparatus directly is known as sub-circuit; when connected to a
distribution board, this is known as a final sub-circuit. (Gupta, 2009)

50

Table 2.1: Comparison between various systems of wiring


S/N PARTICULARS CLEAT WIRING

WOOD CASING

TRS WIRING

LEAD SHEATHED

CAPPING

CONDUIT WIRING

WIRING

WIRING
1

Material

Cleats, VIR or

Teak wood casing

Teak wood batten,

Teak wood batten,

Conduit pipe, VIR or PVC

required

PVC cables,

and capping, VIR or

TRS or PVC

lead sheath cables,

cables, saddles or pipe

screws, gutties,

PVC cables, wooden

cables, wooden

wooden gutties,

hooks, wooden gutties,

blocks, boards etc.

gutties, screws,

gutties, nails, links

screws, clips or joint

screws, IC boxes, IC bends,

blocks, boards etc.

clips, boards etc.

clips boards, round

tees etc., with IC socket and

boards etc.

screws.

Cost

Low

Medium

Medium

Costly

Very costly

Voltage

Low (up to 250 V)

Low (up to 250 V)

Low (up to 250 V)

Low (up to 250 V)

Low or medium (up to


660V)

Life (durability)

Very short

Fairly long

Long

Long

Very long

Protection

Poor

No

Fair

Good

Very good

None

Fairly good

Good

Fairly good

Very good

None

Poor

Good

Good

Fairly good

Not good

Fair

Good

Fair

Very good

against fire
6

Mechanical
protection

Dampness
protection

Appearance

Safety

No

Medium

Medium

Medium

High

10

Type of labour

Semi-skilled

Highly skilled

Skilled

Skilled

Highly skilled

Poor

Good

Good

Fairly good

Very good

Very easy

Difficult

Easy

Not very difficult

Most difficult

Fields of

For temporary

For residential,

For residential,

Only used for service

Mainly for workshops and

application

installations e.g.

commercial and

commercial and

mains etc. because of

public buildings where

for functions,

office buildings but

office buildings but

its high cost and

economy is not the prime

marriages etc.

now-a-days being

now-a-days being

heavy short circuit in

factor

replaced by PVC

replaced by PVC

case of leakage.

wiring on account of

wiring on account

additional

of inherent

advantages.

advantages.

required
11

General
reliability

12

Additions or
alterations to the
existing wiring

13

Number of
points that can
be wired per day
by a man with a
mate

14

Source: Gupta (2009)


2

2.9

MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL SERVICES

The measurement of electrical services poses many of the same problems as the mechanical
services. In fact the two are often grouped together and referred to as m and e services as a
collective term. A sound knowledge of electrical technology is required to understand the
specification and to interpret the schematic drawings provided by the consulting engineer.
Also a detailed knowledge of the IEE regulations for the equipment of buildings and
knowledge of circuitry and wiring systems is essential so that trunking, tray and conduit runs
can be plotted and the correct number of cables required measured for the two groups of
services.
Where circuits are to be measured in detail, such as circuits other than lighting and small
power, the route of the conduit and cable must be plotted on the plan or tracing overlay and
the number of cables indicated. This sketch will then form a record of what is taken. When
plotting conduit and cables it is usual to draw runs at right angle to each other rather than
running diagonally. This is usually necessary because of the nature of the structure through
which the conduits and cables are passing, as for example following joists and beams.
Conduits can sometimes be laid diagonally where running in floor, screeds or in pitched roof
spaces.
Once the route has been plotted and the specification fully understood, the measurement is
relatively straightforward comprising basically enumerated items of equipment and final
circuits and linear items of conduit, cable trunking, cable tray and cable, all measured in
accordance with the rules prescribed in BESSM3.
Murray (1997) outlined that cabling involved in final lighting and power circuits is not
normally designed in detail, and the actual routes and locations of cable runs are usually left
to the contractor, who in turn will often leave this to site supervisory staff to decide. This
situation makes detailed measurement of final circuits very difficult for the quantity surveyor,
who would require very intimate knowledge of the installation in order to make an educated
estimate of the linear metres involved from layout drawings. This detailed requirement as
contained in the BESSM3 is often avoided by quantity surveyors in practice by putting the
whole installation of electrical works into the bill as a provisional sum.

2.9.1 INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR EFFECTIVE MEASUREMENT OF


ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
Drawn information is generally required for measurement of electrical installations. At times,
drawn information is supplemented with visual information obtained through site visits with
particular reference to maintenance/refurbishment works. Item 5 under the general rules in
the BESSM3 further subdivided drawn information into location drawings, component
drawings, dimensioned drawings (schematic drawings) and schedules.
A.

Location drawings
a) Block Plan: The block plan does not only identify the outlines of a proposed
construction/development, in addition, it shows the geographical location of the
proposed development by identifying a popular street/road along which the
development is to be sited as well as some prominent features within the locality that
will make the very site easily discernible. Block drawing is very vital for Electrical
installation particularly if the source of supply to the building is located within the
area covered by the drawings.
b) Site Plan: As the name implies, the site plan shows intended or planned use of the
land. In other words, it shows the setting out of the various facilities intended for
development on the plot
c) Plans: The earlier plans (block plan and site plan) will not show the details of
internal electrical installations such as lighting and power circuits. It is the plan for
each floor that shows such. Thus the plans show details of the electrical installation in
individual floor in the case of buildings and detailed layout in the case of external
installations. For purpose, in the case of building projects the plans are classified into:
i.

Lighting Installation: Plans showing only the lighting points within the plan
of a particular floor.

ii.

Power Installation drawings: Plan showing only the power points within a
floor. Power points include all the socket outlets, including water heater
points. In other words, power points are made up of outlet points through
which electrical appliances are connected. In addition, power installation,
include TV outlet points, close circuit television outlets, telephone outlet
points, etc.

B.

Component Drawing
Component drawings required for electrical installation include catalogues and

brochures which give specific information on the various components of electrical


installations.
C.

Schematic Drawings
The schematic drawings for electrical installations could be likened to dimensioned

drawings for building works. The schematic drawings show the order of arrangement of the
various components that make up the electrical installation including the size and rating of
the components; the sizes, number and type of cables servicing each component and the type
of final circuits. Thus, the schematic drawings give detailed information of the installation,
Abhulimhen (2009).
D.

Schedules
The commonest schedule in electrical installation is often classified as legend. The

legend contains the interpretation of the symbols contained in electrical installation drawings.
Work Classification
Electrical installation is basically subdivided into Electrical Supply/Power/Light systems and
Communications/Security/Controls system (Appendix b of BESMM3). The list in each work
classification could be regarded as a checklist; in other words, all the items may not be
applicable to the project on hand at a particular point in time. All that is needed by the
quantity surveyor is to carefully study the project at hand, identify the relevant items and then
generate a checklist for the proposed project; the next stage will be the commencement of
measurement in the order of the checklist so developed. In other words, BESSM3 like the
previous versions before it is basically based on the measurement of trades relating to each
item of work.

2.9.2 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION ITEMS FOR MEASUREMENT


The trades covered in BESMM3 could be summarized as follows;
a. Conduit and Cable trunking (Y60)
b. Supports components- cables (Y63)
c. HV/LV Cables and Wiring (Y61)
d. Busbar Trunking (Y62)
e. Earthing and Bonding components (Y80)
f. HV Switchgear (Y71)
g. Switchgear and Distribution boards (Y71)
h. Contactors and Starters (Y72)
i. Motor drives- electric (Y92)
j. Luminaires and lamps (Y73)
k. Accessories for electrical services (Y74)
l. Testing and Commissioning of Electrical Services (Y81)
m. Identification (Y82) and
n. Sundry Common Electrical Items (Y89)
Having listed the basic trades covered under electrical installations, the next question that
readily comes to mind bothers on how the various trades are measured. The answer
absolutely resides in BESMM3 hence understanding the application of BESMM3 is
imperative for effective measurement of electrical installations like other sections of
construction works.
2.9.3 CONCISE MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE
Conduits: Conduits (not in final circuits) is measured in metres, distinguishing between
straight and curved, giving the radii, and stating the type, external size, method of fixing and
background as SMM Y60.1.1-2.1.1-5, and particulars of materials as appropriate (SMM
Y60.S1-6). The conduit is measured over all the conduit fittings and branches (SMM
Y60.M2). The conduit is deemed to include bending, cutting, screwing, jointing and such
conduit fittings as tees, elbows, bends, cover plates, bushes, locknuts etc.
Connections of conduit to trunking and to equipment and control gear are enumerated, stating
the type, size and method of jointing (SMM Y60.3-4.1-2.10).

Cable trunking, cable tray, ladders and racks: These are measured similarly to conduit,
but additionally stating the method of jointing and spacing and method of fixing supports
(SMM Y60.5 & 8.1-2.1.1) and both trunking and cable tray are deemed to include
components for earth continuity (SMM Y60.C5 & 7). Fittings for trunking, cable tray,
ladders and racks, which include stop-ends, bends, tees, crosses, offsets and reducers are
enumerated as extra-over the items in which they occur (SMM Y60.6 & 10.1.1.1 and Code of
Procedure).
Final Circuits: Final circuits are basically of two types, namely the final circuit not forming
part of a domestic or similar simple installation from distribution boards and the like and
those that are part of domestic installation or similar simple installation from distribution
boards. While the former include telephone installation, television outlets, CCTV etc. the
latter include lighting and power points. While the former are kept separate and measured in
details in accordance with Sections Y60, Y61, Y63 and Y82, the latter are enumerated as
earlier mentioned. There is always some mix up in the measurement of final circuits from
distribution boards. Most bills of quantities often enumerate the points and not the final
circuits. This is generally regarded as the contractors method by=ut not in accordance with
BESMM3.

2.10

COST SIGNIFICANT MODELS

All procurement systems require a contractor to predict the cost of a project, and to determine
a price for the work with a client. The traditional pricing method involves the contractor
pricing the bill of quantities (BoQ) that lists all the items of work in a project, on the premise
that it provides a means of comparing bids from several contractor on a like for like basis
(Munns and Al Haimus, 2000). Munns and Al Haimus (2000) observes that the BoQ as a
method of pricing is not without criticism, one of which is that very large number of small,
insignificant items that requires estimating. This has been described as excessive, creating the
possibility for disputes (Edwards and Edwards, 1995). This method of pricing (use of BoQ)
has been criticised by Horner and Zakieh (1996) because considerable effort is associated
with pricing the large number of small items, distracting the attention of the estimator away
from the important items in the BoQ. The excessive amount of small items has been shown to

possess a wide variety of rates when estimated (Beeston, 1983), perhaps highlighting the
problems associated with trying to predict the price of these items accurately.
Cost significant estimating is one way of predicting the likely cost of a project to a client,
while overcoming the problem of pricing large numbers of small items. From previous
research works by (Barnes and Thompson, 1971; Ashworth, 1981; Seeley, 1981; Ashworth
and Skitmore, 1983; Harmer 1983) have observed and commented upon the fact that 20% of
the measured bill items contribute 80% of the total measured bill value. These findings
conform to the 80/20 rule established by Vilfredo Pareto. The 20% of the items which have
the highest value are generally referred to as the cost significant items.
To develop the model and to test the model and also to test the suitability of the methodology,
a study was completed for 40 housing units- 20 residential bungalows and 20 duplexes
making use of both the architectural and electrical drawings for both set of drawings. The
measurement for the electrical services where done using the Building and Civil Engineering
Standard Method of Measurement (BESMM, 2009) and priced competitively using a single
price bill. A market research/survey was carried out to get the market prices for the electrical
accessories. This method was used to remove the variability of different pricing methods.
This same method was employed by Munns and Al Haimus (2000) in developing a model
while carrying out a research on 41 housing units, 22 of which were of timber framed
construction and 19 were built up of traditional bricks and external walls.
2.10.1 COST ESTIMATION FOR ELECTRICAL SERVICES
A cost estimate establishes the base line of the project cost at different stages of development
of the project. A cost estimate at a given stage of project development represents a prediction
provided by the cost engineer or estimator on the basis of available data. According to the
American Association of Cost Engineers, cost engineering is defined as that area of
engineering practice where engineering judgment and experience are utilized in the
application of scientific principles and techniques to the problem of cost estimation, cost
control and profitability.
Cost estimation of electrical services with high accuracy at the early phase of project
development is crucial for planning and feasibility studies. According to Oberlender and
Trost (2001), conceptual cost estimates are not expected to be precise, but inaccurate
estimates may lead to lost opportunities, and lower than expected returns.

However, a number of difficulties arise when conducting cost estimation during the early
phase. Comparative studies on the building services are rare, mainly because of the lack of
large, reliable, and homogenous database of installation costs. Moreover, most architectural
drawings for residential buildings are not usually accompanied with its corresponding
detailed electrical drawings, thereby making research in this domain difficult. While it is
widely held that a perfect estimate is not possible and even the best possible estimate will
always contain a number of key risks, the goal of the forecaster is a practicable level of
accuracy (Smith 1995). Given its significance, conventional tools such as regression analysis
have been widely employed to tackle the problem.

2.10.2 APPLYING COST-ESTIMATING METHODS


Any cost-estimating method used should be consistent with the level of information available
and the time available to prepare the estimate. Cost estimating methods tend to fall into four
major categories:

Single-unit rate methods (SUR)

Parametric/cost modelling

System/elemental cost analysis

Quantity survey

Application of Estimating Methods during Project Delivery

Source: Michael (2013)


The accompanying figure shows when these estimating methods generally can be applied to
overall delivery of a project.

Single-unit rate methods tend to be appropriate in the planning and programming phases of a
project. Parametric and cost model estimates are generally used during schematic design and
early design development. Systems and elemental estimates are best during design
development and early construction documentation. Estimates based on a quantity survey can
be used almost any time but are generally most appropriate when documents are reasonably
detailed, such as during design development, construction documentation, and bidding and
construction. At any time, these techniques may be used to cross-check overall costs.
1. Single-Unit Rate Estimating Methods
According to Michael (2013), Single-unit rate estimating methods are subdivided into four
major categories:

Accommodation method

Cubic foot method

Square foot method

Functional area method

Accommodation method: For this method, an estimate of overall construction cost is


calculated using the cost of selected units of the facility as a baseline. For example, parking
garages can be measured per parking stall. Apartment buildings might be measured on cost
per apartment. Performing arts facilities and auditoriums can be measured on cost per seat.
Hospitals may be measured on cost per bed. The accommodation method is often used to
provide very preliminary estimates or to provide a quick check and assessment of a current
project estimate.
Cubic foot method: This method of analysis is not generally used in the United States except
for volume-dependent facilities such as warehouses. Although it can be effective, the cubic
foot method tends to be awkward for use in most facility types. Nonetheless, certain
European countries, especially Germany, routinely use cubic measures as a means of
budgeting facilities.
Square foot method: This is the most commonly used initial budgeting mechanism in the
United States. It can be effective, but care must be taken to ensure the programmatic basis of
each is comparable when costs of different facilities are considered. In addition, the method

of measuring must be consistent for project comparisons to be valid. A number of published


sources provide square foot costs. A commonly referenced one is the R. S. Means Companys
Building Construction Cost Data.
Functional area method: This approach to estimating is based on functional space types. A
functional space type is defined as an area in a building that has a distinct functional purpose,
for example, classrooms, a cafeteria, or a gymnasium in a school. The advantage of
determining cost by functional area rather than pure square footage is that variations in space
types and program can be considered in the basic estimate. The functional area method
allows for sensitivity to program elements.
The functional area method can be applied in two ways, either by pure space type or by core
and shell plus the functional space build-out. The first option assumes equal sharing of the
core and shell costs among space types. The second derives the core and shell costs
separately and then assesses the build out costs of each space type.
2. Parametric/cost modelling method
These cost estimating methods use predetermined models based on statistical analyses used to
predict facility costs. The process is most effective for repetitive facilities that have consistent
programs, such as those with industrial applications. Statistics are gathered from in-place
construction and can be used to predict costs, especially for complicated systems that involve
piping, manufacturing, and processing components. These approaches have less application
in building construction.
Computer Modelling: Cost models can be prepared with computer models that project the
form, shape, and composition of building types. In the last several years, computer based
systems have been developed to help designers model form and shape and determine building
size. These systems can also be used as a front-end device for cost modelling.
3. Systems/Elemental Cost Analysis
This approach to cost estimating provides a bridge between the conceptual estimating
methods described above and estimates based on full, detailed quantity surveys, which are
described below. The concept behind this approach is subdivision of a facility into its
elemental components, generally using UNIFORMAT as a basis. The level of detail included
is a function of the amount of design detail available when the cost estimate is prepared.

UNIFORMAT is a classification system based on physical building elements, originally


developed by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and the U.S. General Services
Administration (GSA) in the 1970s. The most recent version, UNIFORMAT II, refines
certain aspects of the original system and has been designated ASTM Standard E1557-96.
UNIFORMAT is best applied to conceptual and schematic estimating
When very limited design information is available, a set of assumptions must be made from
which to estimate costs. It is possible to base these estimates on historical information from
similar facilities or historical information about building components and elements. At an
early stage of design, before details have been defined, it may be desirable to develop what
are generally referred to as assemblies composite systems usually drawn from standard
design details. These assemblies can be accurately priced and are especially useful for
comparative purposes. Historical cost is an appropriate basis for estimates when facility types
and programmatic components are similar. Adjustments to the historical cost information can
be made if necessary.
A potentially more accurate estimate is one produced using an elemental format that
represents specific conditions of the developing design. This approach requires a combination
of pricing mechanisms, which could include historical costs, costs of systems and assemblies,
and detail cost analysis for selected items.
4. Quantity Surveys
The quantity survey method of cost estimating is usually employed when detailed design
information is available on the entire project or at least major components thereof. The actual
pricing approach may include only total unit prices or labour, materials, and equipment. The
level of detail in the estimate is intended to reflect individual units of work in the way it will
be carried out.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1

INTRODUCTION

The scope of this study is such that there might not be available data for this class of building;
surrogate cost data will be made use of as opposed historical cost data for the development of
the model. This involves the generation of the priced bill of quantities items from 38
drawings (architectural and electrical), (that is, 20 bungalows and 18 duplexes); current
market prices of electrical items, site-observed productivity constants and relevant interviews
with technicians and electrical engineering constants. This chapter explains the method of
collecting data for the study and subsequently the methods used in analysing the cost data
collected from the generated from the drawings.
Also, the chapter covers aspects such as the research population, sampling frame and size,
data collection instrument, procedure for data collection and method of data analysis.
3.2

RESEARCH DESIGN

Research design is defined as the structuring of investigation aimed at identifying variables


and their relationship to one another. This is used for the purpose of obtaining data to enable
the researcher test hypothesis or answer research questions.
This research is centred on developing a cost model for determining the final sub-circuit cost
of electrical installation in residential building floors.
3.3

STUDY POPULATION

The population for this research involves electrical technicians for the purpose of productivity
constant of electrical technicians and residential buildings owners within the south-western
part of Nigeria for the collection of architectural and electrical drawings of residential
buildings.
3.4

SAMPLING FRAME

The sampling frame for this research was a theoretical list of residential buildings whose
floors are not more than two (bungalows and duplexes).

3.5

SAMPLING SIZE

The sample size for the data is 49 floors of 17 bungalows and 16 duplexes architectural and
electrical drawings.
The unit of analysis is floors with its own distribution boards (self-sufficient residential
floors).
3.6

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

A convenient sampling techniques was used in carrying out this research, this is because
there is no list of electrical residential floors designs by electrical technicians.
Therefore caution must be exercised in generalizing the result of this research as a result of
the sampling technique used.
3.7

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT

This study made use of architectural and electrical drawings which involved the generation of
the priced bill of quantities from 33 drawings (architectural and electrical), current market
prices and site-observed productivity constants for the development of the cost model for
electrical installation cost for residential buildings.
More so, a table of various headings was used in gathering and collection of surrogate cost
data of current market prices of electrical items, site-observed productivity constants of
electrician technicians.
3.8

DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE

The estimating technique requires an extensive surrogate cost data base. The architectural and
electrical drawings for both the bungalows and duplexes were collected from
professional/technicians involved in electrical services installation, cost data are then
analysed, with various tabulations called schedules e.g. material schedule, labour schedule
made from the design drawing data to arrive at the grand total estimated cost of electrical
installation of the buildings.
A total of thirty-eight data sets of architectural and electrical drawings were collected, of
which fifty-six (20 bungalows and 18 duplexes floors) were analysed based on the number of

circuits per floor and tabulated to ensure that all costs were considered, to include the
material cost, labour cost etc. None is to be double-counted
3.9

METHOD FOR DATA ANALYSIS

Statistics as noted by Mason, Lind and Marchal (1983) is the body of techniques used to
facilitate the collection, organization, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data for the
purpose of making better decisions.
1. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
a. Tables
A table is used to display numeric, non-numeric, discrete and non-discrete data in an
organized and well- coordinated manner. It is usually arranged in rows and columns each
displaying specific information. This was used in the study to display the productivity
constants of electrical installation technicians.
2. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
a. Multiple Regression Analysis
Regression Analysis according to Mason et al (1983) is the general process of predicting one
variable based on another variable. It may also be said to be a technique that will find a
formula or mathematical model which best describes data collected. The factor whose value
we wish to estimate (e.g. aggregate scores) is referred to as dependent variable and denoted
by Y. the factor from which these estimates is made is called the independent variable and is
denoted by X.
The multiple regression analysis extends this equation to include multiple dependent
variables following the same principle. Therefore the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables could be defined as;
Y= a + b1x1 + b2x2 + b3x3 + ..+ bnxn +eij
Where X1 to Xn = the values of each respective independent variable;
b1 to b3 denotes the coefficients (which is the degree of contribution per unit change
in variable
eij= the equation error

Multiple regression analysis would be used for modelling the costs of final sub-circuits in
residential electrical installations.
Y= c + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3.............................................MODEL 1
Y= Total cost of final sub-circuits (lighting circuits)
X1= Number of luminaries
X2= Number of cables
X3= Number of conduits
b. Linear Regressions
In a two variable linear regression, the expression for the straight line is written as;
Y= a + bx
Where a, is the intercept of the line with Y-axis and b is the slope of the line.
Models

1. F = c + b4X4.........................MODEL 2
Where;
X4 = Gross floor area
F = Final sub-circuit cost

2. CL= c + b5X5..MODEL 3
X5= Number of Lighting points

(independent variable)

CL= Length of Cable

(dependent variable)

c= regression constant
3. DC= c + b6X6..MODEL 4
DC = Length of Conduits

(dependent variable)

X6= Length of Cable

(independent variable)

c= regression constant

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
4.1

INTRODUCTION

The essence of this chapter is to analyse and discuss the data collected. The data collected are
presented in tabular format. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish the
relationship between the independent variables (length of cables and conduits and number of
luminaries) and the dependent variable (final sub-circuit costs). Also, linear regression
analyses were used to analyse other models as discussed in chapter three.
4.2

DATA ANALYSIS

The individual cost item of the lighting final sub-circuit, including the cost of switches and
the final sub-circuit cost are tabulated and analysed using arithmetic mean and regression
analysis. The results of these findings are presented to form the model needed for this
research work. Also, a Pearson Correlation analysis was carried out to investigate the
relationship between the final sub-circuit costs and the predictor variables.
The results of this study were however established from the result of the analysis and
conclusion drawn to arrive at the basic facts of findings. The statistical breakdowns of data
collected are shown in tables 4.1 and 4.2 and 4.3 below.
TABLE 4.1 BASED ON BUILDING TYPE
BUILDING TYPE

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE

17

51.5

16

48.5

TOTAL

33

100.0

KEY: A---Bungalow, B---Duplex

TABLE 4.2 BASED ON FLOOR CLASSIFICATION


FLOORS

FREQUENCY

PERCENTAGE

17

34.7

32

65.3

TOTAL

49

100.0

KEY: A---Bungalow, B---Duplex

TABLE 4.3 CROSS-TABULATION: Building type to Number of Bedrooms


NUMBER OF BEDROOMS * BUILDING TYPE
BUILDING TYPE

TOTAL

BUNGALOW DUPLEX
NUMBER OF

Two bedroom

BEDROOMS

Three bedroom

Four bedroom

10

15

Five bedroom

17

16

33

TOTAL

4.2.1 IDENTIFICATION OF THE COST SIGNIFICANT ITEMS


Meanwhile, the identification of the cost significant variables used in the formulation of the
developed model follows the technique proposed by Sheref and Pareto that items are
considered as significant when their value is higher than, or equal to, the mean bill value. The
equation goes thus:

Mean (x) =
Where;

csi mean value

= 1, 2, 3, 4 . .

n = number of items and csi = cost significant items

Work at the University of Dundee also show that BOQs analysed using this technique are
successful with the identification of the significant items that constitute 80% of the contract
sum.
Below is the table showing the cost significant items of work for the forty-nine floors of
bungalows and duplexes derived from calculation.
TABLE 4.4: TABLE SHOWING THE COST SIGNIFICANT ITEMS FOR THE

NO

BUILDING
TYPE

GROSS
FLOOR AREA

NO OF
LUMINARIES

LENGTH OF
CABLES

LENGTH OF
CONDUITS

FINAL SUBCIRCUITS
COSTS

FORTY-NINE FLOORS

114.48

29

233.72

25.20

52422

64.32

23

145.00

18.00

37636

213.18

39

299.71

23.40

57277

166.12

48

287.54

22.50

63143

168.48

28

243.01

23.40

44691

195.08

36

279.02

24.30

56806

125.28

33

231.99

19.80

50397

102.96

26

200.96

23.40

44092

249.68

48

384.52

24.30

70966

10

165.46

33

277.71

27.00

54292

11

164.25

37

287.77

20.70

54769

12

190.11

37

300.12

24.30

57130

13

78.64

20

151.52

12.60

30031

14

170.23

30

254.27

18.00

47474

15

110.15

22

190.33

16.20

36573

NO

BUILDING
TYPE

GROSS
FLOOR AREA

NO OF
LUMINARIES

LENGTH OF
CABLES

LENGTH OF
CONDUITS

FINAL SUBCIRCUITS
COSTS

16

129.87

33

246.35

25.20

54725

17

65.48

22

153.15

11.70

33101

18

DG

332.79

35

308.06

239.30

132986

19

DF

303.57

26

223.14

23.40

43090

20

DG

194.67

33

261.91

202.80

118347

21

DF

182.97

19

176.05

21.60

35498

22

DG

257.74

37

284.55

199.97

123968

23

DF

203.52

22

195.68

18.00

40517

24

DG

232.27

31

262.98

208.69

115518

25

DF

240.91

19

154.74

16.20

29990

26

DG

272.95

40

354.02

281.13

155377

27

DF

288.04

26

239.64

21.60

43668

28

DG

229.71

40

325.28

255.10

139045

29

DF

182.74

25

210.88

18.00

39666

30

DG

178.9

34

265.47

201.46

118542

31

DF

202.55

27

218.15

19.80

43006

32

DG

296.7

30

276.66

215.46

118404

33

DF

255.42

21

207.63

23.40

49066

34

DG

245.74

42

330.29

255.25

148426

35

DF

143.24

10

105.66

8.10

19199

36

DG

229.2

37

346.31

275.48

151802

NO

BUILDING
TYPE

GROSS
FLOOR AREA

NO OF
LUMINARIES

LENGTH OF
CABLES

LENGTH OF
CONDUITS

FINAL SUBCIRCUITS
COSTS

37

DF

289.52

29

284.49

32.40

53691

38

DG

229.2

37

346.31

289.85

156702

39

DF

190.56

23

227.94

27.00

44634

40

DG

245.93

30

315.56

257.99

136776

41

DF

314.29

21

207.57

19.80

39385

42

DG

232.88

31

276.89

219.89

119247

43

DF

232.88

21

177.99

16.20

32562

44

DG

235.07

25

262.71

203.38

108928

45

DF

250.58

15

155.61

13.50

28607

46

DG

140.39

21

212.88

170.27

91942

47

DF

140.39

13

125.08

12.60

22875

48

DG

157.98

33

257.25

197.28

121355

49

DF

137.31

15

141.15

18.00

30143

KEY: A---Bungalow, DG---Duplex ground floor, DF----Duplex first floor

4.2.2 MODEL OF FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST AS A FUNCTION OF THE COST


SIGNIFICANT ITEMS.
Given the quantities per project for the predictor variables, the regression model predicted the
total cost in Naira for the electrical installation work, based on three statistically significant
variables as shown in Table 4.5 and 4.6 below, where the p-values for all coefficients
considered in the model are less than or equal to 0.075:

TABLE 4.5 MULTIPLE REGRESSION RESULTS AMONG THE FINAL SUBCIRCUIT COSTS & COST SIGNIFICANT ITEMS (for Bungalows and Duplex
First Floors)
REGRESSION STATISTICS
No. of observations

VARIABLES

33

Number of Luminaries (item)

R-square

0.968

Adjusted R-square

0.965

Length of Cables (m)


Length of Conduits

COEFF.

P-VALUE

751.796

0.000

44.615

0.041

618.358

0.000

1407.866

0.400

292.229
Constant

The multiple regression equation is; Y= c + bX1 + bX2 + bX3..............................MODEL 1a


The Predicted equation is; Y= c + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3= 1407.866 + 751.796X1 + 44.615X2 +
618.358X3
Where;
Y= Total cost of final sub-circuits (lighting circuits) (in Naira)
X1= Number of luminaries (m)
X2= Number of cables (m)
X3= Number of conduits (m)
Regression constant = 1407.866
EVALUATION OF THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF THE MODEL

Coefficient of correlation (R) is 0.984; this shows that there is 98.40% relationship
between the dependent and independent variable. That is, the model indicates a very
high level of correlation.

Coefficient of multiple determination (R2) is 0.968; this shows that 96.80% of the
dependent variable is explained is explained by the independent variables. This
indicates that there is a very high degree of fitness of the regression plane to sample
observation and that only 3.20% is explained by other variables not included in the
model

The equation is statistically significant and so the estimated final sub-circuit costs of
electrical installation works using the model will be realistic.

TABLE 4.6 MULTIPLE REGRESSION RESULTS AMONG THE FINAL SUBCIRCUIT COSTS & COST SIGNIFICANT ITEMS (Duplex Ground Floors)
REGRESSION STATISTICS

VARIABLES

COEFF.

16

Number of Luminaries (item)

1020.408

0.005

R-square

0.980

Length of Cables (m)

72.364

0.588

Adjusted R-square

0.975

Length of Conduits

303.168

0.029

3601.236

0.557

No. of observations

P-VALUE

195.907
Constant

The multiple regression equation is; Y= c + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3............................MODEL 1b


The Predicted equation is; Y= c + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 = 3601.236 + 1020.408X1 + 72.364X2
+ 303.168X3
Where;
Y= Total cost of final sub-circuits (lighting circuits) (in Naira)
X1= Number of luminaries (m)
X2= Number of cables (m)
X3= Number of conduits (m)
Regression constant = 3601.236
EVALUATION OF THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF THE MODEL

Coefficient of correlation (R) is 0.990; this shows that there is 99.00% relationship
between the dependent and independent variable. That is, the model indicates a very
high level of correlation.

Coefficient of multiple determination (R2) is 0.980; this shows that 98.00% of the
dependent variable is explained by the independent variables. This indicates that there
is a very high degree of fitness of the regression plane to sample observation and that
only 2.00% is explained by other variables not included in the model

The equation is statistically significant and so the estimated final sub-circuit costs of
electrical installation works using the model will be realistic.

Also, the sample relationship between final sub-circuit cost and the number of luminaries (for
both tables 4.5 and 4.6) is positive, since the coefficient of the number of luminaries (b1
=751.796 and b1=1020.408) is positive for both. This means that the estimated value of the
final sub-circuit cost increases by about 751.8 and 1020.4 respectively for every 1-unit
increase in the number of luminaries, holding all other items of work constant.
Also, the sample relationship between final sub-circuit cost and length of cables is positive,
since the coefficient of earthworks (b2 =44.615 and b2=72.364) is positive for both (tables 4.5
and 4.6) meaning that the estimated value of the final sub-circuit cost increases by about 44.6
and 72.4 respectively for every 1-unit increase in the length of cables, holding all other items
of work constant.
This same positive relationship exists between the final sub-circuit cost and the length of
conduits (b3=618.358 and b3= 303.168 respectively).
The equation above gives the model equation of the analysed data which is subjected to the
research value. The multiple regression models shows that the slope of the partial relationship
between the final sub-circuit cost (Y) and each predictor variable is identical for all
combinations of values with the probability values showing that the equation is statistically
significant.

4.2.3 MULTIPLE CORRELATION AND DETERMINATION


Multiple correlation analysis is used in cases when research design requires that we ascertain
the combined strength of the relationship between a dependent variable and a set of
independent variables. The coefficient of correlation is denoted by R while the coefficient
of determination is the square of the correlation coefficient denoted by R2.
TABLE 4.7 DETERMINATION COEFFICIENTS AMONG ITEMS OF WORK AND
FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST (for Bungalows and Duplex Floor Floors)
Final Subcircuit cost
Final Sub-circuit
cost

Luminaries

Length of Cables

0.944

1.0000

Length of Cables

0.955

0.922

1.0000

0.787

0.610

0.748

Conduits

Conduits

1.0000

Luminaries
Length of

Length of

1.0000

The table shown above is a table of the coefficient of determination (R2) among the costsignificant items of work and with the final sub-circuit cost, calculated using statistical
package for social science (SPSS) and the result shows that the partial determination
coefficient between the final sub-circuit cost and the number of luminaries is 0.944 which
shows that 94% of the variations in the final sub-circuit cost are determined by the number
of luminaries.
The same principle applies in determining the relationship of final sub-circuit cost with
other items of work in the table; i.e. length of cables is 96%, length of conduits is 79%.
Also, the various coefficients of determination among the various elements of work
included in the table show the relationship within the independent variables (cost
significant items). It is therefore concluded from the table that the individual item identified
as being cost significant determines to a great extent the final sub-circuit cost of the
electrical installation work.

TABLE 4.8 DETERMINATION COEFFICIENTS AMONG ITEMS OF WORK


AND FINAL SUB-CIRCUITS COST (Duplex Ground Floors)
Final Sub-circuit
cost
Final Sub-circuit
cost

Luminaries

Length of

Length of

Cables

Conduits

1.0000

Luminaries

0.837

1.0000

Length of Cables

0.980

0.793

1.0000

Length of Conduits

0.956

0.678

0.973

1.0000

The result shows that the partial determination coefficient between the final sub-circuit cost
and the number of luminaries is 0.837 which shows that 84% of the variations in the final
sub-circuit cost are determined by the number of luminaries.
The same principle applies in determining the relationship of final sub-circuit cost with other
items of work in the table; i.e. length of cables is 98%, length of conduits is 96%. Also, the
various coefficients of determination among the various elements of work included in the
table show the relationship within the independent variables (cost significant items).
4.2.4 MODEL OF FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST AS A FUNCTION OF GROSS
FLOOR AREA
A regression model that describes the final sub-circuit cost of residential electrical installation
works as a function of the gross floor area (GFA). The coefficient of determination, R2 for the
developed equation is 0.172. The regression statistics results for the developed model are
shown in Table 4.9

TABLE 4.9

Linear Regression Model F = c + b4X4

REGRESSION STATISTICS
No. of observations

49

R-square

0.172

Adjusted R-square

0.155

9.786

VARIABLES
Gross floor area

Constant

COEFF.

P-VALUE

270.380

0.003

17628.68

0.334

The predicted equation is:


F = c + b4X4 = 17628.68 + 270.380 X4.........................MODEL 2
Where;
X4 = Gross floor area (m)
Constant, c = 17628.68
F = Final sub-circuit cost (in Naira)
EVALUATION OF THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF THE MODEL

Coefficient of correlation (R) is 0.415; this shows that there is 41.50% relationship
between the dependent and independent variable. That is, the model indicates a low
level of correlation.

Coefficient of multiple determination (R2) is 0.172; this shows that 17.20% of the
dependent variable is explained is explained by the independent variables. This
indicates that there is a little or no degree of fitness of the regression plane to sample
observation and that a whole lot of 82.80% is explained by other variables not
included in the model

The equation is statistically insignificant and so the estimated final sub-circuit cost of
residential electrical installation work using the model will not be realistic.

4.2.5 MODEL OF THE LENGTH OF CABLES AS A FUNCTION OF THE


NUMBER OF LUMINARIES
A regression model that describes the length of cables of residential electrical installation
works as a function of the number of luminaries. The coefficient of determination, R2 for the
developed equation is 0.823. The regression statistics results for the developed model are
shown in Table 4.10
TABLE 4.10

Linear Regression Model CL = c + b5X5

REGRESSION STATISTICS
No. of observations

49

R-square

0.823

Adjusted R-square

0.819

VARIABLES

COEFF.

Number of Luminaries

P-VALUE

6.850

0.000

45.565

0.002

218.406
Constant

The predicted equation is:


CL = c + b5X5 = 45.565 + 6.850X5.........................MODEL 3
Where;
X5 = Number of luminaries (item)
Constant, c = 45.565
CL= Length of Cables (m)
EVALUATION OF THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF THE MODEL

Coefficient of correlation (R) is 0.907; this shows that there is 90.70% relationship
between the dependent and independent variable. That is, the model indicates a very
high level of correlation.

Coefficient of multiple determination (R2) is 0.823; this shows that 82.30% of the
dependent variable is explained is explained by the independent variables. This
indicates that there is a high degree of fitness of the regression plane to sample

observation and that just 17.70% is explained by other variables not included in the
model

The equation is statistically significant and so the estimated length of cables of


residential electrical installation work using the model will be realistic.

4.2.6

MODEL OF THE LENGTH OF CONDUITS AS A FUNCTION OF THE


LENGTH OF CABLES

A) Bungalows and Duplex First Floors


A regression model that describes the length of conduits of residential electrical installation
works as a function of the length of cables. The coefficient of determination, R2 for the
developed equation is 0.559. The regression statistics results for the developed model are
shown in Table 4.11
TABLE 4.11

Linear Regression Model DC= c + b6X6

REGRESSION STATISTICS
No. of observations

33

R-square

0.559

Adjusted R-square

0.545

39.332

VARIABLES

0.063

0.000

Constant

6.523

0.007

DC= c + b6X6= 6.523 + 0.063X6.........................MODEL 4a

X6 = length of Cables (m)


Constant, c = 6.523
DC= Length of Conduits (m)

P-VALUE

Length of cables

The predicted equation is:

Where;

COEFF.

EVALUATION OF THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF THE MODEL

Coefficient of correlation (R) is 0.748; this shows that there is 74.80% relationship
between the dependent and independent variable. That is, the model indicates a high
level of correlation.

Coefficient of multiple determination (R2) is 0.559; this shows that 55.90% of the
dependent variable is explained is explained by the independent variables. This
indicates that there is a moderate fitness of the regression plane to sample observation
and that just 44.10% is explained by other variables not included in the model

The equation is statistically significant and so the estimated length of conduits of


residential electrical installation work using the model will be realistic.

B) Duplex Ground Floors


A regression model that describes the length of conduits of residential electrical installation
works as a function of the length of cables. The coefficient of determination, R 2 for the
developed equation is 0.947. The regression statistics results for the developed model are
shown in Table 4.12
TABLE 4.12

Linear Regression Model DC= c + b6X6

REGRESSION STATISTICS
No. of observations

16

R-square

0.947

Adjusted R-square

0.943

VARIABLES
Length of cables

COEFF.

P-VALUE

0.858

0.000

-21.739

0.196

251.217
Constant

The predicted equation is:


DC= c + b6X6= -21.739 + 0.858X6.........................MODEL 4b
Where;
X6 = length of Cables (m)
DC= Length of Conduits (m)

Constant, c = -21.739

EVALUATION OF THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF THE MODEL

Coefficient of correlation (R) is 0.973; this shows that there is 97.30% relationship
between the dependent and independent variable. That is, the model indicates a very
high level of correlation.

Coefficient of multiple determination (R2) is 0.947; this shows that 94.70% of the
dependent variable is explained is explained by the independent variables. This
indicates that there is a moderate fitness of the regression plane to sample observation
and that just 5.30% is explained by other variables not included in the model

The equation is statistically significant and so the estimated length of conduits of


residential electrical installation work using the model will be realistic.

4.2.7 PRODUCTIVITY CONSTANT OF ELECTRICAL TECHNICIANS


The table 4.13 below illustrates the site-observed productivity constants of electrical
technicians at three different sites where electrical installation works were on-going.
TABLE 4.13

PRODUCTIVITY CONSTANT OF ELECTRICAL TECHNICIANS


GANG

UNIT

TIME

NO/DAY

LABOUR COST

SIZE

RATE

RATE

(8-hrs day)

(N)

0.08

100

4000

Fixing of Wall brackets

0.60

36

14

2500

Fixing of Fluorescent fitting

0.53

32

15

3500

0.64

38

13

2500

Fixing of Luminaries (others)

0.44

27

19

2500

Fixing 10A 1,2,3 gang Switches

0.63

38

13

2500

0.53

32

15

3500

Fixing of 13A/15A Sockets

0.58

35

14

3000

Cutting and fixing Conduits

0.61

37

14

4000

DESCRIPTIONS
Draw and fix a roll of Cable
(1.5mm2)

Fixing of Luminaries (ceiling


pendant)

Fixing of 10A 2-way, 1 gang


Switches

See APPENDIX & for the productivity constant of the individual sites A, B and C.
Also see APPENDIX for the Market survey carried out for various electrical items.

KEYS:

UNIT RATE: This is expressed in hour per unit quantity of the respective work items
[hour per unit quantity]

TIME RATE: This is the time taken to performed a unit quantity/an item of work by
respective Electrical Technicians (in minutes)

GANG: This is the number of Electrician technicians involved for a particular item of
work

4.3

VALIDATION OF MODEL

Moreover, model validation is required to test the validity of the various models arrived at
during the course of this research work. This was done using seven (7) floors of 3 bungalows
and 2 duplexes; these sets of drawings are different from those sets of architectural and
electrical drawings used ab-initio in developing the various models for this study. This new
sets of architectural and electrical drawings were analysed separately, with relevant data
derived from them to form the basis of the model validation; to assess whether the various
models (model 1-4) are valid or realistic.
4.3.1 MODEL VALIDATION OF THE FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST AS A
FUNCTION OF THE COST SIGNIFICANT ITEMS
a) BUNGALOWS AND DUPLEX FIRST FLOORS
Table 4.14 shows the data to be used for this model validation
TABLE 4.14
FLOOR ID
BG1
BG2
BG3
DP2
DP4

COST SIGNIFICANT ITEMS TO TEST MODEL VALIDITY (CT)


Number of
luminaries
(nr)
30
28
29
12
18

Length of
Cables
(m)
252.90
195.19
218.86
150.37
158.14

Length of
Conduits
(m)
21.60
23.40
25.20
16.20
19.80

Final subcircuit costs


(N)
50294
48426
49032
28370
32034

Y= c + bX1 + bX2 + bX3..............................MODEL 1a


The Predicted equation is; Y= c + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3= 1407.866 + 751.796X1 + 44.615X2 +
618.358X3
Where;
Y= Total cost of final sub-circuits (lighting circuits) (in Naira)
X1= Number of luminaries (m); X2= Number of cables (m); X3= Number of conduits (m)
Table 4.15 below illustrates the final sub-circuit costs derived from model

TABLE 4.15 FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COSTS DERIVED FROM MODEL (CM)

BG1

Number of
luminaries
(nr)
30

BG2

28

195.19

23.40

45636.13

BG3

29

218.86

25.20

48557.01

DP2

12

150.37

16.20

27155.58

DP4

18

158.14

19.80

34239.10

FLOOR ID

TABLE 4.16:
FLOOR ID

Length of
Cables
(m)
252.90

Length of
Conduits
(m)
21.60

Final sub-circuit
costs
(N)
48601.41

COMPARISON BETWEEN CT AND CM


Final sub-circuit costs Final sub-circuit costs
(N) (CT)
(N) (CM)

BG1

50294

48601.41

BG2

48426

45636.13

BG3

49032

48557.01

DP2

28370

27155.58

DP4

32034

34239.10

b) DUPLEX GROUND FLOORS


Table 4.17 shows the data to be used for this model validation
TABLE 4.17 COST SIGNIFICANT ITEMS TO TEST MODEL VALIDITY (CT)
Number of
luminaries
(nr)

Length of
Cables
(m)

Length of
Conduits
(m)

DP1

34

355.80

284.70

148267

DP3

24

244.03

193.33

105055

FLOOR ID

Final sub-circuit
costs
(N)

Y= c + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3............................MODEL 1b


The Predicted equation is; Y= c + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 = 3601.236 + 1020.408X1 + 72.364X2
+ 303.168X3
Table 4.18 below illustrates the final sub-circuit costs derived from model
TABLE 4.18

FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COSTS DERIVED FROM MODEL (CM)


Number of
luminaries
(nr)

Length of
Cables
(m)

DP1

34

355.80

284.70

150354.10

DP3

24

244.03

193.33

104361.50

FLOOR ID

TABLE 4.19

Length of
Conduits
(m)

Final sub-circuit
costs
(N)

COMPARISON BETWEEN CT AND CM


Final sub-circuit costs
(N) (CT)

Final sub-circuit costs


(N) (CM)

DP1

148267

150354.10

DP3

105055

104361.50

FLOOR ID

4.3.2 MODEL VALIDATION OF THE LENGTH OF CABLES AS A FUNCTION


OF THE NUMBER OF LUMINARIES
Table 4.20 shows the data to be used for this model validation

TABLE 4.20 DATA TO TEST MODEL VALIDITY (CT)

BG1

Number of luminaries
(nr)
30

Length of Cables
(m)
252.90

BG2

28

195.19

BG3

29

218.86

DP1

34

355.80

DP2

12

150.37

DP3

24

244.03

DP4

18

158.14

FLOOR ID

Linear regression;

CL = c + b5X5

The predicted equation is:


CL = c + b5X5 = 45.565+ 6.850X5.........................MODEL 3
Where;
X5 = Number of luminaries (nr)
Constant, c = 45.565;

CL= Length of Cables (m)

Table 4.21 below illustrates the length of cables derived from model
TABLE 4.21 LENGTHS OF CABLES COSTS DERIVED FROM MODEL (CM)
Number of
luminaries (nr)

Length of
Cables (m)

BG1

205.50

251.07

BG2
BG3
DP1
DP2
DP3
DP4

191.80

237.37

198.65

244.22

232.90

278.47

82.20

127.77

164.40

209.97

123.30

168.87

FLOOR ID

TABLE 4.22

COMPARISON BETWEEN CT AND CM


Length of Cables
(m) (CT)

Length of Cables
(m) (CM)

BG1

252.90

251.07

BG2

195.19

237.37

BG3

218.86

244.22

DP1

355.80

278.47

DP2

150.37

127.77

DP3

244.03

209.97

DP4

158.14

168.87

FLOOR ID

4.3.3 MODEL VALIDATION OF THE LENGTH OF CONDUITS AS A FUNCTION


OF THE LENGTH OF CABLES
A) Bungalows and Duplex First Floors
Table 4.23 shows the data to be used for this model validation
TABLE 4.23

DATA TO TEST MODEL VALIDITY (CT)


Length of Cables
(m)

Length of Conduit
(m)

BG1

252.90

21.60

BG2

195.19

23.40

BG3

218.86

25.20

DP2

150.37

16.20

DP4

158.14

19.80

FLOOR ID

Linear regression;

DC= c + b6X6

DC= c + b6X6= 6.523 + 0.063X6.........................MODEL 4a


Where;
X6 = length of Cables (m)
Constant, c = 6.523;

DC= Length of Conduits (m)

Table 4.24 below illustrates the length of cables derived from model

LENGTHS OF CONDUITS DERIVED FROM MODEL (CM)

TABLE 4.24

Length of Cables
(m)

Length of Conduits
(m)

BG1

252.90

22.46

BG2

195.19

18.82

BG3

218.86

20.31

DP2

150.37

16.00

DP4

158.14

16.49

FLOOR ID

COMPARISON BETWEEN CT AND CM

TABLE 4.25

Length of Conduits
(m) (CT)

Length of Conduits
(m) (CM)

BG1

21.60

22.46

BG2

23.40

18.82

BG3

25.20

20.31

DP2

16.20

16.00

DP4

19.80

16.49

FLOOR ID

B) Duplex Ground Floors


Table 4.26 shows the data to be used for this model validation
DATA TO TEST MODEL VALIDITY (CT)

TABLE 4.26

Length of Cables
(m)

Length of Conduit
(m)

DP1

355.80

284.70

DP3

244.03

193.33

FLOOR ID

Linear Regression;

DC= c + b6X6

The predicted equation is:


DC= c + b6X6= -21.739 + 0.858X6 .........................MODEL 4b

Table 4.27 below illustrates the final sub-circuit costs derived from model
LENGTHS OF CONDUITS DERIVED FROM MODEL (CM)

TABLE 4.27

Length of Cables
(m)

Length of Conduits
(m)

DP1

355.8

283.54

DP3

244.03

187.64

FLOOR ID

TABLE 4.28:

COMPARISON BETWEEN CT AND CM


Length of Conduits
(m) (CT)

Length of Conduits
(m) (CM)

DP1

284.70

283.54

DP3

193.33

187.64

FLOOR ID

4.4

DISCUSSION OF RESULT

Based on the research questions, research aims and objectives, the following conclusion
could be drawn from the data analyses above.
a. Objective 1
The productivity constants of electrical installation technicians
The productivity constants of electrical installation technicians has to do with the number of
electrician technicians required to performed an item of electrical work at a given time rate.
This is required in order to calculate the labour rate needed in the calculation of unit rate of
work output during the preparation of bill of quantities.
Table 4.13 shows the average productivity constant of electrical technicians of three sites
visited in the course of this research and various on-site data were collated which include as
shown in table 4.13 the descriptions of items of work, the respective gang size, unit rate, time
rate and labour cost. Further breakdown of the productivity constant of each site visited can
be seen in the appendix.

b. Objective 2
The influences of floor area on the final sub-circuits cost. (Cost model 2)
It is a general practice to use the gross floor area to determine the probable cost of a building
construction project, however, based on the SPSS analysis of the linear regression analysis
between the gross floor area (independent variable) and final sub-circuit cost (dependent
variable) as shown in table 4.9 shows that the coefficient of determination R 2 is 0.172; this
shows that the equation is statistically insignificant and so therefore the gross floor area
should not be used to estimate the final sub-circuits cost of residential electrical installations
work.
c. Objective 3
The predictive power of the cost model
The objective is to assess the predictive power of the generated cost models. Table 4.4 shows
the data used to derive the cost models generated in this research.
Cost model 1a- Table 4.5 shows a multiple regression result used to generate a cost model
for calculating the final sub-circuit costs of electrical installation from the cost-significant
items of work in residential building for bungalows and duplexes first floors with coefficient
of determination R2 of 0.968; this means the cost model can be used in determining the final
sub-circuit cost. Moreover, a new set of data was gotten from another set of drawings used to
validate the data as shown in Table 4.14; table 4.15 shows the final sub-circuits cost as
derived from the cost model generated in table 4.5. Table 4.16 then compares both table 4.14
and 4.15; this comparison further confirmed the validity of the model earlier generated in
table 4.5 as valid enough to be used as a basis in estimating the final sub-circuit costs of
electrical installation in residential building for bungalows and duplexes first floors.
Cost model 1b- Table 4.6 shows a multiple regression result used to generate a cost model
for calculating the final sub-circuit costs of electrical installation from the cost-significant
items of work in residential building for duplexes ground floors with coefficient of
determination R2 of 0.980; this means the cost model can be used in determining the final
sub-circuit cost. Moreover, a new set of data was gotten from another set of drawings used to
validate the data as shown in Table 4.17; table 4.18 shows the final sub-circuits cost as

derived from the cost model generated in table 4.6. Table 4.19 then compares both table 4.17
and 4.18; this comparison further confirmed the validity of the model earlier generated in
table 4.6 as valid enough to be used as a basis in estimating the final sub-circuit costs of
electrical installation in residential building for duplexes ground floors.
Cost model 3- Table 4.10 shows a linear regression result used to generate a cost model for
estimating the length of cables required in a residential electrical installation from a given
number of luminaries; with coefficient of determination R2 of 0.823; this means the cost
model is very realistic. Table 4.22 shows the comparison of the data generated from new sets
of drawings and that derived from model, this confirmed the validity of the cost model as the
difference between the two values are quite negligible
Cost model 4a- Table 4.11 shows a linear regression result used to generate a cost model for
estimating the length of conduits required in a residential bungalow and duplex first floors
electrical installation from an estimated length of cables; with coefficient of determination R 2
of 0.559; this means the cost model is fairly useable. Table 4.25 shows the comparison of the
data generated from new sets of drawings and that derived from model, this confirmed the
validity of the cost model as the difference between the two values are quite negligible
Cost model 4b- Table 4.12 shows a linear regression result used to generate a cost model for
estimating the length of conduits required in a residential duplex ground floors electrical
installation from an estimated length of cables; with coefficient of determination R2 of 0.947;
this means the cost model is very useful. Table 4.28 shows the comparison of the data
generated from new sets of drawings and that derived from model, this confirmed the validity
of the cost model as the difference between the two values are quite negligible

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1

CONCLUSION

This study aims at modeling the costs of final sub-circuits in residential electrical installations
using multiple regression technique. The models were developed based on forty-nine floors
of thirty-three set of data (17 bungalows and 16 duplexes, of architectural and electrical
drawings) collected from professionals working and validated using data of seven (7) floors
consisting of three (3) bungalows and two (2) duplexes.
Such types of models are very useful, especially in its simplicity and ability to be handled by
calculator or a simple computer program. It has a good benefit in estimating electrical
installation cost at early stages of the residential building electrical installation works since
the information needed could be extracted easily from scope definition of such installation.
It must be remembered that an estimated electrical project cost is not an exact number, but it
is opinion of probable cost. The accuracy and reliability of an estimate is totally dependent
upon how well the scope is defined and the time and effort expended in preparation the
estimate.
The aim of this study was achieved by the generation of two multiple regression models both
of whom uses the cost-significant items to determine the final sub-circuits costs; one of the
multiple regression models took care of the bungalows floors and also the duplexes first
floors (as both are quite similar); while the second one took care of the duplexes ground
floors.

The coefficients of determination, R2 for the first developed model (Model 1a) is 0.968
which indicates that the relationship between the independent and dependent variables of the
developed model is good and the predicted values from a forecast model fit with the real-life
data.
The coefficients of determination, R2 for the second developed model (Model 1b) is 0.980
which also indicates that the relationship between the independent and dependent variables of
the second developed model is also good and the predicted values from a forecast model fit
with the real-life data.
Also, in this study, four linear regression models were developed; firstly, a model (Model
2) of the final sub-circuit cost as a function of the gross floor area (GFA) with its coefficient
of determination, R2 been 0.172 which indicates there is little or no relationship between the
independent and dependent variables; therefore the predicted values from this model cannot
fit into the real life data. The second linear regression model (Model 3) is a model of the
length of cables as a function of the number of luminaries; and its coefficient of
determination, R2 is 0.823 which indicates there is a high degree of fitness of the predicted
values from this model into the real life data.
The third linear regression model (Model 4a) is a model of the length of conduits as a
function of the length of cables; and its coefficient of determination, R 2 is 0.559 (for
bungalows floors and duplexes first floors) which indicates there is a moderate degree of
fitness of the predicted values from these models into the real life data.
The fourth linear regression model (Model 4b) is also a model of the length of conduits as a
function of the length of cables; and its coefficient of determination, R2 is 0.947 (for duplexes
ground floors) which indicates there is a high degree of fitness of the predicted values from
this model into the real life data.

Therefore, for the determination of the final sub-circuit costs (lighting) of any residential
electrical installation work, it is hereby advisable for such clients, consultants or contractors
as it applies;
1. To first determine the number of luminaries (LM) needed in the building.
2. Then, slot the value of LM in model 3 to determine the length of cables (CL)
3. After the determination of CL, slot the value of CL into model 4a or model 4b as
deem appropriate in order to determine the length of conduits (CD).
4. With the values of LM, CL and CD determined, slot these values to model 1a or
model 1b as deem appropriate in order to determine the cost of the final sub-circuits
of such electrical installation work
Also, during the course of this research, it was established that the gross floor area cannot be
used and should not be used to estimate the probable cost of electrical installation work in
residential buildings types of not more than two floor.
Finally, the productivity constants of electrical technicians was also determined from on-site
visits and interviews, in addition to relevant market survey of the prices of electrical items,
the results was tabulated.

5.2

RECOMMENDATIONS

This paper presents a cost model that outperforms current practice of electrical installation
works estimating techniques, thereby providing a potentially significant benefit. In terms of
the papers benefits to researchers, it provides further insight into the relationships between
final sub-circuits costs and the various predictor variables. Based on the models generated for
this research, the following recommendations are made;

The floor area is not a good cost predictor of final sub-circuit cost and should
therefore not be used in estimating for residential electrical installation costing.
The determination of the cost model for the final sub-circuits costs lies heavily on the
accurate determination of the number of luminaries to be used in a residential building
floor which correlates with BESMM3 measurement rule (M7) for Y61- which states
that Final circuits are measured on an enumerated points basis where they form
part of a domestic installation- Page 164.
The cost model is adequate and fit to be used for the forecast of electrical (lighting)
installation works in the early stages of the residential building design and in
situations where no or less detailed electrical plans are available.
5.3

AREA OF FURTHER RESEARCH

1. I would suggest that another researcher to develop a cost model for the final sub-circuits
(power sub-circuits) in residential electrical installations.
2. I would suggest that another research be conducted to assess the determinants of electrical
installation costs in residential/commercial buildings.
3. I would suggest that another research be carried out to develop a cost model for the final
sub-circuits (lighting and power sub-circuits) in commercial electrical installations.

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APPENDIX

DATA STATISTICS AND FREQUENCIES


BUILDING TYPE
Frequenc
y
Percent
Valid

Valid
Percent

Cumulative
Percent

BUNGALO
W

17

34.0

51.5

51.5

DUPLEX

16

32.0

48.5

100.0

Total

33

66.0

100.0

NUMBER OF BEDROOMS
Frequency
Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Two bedroom

8.0

12.1

12.1

Three bedroom

18.0

27.3

39.4

Four bedroom

15

30.0

45.5

84.8

Five bedroom

10.0

15.2

100.0

33

66.0

100.0

Total

NUMBER OF FLOORS
Frequency
Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

DUPLEX

32

64.0

65.3

65.3

BUNGALOWS

17

34.0

34.7

100.0

Total

49

98.0

100.0

NUMBER OF BEDROOMS * BUILDING TYPE Crosstabulation


Count
BUILDING TYPE
BUNGALOW
NUMBER OF
BEDROOMS

DUPLEX

Total

Two bedroom

Three bedroom

Four bedroom

10

15

Five bedroom

17

16

33

Total

NUMBER OF FLOORS * BUILDING TYPE Crosstabulation


Count
BUILDING TYPE
BUNGALOW
NUMBER OF FLOORS DUPLEX
BUNGALOWS
Total

DUPLEX

Total

32

32

17

17

17

32

49

ELECTRICAL TECHNICIANS PRODUCTIVITY


SITE A- 3-BEDROOM FLAT at Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
GANG

UNIT
RATE

TIME
RATE

NO/DAY
(8-hrs day)

LABOUR COST
(N)

Draw and fix a Roll of Cable


(1.5mm2)

0.08

100

4000

Fixing of Wall Brackets

0.80

48

10

2500

Fixing of Fluorescent fitting

0.50

30

16

4000

Fixing of Luminaries (ceiling


pendant)

0.67

40

12

2500

Fixing of Luminaries (others)

0.50

30

16

2500

0.80

48

10

2500

0.58

35

14

4000

Fixing of 13A/15A Sockets

0.67

40

12

2500

Cutting and fixing


Conduits

0.50

30

16

4000

DESCRIPTIONS

Fixing 10A 1,2,3 gang


Switches
Fixing of 10A 2-way, 1 gang
Switches

SITE B- 3-BEDROOM FLAT at Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria


GANG

UNIT
RATE

TIME
RATE

NO/DAY
(8-hrs day)

LABOUR COST
(N)

Draw and fix a Roll of Cable


(1.5mm2)

0.10

80

4000

Fixing of Wall Brackets

0.50

30

16

2500

Fixing of Fluorescent fitting

0.58

35

14

2500

Fixing of Luminaries (ceiling


pendant)

0.58

35

14

2500

Fixing of Luminaries (others)

0.50

30

16

2500

Fixing 10A 1,2,3 gang Switches

0.50

30

16

2500

Fixing of 10A 2-way, 1 gang


Switches

0.50

30

16

2500

Fixing of 13A/15A Sockets

0.58

35

14

2500

Cutting and fixing


Conduits

0.83

50

10

4000

DESCRIPTIONS

SITE C- 4-BEDROOM FLAT at Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria


GANG

UNIT
RATE

TIME
RATE

NO/DAY
(8-hrs day)

LABOUR COST
(N)

Draw and fix a Roll of Cable


(1.5mm2)

0.07

120

4000

Fixing of Wall Brackets

0.50

30

16

2500

Fixing of Fluorescent fitting

0.50

30

16

4000

Fixing of Luminaries (ceiling


pendant)

0.67

40

12

2500

Fixing of Luminaries (others)

0.33

20

24

2500

Fixing 10A 1,2,3 gang Switches

0.58

35

14

2500

Fixing of 10A 2-way, 1 gang


Switches

0.50

30

16

4000

Fixing of 13A/15A Sockets

0.50

30

16

4000

Cutting and fixing


Conduits

0.50

30

16

4000

DESCRIPTIONS

MARKET SURVEY as at 15th August 2013


ITEMS
Luminaries
Security Light
Ceiling
Pendants
Wall Brackets
Fluorescents
Lampholders
Recessed
lighting
Switches
1 gang
2 way
2gang
3gang
Sockets
13A
15A
Wiring
1.5mm2
2.5mm2
4mm2
6mm2
Conduits
20mm pipe
25mm pipe

PRICE LIST
(N)

REMARKS

850
1500
650
900
150
600
80
160
100
150
120
150
2500
3500
5000
7500

per roll
per roll
per roll
per roll

2600
3300

per bundle (25pcs)


per bundle (25pcs)

REGRESSION MODEL FOR THE FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST AS A FUNCTION


OF THE COST SIGNIFICANT ITEMS (DUPLEX FIRST FLOORS & BUNGALOWS
FLOORS)
Variables Entered/Removed
Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Length of Conduits
(CCD), Number of
Luminaries (LM), Length
of Cables (CLT)a

Method
. Enter

a. All requested variables entered.


Model Summary
Model

R Square
.984a

Adjusted R Square

.968

Std. Error of the


Estimate

.965

2238.292

a. Predictors: (Constant), Length of Conduits (CCD), Number of Luminaries (LM),


Length of Cables (CLT)
ANOVAb
Sum of
Squares

Model
1

Mean
Square

df

Regression

4.392E9

Residual

1.453E8

29 5009951.965

Total

4.537E9

32

1.464E9 292.229

a. Predictors: (Constant), Length of Conduits (CCD), Number of


Luminaries (LM), Length of Cables (CLT)
b. Dependent Variable: FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST (LC)

Sig.
.000a

Coefficientsa
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

B
(Constant)
Number of Luminaries
(LM)

Length of Conduits
(CCD)

Std. Error

1407.866

1649.649

751.796

119.115

44.615
618.358

Length of Cables
(CLT)

Standardized
Coefficients
Beta

Sig.

.853

.400

.569

6.312

.000

20.879

.230

2.137

.041

121.318

.268

5.097

.000

a. Dependent Variable: FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST (LC)

REGRESSION MODEL FOR THE FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST AS A FUNCTION


OF THE COST SIGNIFICANT ITEMS (DUPLEX GROUND FLOORS)
Variables Entered/Removed
Model
1

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Length of Conduits
(CCD), Number of
Luminaries (LM), Length
of Cables (CLT)a

Method
. Enter

a. All requested variables entered.

Model Summary
Model
1

R Square
.990a

.980

Adjusted R Square
.975

Std. Error of the


Estimate
2889.418

a. Predictors: (Constant), Length of Conduits (CCD), Number of Luminaries


(LM), Length of Cables (CLT)

ANOVAb
Sum of
Squares

Model
1

df

Mean Square

Regression

4.907E9

1.636E9

Residual

1.002E8

12 8348736.126

Total

5.007E9

15

Sig.
.000a

195.907

a. Predictors: (Constant), Length of Conduits (CCD), Number of Luminaries


(LM), Length of Cables (CLT)
b. Dependent Variable: FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST (LC)

Coefficientsa
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

Std. Error

(Constant)

3601.236

5959.638

Number of Luminaries
(LM)

1020.408

295.221

72.364
303.168

Length of Cables
(CLT)
Length of Conduits
(CCD)

Standardize
d
Coefficients
Beta

Sig.

.604

.557

.310

3.456

.005

129.903

.160

.557

.588

122.280

.590

2.479

.029

a. Dependent Variable: FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST (LC)

REGRESSION MODEL FOR THE FINAL SUB-CIRCUIT COST AS A FUNCTION


OF GROSS FLOOR AREA
Variables Entered/Removedb
Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Gross Floor Areaa

Method
. Enter

a. All requested variables entered.


b. Dependent Variable: Final Sub-circuit Cost
Model Summary
Model

R Square
.415a

Std. Error of the


Estimate

Adjusted R Square

.172

.155

39196.064

a. Predictors: (Constant), Gross Floor Area


ANOVAb
Sum of
Squares

Model
1

df

Mean Square

Regression

1.503E10

1.503E10

Residual

7.221E10

47

1.536E9

Total

8.724E10

48

Sig.

9.786

.003a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Gross Floor Area


b. Dependent Variable: Final Sub-circuit Cost
Coefficientsa
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

B
(Constant)
Gross Floor
Area

Std. Error

17628.680

18077.467

270.380

86.433

a. Dependent Variable: Final Sub-circuit Cost

Standardized
Coefficients
Beta

.415

Sig.
.975

.334

3.128

.003

REGRESSION MODEL FOR THE LENGTH OF CABLES AS A FUNCTION OF


THE NUMBER OF LUMINARIES

Model Summary
Model

R Square
.907a

Std. Error of the


Estimate

Adjusted R Square

.823

.819

27.74006

a. Predictors: (Constant), Number of Lighting points (LM)

ANOVAb
Sum of
Squares

Model
1

Regression

Mean Square

168065.651

168065.651

36167.013

47

769.511

204232.664

48

Residual
Total

df

Sig.

218.406

.000a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Number of Lighting points (LM)


b. Dependent Variable: Length of Cable (LC)

Coefficientsa
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

B
(Constant)
Number of Lighting
points (LM)

Std. Error

45.565

13.933

6.850

.464

a. Dependent Variable: Length of Cable (LC)

Standardize
d
Coefficients
Beta

.907

Sig.

3.270

.002

14.779

.000

REGRESSION MODEL FOR THE LENGTH OF CONDUITS AS A FUNCTION OF


THE LENGTH OF CABLES (DUPLEX FIRST FLOORS & BUNGALOWS FLOORS)
Model Summary
Model

R Square
.748a

Adjusted R Square

.559

Std. Error of the


Estimate

.545

3.4844

a. Predictors: (Constant), Length of Cables (CLT)

ANOVAb
Sum of
Squares

Model
1

df

Mean Square

Regression

477.520

477.520

Residual

376.367

31

12.141

Total

853.887

32

F
39.332

Sig.
.000a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Length of Cables (CLT)


b. Dependent Variable: Length of Conduits (CCD)

ANOVAb
Sum of
Squares

Model
1

df

Mean Square

Regression

477.520

477.520

Residual

376.367

31

12.141

Total

853.887

32

a. Predictors: (Constant), Length of Cables (CLT)


b. Dependent Variable: Length of Conduits (CCD)

F
39.332

Sig.
.000a

REGRESSION MODEL FOR THE LENGTH OF CONDUITS AS A FUNCTION OF


THE LENGTH OF CABLES (DUPLEX GROUND FLOORS)
Variables Entered/Removedb
Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Length of Cables (CLT)a

Method
. Enter

a. All requested variables entered.


b. Dependent Variable: Length of Conduits (CCD)
Model Summary
Model

R Square
.973a

Adjusted R Square

.947

Std. Error of the


Estimate

.943

8.45737

a. Predictors: (Constant), Length of Cables (CLT)


ANOVAb
Sum of
Squares

Model
1

Regression
Residual
Total

df

Mean Square

17968.855

17968.855

1001.380

14

71.527

18970.235

15

Sig.

251.217

.000a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Length of Cables (CLT)


b. Dependent Variable: Length of Conduits (CCD)
Coefficientsa
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

B
(Constant)
Length of Cables
(CLT)

Std. Error

-21.739

15.997

.858

.054

a. Dependent Variable: Length of Conduits (CCD)

Standardize
d
Coefficients
Beta

.973

Sig.

-1.359

.196

15.850

.000