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- Deformation Analysis
- Fundamentals of Rail Vehicle Dynamics
- Carbody Rail Vehicle Dynamics
- Railway Yellow Book Vol1and2 Issue4
- Rail Wheel Interaction 02
- Material and Design
- Wheel Rail Rolling Contact
- How Bogies Work
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Machine Elements, Department of Machine Design

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden

ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION

deformation and wear can significantly reduce the service life of

railway track and rolling stock. They also have a negative impact

on the rolling noise as well as on the riding comfort. A proper

understanding of these mechanisms require a detailed knowledge

of physical interaction between wheel and rail. Furthermore,

demands for higher train speeds and increased axle loads implies

that the consequences of larger contact forces between wheel and

rail must be thoroughly investigated.

Two methods have traditionally been used to investigate the

rail-wheel contact, that is the Hertz analytical method and

simplified numerical methods based on the boundary element

(BE) method. These methods rely on a half-space assumption and

a linear material model. To overcome these limitations, a tool for

FE-based quasi-static wheel-rail contact simulations has been

developed. The tool is a library of Ansys macro routines for

configuring, meshing and loading of a parametric wheel-rail

model. The meshing is based on measured wheel and rail profiles.

In order to reduce the size of the computational model, the

superelement technique is utilized. The wheel and rail materials

in the contact region are treated as elastic-plastic with kinematic

hardening. The kinematic constraints are enforced with the Ansys

contact element Contac49. By controlling the values of the

configuration parameters, representations of various driving cases

can be generated. The quasi-static loads are obtained from train

motion simulations with special purpose software. Interaction

phenomena such as rolling, spinning and sliding can be included.

The modeling tool and a methodology are described in the

presented paper. Simulation results are compared with Hertzian

and BE solutions. Significant differences in the calculated state

between the FE solution and the traditional approaches can be

observed. These differences are most significant in situations with

flange contact.

typical wheelset on a straight track is shown in figure 1. The axle

load may be as high as 220 kN and the contact area between a

wheel and the rail is roughly 1 cm2. The contact region is thus

very highly stressed. The interaction in the contact zone between

wheel and rail is determined by the global dynamic behavior of

the vehicle and by various physical phenomena that occur in the

contact zone. The profiles of wheel treads and railheads are

transformed by the wheel and rail interaction. This

transformation, which may be severe in curves, has a significant

effect on the contact state.

behavior of rail vehicles and the interaction between vehicle and

track have been performed. Software, such as Vampire developed

by British Rail, Medyna by Deutsche Luft und Raumfahrt, and

Nucars in the USA, were developed for that purpose. They were

all highly specialized and optimized for a reasonable a turnaround time for a simulation (Andersson et al., 2000). An

example of recently developed commercially available software is

Gensys (1999). General-purpose software for dynamic

simulations of multi-body-systems (MBS), such as Adams,

Simpack, and Dads, have recently included features that enable

efficient dynamic simulations of railway vehicles and vehicletrack interaction. Adams, Gensys, Nucars, Simpack and Vampire

have recently been benchmarked (Iwnicki, 1998)(Iwnicki, 1999).

One-dimensional beam models are usually sufficient for the

frequency range up to three kHz (Knothe et al., 1994). Software

for vehicle motion simulations, are normally concerned with the

orientation of each wheel relative to the track, and thus the pointof-contact between wheel tread an rail head and the contact forces

that are caused by the dynamic interaction (see figure 2).

y

x

FX

MZ

FY

FN

drivingbraking couple and the velocity difference:

k + 0.25k 2

FT

=

FN

sign( )

k 2

k 2

(1)

force, respectively, per unit lateral length, is the coefficient of

friction, =2(VT - VC)/(VT + VC) is the creepage, and k is the

creepage coefficient. is a function of , the radius of the wheel,

and the semilength of the contact area measured in the rolling

direction.

Carters theory is sufficient when we consider the action of

driven wheels, e.g. it is capable of predicting the frictional losses

in a locomotive driving wheel, but it is not sufficient for vehicle

motion simulations. For that we must treat forces in the lateral

direction together with the motion in the rolling direction

(Kalker, 1991).

Johnson (1958) generalized Carters result to circular contacts

and longitudinal and lateral creepage. Vermeulen and Johnson

(1964) generalized this theory to elliptical contact areas. Shen et

al. (1984) improved the results by replacing the approximate

values for the creepage coefficients given by Vermeulen and

Johnson with more accurate values. In these theories, which are

all Hertzian-based, it turned out that the contact area is elliptic in

form, with semiaxes a and b in the rolling and lateral directions

respectively. The ratio of the axes, a/b depends only on the

curvatures of the wheel and the rail. Furthermore, the size of the

contact area depends on the normal force FN but it is independent

of the tangential force FT.

A

FIGURE 2. CONTACT FORCES FROM AN MBSSIMULATION.

Damage mechanisms such as surface cracks, plastic

deformation and wear, see for example Kalousek et al. (1999) for

a survey, can significantly reduce the service life of railway track

and rolling stock. Furthermore, they can have a negative impact

on the rolling noise as well as on the riding comfort. A proper

understanding of these mechanisms require a detailed knowledge

of the wheel and rail interaction. Five theories of rolling are

presently in use: the two-dimensional theory of Carter (1926), the

linear theory (Kalker, 1967), the complete contact theory (Kalker,

1983), the theory of Shen et al. (1984), and the simplified theory

(Kalker, 1982b). All of these theories have limitations and they

can be viewed as complementary.

Continuum rolling contact theory started with a publication

by Carter (1926), where he approximated the wheel by a cylinder

and the rail by an infinite half-space. The analysis was twodimensional and the exact solution was found. Carter showed that

the difference between the circumferential velocity VC of a driven

wheel and the translational velocity VT of the wheel has a nonzero value as soon as an accelerating or a braking couple is

applied to the wheel. This difference increases with increasing

couple until the maximum value according to Coulomb is

FLANGE CONTACT ON HIGH RAIL IN A CURVE (B).

In vehicle motion simulations, usually only the global contact

forces, as shown in figure 2, are required. A linearization of the

relation between the tangential contact forces and the creepage, in

railway mechanics usually referred to as the linear theory (Kalker,

gauge corner of the rail. The former result was based on Hertzian

theory and the latter was calculated with Contact. Such results

highlight the need for a nonlinear elastic-plastic material model

and a thorough three-dimensional approach.

A

height (mm)

30

one year of traffic wear

two years of traffic

20

10

plastic

deformation

0

0

20

40

60

length (mm)

B

30

height (mm)

linear theory is valid for small motions, without flange contact

(see figure 3A). Flanging may occur on high rail, i.e. the outer

rail in a curve, see the rightmost wheel in figure 3B. Due to the

conicity of the wheel profile, flanging results in a large spin.

In the simplified theory, wheel and rail are modeled as rigid

bodies with a set of three-orthogonal springs located at discrete

points on the interacting surfaces (Kalker, 1973). In the

simplified theory, the surface displacement at one unique point

depends only on the surface traction at the same point, i.e. it is a

so-called Winkler model. The simplified theory was early

implemented in special purpose computer codes (Kalker, 1982b).

It has shown to be able to efficiently interpret a large number of

contact phenomena as long as the contact is Hertzian (Kalker,

1991).

Kalker (1979) generalized the three-dimensional rolling

contact problem of two elastic bodies for combinations of

longitudinal, lateral, and spin creepage. Spin creepage, or spin for

short, is a significant phenomenon in curves. It is caused by a

rotational velocity around the vertical and longitudinal axes of the

wheelset due to different rolling radius of the two wheels in a

wheelset and the conicity of the wheel profile. Spin due to

conicity is comparable to camber in the automotive industry.

Kalker (1982) extended his theory of rolling contact between

arbitrary bodies for the case where the shape of the contact area is

nonelliptical, and thus non-Hertzian. This theory is often referred

to as the complete theory, although it is limited to contact

problems between linear elastic bodies that can be described by

half-spaces. In order to get an approximate solution, the contact

area is divided into rectangular elements. This theory was

implemented in a computer program called Contact (Kalker,

1983), which is based on the boundary element (BE) method.

Contact which is roughly 400 times slower than routines based on

the simplified theory (Kalker, 1991) has been used to validate the

linear and simplified theories as well as to validate the theory by

Shen, Hendrick and Elkins (1984) which also is significantly

faster than Contact.

In strength and fatigue calculations, a common practice is to

assume an elliptic contact area and to use the Hertzian traction for

the normal pressure, while the tangential distribution is found by

multiplying the normal pressure distribution by the coefficient of

friction (Kalker, 1991). This approach is also used in more recent

studies, e.g. by Ekberg (2000).

Higher train speeds and increased axle loads have led to

larger contact forces between wheel and rail. The half-space

assumption in the traditional approaches puts geometrical

limitations on the contact i.e. the significant dimensions of the

contact area must be small compared to the relative radii of

curvature of each body. Especially in the gauge corner of the rail

profile the half-space assumption is not valid since the contact

radius here is of the same order of size to the contact zone i.e.

approximately around 1cm. The form change of rail can be large

over time, see Olofsson and Nilsson (1998) and Olofsson (1999).

Figure 4 shows the transformation of the profile of a UIC 60 high

rail over a period of two years in a narrow curve with a radius of

303m and trafficked by commuter trains. These experimental

results show that plastic deformation must be treated thoroughly

in wheel-rail contact analysis. Previously presented results by

Cassidy (1996) and Knothe et al. (1999) reveal contact stresses

one year of traffic

two years of traffic

20

10

wear

plastic

deformation

0

0

20

40

60

length (mm)

FIGURE 4. FORM CHANGE OF AN UIC HIGH RAIL IN A

NARROW CURVE. THREE YEAR OLD RAIL AT START

(A). NEW RAIL AT START (B).

To overcome the limitations inherent in the traditional

approaches, a tool for FE-based quasi-static wheel-rail contact

modeling and simulations has been developed. The tool is a

library of macro routines for configuring, meshing and loading a

parametric wheel-rail model. The routines are written in the

Ansys programming language. The meshing can be based on

measured wheel and rail profiles, i.e. worn profiles. The

kinematic constraints are enforced with the Ansys contact element

Contac49 (Ansys, 1997). The material models are treated as

elastic-plastic with kinematic hardening. By controlling the

values of the configuration parameters, representations of various

driving cases can be generated. The quasi-static loads are

obtained from train dynamic calculations with special purpose

MBS software. Interaction phenomena such as rolling, spinning

and sliding can be included. In order to reduce the size of the

computational model, the superelement technique is utilized for

the linear model features.

The modeling and simulation tool and a methodology are

described below, and simulation results are compared with

solutions obtained with traditional methods.

A complete FE model of one wheel, a piece of rail, a set of

contact elements and the quasi static loads on the wheel are

interactively created with a library of Ansys macro routines that

are accessed with the Ansys Graphical User Interface (GUI), see

figure 5. Sets of keypoints that define the rail head and wheel

tread profiles are assumed to exist as separate files. Keypoints

that describe the shape of a profile are preferably generated with a

standard Miniprof instrument. The two sets of keypoints are

converted to 2-D spline curves by an Ansys macro routine.

FIGURE 6. SPLINE CURVES GENERATED FROM

MEASURED POINT SETS.

Center node

Superelement

Wheel

Contact region

Superelement

Rail

600 mm

THROUGH THE ANSYS GUI.

The basic steps in the creation of a wheel-rail interaction

model for an X1 motor coach in a curve with a radius of

303m and a standard UIC60 rail is presented below. The

three-dimensional geometric model of the wheel is generated

by revolving the two-dimensional spline curves that describe

the profile of the wheel tread. The rail model is created by

extruding railhead profile curves a distance of 600 mm, which

is the distance between the sleepers. Two sets of curves for a

new wheel and a new rail are shown in figure 6. The two

solid bodies are shown in figure 7. To get a reasonable

configure model, the wheel is spatially oriented relative to the

rail according to the quasi-static state calculated by an MBS

software, e.g. Gensys or Medyna. To aid an efficient

discretization of the contact region, a measure of the expected

contact length and the number of expected contact patches

have to be supplied by the user.

PROFILE CURVES.

The contact region, i.e. the small portion of the two bodies

that are close to the anticipated contact patch, is meshed with the

Ansys linear isoparametric element Solid45 (Ansys, 1997). For

these elements, which almost exclusively are hexahedrons (see

figure 8), an elastic-plastic material model with kinematic

hardening is defined (see figure 9).

lateral direction of the rail, 50mm in the longitudinal direction,

and 10mm in the normal direction. The size in the longitudinal

direction is based on the size of the contact zone and the distance

of rolling required for the simulation.

The main parts of the wheel and rail bodies are meshed with

degenerated linear isoparametric elements. The hub surface is

covered with shell elements. These two submodels are condensed

to superelements. The size of a typical wheel-rail model is given

in table 1. The nodes on the hub surface are connected to a center

node with constraint equations (see figure 10).

800

Rolling direction

640

A

10

480

320

160

50 mm

Contact region

Wheel

0

0.0

Contact region

Rail

Superelements

Form

Element

Feature type

Rail

SOLID45

Wheel

SOLID45

Hub

SHELL63

Number of

elements

35131

284

52785

Number

of nodes

14796

212741

171

Master

DOFs

1701

2709

0

Contact region

Rail

SOLID45

Wheel

SOLID45

Center MASS21

Contact CONTAC49

4560

5920

1

2978

5439

7056

1

1391

16317

21168

6

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

(%)

RAIL (A) AND WHEEL (B) PORTIONS OF THE CONTACT

REGION.

3. A METHODOLOGY

methods and tools, the use of which is governed by a process

superimposed on the whole (Coleman, 1994). Generally, a

method, which is an organized, single purpose discipline or

practice, evolve as a distillation of the best-practices experience

in a particular domain of cognitive or physical activity (IDEF4,

1995). A tool refers to a software system, such as a FE system,

designed to support the method.

Contact region

Rail

Angel 1/30

Wheel

center node to hub

FIGURE 10. THE WHEEL HUB IS CONNECTED TO THE CENTER NODE WITH CONSTRAINT EQUATIONS.

Contact forces

Motion simulation

Wheel location

Gensys/

Medyna

Simulation

condition

definition

Boundary

conditions

Macros

Rail profile

Rail measurement

FE modeling

of wheel-rail

interaction

Miniprof

Wheel measurement

Simulation control

Wheel profile

Ansys,

Macros

FE model

FE simulation

Ansys,

Macros

Miniprof

measurement

Salient

tribometer

Stress-strain curves

FE modeling of the wheel-rail interaction requires the shape

of the geometric, domains, a material model, a value for the

coefficient of friction, and knowledge about the contact forces.

The material model is based on stress-strain curves supplied

by the manufacturers of wheel and rail. The coefficient of friction

is achieved from field instruments such as the Salient system

tribometer. The profiles of railheads and wheel treads are

measured with the Miniprof instrument. MBS-simulations

provide contact point locations and quasi-static contact forces.

These contact forces are transformed to global forces at the center

node. With these data as input, the macro routines described

above is capable of defining a complete FE model and the proper

boundary conditions for a quasi-static simulation that capture the

physical behavior that is caused by the combined rolling and

sliding interaction. In a final step, the contact state history is

extracted from the Ansys result database an exported in ASCIIformat for further analysis and manipulation.

A sharp curve in a track trafficked by commuter trains serving

the Stockholm area is chosen for a comparison between the FE

simulation results and results obtained with traditional methods.

The chosen track carries almost exclusively unidirectional

commuter trains with an average speed of 75 km/h. Two types of

vehicles are used: the X1 and the X10 both operating in pairs

with one powered unit and one trailing unit. This track and the

Both rail and wheel profiles have been measured over a couple of

years, see Nilsson (2000). Furthermore, has the X1 and the X10

vehicles been modeled in the train dynamic simulation software

Gensys, see Jendel (2000), giving access to the necessary input

data in form of wheel attitude with optional contact locations and

forces resulted from simulations.

Two cases were used to study the model. Both cases were

from simulation of the X1 powered unit and represent the first

and second wheel set in the leading boogie. The coordinate

system is chosen similar to the Deutche Industrial Norm (DIN)

with positive vertical (z) co-ordinate upwards, y to left and x is

positive to the train motion direction. Figure 12 presents the

contact points location on the wheel and the rail and table 1

shows the forces in the center point of the wheel. From a

geometrical perspective the two load cases represents the contact

points with a large difference in the curvature of contacting

bodies. In case 1, the minimum contact radius was about 300 mm

and in case 2 it was about 20 mm. New rail profiles and a wheel

profile from a X1 train that has been in traffic for two years were

used in the two cases. In both cases, the normal force was

80377N.

The tool for the FE analysis is made and the preliminary

results along with the comparison to the main concurrently

available methods is outlined. In the first stage the differences

between the methods are presented (see table 2 and figure 13).

Case 1

Case 2

FIGURE 12. CONTACT POINT LOCATION FOR THE TWO TEST CASES.

Method

Case 1

Case 2

FEM with plasticity 606 MPa

577 MPa

Contact

3057 MPa

715 MPa

Hertzian max stress

1080 MPa

TABLE 2. MAXIMUM CONTACT PRESSURE

WITH THE FE AND TRADITIONAL METHODS.

The main scope for this work was to enhance the knowledge

of the contact pressure and the maximum stresses in bulk

material. This should give an appropriate basis to study the

degradation mechanism along with the wear simulation. The

results in case 1 could not be compared with the Hertz method

assuming one-point contact. The Hertzian solution showed

approximately twice the contact length in y-direction compared

with the other methods. This remained the same for the regions of

the surface radii of curvature in the range of 0.01 .. 0.015m for

the rail and -0.02.. -0.1m for the wheel. So, the normal force was

split similar way as in program Contact to three parts. After that

the results were very similar for these two classical methods (see

figure 13). Compared to Ansys, the difference was approximately

300% for the contact area and more than 200% for the maximum

pressure. For case 2 the result show that the difference in the

maximum contact pressure and the size of the contact area was

small when the minimum contact radius is large compared with

the significant dimensions of the contact area, i.e. the half space

assumption is valid.

Using the linear-elastic model the differences in results are

significant in regards especially to the relatively new wheel and

rail shapes. Significant flattening of the contact pressure profile

was found with increasing plastic deformation. The maximum

pressure and plastic work moved outward in the direction of the

contact edge along with the increase of friction coefficient.

The distribution of the equivalent vonMises stress shows that,

even with the three contact patches, significant yielding will

occur (see figure 14).

COMPARISON BETWEEN THREE DIFFERENT

CONTACT MECHANICS METHODS, MAXIMUM

CONTACT PRESSURE AND CONTACT AREA.

Experiments have shown that the losses in the rail crosssectional area remains approximately constant in time, see

Nilsson (2000). Assuming a constant rate of degradation the

relationship between the plastic flow and wear changes. In the

initial phase, i.e. case 1, the plastic work is very large. The

maximum equivalent von Mises stress exceeds even the ultimate

stress limit which for the actual plasticity model was 606MPa

(see table 2). Thus, the material in this phase of the degradation

process behaves perfectly plastic. The plastic flow hardens the

material and makes the contact more conform. In the continuing

process, other wear mechanisms will thus be significant.

analysis.

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work was performed within the Swedish research

programme SAMBA. The work was financially supported by the

Swedish National Board for Industrial an d Technical

Development (NUTEK), Adtranz Sweden AB, Stockholm Local

Traffic, the Swedish National Rail Administration and the

Swedish State Railways.

8. REFERENCES

EQUIVALENT STRESS IN THREE YEARS OLD RAIL AND

WHEEL.

5. CONCLUSIONS

A tool for contact mechanics modeling and simulation of the

wheel rail contact has been developed. The geometry of the

contact can easily be changed. The model can be generated from

measured wheel and rail profiles. Traditional methods and

computational tools are limited by an half space assumption and a

linear material model. The results from two test cases show that

the difference in maximum equivalent stress between traditional

methods and the FE model is small when the minimum contact

radius is large compared to the significant dimensions of the

contact area, i.e. when the half space assumptions is valid.

However, in the test case where the minimum contact radius was

of the same order as the significant dimensions of the contact area

the difference between the FE results and results obtained with

traditional Hertzian and BE methods was as large as 3GPa. This

large difference was probably due to limitations in both the half

space assumption and the linear elastic material model in the

traditional methods.

The regime for a rail and wheel contact is frequently

characterized as either stress related or wear related (Tournay,

1996). Crack initiation and propagation are examples of damage

mechanisms that are driven by stresses.

In many situations, wear is a significant damage mechanism.

The wear can be integrated if the the contact state history is

known. A wear model includes a wear coefficient, which has a

scientific base, see for example Archard (1953) and Lim and

Ashby (1987). If the contact pressure distribution and the

accumulated sliding distances are known, the right wear regime

can be predicted for each point that has passed the contact zone.

For a given wear regime, the wear coefficient can be obtained

from lab-tests.

Already the pure static tests along with the degraded profiles

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