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Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis

ofaShear Wall Building inMadinah


M.Ajmal ,M.K.Rahman andM.H.Baluch

KingFahdUniversityofPetroleum&MineralsDhahranSaudiArabia

RecentSeismicActivitiesinKSA
Recently seismic events that occurred in low to
moderateseismicityregionsofSaudiArabiaare:
Otaibah,Makkah (2005)
Haradh,EasternProvince(2006)
AlHadama,AlAmid,AlQarasa andYanbu (2009)
EasternProvince(August, 2010)

WhyResearchisNeeded?
1. SomelargecitiesintheEasternandWesternPartofSaudi
Arabia are located close to fault zones. As the population
increases and new areas are developed, the seismic risk to
humanlifeandinfrastructureincreases.
2. Most old structures aredesigned without considering
seismic effect.i.e.designedforgravityloads.
3. Recent seismic activity in Saudi Arabia have led to concern
about the safety of the existing reinforced concrete
buildings.
4. This research is planned as a joint collaboration between
King Fahd university of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM),
Saudi Arabia and Istanbul Technical University (ITU),
Turkey.

NONLINEARSTATICPUSHOVERANALYSIS
The pushover analysis, is a static nonlinear analysis under
permanent gravity loads and gradually increasing lateral
loads.

APPLICATIONOFPUSHOVERANALYSIS
Pushover analysis may be applied to verify the structural
performanceofnewlydesignedandtheexistingbuildingsfor
thefollowingpurposes:
1. Toverifytheoverstrengthratiovalues.
2. To estimate the expected plastic mechanism and the
distributionofdamage.
3. Toassessthestructuralperformanceofexistingorretrofitted
buildings.
4. Asanalternativetothedesignbasedonlinearanalysis.

DescriptionoftheBuildinginMadinah

Madinah Municipalitybuildingis
selected.

Constructedin1996.

LocatedinwesternregionofSaudi
Arabia.

8storeywithdomeandelevatorshafts

PlanArea=40mx40m

SeismicZoneisZ2AaccordingtoUBC
1997.

TYPICALPLAN MADINAH
MUNICIPALITYBUILDING

ShearWall

7TH STOREYPLAN

TYPICALPLANFROM1ST TO6TH STOREY


8TH STOREYPLAN

SELECTED2DFRAMEFORNONLINEAR
PUSHOVERANALYSIS

ELEVATIONOFSELECTEDFRAME
200mmThick
Shearwall

300mmThick
Shearwall

MaterialProperties,CrossSectionand
ReinforcementDetails
MaterialProperties

f c'

30MPa

fy

420MPa

fu

620MPa

Es

200MPa

SHEARWALLMODELINGINPUSHOVER
ANALYSIS
Midpier model
Inmidpiermodeltheisgenerallybasedonplastichinge
conceptandbilinearmomentrelationship.
Theresponseofthismodelisgovernedbytheproper
selectionofstiffnessofrigidbeambecauseassumptionof
infiniterigiditycanleadtooverestimationofbending
moment.

Multilayershellelementmodel
Theshellelementcanbeusedefficientlyfortheanalysis
ofbuildingstructureswithshearwalls.
Themultilayershellelementgivesarealisticpredictionof
stressesandformationofhingesinshearwall.

SmearedMultilayeredShellElement

ShellelementModelForShearWall

MidPierModelforShearwall

SHEARWALLMODEL

MultilayeredShellElementModel

MidPierModel

LOADS

Forintermediatestoreys
Deadloads
SelfweightofSlab=4.75kN/m2
Floorfinish=2.3kN/m2
Superimposed load =1kN/m2
Liveload =4.8kN/m2

Forroof storeys
Deadloads
Selfweightofslab=4.75kN/m2
Floorfinish=3.5kN/m2
Superimposed load =1kN/m2
Liveload =2.4kN/m2

SEISMICWEIGHTOFTHEBUILDING
TheSeismicweightofthewholebuildingisthesum
oftheseismicweightsofallthefloors.
Floorheightfromgroundlevel
(m)
27.6
22.6
20.2
16
12.8
9.6
6.4
3.2

SeismicweightWi
(kN)
1900
865
2780
3408
3320
3032
3032
3030
Wi=21371

MODALANALYSIS
Fromthemodalanalysistimeperiodandfrequency
fordifferentmodesareshownbelow.

ModalProperties

Mode
1

Period(sec)

0.602

0.266

0.171

0.133

0.128

Frequency (rad/sec) 1.731

3.756

5.863

7.472

7.812

PARABOLICLATERALLOADFEMA356

The lateral force


atanystory(Fi )is
calculatedby

Fi =Vt

Wi H i2
N

2
W
H
j j
j=1

SECTIONALANALYSISUSINGXTRACT
ASSUMPTIONS

Mander confinedandunconfinedconcretemodel.
Elastoplasticsteelmodelwithouthardeningwereused.
SoftwareusedforSectionalAnalysisisXTRACT.

Mander Unconfined,Confined
ConcreteModel

Elastoplasticsteelmodel

PMINTERACTIONCURVEOBTAINEDFROMXTRACT

PMInteractionDiagramForColumnA11

MOMENTCURVATUREOBTAINEDFROM
XTRACT

MomentCurvaturecurveforBeamK4

PUSHOVERANALYSISRESULTS

Pushovercurvefor2DFrameAnalyzed

STOREYDRIFTSRATIO

PlasticHingeDistribution
ShellModel

PierModel

PLASTICHINGESDISTRIBUTIONWHENPUSHEDINPOSITIVEXDIRECTION
AT6cmDISPLACEMENT

PlasticHingeDistribution
ShellModel

PierModel

PLASTICHINGESDISTRIBUTIONWHENPUSHEDINPOSITIVEXDIRECTION
AT9cmDISPLACEMENT

PlasticHingeDistribution
ShellModel

PierModel

PLASTICHINGESDISTRIBUTIONWHENPUSHEDINPOSITIVEXDIRECTION
AT15cmDISPLACEMENT

PlasticHingeDistribution
ShellModel

PierModel

PLASTICHINGESDISTRIBUTIONWHENPUSHEDINNEGATIVEXDIRECTION
ATAPPROX.5cmDISPLACEMENT

PlasticHingeDistribution
ShellModel

PierModel

PLASTICHINGESDISTRIBUTIONWHENPUSHEDINNEGATIVEXDIRECTION
ATAPPROX.7cmDISPLACEMENT

PlasticHingeDistribution
ShellModel

PierModel

PLASTICHINGESDISTRIBUTIONWHENPUSHEDINNEGATIVEXDIRECTION
ATAPPROX.14cmDISPLACEMENT

CONCRETESTRESSESINSHEARWALL

Crushingofconcrete
asmaximumstress
inconcretereaches
ultimatestresses

CONCRETESTRESSWHENPUSHEDINPOSITIVEXDIRECTION

CONCRETESTRESSESINSHEARWALL

Crushingofconcrete
asmaximumstress
inconcretereaches
ultimatestresses

CONCRETESTRESSWHENPUSHEDINNEGATIVEXDIRECTION

STEELSTRESSESINSHEARWALL

Hinged formed at
the bottom of
shear wall as
maximum stress
in steel reaches
yieldstress

STEELSTRESSWHENPUSHEDINPOSTIVEXDIRECTION

STEELSTRESSESINSHEARWALL

Hinged formed at
the bottom of
shear wall as
maximum stress
in steel reaches
yieldstress

STEELSTRESSWHENPUSHEDINNEGATIVEXDIRECTION

PERFORMANCEASSESSMENTUSING
ATC40
PERFORMANCEPOINT
BASESHEAR

7349KN

DISPLACEMENT

0.07m

CONCLUSIONS
The hinge status of Shell Element and Mid Pier method
at maximum displacement provide almost the same
pattern.
Mid Pier method overestimate base shear because of
rigid beam rigidity, so appropriate rigidity must be
selected.

ONGOINGRESEARCH
Time history analysis of selected 2D frames of the
buildingisinprogress.
Research will be carried out on 3D model of
Madinah Municipality Building by the application of
Pushoverandtimehistoryanalysis.
Pushover analysis will be subsequently carried out
forbuildingretrofittedwithCFRP.

REFERENCES
1. Ahmet E.T.,Codebased evaluation of seismic performance levels of reinforced
concretebuildingswithlinearandnonlinearapproaches,MSc,ITU,2008
2. Bahadr A.,Comparisonoflinearandnonlinearmethodsforseismicevaluationof
existing reinforced concrete buildings in the Turkish earthquake code 2007,MSc
Thesis,Bogazii University,2007
3. FEMA, NEHRP Improvement of nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures
(FEMA 440).DepartmentofHomelandSecurity,FederalEmergencyManagement
Agency: RedwoodCity,CA.2005.
4. Menjivar, M.A.L. A Review of Existing Pushover Methods for 2D Reinforced
ConcreteBuilding,PhDThesis,RoseSchoolItaly.2004
5. Ghobarah, A. Review Article; Performance based design in earthquake
engineering:stateofdevelopment.J.ofEngineeringStructures.2001.23:878884.
6. [16]. ATC Evaluation and improvement of inelastic seismic analysis procedures
(ATC55).AppliedTechnologyCouncil:RedwoodCity,CA.2001.
7. FEMA, NEHRP Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of
Buildings (FEMA356). American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE): Reston, VA.
2000.
8. [17].Fajfar,P.Anonlinearanalysismethodforperformancebasedseismicdesign,
J.ofEarthquakeSpectra2000.16:573592
9. ATC Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings Volume1 (ATC40).
AppliedTechnologyCouncil:RedwoodCity,CA.1997.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The study is being funded by King Fahd
University of Petroleum & Minerals under
project number IN101028 which is gratefully
acknowledged.
The authors acknowledge the mentoring
provided by ITU to the KFUPM graduate
studentsinvolvedinthisproject.