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ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND ELECTRONICS

Electromagnetic Waves:
Faraday discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction that a magnetic field, which is
changing with time, causes an induced electric field. Maxwell showed that the opposite is also true. A
changing electric field causes an induced magnetic field. This symmetrical relationship between
changing electric and magnetic fields can take place through any region. The electric and magnetic
fields will propagate out of the region in the surrounding space. Such moving electric and magnetic
fields are known as electromagnetic waves. Another prediction of
the Maxwell theory is that E and B are mutually perpendicular
to each other and they both are perpendicular to the direction of
propagation of the wave.
Speed of Electromagnetic Wave:
Speed of electromagnetic waves depends upon the

o and permittivity Eo of the medium through which it travels. In vacuum speed

permeability

of electromagnetic wave is given by:

c=

1
o Eo

1
4 10 8.85 1012
8
c=2.99 10 m/s
8
c 3 10 m/s
c=

Antenna:
An antenna is a device, which can generate and receive electromagnetic waves. The one
which can generate electromagnetic waves is called Transmitting Antenna and the one which can
receive electromagnetic wave is called Receiving Antenna.
Carrier Waves or Radio Frequency:
The audio-frequency signal cannot be radiated out from the antenna
directly. For this purpose, oscillations of very high frequency are produced
with the help of oscillators. These electromagnetic waves so produced are of
constant amplitude but of extremely high frequency called carrier waves or
radio frequency.
Modulation:
The process by which audio frequency signal or information is
impressed on the carrier wave is known as modulation. There are two
types of modulation.
1. Amplitude Modulation
2. Frequency Modulation
1. Amplitude Modulation:
In amplitude modulation the amplitude of carrier wave is varied in
accordance with the modulating signal but the frequency of
modulated carrier wave is maintained at its original strength. The
outline of the modulated carrier wave is accordingly to the
modulating signal, this outline is called the Modulation Envelope.
2. Frequency Modulation:
In frequency modulation the frequency of carrier wave is varied in
accordance with the modulating signal but the amplitude of
modulated carrier wave is maintained at its original strength. The
frequency of the modulated carrier varies in proportion to the
amplitude of the modulating signal.
De-Modulation:
The process by which audio frequency signal or information is separated by the carrier wave is
known as de-modulation.
Band Theory:

Every solid contains electrons. The important question for electrical conductivity is how the
electrons respond to an applied electric field? The band theory of solids provides the answer of this
question as follows.
According to Bohrs atomic model, the electrons in an atom can occupy only allowed energy
levels. The lowest energy level is called the ground state of atom where as the higher energy levels are
called excited states. In solids, atoms are very close to each other so that their outer orbits overlap and
spread out into energy bands. These bands are of two types.
1. Valence band
2. Conduction band
1. Valence Band:
Valence band corresponds to the ground
state of the atom. In valence band electrons
do not gain energy by applying electric filed.
2. Conduction Band:
With the gain of thermal energy, atoms
reach at the higher state called the
conduction band. In conduction band,
electrons gain energy by applying electric field.
Forbidden Gap (Band Gap or Energy Gap):
The region in which electrons cannot occupy any energy levels is called forbidden gap. It lies
between the conduction band and valence band.
Classification of solids In The Light of Band Theory:
According to band theory of solids, solids are classified into three types.
1. Insulators:
In an insulator valence band is completely filled with electrons, the conduction band is empty
and the two bands are separated by a large forbidden gap (5eV). Under this condition, electrons
cannot move freely from valence to conduction band. Hence current cannot be passed through
these materials.
The resistivity of insulators (rubber, wood, plastic, etc.) is high ( 104 m . . The resistance
remains high with the increase of temperature.
2. Conductors:
In conductors valence band overlaps the conduction band and the forbidden gap practically
does not exist. Conduction band is partially filled with electrons. Valence band is completely
filled with electrons. Under these conditions electrons can move freely causing electric current.
The resistivity of conductors (metals) is low ( 108 m . . However the resistance increases
with the rise of temperature.
3. Semi-conductors:
In semi-conductors there is a narrow forbidden gap (
1eV) between the two bands.
A few electrons can be easily transferred from the valance band (which is partially filled) to the
conduction band (which is empty). Thus slight electric conduction is possible. With the rise in
temperature, as more electrons are excited and transferred into the conduction band, the
conductivity increases rapidly.
Semi-conductors (e.g. silicon and germanium) have small resistivity ( 101 m . The
resistance decreases with the rise of temperature.
Difference between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors:
Intrinsic Semi-conductors
Intrinsic semi-conductor is pure semi conductor.
Silicon and germanium are the examples of
intrinsic semi-conductor.
Intrinsic semi-conductor does not contain excess
electrons and hole.
Intrinsic semi-conductor does not pass electricity.

Extrinsic Semi-conductors
Extrinsic semi-conductor is an impure
semiconductor. N-type and p-type semiconductors are the example of extrinsic semiconductor.
Extrinsic semi-conductor contains excess electrons
and hole.
Extrinsic semi-conductor can pass electricity.

Atomic structure of intrinsic semi-conductor can


be show as:

Atomic structure of extrinsic semi-conductor can


be show as:

Doping:
The important property of semi-conducting materials is that their conductivity can be considerably
affected by temperature and by addition of small amount of impurities. This addition of impurity in a
semi-conductor is called doping.
Types of Doping: There are two types of doping.
(i)
Donor Doping / N-Type Semi-conductor:
When an intrinsic semi-conductor Ge or Si is doped with elements of group V (arsenic, antimony
or phosphorus), which have five electrons in their outer most orbit. Each Ge atom has four
electrons. Four of five electrons of antimony form bonds with four electrons of Ge, while the fifth
electron will remain as free. When an electric field is applied, this free
electron will be easily excited to conduction band. Thus addition of antimony
increase the number of free electrons and hence the conductivity of
material. In this case, antimony is called Donor Doping.
The donor doping makes an intrinsic semi-conductor n-type. In n-type
material majority charge carriers are electrons.
(ii)
Acceptor Doping / P-Type Semi-conductor:
When an intrinsic semi-conductor Ge or Si is doped with the elements
of group III (boron, aluminum or gallium), which have three electrons in the outer most orbit,
there is a deficiency of electrons in the crystal structure called hole. Due to this deficiency
material becomes capable of accepting extra electrons and it is called Acceptor Doping.
The acceptor doping makes an intrinsic semi-conductor p-type. In p-type material
majority charge carriers are holes.
Semi-Conductor Diode (P-N Junction Diode):
A single crystal of Si or Ge, which has been doped in such a way that one half of it is p-type and
the other half is n-type, is called a semi-conductor diode. P-type and n-type regions are separated by a
boundary region called junction. This is a two terminal device called p-n junction. In electrical circuits, it
is symbolically represented by
Biasing:
Application of voltage across a semi-conducting device is termed as Biasing. There are two types
of biasing.
(i)
Forward Biasing:
If the external voltage is applied across p-n junction in such a way that it cancels the
potential barrier and helps current to flow then it is called forward biasing. When p-n junction
is forward biased, it offers low resistance to the flow of current. Forward biasing can be done
by connecting positive terminal of the battery with p-type and negative terminal of the
battery with n-type material.
(ii)
Reverse Biasing:
If the external voltage is applied across p-n junction in such a way that it offers a potential
barrier and resists the current to flow then it is called reverse biasing. When p-n junction is
reverse biased, it offers high resistance to the flow of current. Reverse biasing can be done
by connecting negative terminal of the battery with p-type and positive terminal of the
battery with n-type material.
Rectification:

(i)

The process of converting alternating current or voltage into direct pulsating current or voltage
is called rectification.
Rectifier:
The device which converts alternating current or voltage into direct pulsating current or voltage
is called rectifier. A semi-conductor diode also known as crystal diode can be used for rectification.
There are two types of rectification.
(i)
Half Wave Rectification
(ii)
Full Wave Rectification
Half Wave Rectification:
When a diode is connected to a transformer its biasing changes alternately. During one
half cycle it is forward biased and during other half cycle it is reverse biased. When forward
biased, and it acts as a closed switch, the current flows in the circuit as a pulse of half-sine
wave-form.

During the next half cycle of the transformer voltage, anode of the diode is negative
(reverse biased), and it acts as an open circuit. No current exists in the load (resistance R). In
this way, current flows in one direction and the output across the load pulsating D.C. These
pulsations in the output are further smoothed with the help of filter circuits.
(ii)

Full Wave Rectification:


In a full wave rectification current flows through the load in the same direction for both half
cycles of input A.C voltage. Two diodes D1 and D2 can produce full wave rectification using a
center-tap transformer. A.C voltages of opposite polarity are applied simultaneously to D 1 and D2. This makes each diode forward biased alternately and the other reverse biased. If in the first
self-cycle D1 is forward biased and D2 is reverse biased: D1 conducts electric current and D2 does
not. In the next half cycle D1 does not conduct but D2 conducts. Hence, unidirectional voltage is
obtained as output.

Note: A full wave rectification with four diodes can be produced by using a bridge
circuit without using center-tapped secondary. It provides greater D.C output
voltage.
Transistor:
In 1947, John Bardeen invented a three terminal semi-conductor device called
transistor. It can be defined as, Transistor is one type of very thin semi-conductor
which is sandwiching between relatively thick layers of other type of semi-conductor. It helps us to
amplify control and generate electric signals. There are two types of transistors.
(i)
PNP Transistor.
(ii)
NPN Transistor.
(i)
PNP Transistor:
In this type of transistor n-type semi-conductor piece is sandwiched between two pieces of ptype semi-conductor layers.
(ii)
NPN Transistor:
In this type of transistor p-type semi-conductor piece is sandwiched between two pieces of ntype semi-conductor layers.
Essential parts of Transistors:

There three essential parts of transistors


Base: It is the central layer denoted by b.
Emitter: It is the outer layer denoted by e.
Collector: It is the outer layer denoted by c.
Principle of Transistor:
Transistor work on the principle that the base emitter junction always forward biased whereas
base collector junction is always reverse biased.
Working:
Consider any one type of the transistor for example a pnp transistor. Let the two p-end are
connected to two batteries as shown in figure. The forward biasing causes the holes in the p-type
emitter to flow toward the base which constituent current I e. These holes cross into the n-type base,
they try to combine with electrons but the base is lightly doped and is very thin. Therefore, only few
holes combine with electrons and the remaining holes cross into the collector and generates collector
current Ic. In this way almost the entire emitter current flows into the collector circuit. From the above
description it is clear that:

I e=I b + I c

Thus there are two current paths through a capacitor. One is the base-emitter (input) path and
the other is collector-emitter (output) path.
Transistor as an Amplifier:
An amplifier is a device used to increase the amplitude of input signal (current or voltage)
without changing the shape of wave. Transistor increases the amplitude of electric signals so it can be
used as an amplifier and the process is called Amplification.
The ratio of collector current to emitter current is called current gain ().

Ic
Ie

Potentiometer:
It is a device used to measure potential difference between two points in a circuit or e.m.f of a
current source.
Principle:
For a constant current flowing through a wire of uniform resistance, the potential difference
between two points is directly proportional to the length between the points.
Construction:
It consists of a wire (AB) of uniform resistance R of length 1.0, 5.0 or 10.0m. The larger the
length, the accuracy of measurement will be greater. Across the wire a source of constant e.m.f is
connected through a key and rheostat to maintain a constant current I.
Working:
As current flows, the potential difference between A and B is,

V AB=IR

For any point C on the wire the potential difference is given as

V AC =I r x =I l x

Where, rx is the resistance between A and C


lx is the length between A and C
is the resistance per unit length

r x =l x

Let,
Ex = Unknown e.m.f
Es = Standard e.m.f
E = e.m.f of driving cell
The positive terminal of cells are connected to terminal A. The negative terminals of two cells (Ex and Es) are connected to jockey through a two way key and sensitive galvanometer. The
potentiometer is said to be balanced when jockey is at such a point on wire AB that there is no current
through the galvanometer. Then,
Potential at x = Potential at A
Potential at y = Potential at C
P.D between x and y = P.D between A and C
When K1 is closed:
When K2 is closed:

E x =V AC =I r x =I l x
Es =V AC =I r s=I l s

(i)
(ii)

Dividing Eq. (i) and Eq. (ii) we get,

Ex I x
=
Es I s